WorldWideScience

Sample records for franchising regulatory programs

  1. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in the United States. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    This report is one of a series of preliminary reports describing the laws and regulatory programs of the United States and each of the 50 states affecting the siting and operation of energy generating facilities likely to be used in Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES. This report describes laws and regulatory programs in the United States. Subsequent reports will (1) describe public utility rate regulatory procedures and practices as they might affect an ICES, (2) analyze each of the aforementioned regulatory programs to identify impediments to the development of ICES, and (3) recommend potential changes in legislation and regulatory practices and procedures to overcome such impediments.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in California. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.; Gallagher, K.C.; Hejna, D.; Rielley, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Constitution of the State of California grants to the Legislature control over persons and private corporations that own or operate a line, plant, or system for the production, generation, or transmission of heat, light, water, or power to be furnished either directly or indirectly to or for the public. The Constitution establishes the Public Utilities Commission and grants certain specific powers to the PUC, including the power to fix rates, establish rules and prescribe a uniform system of accounts. The Constitution also recognizes that the Legislature has plenary power to confer additional authority and jurisdiction upon the PUC. The Constitution prohibits regulation by a city, county, or other municipal body of matters over which the Legislature has granted regulatory power to the PUC. This provision does not, however, impair the right of any city to grant franchises for public utilities. The California legislature has enacted the California Public Utilities Code and has designated the PUC as the agency to implement the regulatory provisions of the Code. The Public Utilities Commission consists of five members appointed by the governor and approved by the senate, a majority of the membership concurring, for staggered 6-year terms. Certain limited powers over the conduct of public utilities may still be exercised by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New York. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the New York Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for six-year terms. Commissioners may not have any pecuniary or financial interest in any public utility. Local governing bodies are authorized to exercise such power, jurisdiction and authority in enforcing the laws of the state and the orders, rules, and regulations of the commission as may be prescribed by statute or by the commission with respect to public utilities. A Commission spokesman confirmed that no statutes have been passed pursuant to this provision and the Commission has not ceded any of its regulatory powers to local governments. With the exception of the granting of franchises and permits to use public ways, local governments exercise no regulatory powers over public utilities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  4. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Maryland. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Maryland is vested in the Public Service Commission under the authority of the Public Service Commission Law. The Commission consists of five commissioners who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate. Commissioners must be or become citizens of Maryland, at least three are to serve full time, and one of the commissioners is to be nominated as chairman. The tenure of each commissioner is six years and their terms are on a staggered schedule. Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. The Public Service Commission Law provides that the Commission's powers an jurisdiction shall extend to the full extent permitted by the Constitution and laws of the United States. Local governments in Maryland are not given regulatory power over public service companies. The only power that local governments have over the operations of utilities is the power to grant franchises. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  5. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in New Jersey. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate the operations of public utilities in New Jersey is generally vested in the Board of Public Utilities. The Board is subsumed within the Department of Energy for administrative purposes, but functions largely independently of supervision or control by that agency. The Board is composed of three members who serve for six-year terms. They are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Within the purview of its powers, the authority of the Board supersedes that of local governments. The Board, for example, may grant exemptions from local zoning provisions, and has approving authority over privileges or franchises granted by municipalities to public utilities. The Board, however, cannot override the refusal of a municipality to grant consent to the initiation of operations by a public utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  6. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  7. Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Richard

    Designed for use in a franchising workshop, this manual provides information on becoming a franchisee. Introductory remarks discussing the benefits and challenges of becoming a franchisee and describing the workshop itself are followed by the course outline. Next, for each of the course's six units, the manual states the core idea, goals, and…

  8. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Missouri. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities in Missouri is vested in the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of five members who are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Commissioners are appointed for a term of six years. Commissioners must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests incompatible with the duties of the Commission. The Commission is charged with the general supervision of public utilities. The Public Service Commission Law passed in 1913, makes no provision for the regulation of public utilities by municipalities. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  9. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Illinois. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Illinois Commerce Commission, comprised of five members appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate and appointed for five year terms. They must be free from any employment or pecuniary interests in any business subject to regulation by the Commission. Local governments may exercise a large degree of regulatory authority over public utilities providing services within a municipality. The question of whether a municipality will exercise regulatory control over local public utilities must be put to the voters of the city. If the proposition is approved by a majority of the voters, the municipality may regulate services and rates and exercise most of the regulatory functions otherwise assigned to the Commission. If any public utility is dissatisfied with any action of a municipality, the utility is entitled to apply to the Commission for review of the action. On review, the Commission may take any determination which it deems just and reasonable. In addition, municipally-owned utilities are excluded specifically from the definition of public utility. These utilities are not within the jurisdiction of the Commission and are regulated locally. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Massachusetts. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The authority to regulate public utilities is vested generally in the Department of Public Utilities. The Department is under the supervision and control of a commission consisting of three members appointed by the governor for terms of four years. No more than two of the commissioners may be members of the same political party. Commissioners must be freee from any employment or financial interests which are incompatible with the duties of the Department. The Department is responsible for regulating public utilities. The Department is specifically granted general supervisory authority over all gas and electric companies. Specific provisions for the appeal of local decisions exist only in the case of a municipality's approval or disapproval of new operaions by an electric or gas company in a municipality already being served by another such utility. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. From Franchise to Programming: Jobs in Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This article takes a look at some of the key jobs at every level of the cable industry. It discusses winning a franchise, building and running the system, and programing and production. Job descriptions include engineer, market analyst, programers, financial analysts, strand mappers, customer service representatives, access coordinator, and studio…

  12. Transnational Degree Program Franchising and the Challenge of Commercial Franchisees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juusola, Katariina; Rensimer, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelationship of branding practices and legitimacy-building of commercial degree program franchising within transnational higher education (TNHE). It aims to understand how commercial franchisees' branding practices employ discursive and symbolic strategies for building legitimacy, and how…

  13. Franchising in the banking environment : middle management program / L. Britz

    OpenAIRE

    Britz, Louise

    2005-01-01

    Franchising as a growth tool is becoming a very appealing business model which has highly successful examples in almost every business sector in the world. However in the banking environment, First National Bank has been the first bank to take the lead in South Africa by introducing the franchise concept to create value for its customers. Not all businesses are suitable to become franchises therefore the aim of this research was to establish what critical success factors can be considered as ...

  14. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  15. Increasing family planning in Myanmar: the role of the private sector and social franchise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Hom, Nang Mo; Sudhinaraset, May

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the influence of clinical social franchise program on modern contraceptive use. This was a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive use among 2390 currently married women across 25 townships in Myanmar in 2014. Social franchise program measures were from programmatic records. Multivariable models show that women who lived in communities with at least 1-5 years of a clinical social franchise intrauterine device (IUD) program had 4.770 higher odds of using a modern contraceptive method compared to women living in communities with no IUD program [CI: 3.739-6.084]. Townships where the reproductive health program had existed for at least 10 years had 1.428 higher odds of reporting modern method use compared to women living in townships where the programs had existed for less than 10 years [CI: 1.016-2.008]. This study found consistent and robust evidence for an increase in family planning methods over program duration as well as intensity of social franchise programs.

  16. Effect Of A Large-Scale Social Franchising And Telemedicine Program On Childhood Diarrhea And Pneumonia Outcomes In India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, Manoj; Babiarz, Kimberly S; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Miller, Grant; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Despite the rapid growth of social franchising, there is little evidence on its population impact in the health sector. Similar in many ways to private-sector commercial franchising, social franchising can be found in sectors with a social objective, such as health care. This article evaluates the World Health Partners (WHP) Sky program, a large-scale social franchising and telemedicine program in Bihar, India. We studied appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea and pneumonia and associated health care outcomes. We used multivariate difference-in-differences models to analyze data on 67,950 children ages five and under in 2011 and 2014. We found that the WHP-Sky program did not improve rates of appropriate treatment or disease prevalence. Both provider participation and service use among target populations were low. Our results do not imply that social franchising cannot succeed; instead, they underscore the importance of understanding factors that explain variation in the performance of social franchises. Our findings also highlight, for donors and governments in particular, the importance of conducting rigorous impact evaluations of new and potentially innovative health care delivery programs before investing in scaling them up. Published by Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Franchising; Franchising: Nachmachen ist Trumpf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2000-08-01

    Franchising is booming. In many fields of industry, it is the optimal solution for better marketing and development of know-how. The solar industry still has a long way to go. Franchising systems offer a good option for starting one's own enterprise and also for expansion on the market. Four franchising systems are compared in detail. [German] Franchising boomt. Fuer viele Branchen scheint es die Idealloesung fuer gestiegene Ansprueche an Marketing und Knowhow-Entwicklung zu sein. Die Solarbranche steht hier erst am Anfang. Franchise-Systeme bieten also eine gute Starthilfe fuer den Sprung in die Selbststaendigkeit in der verhaeltnismaessig jungen Branche der Solartechnik. Da klassisches Franchising in erster Linie eine Strategie zur Expansion im Markt ist, kann es ebenso gut von etablierten Installationsbetrieben genutzt werden, um sich das Standbein Solartechnik mit abgeschwaechtem Risiko zusaetzlich aufzubauen. Vier Franchise-Systeme werden im Detail verglichen. (orig./AKF)

  18. Franchise Values, Regulatory Monitoring, and Capital Requirements in Optimal Bank Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial deregulation is likely to make standard prudential regulatory instruments less effective in curbing excessive risk-taking incentives among banks. This has interesting implications for optimal bank regulation. When there is an increase in competition, the opt...

  19. Virginia Power's regulatory reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Virginia Power has two nuclear plants, North Anna and Surry Power Stations, which have two units each for a total of four nuclear units. In 1992, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission solicited comments from the nuclear industry to obtain their ideas for reducing the regulatory burden on nuclear facilities. Pursuant to the new regulatory climate, Virginia Power developed an internal program to evaluate and assess the regulatory and self-imposed requirements to which they were committed, and to pursue regulatory relief or internal changes where possible and appropriate. The criteria were that public safety must be maintained, and savings must be significant. Up to the date of the conference, over US$22 million of one-time saving had been effected, and US$2.75 million in annual savings

  20. FREEDOM FRANCHISING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CLASSIC FRANCHISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Solovova

    2016-01-01

    programs as freedom franchising model helps combine the regulations of the franchising model with franchisees’ initiatives.

  1. The Effectiveness of Private School Franchises in Chile's National Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    There is persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more effective…

  2. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, Dominic; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Duvall, Susan; Ratcliffe, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social franchising spreads beyond family planning

  3. Applying the disability-adjusted life year to track health impact of social franchise programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing effective methods for measuring the health impact of social franchising programs is vital for demonstrating the value of this innovative service delivery model, particularly given its rapid expansion worldwide. Currently, these programs define success through patient volume and number of outlets, widely acknowledged as poor reflections of true program impact. An existing metric, the disability-adjusted life years averted (DALYs averted), offers promise as a measure of projected impact. Country-specific and service-specific, DALYs averted enables impact comparisons between programs operating in different contexts. This study explores the use of DALYs averted as a social franchise performance metric. Methods Using data collected by the Social Franchising Compendia in 2010 and 2011, we compared franchise performance, analyzing by region and program area. Coefficients produced by Population Services International converted each franchise's service delivery data into DALYs averted. For the 32 networks with two years of data corresponding to these metrics, a paired t-test compared all metrics. Finally, to test data reporting quality, we compared services provided to patient volume. Results Social franchising programs grew considerably from 2010 to 2011, measured by services provided (215%), patient volume (31%), and impact (couple-years of protection (CYPs): 86% and DALYs averted: 519%), but not by the total number of outlets. Non-family planning services increased by 857%, with diversification centered in Asia and Africa. However, paired t-test comparisons showed no significant increase within the networks, whether categorized as family planning or non-family planning. The ratio of services provided to patient visits yielded considerable range, with one network reporting a ratio of 16,000:1. Conclusion In theory, the DALYs averted metric is a more robust and comprehensive metric for social franchising than current program measures. As social

  4. Program impact pathway analysis of a social franchise model shows potential to improve infant and young child feeding practices in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Menon, Purnima; Keithly, Sarah C; Kim, Sunny S; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    By mapping the mechanisms through which interventions are expected to achieve impact, program impact pathway (PIP) analysis lays out the theoretical causal links between program activities, outcomes, and impacts. This study examines the pathways through which the Alive & Thrive (A&T) social franchise model is intended to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Vietnam. Mixed methods were used, including qualitative interviews with franchise management board members (n = 12), surveys with health providers (n = 120), counseling observations (n = 160), and household surveys (n = 2045). Six PIP components were assessed: 1) franchise management, 2) training and IYCF knowledge of health providers, 3) service delivery, 4) program exposure and utilization, 5) maternal behavioral determinants (knowledge, beliefs, and intentions) toward optimal IYCF practices, and 6) IYCF practices. Data were collected from A&T-intensive areas (A&T-I; mass media + social franchise) and A&T-nonintensive areas (A&T-NI; mass media only) by using a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Data from 2013 were compared with baseline where similar measures were available. Results indicate that mechanisms are in place for effective management of the franchise system, despite challenges to routine monitoring. A&T training was associated with increased capacity of providers, resulting in higher-quality IYCF counseling (greater technical knowledge and communication skills during counseling) in A&T-I areas. Franchise utilization increased from 10% in 2012 to 45% in 2013 but fell below the expected frequency of 9-15 contacts per mother-child dyad. Improvements in breastfeeding knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and practices were greater among mothers in A&T-I areas than among those in A&T-NI areas. In conclusion, there are many positive changes along the impact pathway of the franchise services, but challenges in utilization and demand creation should be addressed to achieve the full

  5. Least-Present-Value-of-Revenue Auctions and Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo M.R.A. Engel; Ronald D. Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    1998-01-01

    In recent years several countries have started massive highway franchising programs auctioned to private firms. In these auctions, the regulator typically sets the franchise term and firms bid on tolls, or, alternatively, the regulator sets tolls and the winner is the firm that asks for the shortest franchise term. In this paper we argue that many of the problems that highway franchises have encountered are due to the fact that the franchise term cannot adjust to demand realizations. We propo...

  6. 76 FR 6587 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... [PA-159-FOR; OSM 2010-0017] Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining... remove a required amendment to the Pennsylvania regulatory program (the ``Pennsylvania program'') under... program amendment codified in the Federal regulations, Pennsylvania has submitted information that it...

  7. 47 CFR 76.933 - Franchising authority review of basic cable rates and equipment costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the imposition of, or increase in, franchise fees or Commission cable television system regulatory..., the increased rate attributable to Commission regulatory fees or franchise fees shall be treated as an... increase in basic tier rates exceeds the increase in regulatory fees or in franchise fees allocable to the...

  8. 76 FR 64043 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...) Requirements for permits for special categories of mining. 27--40.41(207) Permanent regulatory program--small... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 915 [Docket No. IA-016-FOR; Docket ID: OSM-2011-0014] Iowa Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining...

  9. PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND ENSURING QUALITY OF FRANCHISE PROGRAMS Проблемы развития и обеспечения качества франчайзинговых программ

    OpenAIRE

    Zaika I. T.; Smolentsev V. M.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of development and quality assurance of franchised programs. The problems of the legislative and legal character, braking development of franchise networks in Russia and the reasons of low quality of offered franchises are solved. The approach of standard models of quality systems to the analysis of a QMS condition of a franchise network is offered

  10. Franchising and Risk Management.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Robert E

    1988-01-01

    Franchising is an important and controversial form of vertical integration. Allegations of opportunistic behavior by franchisors have led to calls for public regulation and in some states "fairness in franchising" laws. The advisability of such regulation depends on the long-run incentives to franchise. If franchising is a temporary step on the path to complete ownership integration, regulation may be called for. Alternatively, if complete or partial franchising is a permanen t market solutio...

  11. Franchising in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Erceg; Ivana Čičić

    2013-01-01

    Franchising is the practice where a company (franchisor) gives a licence to use its trade name (brand) and its business model (know-how) to a particular person or group (franchisee) who agrees to act in accordance with the terms and conditions of a franchise agreement. Many different types of franchise can be found in research and practice. There are two theories explaining the reasons for using franchising: agency theory and resource scarcity theory. Franchising has a major impact on the wor...

  12. FRANCHISE RELATIONSHIP: FRANCHISEES’ SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatica Kavic; Mario Sercer

    2014-01-01

    Franchise as business method especially popular become in second half od 20th century (Khams, 2013.,78).Since than as a significant factor in business growth and lever of economic development attracts researches attention. In contest of franchise way of doing business, relation between franchisor and franchisee is crucial for success, not only for the individual member of franchise but for entire franchise system. Franchise relationship actually begins with meeting the needs of clients throug...

  13. 77 FR 25868 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... reference of applicable portions of 30 CFR part 700 to End from the July 1, 2002, version to the July 1, 2010, version. Additionally, Iowa proposed to revise its Program related to ownership and control by... the Iowa regulatory program (Iowa program) under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of...

  14. Franchise business models and foreign franchise opportunities in lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolajev, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Franchise Business Models and Foreign Franchise Opportunities in Lithuania 51 pages, 4 pictures, 12 tables, references. Nowadays franchises are becoming more and more popular way to start your own business. So, the main purpose of this bachelor paper is to analize franchise business models and foreign franchise opportunities in Lithuania. The work consist of two main parts: franchise theoretical aspects and foreign franchises opportunities research in Lithuania. Franchise theoretical aspects ...

  15. Franchising in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is the practice where a company (franchisor gives a licence to use its trade name (brand and its business model (know-how to a particular person or group (franchisee who agrees to act in accordance with the terms and conditions of a franchise agreement. Many different types of franchise can be found in research and practice. There are two theories explaining the reasons for using franchising: agency theory and resource scarcity theory. Franchising has a major impact on the world economy. In Croatia, franchising is in the early stage of development and there is a need to encourage businesses to expand this business model as a way of developing and expanding business (franchisor or starting a new business (franchisee. This paper is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the franchising (definition, theoretical framework and franchising in Croatia, while the second part gives an example of a franchising business in Croatia.

  16. Franchisees` level of satisfaction with the franchise contract

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard, J. van Wyk; Johan W. de Jager

    2010-01-01

    Franchisees` often complain that franchisors do not meet their needs, and are generally viewed as being unhappy with their franchise agreements. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of satisfaction of franchisees with regard to the elements of individual franchise concepts, managed by the franchise agreement. Including details of the standard franchise agreement: terms of the contract, rights and obligations, training programs, operational support provided by the franchisor, produ...

  17. Franchising in Residential Brokerage

    OpenAIRE

    John D. Benjamin; Peter Chinloy; Donald Jud; Daniel T. Winkler

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the profitability of real estate franchises. The database for the study consists of observations from the National Association of Realtors©' 2001 survey of real estate brokerage firms. Franchises are found to generate additional revenue for franchisees. However, net margins defined as the difference between revenues received and expenses paid (including franchise royalties) are lower for firms with franchises. The findings indicate that franchisors appear to extract the e...

  18. Multi-Year Program Plan - Building Regulatory Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-10-01

    This document presents DOE’s multi-year plan for the three components of the Buildings Regulatory Program: Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards, ENERGY STAR, and the Building Energy Codes Program. This document summarizes the history of these programs, the mission and goals of the programs, pertinent statutory requirements, and DOE’s 5-year plan for moving forward.

  19. Legal and Economic Aspects of the Macedonian Model of Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroski, Ljupco; Filiposki, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Franchising is done by global regulatory framework and has an impact to the national legal sources. This article aims to emphasize the importance and functionality of the legal and economic aspects of the Macedonian franchising module and practice. In respect of Macedonian case, the franchising mechanism is getting direct consequences of the national trade in the small and still developing Macedonian economy. The envisaged paper explores various options for national regulation in light of exi...

  20. FRANCHISING IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitnitskiy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of franchise relations in the sphere of culture in Ukraine is grounded, the author definition of “franchise in culture” as an economic category is proposed and the main advantages and disadvantages of franchising in culture are systematized.

  1. FRANCHISING IN CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitnitskiy

    2013-01-01

    The urgency of franchise relations in the sphere of culture in Ukraine is grounded, the author definition of “franchise in culture” as an economic category is proposed and the main advantages and disadvantages of franchising in culture are systematized.

  2. Franchising. Where's the beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, John; Harrison, Anthony

    2002-03-21

    Franchising is most appropriate to services which can be simply defined. Introducing it to the NHS will raise issues about accountability. Those taking on franchises may feel they need more freedom than is currently available. The scope for franchising in the NHS seems limited.

  3. FREEDOM FRANCHISING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CLASSIC FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Solovova

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the model of freedom franchising and to its comparison with the classic franchising model. The aim of the article is to systemize and enrich the knowledge in the sphere of the franchising model evolution. The author’s task was to identify the key features of the freedom franchising model, to compare the freedom franchising with classic franchising and to formulate the conditions under which the freedom franchising model can be developed. To achieve this the analysis,...

  4. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014—up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI’s 17 and PSI’s 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations’ operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the

  5. Improving regulatory oversight of maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Safe nuclear power plant operation requires that risks due to failure or unavailability of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) be minimized. Implementation of an effective maintenance program is a key means for achieving this goal. In its regulatory framework, the important relationship between maintenance and safety is acknowledged by the CNSC. A high level maintenance program requirement is included in the Class I Facilities Regulations. In addition, the operating licence contains a condition based on the principle that the design function and performance of SSCs needs to remain consistent with the plant's design and analysis documents. Nuclear power plant licensees have the primary responsibility for safe operation of their facilities and consequently for implementation of a successful maintenance program. The oversight role of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is to ensure that the licensee carries out that responsibility. The challenge for the CNSC is how to do this consistently and efficiently. Three opportunities for improvement to regulatory maintenance oversight are being pursued. These are related to the regulatory framework, compliance verification inspection activities and monitoring of self-reporting. The regulatory framework has been improved by clarifying expectations through the issuance of S-210 'Maintenance Programs for Nuclear Power Plants'. Inspection activities have been improved by introducing new maintenance inspections into the baseline program. Monitoring is being improved by making better use of self-reported and industry produced maintenance related performance indicators. As with any type of program change, the challenge is to ensure the consistent and optimal application of regulatory activities and resources. This paper is a summary of the CNSC's approach to improving its maintenance oversight strategy. (author)

  6. Regulatory research program for 1987/88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The regulatory research program of Canada's Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is intended to augment the AECB's research program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear energy. The program covers the following areas: the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security, and the development of regulatory processes. Sixty-seven projects are planned for 1987/88; as well, there are some projects held in reserve in case funding becomes available. This information bulletin contains a list of the projects with a brief description of each

  7. Methodologies for evaluation of AECB regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarranton, G.A.; Gray, B.J.; Yarranton, M.

    1986-05-01

    AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) commissioned this report to obtain information about methods of planning and conducting evaluation of its regulatory program. The report begins with a bibliography consisting of 280 abstracts assembled from an extensive search of international literature. Each cited publication describes or uses methods applicable to the evaluation of regulatory programs. The report continues with a review of the methodologies found in the literature. It identifies the most relevant references for each step in program evaluation: the commissioning of evaluation; the identification of evaluation issues; the defining of questions; the answering of questions; the reporting of reslts, and the implementation of recommendations. Finally, the report examines the applicability, advantages and disadvantages of the different evaluation methods and makes recommendations about the selection of methods and their application to the AECB program

  8. 75 FR 48525 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... maintain jurisdiction of the regulatory program under the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation... Part IV Department of the Interior Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR... Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 [PA-153; Docket ID OSM-2008-0021] Pennsylvania...

  9. Are Franchises Bad Employers?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Cappelli; Monika Hamori

    2007-01-01

    Franchise jobs are often viewed as epitomizing a "low-road" employee-management approach characterized by high turnover and several practices that are deemed unsophisticated, such as low investment in training, deskilling of work, and little encouragement of employee involvement. Research on franchise operations suggests, however, that the basic operating principles and practices of franchises tend to be more sophisticated than those of equivalent independent operators. Might their employee m...

  10. La franchise internationale

    OpenAIRE

    Gaouar, mohamed said

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail est composé des quatre chapitres : le premier sera consacré a la présentation de la franchise et d’expliqué ces principaux composants. Le deuxième chapitre montrera les théories économiques liés a la franchise .Le troisième chapitre nous donnera au aperçu du développement de la franchise dans différent pays et le dernier chapitre sera consacré a la franchise en Algérie.

  11. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys ( n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623.

  12. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system–based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators. Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6–23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24–59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%). Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01676623. PMID:28179488

  13. Franchising reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-12-01

    Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context.

  14. Franchising Reproductive Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Tsui, Amy Ong; Sulzbach, Sara; Bardsley, Phil; Bekele, Getachew; Giday, Tilahun; Ahmed, Rehana; Gopalkrishnan, Gopi; Feyesitan, Bamikale

    2004-01-01

    Objectives Networks of franchised health establishments, providing a standardized set of services, are being implemented in developing countries. This article examines associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes for both the member provider and the client. Methods Regression models are fitted examining associations between franchise membership and family planning and reproductive health outcomes at the service provider and client levels in three settings. Results Franchising has a positive association with both general and family planning client volumes, and the number of family planning brands available. Similar associations with franchise membership are not found for reproductive health service outcomes. In some settings, client satisfaction is higher at franchised than other types of health establishments, although the association between franchise membership and client outcomes varies across the settings. Conclusions Franchise membership has apparent benefits for both the provider and the client, providing an opportunity to expand access to reproductive health services, although greater attention is needed to shift the focus from family planning to a broader reproductive health context. PMID:15544644

  15. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  16. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  17. Impact of a social franchising program on uptake of oral rehydration solution plus zinc for childhood diarrhea in myanmar: a community-level randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Montagu, Dominic; Su Su Khin, Hnin; Win, Zaw; San, Ang Kyaw; McFarland, Willi

    2014-06-01

    Diarrhea's impact on childhood morbidity can be reduced by administering oral rehydration solution (ORS) with zinc; challenges to wider use are changing health-seeking behavior and ensuring access. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to increase ORS plus zinc uptake in rural Myanmar. Village tracts, matched in 52 pairs, were randomized to standard ORS access vs. a social franchising program training community educators and supplying ORS plus zinc. Intervention and control communities were comparable on demographics, prevalence of diarrhea and previous use of ORS. One year after randomization, ORS plus zinc use was 13.7% in the most recent case of diarrhea in intervention households compared with 1.8% in control households (p franchising increased optimal treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Myanmar. Scale-up stands to reduce morbidity among children in similar settings. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN73606238. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Quality Assurance for Higher Education Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz

    1993-01-01

    The practice of "franchising" higher education programs, or provision of educational programs through vendors, is examined as it occurs in the United Kingdom as a result of recent educational policy changes. A set of principles for assuring the quality of such programs is proposed. (MSE)

  19. THE FRANCHISE SYSTEM OF DISTRIBUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The working relationships between franchise companies and their franchised dealers are analyzed. The benefits derived from the use of a franchisesise...system of distribution for both the franchisor and franchisee are determined. The principal problems encountered by the parties to the franchise ...agreement are isolated, and this method of distribution is evaluated from the standpoint of both the franchise company and franchised dealers and to assess its impact on the marketing economy of the nation.

  20. Research program on regulatory safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailaender, R.

    2010-02-01

    This paper elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the synthesis report for 2009 made by the SFOE's program leader on the research program concerning regulatory nuclear safety research, as co-ordinated by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI. Work carried out in various areas is reviewed, including that done on reactor safety, radiation protection and waste disposal as well as human aspects, organisation and safety culture. Work done concerning materials, pressure vessel integrity, transient analysis, the analysis of serious accidents in light-water reactors, fuel and material behaviour, melt cooling and concrete interaction is presented. OECD data bank topics are discussed. Transport and waste disposal research at the Mont Terri rock laboratory is looked at. Requirements placed on the personnel employed in nuclear power stations are examined and national and international co-operation is reviewed

  1. Ravintola Torren franchising manuaali

    OpenAIRE

    Helén, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni käsittelee franchising toimintaa.Franchisingtoimintaa yksityisessä yrityksessä, jossa sellaista ei vielä ole.Tavoitteenani oli tehdä mahdollisimman kattava franchising manuaali ravintola Torren tulevalle franchising yrittäjälle. Manuaalissa käydään läpi liiketoiminta suunnitelma, arvot, miljöö, sisustus, palvelukuvio ja tuotteet.Käymme läpi myös melkein kaikki sopimukset sekämainokset ja logot. Olen käyttänyt työssäni vuokaaviota, palvelukuviota esiteltäessä. Vuokaaviota k...

  2. Something of Value: How Franchise Sellers Make Training Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gladys

    1975-01-01

    Training can be the most important benefit included in the purchase of a franchise. Several of these training programs used by franchise sellers (Castro Convertibles, Roto-Rooter, H and R Block, Dunhill Personnel Systems Inc., Carvel, Holiday Inns, Sheraton Inns Inc., McDonald's) are discussed. (Author/BP)

  3. Eddie Rocket's Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Vahter, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Eddie Rocket's Franchise - Setting up a franchise restaurant in Helsinki. TIIVISTELMÄ: Eddie Rocket's on menestynyt amerikkalaistyylinen 1950-luvun ”diner” franchiseravintolaketju Irlannista. Ravintoloita on perustettu viimeisen 18 vuoden aikana 28 kappaletta Irlantiin ja Isoon Britanniaan sekä yksi Espanjaan. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tutkia onko Eddie Rocket'silla potentiaalia menestyä Helsingissä, Suomessa. Tutkimuskysymystä on lähestytty toimiala-analyysin, markkinatutkimuksen j...

  4. Franchise. Quantum leap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Helen

    2008-05-15

    The Royal Marsden's chemotherapy unit in Kingston will not only treat its own patients who live locally, but also accept referrals from local GPs. The move is part of a trend by well-known hospitals to open franchises, led by the Moorfields Eye Hospital which has 11 satellite units, including one in Dubai. Franchising by specialist hospitals can increase services, raise income and expand their brand. It also allows specialist staff to work in a range of settings.

  5. Franchise business development evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgelionytė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this course paper is to explore the franchise business by examining the literature as well as „from inside“ – by examining real practical cases. The work consists of three main parts; the analysis of literature, the statistics, and the research as well as it‘s results, findings and recommendations. Literature analysis reviews the desctriptions of franchise related terms, examines the benefits and limitations related to this business, and describes the business models. Stat...

  6. Are franchises bad employers?

    OpenAIRE

    MONIKA HAMORI

    2006-01-01

    Franchise jobs are described as representing the epitome of the "low road" approach to managing employees. High turnover, little training, deskilled jobs, and little employee involvement, practices often seen as unsophisticated. Research on franchise operations suggests that their basic operating principles and practices tend to be more professional and advanced than those of equivalent independent operators. We might therefore expect their employee management practices to be more advanced as...

  7. Risk-based Regulatory Evaluation Program methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Asselin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this DOE-supported Regulatory Evaluation Progrwam are to analyze and evaluate the safety importance and economic significance of existing regulatory guidance in order to assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for current generation and future design reactors. A risk-based cost-benefit methodology was developed to evaluate the safety benefit and cost of specific regulations or Standard Review Plan sections. Risk-based methods can be used in lieu of or in combination with deterministic methods in developing regulatory requirements and reaching regulatory decisions

  8. FRANCHISE VALUE AND AN APPLICATION ABOUT DETERMINATION OF FRANCHISE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANU KÜLTER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is involved with the basic concepts of franchising, franchisor-franchisee relationship and value, and the underlying reasons of franchising. Besides, franchise value and its determination via discounted cash flow valuation technique are tried to be undertaken in both marketing and finance perspectives. The mentioned application is a valuation attempt about the determination of value of taxi enterprises whose business styles are so similar with franchising operations.

  9. The population-level impacts of a national health insurance program and franchise midwife clinics on achievement of prenatal and delivery care standards in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R; Adams, Alyce S; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale-up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post-study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale-up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01-1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines.

  10. The population-level impacts of a national health insurance program and franchise midwife clinics on achievement of prenatal and delivery care standards in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Valera, Madeleine R.; Adams, Alyce S.; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Adequate prenatal and delivery care are vital components of successful maternal health care provision. Starting in 1998, two programs were widely expanded in the Philippines: a national health insurance program (PhilHealth); and a donor-funded franchise of midwife clinics (Well-Family Midwife Clinics). This paper examines population-level impacts of these interventions on achievement of minimum standards for prenatal and delivery care. Methods Data from two waves of the Demographic and Health Surveys, conducted before (1998) and after (2003) scale up of the interventions, are employed in a pre/post study design, using longitudinal multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Results After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the PhilHealth insurance program scale up was associated with increased odds of receiving at least four prenatal visits (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]) and receiving a visit during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01–1.06]). Exposure to midwife clinics was not associated with significant changes in achievement of prenatal care standards. While both programs were associated with slight increases in the odds of delivery in a health facility, these increases were not statistically significant. Conclusions These results suggest that expansion of an insurance program with accreditation standards was associated with increases in achievement of minimal standards for prenatal care among women in the Philippines. PMID:19327862

  11. Business Opportunities: Selecting a Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Biers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    You want to start a business but have limited business experience. Buying a franchise may sound appealing since the advertisements for franchises indicate that the franchisor will train you to operate the business.

  12. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Nova Scotia Petroleum Directorate, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999.

  13. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999

  14. Control mechanisms in franchise systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hass, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation answers the question which different control mechanisms exist in a franchise system. It is the first two-sided franchise empirical analysis, regarding all outlets of the franchise system (franchisees and company-owned) as well as the franchisor. On the theoretical side, this dissertation integrates the two main management theories: principal-agent-theory and transaction cost analysis. The results show that there are used different control mechanisms in a franchise sys...

  15. Financial Constraints and Franchising Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Uwe Kuhn; Francine Lafontaine; Ying Fan

    2013-01-01

    We study how the financial constraints of agents affect the behavior of principals in the context of franchising. We develop an empirical model of franchising starting with a principal-agent framework that emphasizes the role of franchisees' collateral from an incentive perspective. We estimate the determinants of chains' entry (into franchising) and growth decisions using data on franchised chains and data on local macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we use collateralizable housing weal...

  16. Franchising jako forma rozvoje firmy

    OpenAIRE

    SMÍTKOVÁ, Věra

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the thesis is Franchising as a form of company development. The main aim of the work lies in the development of the franchising business model and its procedure that would be applicable to any other company. Another goal is to design the individual process steps and measures to ensure the proper functioning of the whole franchise system.

  17. Regulatory Aspect of an Ageing Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Zabric, I.; Savli, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aspects of plant ageing management (AM) gained increasing attention over the last ten years. Numerous technical studies have been performed to study the impact of ageing mechanisms on the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. National research activities have been initiated or are in progress to provide the technical basis for decision making processes. The long-term operation of nuclear power plants is influenced by economic considerations, the socio-economic environment including public acceptance, developments in research and the regulatory framework, the availability of technical infrastructure to maintain and service the systems, structures and components as well as qualified personnel. Besides national activities there are a number of international activities in particular under the umbrella of the IAEA, the OECD and the EU. The paper will provide the summary on Nuclear Plant Life Management (PLIM) (or Ageing Management Program (AMP)) and Plant Life Extension (PLEX) development in USA and European countries. Also, insights from such effort currently performing in Slovenia will be discussed.(author)

  18. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-06-17

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie Stopes International (MSI) and Population Services International (PSI) have rapidly scaled their family planning social franchising programs in recent years, jointly delivering over 10.8 million couple-years of protection (CYPs) in 2014-up 26% from 8.6 million CYPs just 1 year prior. Drawing on experience across MSI's 17 and PSI's 25 social franchise networks across Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, this article documents the organizations' operational approaches, challenges faced, and solutions implemented. The organizations provide intensive capacity building and support for private-sector providers, including clinical training, branding, monitoring quality of franchised services, and commodity support. In addition, franchising programs engage providers and clients through behavior change communication (BCC) and demand generation activities to raise awareness and to attract clients, and they implement initiatives to ensure services are affordable for the lowest-income clients. Social franchise programs offer the private sector a collective platform to better engage government in health policy advocacy and for integrating into new public health care financing and procurement mechanisms. The future of social franchising will require developing approaches to scale-up and sustain the model cost-effectively, selectively integrating other health services into the franchise package, and being responsive to evolving health care financing approaches with the potential

  19. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.; Azarm, A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988

  20. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  1. Franchising the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    Central to the future of rhetoric and composition (or writing studies or whatever label we use) is the service mission of composition: to teach students to write. But that term "service" has not and will not serve us well. This essay examines the limitations and dangers of a service mission and explores a different model, that of a franchise, a…

  2. Franchise Opportunities Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Minority Business Enterprise (DOC), Washington, DC.

    Franchising continues to be one of the rapidly growing forms of business because it offers a means through which an individual with limited capital and experience can own or operate his own business. The publication, in its eighth edition, identifies franchisors who do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, or national origin in the…

  3. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission natural analogue research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Ott, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the natural analogue research program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC). It contains information on the regulatory context and organizational structure of the high-level radioactive waste research program plan. It also includes information on the conditions and processes constraining selection of natural analogues, describes initiatives of the US NRC, and describes the role of analogues in the licensing process

  4. 77 FR 58022 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... precludes in situ gasification projects from including carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) under the... Conservation as the regulatory authority for CCS activities within the State. SB498 generally established that..., the Board would regulate any proposed CCS activities appropriately. CCS operations have potential...

  5. FRANCHISE FROM FAMILY BUSINESS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián NAGY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the franchise as a form of enterprise in perspective to existing family businesses and how can they operate this way. Why is this form better for them, what advantages it has? In this case an ice cream shop’s economic inidicators were examined ,one which is owned by a hungarian family in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county who runs several shops like this. That is why this study was made, to find out if it is possible to run it sucsessfully and what costs does the newcomers in the franchise business network have to pay and how much is the time on the return of investments.

  6. Franchise in Romanian tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bunea-Bontaş, Cristina Aurora; Petre, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Both on national and international scale, tourism business is improving continuously, by adjusting to the tourists' demands, resulting in modification and adaptation of organization and association forms in this area. One of these is the franchise affiliation, an original way of doing business that combines the entrepreneurs interest in keeping their own undertaking with that belongs to a group with well-known brand which aims to expand on national and international market. This paper will di...

  7. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  8. Innovation in Swedish Restaurant Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jenny; Mazura, Jekaterina; Schrader, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Background – The franchising industry in Sweden has experienced a vast growth in the recent years, and it makes up a significant part of the Swedish economy. The restaurant industry accounts for a large amount of the Swedish franchises. Due to the dynamic business environment today, companies need to increasingly strive for improvement in order to sustain their competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. Innovation may be required, and franchises are no exceptions. However, due to...

  9. Why foreign firms forsake franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Blajina, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of franchising in Russia. The article informs about difficulties, which face foreign companies developing their business in our country. Doing business in franchising foreign companies have to overcome some challenges such as: obtain a credit, unpredictability of the economy and so on. But in spite of all these difficulties many foreign companies and Russian ones set up franchising in Russia and promote themselves at the Russian market, but never the les...

  10. FRANCHISOR TYPES IN PORTUGUESE FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Navarro García; Enrique Carlos Díez de Castro; Francisco Javier Rondán Cataluña

    2006-01-01

    The identification of the existence of strategic groups within Portuguese franchising constitutes the main aim of the present paper. An empirical study starting from 128 franchising chains operating in Portugal was carried out. The results reveal the existence of five perfectly differentiated strategic groups {franchisor types), which are described starting from the strategic variables that define them. Our main contribution is that the results obtained in the Portuguese franchising sy...

  11. Considering public confidence in developing regulatory programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the area of public trust and in any investment, planning and strategy are important. While it is accepted in the United States that an essential part of our mission is to leverage our resources to improving Public Confidence this performance goal must be planned for, managed and measured. Similar to our premier performance goal of Maintaining Safety, a strategy must be developed and integrated with our external stake holders but with internal regulatory staff as well. In order to do that, business is to be conducted in an open environment, the basis for regulatory decisions has to be available through public documents and public meetings, communication must be done in clear and consistent terms. (N.C.)

  12. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  13. FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS INTERNATIONALIZATION BY FRANCHISING OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena POPESCU DUDUIALĂ

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, franchise is the way to do business at the fastest pace in the world. More than 600,000 franchise business activities are spread all over the American continent generating sales of one trillion dollars. Over 40% of the US retail trade in products and services are achieved by franchises. A new franchise opens somewhere in the US every 12 minutes. Franchise is surely the success story of this decade. Romania is represented on this list by 171 franchise ne...

  14. The Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory research and support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the Regulatory Research and Support Program is to augment and extend the capability of the Atomic Energy Control Board's (AECB) regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the program is to produce pertinent and independent scientific and other knowledge and expertise that will assist the AECB in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating the development, application and use of atomic energy. The objectives are achieved through contracted research, development, studies, consultant and other kinds of projects administered by the Research and Radiation Protection Branch (RRB) of the AECB

  15. 7 CFR 1700.32 - Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator with respect to management, information systems, budgets, and other such matters. (a) The... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program Accounting and Regulatory Analysis. 1700.32... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.32 Program...

  16. 30 CFR 906.10 - State regulatory program approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State regulatory program approval. 906.10 Section 906.10 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO § 906.10 State...

  17. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation's transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  18. 78 FR 11796 - Kentucky Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    .... --$2,000 per acre and each fraction thereof for operations on previously mined areas. --$3,500 per acre... program (``the Kentucky program'') for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under the Surface... the amount of the performance bond for each surface coal mining and reclamation operation is...

  19. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed... program amendment is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. III. Public... under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of the hearing with those...

  20. 76 FR 50708 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ..., renewals, and significant revisions. Texas intends to revise its program to improve operational efficiency. This document provides the times and locations that the Texas program and proposed amendments to that... business hours at the following location: Railroad Commission of Texas, 1701 North Congress Ave., Austin...

  1. 78 FR 16204 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Wyoming program and proposed amendment to... penalties). The full text of the program amendment is available for you to read at the locations listed... hearing, contact the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and...

  2. 75 FR 6330 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... be consistent with the corresponding Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the North Dakota program and proposed amendment to that program..., contact the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of...

  3. 77 FR 58056 - Mississippi Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... its program to be no less effective than the Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations of the Mississippi program and this proposed amendment to... hours at the following location: Mississippi Office of Geology, Department of Environmental Quality, 700...

  4. 76 FR 36040 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... SMCRA, clarify ambiguities, and improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Wyoming program and proposed amendment to that program are available for your [[Page... is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. III. Public Comment...

  5. 75 FR 61366 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... and SMCRA, as amended, and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed amendment to that program are available for your inspection... may review a copy of the amendment during regular business hours at the following locations: Jeffrey...

  6. Legal Framework of Franchise Agreement Compared to the Legislation Status in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رشاد نعمان العامري

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is a modern style created as a need for trade to increase projects size. It differs from the authorization to use the trademark because the latter only requires licensing of the licensee's trademark, unlike the Franchise contract, in which it goes beyond the need to convey technical knowledge from Franchisor to Franchisee. In Yemen, Franchise has not received any private legal legislation till the moment, necessitating applying contract articles, contracts general principles and some provisions embodied in the texts of other laws that are suitable to be applied to some of its issues and provisions, in addition to what is inspired by provisions in foreign laws. This study aimed to distinguish franchise agreement from similar contracts that have become common in the commercial field; to identify important legal and practical problems facing franchise agreement as well as suggest solutions to address such problems; and to propose regulatory principles that can be used by the Yemeni legislator in the future when enacting laws that govern franchise agreement. To achieve these objectives, the study followed a descriptive analytical method. The study concludes that the franchise agreement has not received any special legal legislation in Yemen so far; and also the franchise agreement is characterized by a complex nature and has special features. Keywords: Franchise, Trade mark, Technical knowledge, Franchisor, Franchisee.

  7. Making Franchising in Healthcare Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Nijmeijer (Karlijn J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Business format franchising is a form of interorganizational cooperation that originates from the business sector. It is increasingly used in a variety of healthcare services to reach positive results. In a franchise system contractual arrangements are made between

  8. 77 FR 73966 - Utah Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...)293-5012, [email protected] . John R. Baza, Director, Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining, 1594 West... on the Utah program, including the Secretary's findings, the disposition of comments, and the...

  9. The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the NATO Model as a Hedge in Lean Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    1 AIR FORCE FELLOWS AIR UNIVERSITY THE REGIONAL SPECIAL OPERATIONS HEADQUARTERS: FRANCHISING THE NATO MODEL AS A HEDGE IN LEAN...Headquarters: Franchising The NATO Model As A Hedge In Lean Times 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government. 3 The Regional Special Operations Headquarters: Franchising the

  10. Workplace wellness programs: how regulatory flexibility might undermine success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act revised the law related to workplace wellness programs, which have become part of the nation's broader health strategy. Health-contingent programs are required to be reasonably designed. However, the regulatory requirements are lax and might undermine program efficacy in terms of both health gains and financial return. I propose a method for the government to support a best-practices approach by considering an accreditation or certification process. Additionally I discuss the need for program evaluation and the potential for employers to be subject to litigation if programs are not carefully implemented.

  11. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... CONTACT: Jeffrey Fleischman, Casper Field Office Director, Telephone: (307) 261-6550, Internet address... demonstrating that its State program includes, among other things, ``a State law which provides for the... Section 82-4-203(9); ``Imminent danger to the health and safety of the public'' at MCA Section 82-4-203(25...

  12. 76 FR 40649 - Indiana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document provides the times and locations that the Indiana program... hours at the following location: Division of Reclamation, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, R.R... read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES or at http://www.regulations.gov . A. 312 IAC 25-1...

  13. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed amendment to... is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. III. Public Comment... CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of the hearing with those persons requesting the hearing...

  14. 77 FR 18738 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas program and... location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Railroad Commission of Texas, 1701 North Congress Avenue... available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Texas proposes to revise its...

  15. 77 FR 54490 - Alabama Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... revise its program to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that... regular business hours at the following location: Alabama Surface Mining Commission, 1811 Second Ave., P.O... for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Alabama 880-X-10C-.62 Revegetation...

  16. 75 FR 21534 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas program and... during regular business hours at the following location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division... locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Texas proposes to revise its regulation at 16 Texas Administrative...

  17. 76 FR 36039 - Colorado Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., clarify ambiguities, and improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that... business hours at the following locations: Kenneth Walker, Chief, Denver Field Division, Office of Surface... of the program amendment is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES...

  18. 76 FR 76109 - Colorado Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... its program to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the... the amendment during regular business hours at the following locations: Kenneth Walker, Chief, Denver... available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Specifically, Colorado proposes...

  19. 76 FR 30010 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... lands within its borders by demonstrating that its State program includes, among other things, ``a State..., diversions, other water management structures, soil stockpiles, and access roads. The exemption cannot....46(b)(5), which prohibits the removal of ponds or other siltation structures until 2 years after the...

  20. 75 FR 43476 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... borders by demonstrating that its State program includes, among other things, ``a State law which provides... following the removal of siltation structures and associated diversions and access roads are not subject to... structures which are prohibited from being removed until two years after the last augmented seeding...

  1. 76 FR 23522 - Oklahoma Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... the impoundment or a water balance (precipitation runoff versus lake evaporation) showing that the... underground mine workings. The full text of the program amendment is available for you to read at the... Intergovernmental relations, Surface mining, Underground mining. Dated: March 4, 2011. Ervin J. Barchenger, Regional...

  2. Franchising jako metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Knapová, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes franchising as an method of entry to the market. The first part defines basic terms, the history of franchising, advantages and disadvantages of franchising, it describes the way how to start franchising business and its development in the Czech Republic. The second part describes a banking system UniCredit Bank.

  3. Human Factors Regulatory Research Program Plan, FY 1989--FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.; Persensky, J.; Ryan, T.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Goodman, C.; Serig, D.; Trager, E; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC

    1989-10-01

    This report describes the currently ongoing (FY 1989) and planned (FY 1989-1992) Human Factors Regulatory Research Program in the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). Examples of the influence of human factors on nuclear safety are presented, and the role of personnel is discussed. Current regulatory issues associated with human factors in the nuclear system and the purpose of the research plan are provided. The report describes the research process applied to the human factors research issues and the program activities: Personnel Performance Measurement, Personnel Subsystem, Human-System Interface. Organization and Management, and Reliability Assessment. The research being conducted within each activity is summarized along with the objectives, background information, and expected regulatory products. Budget and personnel forecasts are provided along with a summary of contractors performing some of the ongoing research. Appendices contain a chronology of human factors research at NRC, a description of the research approach, an update on human factors programs and initiatives in RES and other NRC offices, and the integration among these programs. 46 refs., 5 tabs

  4. User experiences with clinical social franchising: qualitative insights from providers and clients in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Briegleb, Christina; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-02-01

    Clinical social franchising is a rapidly growing delivery model in private healthcare markets in low- and middle-income countries. Despite this growth, little is known about providers' perceptions of the benefits and challenges of social franchising or clients' reasons for choosing franchised facilities over other healthcare options. We examine these questions in the context of three social franchise networks in Ghana and Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of providers from the BlueStar Ghana, and Amua and Tunza networks in Kenya. We also conducted qualitative exit interviews with female clients who were leaving franchised facilities after a visit for a reproductive or child health reason. The total sample consists of 47 providers and 47 clients across the three networks. Providers perceived the main benefits of participation in a social franchise network to be training opportunities and access to a consistent supply of low-cost family planning commodities; few providers mentioned branding as a benefit of participation. Although most providers said that client flows for franchised services increased after joining the network, they did not associate this with improved finances for their facility. Clients overwhelmingly cited the quality of the client-provider relationship as their main motivation for attending the franchise facility. Recognition of the franchise brand was low among clients who were exiting a franchised facility. The most important benefit of social franchise programs to both providers and their clients may have more to do with training on business practices, patient counseling and customer service, than with subsidies, technical input, branding or clinical support. This finding may lead to a reconsideration of how franchise programs interact with both their member clinics and the larger health-seeking communities they serve.

  5. Implikasi Hukum Adanya Globalisasi Bisnis Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to study the Legal Implication Toward Globalization of Franchise Business. This study is important considered that there is no substantive law to regulate franchise business, particularly in Indonesia. By using quantitative analysis and legal approach, this study demontrated: First, globalization of franchise business causing globalization of law relating to the franchise agreement. It happens because when franchisor open a new franchise in one country, they not only bring...

  6. Assessing the intangibles transferred in franchise businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Axel; Caballer Mellado, Vicente; Guadalajara Olmeda, María Natividad

    2011-01-01

    [EN] In franchise systems, trade relationships between the franchisor and franchisee to exchange intangible resources for a franchise fee and subsequent payments are set up. This article provides data obtained by personal surveys on the restaurant industry franchise system in Mexico. The brand mark established by an initial investment, the time the franchise has operated, and its capacities to make profit are key factors in this exchange. The franchise size and its belonging to the Mexican Fr...

  7. Franchise business development model : theoretical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskė, Monika; Vaiginienė, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Franchising is not a popular business development form in Lithuania. Only 0.02% of all Lithuanian companies use franchising for business development, while in most of the developed countries franchise is recognized as a convenient business expansion form. So, what factors determine such differences in the use of franchising? Analysis of related literature showed, that mainly researchers analyse some aspects of franchising, however there is no systematized analysis which covers all the main fr...

  8. Franchising jako metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Smejkal, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on franchising as a form of market entry.The aim of this thesis is to describe franchising as a efficient way of cooperating on theoretical and practical basis. The first chapter describes franchising as a form of cooperation and what are the basic principles of the relation between franchisor and franchisee. History and basic types of franchising are described as well. The second chapter describes a process of forming particular franchise business and what is the...

  9. Franchise Business Development Model: Theoretical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Kavaliauskė, Monika; Vaiginienė, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Franchising is not a popular business development form in Lithuania. Only 0.02% of all Lithuanian companies use franchising for business development, while in most of the developed countries franchise is recognized as a convenient business expansion form. So, what factors determine such differences in the use of franchising? Analysis of related literature showed, that mainly researchers analyse some aspects of franchising, however there is no systematized analysis which covers all the main fr...

  10. Implikasi Hukum Adanya Globalisasi Bisnis Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to study the Legal Implication Toward Globalization of Franchise Business. This study is important considered that there is no substantive law to regulate franchise business, particularly in Indonesia. By using quantitative analysis and legal approach, this study demontrated: First, globalization of franchise business causing globalization of law relating to the franchise agreement. It happens because when franchisor open a new franchise in one country, they not only  bring...

  11. Implikasi Hukum Adanya Globalisasi Bisnis Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Camelia

    2007-01-01

    This article aimed to study the Legal Implication Toward Globalization of Franchise Business. This study is important considered that there is no substantive law to regulate franchise business, particularly in Indonesia. By using quantitative analysis and legal approach, this study demontrated: First, globalization of franchise business causing globalization of law relating to the franchise agreement. It happens because when franchisor open a new franchise in one country, they not only bring...

  12. Franchising jako forma vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Koulová, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with franchise principles. In the first part, there is mentioned a franchise terminology then determined essential steps which are inevitable when creating a successful franchise a there are pointed out franchise opportunities and threats there. The second part is devoted to a franchise exercise in Yves Rocher company. At the end of the thesis there are referred questionnaire results brought out from franchisees.

  13. On the types of franchise fees

    OpenAIRE

    Miljković Strahinja D.

    2016-01-01

    By accessing a franchising network at the moment of contracting a franchising agreement, a franchisor concedes the franchise package of rights to a franchisee. Making use of the benefits provided by business operations in a developed and market-recognizable franchise network, the franchisee has certain contractual obligations which are embodied in financial compensation to the franchisor. The franchisee is obliged to pay the franchisor certain fees, such as: 1) the initial franchise fee; 2) t...

  14. Franchising jako metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Tichá, Alice

    2011-01-01

    There are several alternatives to entering a new business market. This bachelor thesis focuses on franchising as one form of market entry. Both the theoretical and practical aspects of franchising will be discussed. The theoretical section encompasses the basic principles of franchising, its history and conception. All aspects of franchising, including the advantages and disadvantages for both franchisor and franchisee, will be reviewed. The practical section focuses on franchising applied to...

  15. Overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Accomplishments during 1988 of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the program of safety research are highlighted, and plans, expections, and needs of the next year and beyond are discussed. Topics discussed include: ECCS Appendix K Revision; pressurized thermal shock; NUREG-1150, or the PRA method performance document; resolution of station blackout; severe accident integration plan; nuclear safety research review committee; and program management

  16. STORE IN STORE FRANCHISING STRATEGY: THE TREND IN FRANCHISING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado-Serrano, Alexander; Universidad de Puerto Rico

    2016-01-01

    The literature on franchising has traditionally focused on the effects and transformation it has promoted in the service sector, retailing, restaurants, hotels and other service-related industries. Store within a store research has been focused on the perspective of the manufacturer entering department stores. To date, little research has been carried out for the store in store strategy from the franchising perspective. This paper explores why big box retailers such as Walmart are adopting th...

  17. A model surveillance program based on regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A model surveillance program is presented based on regulatory experience. The program consists of three phases: Program Delineation, Data Acquistion and Data Analysis. Each phase is described in terms of key quality assurance elements and some current philosophies is the United States Licensing Program. Other topics include the application of these ideas to test equipment used in the surveillance progam and audits of the established program. Program Delineation discusses the establishment of administrative controls for organization and the description of responsibilities using the 'Program Coordinator' concept, with assistance from Data Acquisition and Analysis Teams. Ideas regarding frequency of surveillance testing are also presented. The Data Acquisition Phase discusses various methods for acquiring data including operator observations, test procedures, operator logs, and computer output, for trending equipment performance. The Data Analysis Phase discusses the process for drawing conclusions regarding component/equipment service life, proper application, and generic problems through the use of trend analysis and failure rate data. (orig.)

  18. Franchising as a form for starting a small business, presence and opportunities for development in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanoska, Vase; Polenakovikj, Radmil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce better franchised businesses, to evaluate the opportunities for the Macedonian entrepreneurs to start such businesses and to analyze what are the conditions of the Macedonian market for franchised businesses. For this purpose survey was conducted, and also interviews with 21 enterprises took place. The results showed that the owners of franchises are generally entrepreneurs who already had some kind of business experience and also in most of the cases one businessman has more than one franchised business. Hence, the Macedonian market needs regulation and introduction of standards in certain segments of franchising. As for the financial aspects there should be special loan or credit programs for franchise and there should be more domestic specialized consultants that will support entrepreneurs in the process of acquiring new franchises. (Author)

  19. Reaching youth through franchise clinics: assessment of Kenyan private sector involvement in youth services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Martha; Montagu, Dominic

    2007-03-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of social franchise programs, which use private providers to offer reproductive health services, to provide services to youth in western Kenya. Although franchise clinics have rarely targeted youth, they appear to offer a viable alternative for providing reproductive health services to this age group.

  20. 77 FR 33253 - Regulatory Guide 8.33, Quality Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0126] Regulatory Guide 8.33, Quality Management Program... Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is withdrawing Regulatory Guide (RG) 8.33, ``Quality Management... Quality Management Program was deleted from the regulations as part of an overall revision in 2002 of the...

  1. Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of franchising arrangements in improving coordination between channel members. In particular we focus on two elements of the franchising contract, namely, the royalty structure and the monitoring technology. We begin with a simple analysis where a manufacturer distributes its product through a retailer and the retail demand is affected by the retail price and the service provided by the retailer. In this context we show that neither royalty payments nor moni...

  2. FRANCHISE EXPECTATIONS: CASE OF KAZAKHSTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Raissa Kaziyeva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to provide a critical review of franchising development in Kazakhstan by focusing on the relationship between the franchisor and the franchisee. We have conducted extensive research and communicated with lots of potential and existing Kazakhstani franchisors and franchisees, operating since 2003. Our findings show that the process of signing franchising agreements is quite challenging in Kazakhstan.  Thorough investigation of the differences between expectations ...

  3. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  4. The Impact of Clinical Social Franchising on Health Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Background The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. Objectives and Methods We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Results Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Conclusions Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising

  5. The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Naomi; York De La Cruz, Anna; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing the role of franchising within the context of the greater healthcare delivery

  6. The impact of clinical social franchising on health services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Beyeler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The private sector plays a large role in health services delivery in low- and middle-income countries; yet significant gaps remain in the quality and accessibility of private sector services. Clinical social franchising, which applies the commercial franchising model to achieve social goals and improve health care, is increasingly used in developing countries to respond to these limitations. Despite the growth of this approach, limited evidence documents the effect of social franchising on improving health care quality and access. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We examined peer-reviewed and grey literature to evaluate the effect of social franchising on health care quality, equity, cost-effectiveness, and health outcomes. We included all studies of clinical social franchise programs located in low- and middle-income countries. We assessed study bias using the WHO-Johns Hopkins Rigour Scale and used narrative synthesis to evaluate the findings. RESULTS: Of 113 identified articles, 23 were included in this review; these evaluated a small sample of franchises globally and focused on reproductive health franchises. Results varied widely across outcomes and programs. Social franchising was positively associated with increased client volume and client satisfaction. The findings on health care utilization and health impact were mixed; some studies find that franchises significantly outperform other models of health care, while others show franchises are equivalent to or worse than other private or public clinics. In two areas, cost-effectiveness and equity, social franchises were generally found to have poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our review indicates that social franchising may strengthen some elements of private sector health care. However, gaps in the evidence remain. Additional research should include: further documentation of the effect of social franchising, evaluating the equity and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, and assessing

  7. Regulatory research and support program for 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear energy. The program is divided into eight main areas of research covering the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security and the development of regulatory processes. A total of 83 projects are planned for 1989/90, including a number which are ongoing from the previous fiscal year. Projects that are held in reserve in case funding becomes available are also listed. Most of the projects will be carried out under contracts issued through the Department of Supply and Services. This Information Bulletin contains a list of the projects with a brief description of each, and additional supporting information

  8. Franchising liiketoiminnan muotona: case Kalustetukku-ketju

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni perustuu tekemääni franchising-oppaaseen Kaluste-Trading Finland Oy:lle, jonka sain toimeksiantona yritykseltä. Franchising-oppaan tarkoituksena on perehdyttää sekä kouluttaa uusi kauppias Kalustetukku-ketjun toimintaan. Franchising-opas on tärkeä työkalu franchising-liiketoiminnassa osana uusien franchise-ottajien koulutusta. Opas sekä opinnäytetyö on toteutettu kvalitatiivisena tutkimuksena, ja se pohjautuu yrityksen avainhenkilöiden haastatteluihin. Franchising on vakii...

  9. 7 CFR 371.5 - Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services... AUTHORITY § 371.5 Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services. (a) General statement. Marketing and Regulatory Programs Business Services (MRPBS) plans and provides for the agency's human, financial, and...

  10. Franchising jako metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Grešlová, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of entered final thesis is to explain function of franchising, describe main principls, advantages and disadvantages. From summarized basic information to analyze specific case of franchising concept "Potrefená husa" from brewery Pivovary Staropramen a.s.

  11. Analysis of efficiency of own and franchised units in the Spanish franchise system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Díez Uli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we try to answer a key question: what are the more efficient units in franchising: owned or franchised? The literature on this specific field is very limited. To compare the efficiency of owned and franchised units we use the following variables: average sales per unit, average sales per employee and the average number of employees per unit for owned and franchised establishments. The analyses are carried out using the population of franchise chains, a database with the 1232 franchise chains existing in Spain at the end of 2015 has been created for this purpose. The results show the higher efficiency of owned regarding franchised units.

  12. First update to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulatory strategy for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions

  13. Franchising a právo

    OpenAIRE

    Hampejsová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with legislative regulation of franchising in the Czech Republic and which areas of law have influence on franchise agreements and how is this relationship to other areas of law solved. The thesis focuses on content of franchise agreements, on typical provisons of franchise agreements according to antitrust law, on protection of intellectual property rights, on unfair competiton and on personal data protection. Some aspects are discussed according to laws of the USA and Germa...

  14. Allocation of authority in franchise chains

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Paulo Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the level of delegation in franchise chains, distinguishing the two most relevant franchising models: Business Format Franchising and Learning Network Franchising. The two models basically differ on the level of real authority (effective control over decisions) exercised by the franchisors. Differences in business features, such as the required standardization, monitoring costs and consumer sensitivity to variations in product attributes (consumer measurement cost...

  15. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research ...

  16. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  17. ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL JUSTIFICATION OF FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Jokić

    2013-01-01

    The text explains the right that stems from the franchise as a legal body that develops from franchising agreements. The contract includes the right to use someone else's business identity, meaning the name, trademark, symbol, products or services. In this way, the franchiser and the franchisee gain certain benefits. The article discusses the legal and economic aspect of a franchise agreement, its content, the parties, the positive and negative aspects of this agreement by the parties. Franch...

  18. Participatory workplace wellness programs: reward, penalty, and regulatory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: Workplace wellness programs that provide incentives for completing a health risk assessment are a form of participatory programs. There are legal and ethical concerns when employers assess penalties for not completing a health risk assessment, raising questions about the voluntariness of such a program. The Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services' 2013 regulations for participatory programs and employers' current practices conflict with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's prevailing interpretation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. In keeping with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Congress revised the law related to workplace wellness programs. In June 2013, the Departments of Treasury, Labor, and Health and Human Services passed the final regulations, updating their 2006 regulatory framework. Participatory programs that reward the completion of a health risk assessment are now the most common type of wellness program in the United States. However, legal and ethical concerns emerge when employers utilize incentives that raise questions about the voluntariness of such programs. At issue is that under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, employers cannot require health-related inquiries and exams. To analyze the current interpretation of the ADA, I conducted research on both LexisNexis and federal agency websites. The resulting article evaluates the differences in the language of Congress's enabling legislation and the federal departments' regulations and how they may conflict with the ADA. It also reviews the federal government's authority to address both the legal conflict and ethical concerns related to nonvoluntary participatory programs. Employers' practices and the federal departments' regulations conflict with the current interpretation of the ADA by permitting employers to penalize employees who do not complete a health risk assessment. The departments' regulations may be

  19. The Influence of Brand Management and Entpreneurship Motivation on Franchising Sales Performance Franchise Company in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaat, Anastasia Eilin

    2015-01-01

    Flow economy today many franchise systems leads to large company tends to choose a franchise system than opening a new branch. Franchising done to overcome internal resources by providing access to the franchisee. With this tangle franchising develops and evolves. This research aim to improve the quality of business relationship, because franchising is built on the concept of the brand first and the effectiveness of consumer demand. The method used in this research is quantitative data; Quant...

  20. Analysis of efficiency of own and franchised units in the Spanish franchise system

    OpenAIRE

    Leyre Díez Uli; Félix Velicia Martín; Francisco Javier Rondán Cataluña

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we try to answer a key question: what are the more efficient units in franchising: owned or franchised? The literature on this specific field is very limited. To compare the efficiency of owned and franchised units we use the following variables: average sales per unit, average sales per employee and the average number of employees per unit for owned and franchised establishments. The analyses are carried out using the population of franchise chains, a database with the 1232 fra...

  1. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  2. THE ROLE OF FRANCHISING IN ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIȚESCU ALINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The franchise has been known in many countries as a means for successful business development, already occupying an important place in the developed market economies. Regarding the franchise as a real "engine" for the development of the SME sector and as an important external development tool we thought it appropriate to highlight a number of specific aspects of the franchise business.

  3. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  4. FOREIGN ECONOMIC AFFAIRS INTERNATIONALIZATION BY FRANCHISING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena POPESCU DUDUIALĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, franchise is the way to do business at the fastest pace in the world. More than 600,000 franchise business activities are spread all over the American continent generating sales of one trillion dollars. Over 40% of the US retail trade in products and services are achieved by franchises. A new franchise opens somewhere in the US every 12 minutes. Franchise is surely the success story of this decade. Romania is represented on this list by 171 franchise networks, with brands originating from 21 countries and the turnover was 800,000,000 Euros at the end of 2008, enevenly distributed by sectors of activity. It is interesting to note that although the industry networks are only 3.5% oof th total networks, they contribute with 43.6% in the turnover obtained in franchise system. Therefore, franchising can and should be a successful attempt both for the franchised and franchisers, for those who are driven by ethics, passion, vision and innovation, for those who want to franchise or develop the franchise network.

  5. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  6. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  7. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  8. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlein, Karen; De La Cruz, Anna York; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-03

    Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the organizational culture, and the components of

  9. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlein Karen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1 Self-reported program data; 2 Scoping telephone interviews; and 3 In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance

  10. Local distribution and franchising rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penick, V.; Grant, R.; McKelvey, S.; Cramm, K.

    1998-01-01

    A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales

  11. Advantaged Bidders in Franchise Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, V.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Consider a government that auctions a franchise for, e.g., an airport, telecommunication network, or utility. Consider an 'incumbent bidder' that owns a complement or substitute. With an auction on the transfer (i.e. payment) to the government, the incumbent is advantaged.If the government regulates the market with an auction on the price asked to consumers, it depends who is advantaged. With complements, the incumbent is advantaged: it can set a lower price on the new franchise, as this inc...

  12. Local distribution and franchising rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penick, V. [McInnes, Cooper and Robertson, Halifax, NS (Canada); Grant, R.; McKelvey, S. [Stirling Scales, NB (Canada); Cramm, K. [Maritimes NRG, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales.

  13. Cable Television Franchising in Florida: An Analysis of Selected Franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Lucia M.

    Cable Television franchises in 20 Florida communities were analyzed to determine rates and citizens' rights of access as required by FCC regulations. It was found that rates ranged from $4.95 to $8.75, with the average monthly service at $5.65. Fees had little to do with an overall citizens' rights; the companies with higher rates generally made…

  14. FRANCHISING KAVRAMININ DÖNÜŞÜMÜ: SOSYAL FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    ETİ İÇLİ, Gülnur; ANIL, Nihat Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Amaç: Franchising; son yılların popüler iş yapmayöntemlerindendir. Günümüzde franchising’i bildiğimiz “ticari” halinden farklıolarak “sosyal” franchising uygulamalarıyla da görmek mümkündür. Bu çalışmada; ticarifranchising ve sosyal franchising kavramlarını ve bu kavramlar arasındakifarkları teorik çerçevede ele almak amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem: Çalışmada literatür taraması yapılmış,ticari ve sosyal franchising kavramları detaylı şekilde incelenmiş ve kavramlarkarşılaştırılmıştır.Bulgular:Daha çok...

  15. Franchising Theme Parks : Disneyland Paris inFocus

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Kinga

    2014-01-01

    The report consisted of the analysis of theoretical frameworks of franchise and using franchising as a promotional method of theme parks. The definition of franchise and the use, right and regulations of it are essential knowledge to understand the base of franchise based theme parks. Also it was analyzed how franchising affects tourism in specific fields of existing franchises. The role of a franchise in our society and its values was also taken into consideration. The values and the role of...

  16. Problem of franchising in Nepal and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    K. C., C., Biswas

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on exploring problems of franchising in Nepal. Its main objective is to discover obstacles franchisees encounter when bringing a franchise to Nepal and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis considers the topic both from the franchiser’s and the franchisee’s perspectives. In the literature review, the main concepts presented are franchising, franchiser, franchisee, international franchise, types of franchise systems and franchise agreements, pr...

  17. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  18. Foetal immune programming: hormones, cytokines, microbes and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Peter; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental cues play important roles in shaping the immune system. The first environment that the developing foetal immune system encounters is the uterus. Although physically the mother and the foetus are separated by the placental membranes, various factors such as hormones and cytokines may provide "environmental cues" to the foetal immune system. Additionally, increasing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal environmental factors, particularly microbial exposure, might significantly influence the foetal immune system, affecting long-term outcomes, a concept termed foetal immune programming. Here we discuss the potential mediators of foetal immune programming, focusing on the role of pregnancy-related hormones, cytokines and regulatory T cells, which play a critical role in immune tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of NRC's human factors regulatory research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The human factors research program is divided into distinct and interrelated program activities: (1) Personnel Performance measurement, (2) Personnel Subsystem, (3) Human-System Interface, (4) Organization and Management, and (5) a group of Reliability Assessment activities. The purpose of the Personnel Performance Measurement activity is to improve the Agency's understanding of the factors influencing personnel performance and the effects on the safety of nuclear operations and maintenance by developing improvements to methods for collecting and managing personnel performance data. Personnel Subsystem research will broaden the understanding of such factors as staffing, qualifications, and training that influence human performance in the nuclear system and will develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to reduce any adverse impact of these influences on nuclear safety. Research in the Human-System Interface activity will provide the technical basis for ensuring that the interface between the system and the human user supports safe operations and maintenance. Organization and Management research will result in the development of tools for evaluating organization and management issues within the nuclear industry. And finally, the Reliability Assessment group of activities includes multidisciplinary research that will integrate human and hardware considerations for evaluating reliability and risk in NRC licensing, inspection, and regulatory decisions

  20. Strategic Interactions in Franchise Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, Evelien Petronella Maria

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation deals with understanding strategic interactions between franchisors and franchisees. The empirical part of this study consists of in-depth case studies in four franchise systems in the Dutch drugstore industry. The case studies focus on a total of eight strategic change processes

  1. A Sports Franchise Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdam, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Students in sports economics courses might better learn the basic concepts by running their own franchise. A simple game, based on the card game War, is easy and inexpensive to implement. Students quickly grasp the importance of weighing marginal benefits, both in terms of team record and marginal revenue, against the costs of improving their…

  2. 77 FR 29001 - Medicare and Medicaid Program; Regulatory Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal..., Transparency, and Burden Reduction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final... on providers of care. CMS has also identified non-regulatory changes to increase transparency and to...

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the Early Site Plan Demonstration Program (ESPDP) is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. This document provides appendices A and B of this report. Appendix A contains a list of regulations, regulatory guidance, and acceptance criteria; Appendix B contains a cross-reference index of siting-related documentation

  4. Overcoming regulatory barriers: DOE environmental technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtyka, B.M.; Clodfelter-Schumack, K.; Evans, T.T.

    1995-01-01

    The potential to improve environmental conditions via compliance or restoration is directly related to the ability to produce and apply innovative technological solutions. However, numerous organizations, including the US General Accounting Office (GAO), the EPA National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), the DOE Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) have determined that significant regulatory barriers exist that inhibit the development and application of these technologies. They have noted the need for improved efforts in identifying and rectifying these barriers for the purpose of improving the technology development process, providing innovative alternatives, and enhancing the likelihood of technology acceptance by all. These barriers include, among others, regulator and user bias against ''unknown/unproven'' technologies; multi-level/multi-media permit disincentives; potential liability of developers and users for failed implementation; wrongly defined or inadequate data quality objectives: and lack of customer understanding and input. The ultimate goal of technology development is the utilization of technologies. This paper will present information on a number of regulatory barriers hindering DOE's environmental technology development program and describe DOE efforts to address these barriers

  5. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission human factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses human factors issues related to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The three issues of concern are (1) the activities planned to provide the technical bases to resolve the remaining tasks related to human factors as described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the need to address the additional human factors efforts that were identified during implementation of the Action Plan; and (3) the actual fulfillment of those developmental activities specified in Revision 1 of this plan. The plan represents a systematic approach for addressing high priority human factors concerns important to NPP safety in FY 1986 through 1987

  6. Franchising of infrastructure concessions in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2000-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the present state of the Chilean infrastructure concessions program. This program is leading to a complete upgrade of Chile's highway system and has been recently extended to seaports. The main principles underlying the economics of franchising are examined and used to evaluate the programof privatizations of highways and seaports. Compared with experiences in other countries, theresults are fairly good. The infrastructure deficit has been greatly reduced, ...

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Franchising Associations on Franchising Decisions of Companies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ARICI, Gökçe; KARADUMAN, İlkay

    2016-01-01

    In the study, it is examined the effect of International Franchising Association (UFRAD) on tbe decision making process of franchisee companies. A survey has been carried out on franchisee companies, after the survey interview, results are discussed and presented. Franchising offers a useful way to entrepreneurs to start a new business. Operating franchising, franchisor has a trademark and the franchisee sells products under the name of the franchisers areas of advertising, training, manageme...

  8. Franchise fairs: A relevant signal in franchise choice in social activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Leonardo Martin; Calderon-Monge, Esther; Huerta-Zavala, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Potential franchisees encounter difficulties in gaining knowledge about a franchise before embarking on their first start-up venture. For this reason, it is necessary to research which information signals help potential franchisees choose the franchise chains with which they wish to enter into business. Working within the framework of signaling theory, this study's aim is to analyze the relationship between franchise choice and brand, price and participation in franchise fairs. The dynamic si...

  9. Food Franchising Entrepreneurship in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Kow, WaiYee@ZoeyKoh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This report aims to bridge the concepts of entrepreneurship, strategic management and franchising model to develop a framework for the food business in Singapore. Methodology – Based on entrepreneurship literature search, the paper identifies the importance of whole brain entrepreneurial team approach in the food business due to its nature of broad consumers’ base; entrepreneurial behaviour in information source to identify opportunities and innovation in food product, process an...

  10. The Values System in the Franchising Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Tomaras, Petros; Zondiros, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the values system delimiting the entrepreneurial activity. The total of these entrepreneurial activities is defined within the franchising framework. The reason for choosing to examine these activities is that franchising is considered to be a rather special kind of entrepreneurship. By this way, it can be examined whether specific entrepreneurial values are required in order to turn to franchising, or it concerns a strategic entrepreneurial choice which is independent from the value standards.

  11. KAJIAN BISNIS FRANCHISE MAKANAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Astuti

    2005-01-01

    Food franchising business in Indonesia is growing up very fast. Factors that urge the growth are the specific characteristics of franchise inself, the rise of market demand, the availability of skilled labor, the high of return on investment and the internal factors such as the motivation, personality and the changing life style. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bisnis franchise makanan di Indonesia berkembang dengan cepat. Beberapa faktor yang mendorong pertumbuhannya adalah ciri-ciri dari fra...

  12. Franchising jako forma vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Volkhina, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    The aim of my diploma was to get familiar with franchising.To get aware of its main characteristics, to work out franchising project in McDonalds. I have devided my diploma in two part.The first one is devoted to definition of franchising generally.Some useful information about its history, merits and dimerits, conditions of cooperation. In the second part I have valued the prospects of thriving due to enterprising under McDonalds brand.

  13. Performance in Franchise Systems : The Franchisee Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharian Bourkheili, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, franchising as an organizational form has received a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners alike. While many studies have examined various aspects of franchising from the franchisor's perspective, little research has taken the franchisee’s perspective. Therefore, given the importance of franchisees in a franchise system, the lack of research about consequences from the franchisee's perspective, and that many of the previous studies have taken a top-botto...

  14. Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Lafontaine

    1992-01-01

    This article provides an empirical assessment of various agency-theoretic explanations for franchising, including risk sharing, one-sided moral hazard, and two-sided moral hazard. The empirical models use proxies for factors such as risk, moral hazard, and franchisors' need for capital to explain both franchisors' decisions about the terms of their contracts (royalty rates and up-front franchise fees) and the extent to which they use franchising. In this article, I exploit several new sources...

  15. The impact of promotion in franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Buljubašić, Iva; Borić, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Franchising is a model of company growth, which significantly reduces uncertainty in the riskiest stages of growth: business start–up and growth phase. The impact of promotion in franchising has not been investigated in relevant literature. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of promotion on franchising through unconventional marketing on the example of private company X which is the main context of the present study. This private company X was chosen as a relevant example b...

  16. Franchise Index/Profile: A Franchise Evaluation Process. Small Business Management Series No. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigelman, C. R.

    The book is presented as an aid to those who have decided to invest in, or who are seriously interested in investigating, a franchise opportunity. The material presented is an index of basic information a person should have about a particular franchise to enable him to make a valid determination as to whether or not a specific franchise is the…

  17. Franchising-yrittäjyys - uravaihtoehto restonomille

    OpenAIRE

    Hyttinen, Merja

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia valmistuvien restonomien mielikuvaa franchisingista ja franchising- yrittäjyydestä ja heidän kiinnostustaan ajatellen franchising-yrittäjyyttä uravaihtoehtona. Opinnäytetyössä haluttiin selvittää, miksi valmistuvat restonomit ovat kiinnostuneita franchising-yrittäjyydestä uravaihtoehtona tai miksi he eivät ole kiinnostuneita franchising-yrittäjyydestä uravaihtoehtona. Teoriaosassa kerrotaan franchisingista, sen historiasta, määritelmistä, franchisin...

  18. On the types of franchise fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Strahinja D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By accessing a franchising network at the moment of contracting a franchising agreement, a franchisor concedes the franchise package of rights to a franchisee. Making use of the benefits provided by business operations in a developed and market-recognizable franchise network, the franchisee has certain contractual obligations which are embodied in financial compensation to the franchisor. The franchisee is obliged to pay the franchisor certain fees, such as: 1 the initial franchise fee; 2 the continuing franchise fee and 3 the advertising fee. The initial franchise fee may be regarded as 'an entry fee', i.e. a ticket to a franchising network. The continual fee is an active revenue which allows a franchisor to finance the activities of rendering a wide range of services to a franchisee and, concurrently, to make profit. The advertising fee is paid to a franchisor by a franchisee for services rendered in the field of advertising business. In the author's opinion, the professional public in the country should pay considerable attention to this topic, with specific reference to the experiences of countries with developed franchising business practices.

  19. Franchising as a method of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Vargovčíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The subject of presented bachelor thesis is Franchising as a method of entry to the market. The first part of this thesis deals with characteristics of franchising such as the definition of franchising and its advantages and disadvantages for both parties involved. Then there is also provided the current situation of franchising in the Czech Republic. The second part deals with entry into the market by franchising. In this section franchise agreement is mainly mentioned, how to start a franch...

  20. Franchising as a market entry strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on franchising and a practical application of a theory. The theoretical part describes basic principles of franchising, its advantages and disadvantages and franchise agreement. I put more emphasis on development and current state of franchising in the Czech Republic. I describe and evaluate franchising in the company Alpine Pro in the practical part of the thesis. I show that a purely Czech franchise concept is able to succeed in stiff competition - and not onl...

  1. January 1978 monthly highlights for Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    Highlights of technical progress during January 1978 are presented for sixteen separate program activities which comprise the ORNL research program for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research's Division of Reactor Safety Research

  2. Monthly highlights for Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    Highlights of technical progress during March 1977 are presented for thirteen separate program activities which comprise the ORNL research program for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research's Division of Reactor Safety Research

  3. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes, correct... portions of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes... Streams. PART 785--REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING 785.13, 785.14, 785.15...

  4. 75 FR 6404 - Regulatory Site Visit Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... review efficiency and quality, and the quality of its regulatory efforts and interactions, by providing... tissue establishments. The visits may include packaging facilities, quality control and pathology...

  5. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the Early Site Plan Demonstration Program (ESPDP) is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. This document provides appendices C and D of this report. Appendix C contains data from the licensing and technical reviews; Appendix D contains technology toolkit data sheets

  6. Monitoring control program as a tool for regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Peres, Sueli da; Lauria, Dejanaira C.; Martins, Nadia S.F.; Rio, Monica A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for developing, establishing and carrying out an independent assessment to verify the adequacy, effectiveness and accuracy of environmental radiological control carried out by licensed and controlled facilities. This independent assessment is performed by Environmental Monitoring Control Program (MCP). The MCP is a regulatory control and its main goal is to provide public and environment with an appropriate protection level against harmful effects of ionising radiation. The main purpose of the MCP is to verify whether applicable requirements prescribed by legislation are met, the environmental radiological control of the facilities are adequate and effective and the facilities are able to generate valid measuring results. The MCP is carried out in order to evaluate the quality of environmental radiation monitoring programs (EMP) and the effectiveness of their implementation, sampling conditions in the field, changes of environmental aspects in the impact area, adequacy of and adherence to procedures established and other applicable documents, technical competence of the staff and the necessary resources to ensure the required quality of the EMP. The MCP has been performed by activities should include inspecting and auditing of several types of nuclear and radioactive facilities. The inspection programme include the joint sampling program (CCP). The aim of the CCP is to check data of environmental monitoring of operator. The MCP was implemented in 1994. Ever since several problems related to the environmental control performed by operator was identified. The most important of them include problems related to the preparation and analysis of environmental samples, training of personnel, necessary resources, adherence of procedures to the purpose of the monitoring, fulfillment of procedures established, adequacy of the EMP and EMP

  7. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993 - March 3, 1997. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On July, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the US DOE, Oak Ridge Operations to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the OR program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the plants were transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Volume 2 contains copies of the documents which established the relationship between NRC, DOE, USEC, and DOL (Dept of Labor) required to facilitate regulatory oversight transition

  8. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993--March 3, 1997. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    On July, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the US DOE, Oak Ridge Operations to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the OR program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the plants were transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Volume 2 contains copies of the documents which established the relationship between NRC, DOE, USEC, and DOL (Dept of Labor) required to facilitate regulatory oversight transition.

  9. Localization as adaptation in the Wolfenstein franchise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfke, Werner

    2018-01-01

    In a globalized market, media products are adapted to fit the constraints of specific markets and appeal to their preferred tastes. As the Wolfenstein franchise is set before the backdrop of the Second World War, it has to address cultural memory in a preferred way. The franchise constructs memory...

  10. Tacit Knowledge Barriers within Franchise Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise M.; Githens, Rod P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews knowledge management in the context of a franchise business operation, with a focus on tacit knowledge barriers. In a franchise organization, the transfer of knowledge occurs on multiple levels and has an added level of complexity because of the number of partners and relationships. Tacit knowledge transfer should occur…

  11. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  12. Regulatory research program for 1986/87 project descriptions. Information bulletin 86-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory research program is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear energy. The program is divided into ten main areas of research covering the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security and the development of regulatory processes. A total of 92 projects are planned for 1986/87, including a number which are ongoing from the previous fiscal year

  13. Regulatory research program for 1986/87 project descriptions. Information bulletin 86-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-08

    The regulatory research program is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board`s regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear energy. The program is divided into ten main areas of research covering the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security and the development of regulatory processes. A total of 92 projects are planned for 1986/87, including a number which are ongoing from the previous fiscal year.

  14. KAJIAN BISNIS FRANCHISE MAKANAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Astuti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Food franchising business in Indonesia is growing up very fast. Factors that urge the growth are the specific characteristics of franchise inself, the rise of market demand, the availability of skilled labor, the high of return on investment and the internal factors such as the motivation, personality and the changing life style. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bisnis franchise makanan di Indonesia berkembang dengan cepat. Beberapa faktor yang mendorong pertumbuhannya adalah ciri-ciri dari franchise itu sendiri , meningkatnya daya beli, tersedianya sumber daya dengan keahlian yang dibutuhkan, return on investment yang tinggi serta faktor internal seperti motivasi, kepribadian yang terbuka serta perubahan gaya hidup Kata kunci: franchise, studi pemasaran, studi keuangan.

  15. PREPARATION FOR FRANCHISING TIMIN GRILLI

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was conducted based on the expansion plan of Timin Grilli, which is a food trailer located in market square of Kokkola. After more than fifteen years operating, it needs to be developed in other way; and in this case the business aims to operate under form of franchise company. In addition, the owner also tends to combine fast-food style with Vietnamese-Chinese cuisine that has not been common these days. The aim of this thesis was to provide general and initial preparation fo...

  16. Regulatory research and support program for 1992/93 - project descriptions. Information bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear facilities and materials

  17. Regulatory research and support program for 1992/93 - project descriptions. Information bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-02

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board`s regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making correct, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear facilities and materials.

  18. Mechanism Of Environmental Franchising In The Sustainable Development Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Illyashenko

    2011-01-01

    Reveals the types of environmental franchising: franchise environmental goods, manufacturing, service and environmental business format. Presents the methodological principles for the formation mechanisms of environmental franchise in implementing sustainable development potential. Proved economic, legal and organizational technology contractual relations regarding environmental franchise.

  19. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some franchise...

  20. 47 CFR 76.41 - Franchise application process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Franchise application process. 76.41 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Franchise Applications § 76.41 Franchise application process. (a) Definition. Competitive franchise applicant. For the purpose of this section, an applicant...

  1. 77 FR 36149 - Disclosure Requirements and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... FTC announces revised monetary thresholds for three exemptions from the Franchise Rule. FTC is... July 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Tregillus, Franchise Rule Coordinator, Division of... and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising'' (Franchise Rule or Rule) \\1\\ provides three exemptions based...

  2. 47 CFR 76.925 - Costs of franchise requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of franchise requirements. 76.925 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.925 Costs of franchise requirements. (a) Franchise requirement costs may include cost increases required by the franchising authority in...

  3. Franchising jako způsob vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Vajdečková, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as the possible entry method to the market. The first part explains theoretical aspects of franchising. In the second chapter the position of franchising on the Czech market is analyzed. The last chapter illustrates the use of franchising in a successful cosmetics company Yves Rocher.

  4. Capital Structure Determinants and Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jiang (Tao)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis investigates two questions: the determinants of capital structure in franchising and its subsequent impact on the franchise financing decisions; and the efficient governance structure choice in franchising. We posit that firms franchise in order to benefit from the reduced

  5. 76 FR 76168 - Regulatory Site Visit Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... quality of its regulatory efforts and interactions, by providing CBER staff with a better understanding of... may include the following: (1) Packaging facilities, (2) quality control and pathology/toxicology...

  6. 76 FR 4919 - Regulatory Site Visit Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... quality of its regulatory efforts and interactions, by providing CBER staff with a better understanding of... may include the following: (1) Packaging facilities, (2) quality control and pathology/toxicology...

  7. NRC review of passive reactor design certification testing programs: Overview, progress, and regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    New reactor designs, employing passive safety systems, are currently under development by reactor vendors for certification under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) design certification rule. The vendors have established testing programs to support the certification of the passive designs, to meet regulatory requirements for demonstration of passive safety system performance. The NRC has, therefore, developed a process for the review of the vendors` testing programs and for incorporation of the results of those reviews into the safety evaluations for the passive plants. This paper discusses progress in the test program reviews, and also addresses unique regulatory aspects of those reviews.

  8. 77 FR 71445 - Regulatory and Administrative Waivers Granted for Multifamily Housing Programs To Assist With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. 5677-N-01] Regulatory and Administrative Waivers Granted for Multifamily Housing Programs To Assist With Recovery and Relief in Sandy Disaster... in the disaster areas is widespread, and the need for regulatory relief in many areas pertaining to...

  9. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Těšínská, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  10. The Hotel Franchising In Bulgaria: Current Situation And Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Anastassova

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses, after presenting the global franchising market in 2012, the essence of franchising, its types and the specific of hotel franchising. The first aim of the article is to classify the marketing differ ences of the various hotel franchise systems applied in Bulgaria. Based on the desk research the second important article aim is, after providing an actual review of the hotel franchising in the country, to draw conclusions about the barriers and problems in front of the fran...

  11. Classification of Franchise Networks in the Retail Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-01-01

    The article clarifies the definitions of the concepts of «franchise network», «franchise trade network», «franchise retail network», which is substantiated by the lack of a unified approach to interpretation of these concepts. The classification of franchise networks in the retail trade taking into account peculiarities in the operation of this sub-sector of the market economy is developed; classification attributes are identified and types of franchise retail chains are cha...

  12. Evolution in franchising: Trends and new perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Varotto, Luis Fernando; Aureliano-Silva, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Franchising as a legal or marketing concept was not new. It arose as a structured business system in the US, around 1860´s when The Singer Company established a network of resellers for sewing machines. Nowadays franchising is one of the fastest developing forms of business in the world. The evolution of theories that seek to explain franchise systems have been published in academic journals from time to time, but until now there was not a study that have established a social network analysis...

  13. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemmerli, M; Santos, A; Penn-Kekana, L; Lange, I; Matovu, F; Benova, L; Wong, KLM; Goodman, C

    2018-01-01

    Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/o...

  14. Regulatory challenges for independent organization and licensing procedures for Egypt first nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsheikh, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010 the Government of Egypt issued an Ordinance creating an independent regulatory body the Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA) reporting directly to the Prime Minister and responsible for matters dealing with protection of the radiation worker, public and environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. A little more than 2 years have elapsed since this date. Some of the challenges faced by NRRA to its regulatory independence are given below. This paper will discuss the major challenges relating to Egyptian nuclear power program and specially the regulatory effectiveness and licensing procedures compared to international comparison.

  15. Regulatory research and support program for 1988/89 - project descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-15

    Information Bulletin, 1988. Project descriptions for the Regulatory Research and Support Program. This Information Bulletin contains a list of the projects with a brief description of each, and additional supporting information.

  16. Regulatory research and support program for 1988/89 - project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Information Bulletin, 1988. Project descriptions for the Regulatory Research and Support Program. This Information Bulletin contains a list of the projects with a brief description of each, and additional supporting information

  17. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc., a/k/a The Honey Do Service, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristol, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Bristol, Virginia.

  19. THE ROLE OF FRANCHISING IN MODERN DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Urbañska

    2009-01-01

    In the paper Author recalls definition of the distribution, functions of the distribution and different types of agents. There are also presented strategies of the market internationalization and the role of franchising in the modern trade

  20. High performance management bij franchise-supermarkten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Laurens; van Nierop, Erjen; de Waal, Andre

    In dit artikel wordt een onderzoek gepresenteerd naar de mate waarin franchise-supermarkten voldoen aan de vijf factoren van high performanceorganisaties (HPO): hoge kwaliteit managers, hoge kwaliteit medewerkers, openheid en actiegerichtheid, continue verbetering en vernieuwing, en

  1. Franchising: creation of companies, relevant aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Silvio César de; Cesumar

    2007-01-01

    Since franchising is a formatted business, it is usually presented as a guaranteed successful business. In this system, the company works around a packet of products or services. But the system has its advantages and disadvantages, being possible to present a few fundamental differences between inserting business in a franchise type and a traditional business. In the traditional one the entrepreneur needs to be aware of the innovations and a series of other factors, mainly because it does not...

  2. Agribusiness Franchising in India: Experience and Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpal

    2014-01-01

    Agribusiness or agricultural franchising is quite new in India, though it is quite commonly used in other businesses like fast food, hotel and other service industries where service quality is crucial to maintain brand equity. There have been only a few experiments in this field in the recent past by some corporate agencies, both private and public. This paper locates the rationale for franchising in agribusiness from global literature and from the Indian smallholder agricultural context wher...

  3. Franchise ownership redirection: real options perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Lukito Adi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For over 40 years, the franchise ownership redirection hypothesis has attracted the attention of many scholars. This study, differing from previous ones, proposes an alternative approach for this hypothesis using a real options framework with the extension of agency theory. Method: The real options model is built using the least square Monte Carlo method, where the franchisor's decision to franchise is perceived as a deferred investment while maintaining the right of future acquis...

  4. Survival Patterns Among Newcomers To Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes survival patterns among franchisee firms and establishments that began operations in 1986 and 1987. Differing methodologies and data bases are utilized to demonstrate that 1) franchises have higher survival rates than independents, and 2) franchises have lower survival rates than independent business formations. Analyses of corporate establishment data generate high franchisee survival rates relative to independents, while analyses of young firm data generate the opposite ...

  5. Forming a Perceived Franchise Value: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2011-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights and deals with the topic of perceived franchise value. The objective of the paper is – what elements form the franchisee's perceived value in service business (comparing with alternative of own business model). The aim of the paper is to propose systematic value elements in the process of forming a value of a franchise business model perceived by the franchisee. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be relevant to en...

  6. Evolution in franchising: Trends and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Varotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchising as a legal or marketing concept was not new. It arose as a structured business system in the US, around 1860´s when The Singer Company established a network of resellers for sewing machines. Nowadays franchising is one of the fastest developing forms of business in the world. The evolution of theories that seek to explain franchise systems have been published in academic journals from time to time, but until now there was not a study that have established a social network analysis to quantify the degree of centrality and cohesion of the relationship between the main authors, journals, methods and theories in franchise. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to extend the knowledge about franchising through an extensive research on its main theoretical perspectives into relevant international academic journals, showing the evolution of the field, highlighting the principal issues, authors and methods. Through a selection of 130 articles ranging from 1966 to 2015 the study investigates five relevant theories in franchising: (1 Resource Acquisition Theory, (2 Agency Theory, (3 Transaction Cost Analysis, (4 Signaling Theory, and (5 Property Rights Theory. A descriptive statistical analysis was done in order to identify the main authors and trends with the most used associated theories in franchise papers. The findings show agency theory and signaling theory, and resource scarcity theory as the main perspectives used in studies about franchising, but other perspectives have been increasing its presence, mainly the institutional theory and resource based-view perspective. The main dependent and independent variables cover a wide range of constructs, but ownership, performance, age, size, growth, geographical dispersion, and internationalization have been the most cited.

  7. A NOTE ON FRANCHISING AND WAGE BARGAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Grandner

    2004-01-01

    A franchise contract relocates distributable rent between franchisor and franchisee. With decentralized wage bargaining this modifies the position of the union in wage bargaining. If the rent is relocated to the franchisor completely, then even a strong union is not able to raise the wage above reservation level in the franchisee's firm. If franchisor and franchisee negotiate on rent division, there is an incentive to increase franchise fee with the consequence that franchisee's wage is pushe...

  8. International franchising in Italy: trends and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Majocchi Antonio; Pavione Enrica

    2002-01-01

    In Italy, the recent gradual liberalization of the retail market has led to an increase in competition and innovation. In this context, new and more flexible forms of organization have emerged, and franchising in particular has undergone a strong expansion. The main purpose of this work is to present a complete framework of the Italian franchising and to analyse its role, structural characteristics, trend and development in the context of the European market.

  9. Royalty Rate Structure in Case of Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2011-01-01

    The present article contains an analysis of differences between licensing and franchising. It is demonstrated that models of royalty rate calculation developed for licensing should not be applied to franchising as benefits received by licensee and franchisee are different. It is proposed to include in the model of royalty calculation the risk reduction generated by franchisor¡¯s effective technologies and managerial support that are given to franchisee. It is demonstrated that franchisee may ...

  10. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  11. Classification of Franchise Networks in the Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the definitions of the concepts of «franchise network», «franchise trade network», «franchise retail network», which is substantiated by the lack of a unified approach to interpretation of these concepts. The classification of franchise networks in the retail trade taking into account peculiarities in the operation of this sub-sector of the market economy is developed; classification attributes are identified and types of franchise retail chains are characterized. The proposed classification of franchise retail networks is adapted to the economic situation in Ukraine and specifics of the national franchise relations. It will facilitate a deeper understanding of the essence of the formation and operation of franchise retail chains and also help Ukrainian entrepreneurs to justify choosing the most suitable for them franchising model and allow to establish such a network with regard to various attributes using a complex approach.

  12. Comparative analysis of franchising in international markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing role of franchising at the global level requires its further improvement. This business model has great business potential, especially in the Serbian market, given the current underdevelopment and inaccessibility of information. At the core of our research, we outlined the characteristics of this business model, its impact on business development and at the same time we tried to draw the attention of domestic business entities to the benefits of franchising as a modern way of doing business. We start our research with a focus on the comparative analysis of Serbia, as a very poorly developed market. We then discuss the concept of franchising in Europe, with a special focus on Poland as a country that is ready to export franchising systems, and we continue by providing comparisons with the world's largest markets, namely, the USA and Canada. In this paper, we tried to elaborate on the economic viability of this project, as well as the increasing expansion and importance franchising has been experiencing in the last few years. Emphasis is placed on the use of franchise in many areas of business where there is the possibility of implementing both business models.

  13. System engineering in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process: Program architecture process and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The overall mission of the center is to provide a sustained level of high-quality research and technical assistance in support of NRC regulatory responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). A key part of that mission is to assist the NRC in the development of the program architecture - the systems approach to regulatory analysis for the NRC high-level waste repository licensing process - and the development and implementation of the computer-based Program Architecture Support System (PASS). This paper describes the concept of program architecture, summarizes the process and basic structure of the PASS relational data base, and describes the applications of the system

  14. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchise relationship. Methodology. The survey is based on a comparison of data from all EU member countries and analisis of the legal framework of each country in particular and in general EU legislation. The article is devoted to a detailed analysis of main features of the franchise business in Europe. The mechanism of implementation of franchise relations between EU member states are studied. Government regulation of franchising in the EU member states are investigated. The rate of growth of franchising in Europe are analized. Results. By comparing different state laws and regulations of franchising we have identified the most effective and productive. We divided counties into two groups due to their regulation of franchising: countries which do not have a special government regulation of franchising; the countries which have state regulation of franchising; countries which have government regulation of franchising and it is governed by EU law, countries in which regulation is carried out in accordance with EU law. Thus, results of the survey showed that government regulation of franchising, as well as its regulation at the level of EU institutions have a positive impact on the development of franchising relationships. Practical implications of the results of the paper will help to develop well known network of franchise bussiness without legislative interference. Value/originality. It is first time we have grouped countries due to the main aspects of state

  15. 76 FR 49479 - Franchise Rule Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Franchise Rule Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection... Concerning Franchising (``Franchise Rule''). That clearance expires on December 31, 2011. DATES: Comments... INFORMATION section below. Write ``Franchise Rule, PRA Comment, FTC File No. P094400'' on your comment, and...

  16. International Academic Franchises: Identifying the Benefits of International Academic Franchise Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Kevin; Ritchie, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study of the benefits that institutions of higher education can gain when entering into partnerships of academic franchising, an international activity which has been increasing in popularity over the past few decades. The paper looks at the current literature on academic franchising and then goes on to study, through…

  17. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's vendor inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    The NRC conducts a program of inspection at licensee contractors and vendors to assure that quality assurance programs meet applicable NRC requirements. This inspection program, which was begun in 1965 and restructured in 1974, is discussed. A trial program has recently been initiated to evaluate the use of the ASME N-stam inspection system to supplement NRC inspections. The criteria for NRC acceptance of such a third party inspection system are described in the paper. (author)

  18. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993 - March 3, 1997. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    On July 1, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the RO program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These activities were performed under the authority of the lease agreement between DOE and USEC until NRC issued a Certificate of Compliance or approved a Compliance Plan pursuant to Section 1701 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and assumed regulatory responsibility. This report chronicles the formal development, operation and key activities of the RO organization from its beginning in July 1993, until the turnover of the regulatory oversight responsibility to the NRC on March 3, 1997. Through its evolution to closure, the RO program was a formal, proceduralized effort designed to provide consistent regulation and to facilitate transition to NRC. The RO Program was also a first-of-a-kind program for DOE. The process, experience, and lessons learned summarized herein should be useful as a model for transition of other DOE facilities to privatization or external regulation

  19. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993--March 3, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    On July 1, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the RO program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These activities were performed under the authority of the lease agreement between DOE and USEC until NRC issued a Certificate of Compliance or approved a Compliance Plan pursuant to Section 1701 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and assumed regulatory responsibility. This report chronicles the formal development, operation and key activities of the RO organization from its beginning in July 1993, until the turnover of the regulatory oversight responsibility to the NRC on March 3, 1997. Through its evolution to closure, the RO program was a formal, proceduralized effort designed to provide consistent regulation and to facilitate transition to NRC. The RO Program was also a first-of-a-kind program for DOE. The process, experience, and lessons learned summarized herein should be useful as a model for transition of other DOE facilities to privatization or external regulation.

  20. Regulatory Oversight Program, July 1, 1993--March 3, 1997. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    On July, 1993, a Regulatory Oversight (RO) organization was established within the US DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) to provide regulatory oversight of the DOE uranium enrichment facilities leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC). The purpose of the OR program was to ensure continued plant safety, safeguards and security while the plants were transitioned to regulatory oversight by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Volume 3 contains copies of two reports that document the DOE/ORO regulatory oversight inspection and enforcement history for each gaseous diffusion plant site. Each report provides a formal mechanism by which DOE/ORO could communicate the inspection and enforcement history to NRC. The reports encompass the inspection activities that occurred during July 1, 1993 through March 2, 1997.

  1. Franchising: An adequate Business Model for the "Proactive University"? A Public-Private Perspective on German HE

    OpenAIRE

    Leusing, Britta

    2011-01-01

    Public higher education institutions (HEIs) are experiencing circumstantial changes due to increasing financial pressure, higher autonomy and diversified actors on an increasingly challenging "market". These changes have led to forms of "entrepreneurial behavior" in public HEIs, such as franchising arrangements, which have become prominent in the context of internationalization and the export of study programs. Over the last decade, a growing number of franchising arrangements on an intrastat...

  2. Discussion of Regulatory Guide 7.10, emphasizing the graded approach for establishing QA programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.; Lake, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    To assist applicants in establishing an acceptable QA program to meet the programmatic elements of Appendix E to 10 CFR Part 71, Regulatory Guide 7.10 was developed. Regulatory Guide 7.10 is organized in three self-contained ANNEXES. Guidance applicable to designer/fabricators, to users, and users of radiographic devices are in separate annexes. QA programs for packaging to transport radioactive material are similar in regard to the various operations a licensee may be involved in. However, the appropriate QA/QC effort to verify the program elements may vary significantly. This is referred to as the graded approach. Appendix A in the guide addresses the graded approach

  3. Regulatory standards applicable or relevant to the independent Hanford environmental surveillance and oversight program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Siegel, M.R.; Woodruff, M.G.; Belfiglio, J.; Elliott, R.W.

    1990-03-01

    The authors reviewed federal and state statutes and regulations, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other guidance material, for potential applicability to the environmental surveillance program conducted for the Hanford site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). There are no federal or state statutes or regulations which are directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program. However, other regulatory schemes, while not directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program, are important insofar as they are indicative of regulatory concern and direction. Because of the evolving nature of environmental regulations, this area needs to be closely monitored for future impact on environmental surveillance activities. 9 refs.,

  4. 30 CFR 906.15 - Approval of Colorado regulatory program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado regulatory program amendments. 906.15 Section 906.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  5. Regulatory analysis of the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program has been developed to identify, demonstrate, test, and evaluate technologies that will provide alternatives to the current underground storage tank remediation program. The UST-ID Program is a national program that consists of five participating US Department of Energy (DOE) sites where technologies can be developed an ultimately demonstrated. Once these technologies are demonstrated, the UST-ID Program will transfer the developed technology system to industry (governmental or industrial) for application or back to Research and Development for further evaluation and modification, as necessary. In order to ensure that the UST-ID Program proceeds without interruption, it will be necessary to identify regulatory requirements along with associated permitting and notification requirements early in the technology development process. This document serves as a baseline for identifying certain federal and state regulatory requirements that may impact the UST-ID Program and the demonstration of any identified technologies

  6. Program plan for future regulatory activity in nuclear-power-plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.V.

    1982-10-01

    The intent of this paper is to describe the results of a study of nuclear power plant (NPP) maintenance conducted by Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of the study for the NRC was to determine problems affecting human performance in NPP maintenance, pinpoint those which adversely affect public health and safety, review strategies for overcoming the problems, and suggest the direction that regulatory activities should take. Results of the study were presented to the NRC (Division of Human Factors Safety) in the form of a recommended program plan for future regulatory activity in NPP maintenance

  7. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee and Pesticide Regulatory Reform Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.

  8. [Regulatory Program for Medical Devices in Cuba: experiences and current challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dulce María Martínez; Rodríguez, Yadira Álvarez; Valdés, Yamila Cedeño; Ribas, Silvia Delgado

    2016-05-01

    Regulatory control of medical devices in Cuba is conducted through a system based on the Regulatory Program for Medical Devices as a way to ensure the safety, efficacy, and effectiveness of these technologies, which are in use by the National Health System. This program was launched in 1992, when the Regulations for State Evaluation and Registration of Medical Devices were approved. Its successive stages and the merging of regulatory activities for drugs and medical equipment have meant progress toward stronger, more transparent strategies and greater control of industry and the National Health System. Throughout its course the Cuban program has met with challenges and difficulties that it has addressed by drawing on its own experiences. During the new period, the greatest challenges revolve around ensuring that regulatory systems incorporate scientific evaluation, risk levels, maximum rigor through the use of technical standards, and the implementation of international recommendations, together with the application of the ISO 13485 certification scheme, enhanced market monitoring, and classification of medical devices in accordance with their relevance to the country's national health policies. From the regional standpoint, the greatest challenge lies in working toward regulatory convergence. The Collaborating Centre for the Regulation of Health Technologies will support the proposed regulatory strategy and established regional priorities, in particular in connection with the implementation of actions involving medical devices.

  9. Regulatory requirements of the integrated technology demonstration program, Savannah River Site (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The integrated demonstration program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) involves demonstration, testing and evaluation of new characterization, monitoring, drilling and remediation technologies for soils and groundwater impacted by organic solvent contamination. The regulatory success of the demonstration program has developed as a result of open communications between the regulators and the technical teams involved. This open dialogue is an attempt to allow timely completion of applied environmental restoration demonstrations while meeting all applicable regulatory requirements. Simultaneous processing of multiple regulatory documents (satisfying RCRA, CERCLA, NEPA and various state regulations) has streamlined the overall permitting process. Public involvement is achieved as various regulatory documents are advertised for public comment consistent with the site's community relations plan. The SRS integrated demonstration has been permitted and endorsed by regulatory agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. EPA headquarters and regional offices are involved in DOE's integrated Demonstration Program. This relationship allows for rapid regulatory acceptance while reducing federal funding and time requirements. (author)

  10. Impact of a social franchise intervention program on the adoption of long and short acting family planning methods in hard to reach communities in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Thet, May Me; Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2018-03-12

    Myanmar has experienced slowly rising levels of contraceptive use in recent years. Between 2014 and 2016, Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar implemented a multi-pronged intervention to increase contraceptive use by leveraging its social marketing clinics and providers, and providing additional community outreach. The aim of this study is to explore trends over time in contraceptive uptake and assess whether exposure to the PSI program was associated with women adopting a method. Baseline and end line data were collected using a repeated cross-sectional survey of married women of reproductive age in 2014 and 2016. We find that use of the implant and intrauterine device (IUD) has increased among contraceptive users over time, although there was no significant association for short-term methods. There was also an increase in all types of method use between time periods compared to non-users of contraception. Women who reported seeing a PSI contraception pamphlet had increased odds of having adopted an IUD or implant in the study period. This suggests that interventions that address both supply and demand side barriers to contraception can have an impact on contraceptive uptake, especially more effective long acting methods.

  11. Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water services operation ... of water services, and outlines the need to formulate a franchise model that ... made available to emerging entrepreneurs as the basis of a viable business.

  12. Innovative water service operation and maintenance: exploration of franchising partnerships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available WRC and CSIR research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers...

  13. O&M of services infrastructure by social franchising partnerships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available South African research finds that social franchising partnerships could address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising trains those on-site, and also provides backup off-site skills...

  14. Applying franchising principles to improving water and sanitation services reliability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers backup off...

  15. Recommended regulatory program plan for low-level radioactive waste management in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The National Program for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management was instituted by the US Department of Energy to assist the states in carrying out this new federal policy. Based on the premise that the safe disposal of low-level waste is technologically feasible and that states have the necessary degree of authority to set management policy, the National Program is helping them to develop a responsive, comprehensive regulatory program. The State of Maryland is actively engaged with the National Program in its efforts to form a comprehensive management program. The purpose of this plan is to review existing statutory and regulatory program responsibilities and provide a recommended management scheme for low-level radioactive waste

  16. International Retailing Operations: Downstream Entry and Expansion via Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the shift into international franchising from other forms of operation, rather than the typical home market franchising base is explored. The focus is international retail franchising, based on a study of the Danish clothing and footwear industry. In this study it was found that Danish companies were moving into international franchising as an outcome of a more general shift from upstream wholesaling and subcontracting activities to downstream involvement in retailing activit...

  17. FRANCHISING: HYBRID ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENT FOR FIRM GROWTH AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Olu Ojo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of franchising as a strategy by which entrepreneurs can expand their venture and make substantial return from their investments. The paper tries to explore the extent to which franchising is being practiced in Nigeria and the resultant effect of franchising on the national economy. The study was done by taking intensive study of Nigerian business world to see the extent of the practice of franchising system of business. The result of this study shows that fran...

  18. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Čepera, Vít

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  19. Franchising, moderní metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsová, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    My work deals with the franchising as a modern method of market entry. My work is divided into two main parts. The first part is about the meaning of the word franchising and his different types and possible forms of expansion of franchising to foreing markets. I also analyze the possible advantages and disadvantages of a particular company Mistic. The second part shows the application of franchising to specific company Mistic. On this part is supplemented by advantages and disadvantages of t...

  20. Fastening Transfer of Technology Through the Franchise Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Asikin, Zainal

    2014-01-01

    The major improvement of franchise practices in Indonesian within the last 10 (ten) years has speeded to many region. Yet the government and local government under informed about the exact concept and regulation of franchise. Therefore this research meant to find out the concept of franchise and how the government regulate franchise agreement and its relation with transfer of technology. This research in a normative research as a way to depth study legal norms in various primary and secondary...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE FRANCHISE RELATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Мазуренко, Валентина Петрівна

    2013-01-01

    The article is about the functioning patterns and modern development tendency of franchise system of the leading company relations of the economically developed countries under conditions of the globalizing business; the comparative analysis of the sectorial distribution of the franchising in U.S., Europe and Ukraine. Also in this article singled out the main factors that hinder the development of a national franchise service market and an improvement of the franchising in Ukraine. 

  2. Franchising : Focusing on Franchisees' Perspective in the Swedish Retailing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Carnestedt, Per; Ericson, Dennis; Jonsson, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is an important global business phenomenon, yet most research in the field is allocated to the American market. In addition, the majority of conducted research on the topic of franchising is considering the franchisor perspective, even though a franchising establishment is a relationship between two parties; the franchisor and the franchisee. Recent trends in franchising research is to further extend the body of literature by considering the franchisee perspective as well as marke...

  3. Franchising jako způsob vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Ptáčková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with franchising as a possible way of entering the market. The work is divided into two main chapters. The first one is a theoretical part and it explains the main definition of franchising, the key concepts, the world history of franchising and also the history of development in the Czech republic. This part also looks into the foundation process of franchising and the advantages and disadvantages of this type of business. The second part which is practical one considers th...

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of franchising as a form of business

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesova, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the features of the development of franchising in Russia. Franchising has a number of advantages and it is a perspective form of interaction between small and large businesses. However, in taking a decision to contract with the franchise network, in addition to understanding the forms of doing business, the advantages of the system, you should also take into account that the franchise system is associated with some risks.

  5. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-01-01

    In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchi...

  6. Franchising jako metoda tvorby sítě

    OpenAIRE

    Vedej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Graduation theses is concerned with the analysis of taking advantage of using franchising in the business, specifically with application of franchising for development of already existing firm. Theoretical part summarises the principles and presumptions of using franchising concept. The practical part deals with the application of hypothesis stated in the first part on the example of a real firm. The thesis suggests a solution of problems connected with creating a franchise network.

  7. Franchising as a Way of Creating Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses franchising as a business model based on an economic relationship between the parties. The discussion of the early forms of franchising and of factors stimulating its development in Poland and the world is followed by the presentation of data showing franchise growth trends in Poland for, respectively, domestic and foreign brands. The article highlights the advantages of franchising, which allow it to resist economic crises, stimulate entrepreneurship and innovativeness, ...

  8. Franchising: A Growth Strategy for the 1990Õs

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Preble

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of franchising has become an increasingly important growth option for firms operating in todayÕs highly competitive marketplace. This paper describes the present status of franchising and provides managers with practical, strategic guidance on its use. Three general forms of franchising have emerged which can be employed by the franchiser depending upon company objectives. It is also shown in this paper that a portfolio matrix model can act as a useful tool to aid decision-makers...

  9. Key drivers of overseas expansion of service franchise chains

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Based on the agency and signaling theories, this paper attempts to identify the effects of management and franchising experience, brand awareness, international franchise ratio, and franchisor’s size on international expansion in the service franchise sector. Specifically, the Spanish franchise system was considered and therefore, a total of 125 chains with presence in 44 foreign countries with a combined 2,944 outlets were examined. The results show that management and franchi...

  10. Managing logistical processes in franchise retail trade networks

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorenko Tatyana N.; Kochubey Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses approaches to organisation of internal logistics of franchise trade networks and methodical provision of assessment of results of logistical activity at companies of franchise networks. The article justifies urgency of application of referent models of management of supply chains in construction of a system of management of logistical activity of franchise networks. It offers classification of models of management of internal logistics of franchise retail trade networks. ...

  11. An Empirical Look at Franchising as an Organizational Form.

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Seth W

    1988-01-01

    Franchise contracts are identified as a hybrid form of economic organization. Motives for the dominance of franchise arrangements are identified by examining the theoretical literature on franchising and related literatures on the theory of the firm, firm growth, managerial and employee selection, a nd brand-name capital. Empirical tests are performed on the incidence of franchise contracts across states for three industries in which f ranchising is prominent and data are readily available. T...

  12. Capital Structure Determinants and Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Tao

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis investigates two questions: the determinants of capital structure in franchising and its subsequent impact on the franchise financing decisions; and the efficient governance structure choice in franchising. We posit that firms franchise in order to benefit from the reduced franchisees’ operational risks by limiting the debt level, such that the franchisor can bear more debt and gain tax-deduction benefits. Specific hypotheses are based on various theories like resource...

  13. An Overview of Franchising In The Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto, Ersan Suria

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, franchising is the most significant part of the hospitality industry through hotels and fast food restaurant. Franchisor gives the right to the franchisee to sell their product and service also to sub-franchise it and worked under their brand name. Furthermore, in franchising, there must be a contract between the franchisor and the franchisee which include the term and condition. Franchises include some aspects such as screening, site selection, operating manuals and the pre-opening...

  14. An Overview of Franchising in the Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto, Ersan Suria

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, franchising is the most significant part in the hospitality industry through hotels and fast food restaurant. Franchisor gives the right to the franchisee to sell their product and service also to sub franchise it and worked under their brand name. Furthermore, in franchising there must be a contract between the franchisor and the franchisee which include the term and condition. Franchises include some aspects such as, screening, site selection, operating manuals and the pre opening...

  15. 47 CFR 76.910 - Franchising authority certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Franchising authority certification. 76.910... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.910 Franchising authority certification. (a) A franchising authority must be certified by the Commission in order to regulate the basic...

  16. 48 CFR 52.247-2 - Permits, Authorities, or Franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Franchises. 52.247-2 Section 52.247-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-2 Permits, Authorities, or Franchises. As prescribed in 47.207-1(a), insert the following clause: Permits, Authorities, or Franchises (JAN 1997) (a) The offeror does □, does not □, hold authorization from...

  17. Franchising jako moderní metoda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Plešmídová, Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes the franchising as a form of entry to the market, its functioning, its advantages and its risks. Then, the devolopment and contemporary situation of franchising in the Czech republic are explained. In the second part, the franchise system Paneria is described.

  18. An Incomplete Contracting Model of Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor the purpose of explaining governance structure variety in franchising, we explore the impact of governance structure on the incentives to invest in specific assets for the franchisor as well as the distributors. Wholly-owned, wholly-franchised, and mixed (dual distribution) franchise

  19. FRANCHISING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRIAM JANKALOVÁ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focus on characteristic of franchising as the opportunity for firms to start the business. Franchising is an agreement in which franchisees receive the right to operate a business under the franchisor’s trade name in exchange for paying a fee and operating according to a specific plan (Flităr, 2003. In other words, this method of distribution is based on a contract in which the franchisor gives franchisees the right to operate a business under its trade name. In exchange, the franchisees pay a specific amount and operate the business according to a plan specified by the franchisor (Flităr, 2003. We also analyse the situation in Slovak republic where franchising is still used not so often as in the other EU countries.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Communication Strategies in Franchising. Consolidated firms vs. incipient franchise networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Juan M. Monserrat Gauchi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the communication strategies used by Spanish franchises which, targeting at any objective public, would like to promote their market expansion and marketing organization. In this paper, we establish a comparative study between the strategies used by franchises in their first stage of market expansion and those used by established franchisors. To accomplish this, we base our research upon qualitative (participant observation and quantitative methods (survey to a fixed number of franchise companies. In conclusion, we attempt to set the possible differences between strategies followed by this kind of companies, according to their location in the market.

  1. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the ESPDP is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. The results of the technical and licensing evaluations are presented in this report. The purpose, background, and organization of the ESPDP is delineated in Section 1. Section 11 contains flowcharts defining siting application requirements, environmental report requirements, and emergency planning/preparedness requirements for ALWRS. The licensing and technical review results are presented in Section III

  2. EPA's LLW standards program: Below regulatory concern criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, W.F.; Gruhlke, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing generally applicable environmental standards for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. These standards will include criteria for determining which wastes have sufficiently low levels of radioactivity to be considered ''Below Regulatory Concern'' (BRC) in regards to their radiation hazard. Risk assessments to support the BRC criteria include an analysis of 18 surrogate radioactive waste streams, generated by nuclear power reactors and other fuel cycle facilities, industrial, medical and educational facilities, and consumers. Deregulated disposal alternatives, such as sanitary landfills, municipal dumps, incinerators and on-site landfills, situated in diverse demographic settings are used in the analysis. A number of waste streams which contributed only small doses or fractions of a health effect over 10,000 years were identified. Disposal of such wastes without consideration of their very low radioactivity could result in significant cost savings to the commercial fuel cycle and government operations as well as to medical, educational, and industrial facilities, and with minimal risk to the public. The concept of BRC wastes appears both feasible and cost effective

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Regulatory criteria evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The primary objective of the ESPDP is to demonstrate successfully the use of 10CFR52 to obtain ESPs for one or more US sites for one (or more) ALWR nuclear power plants. It is anticipated that preparation of the ESP application and interaction with NRC during the application review process will result not only in an ESP for the applicant(s) but also in the development of criteria and definition of processes, setting the precedent that facilitates ESPs for subsequent ESP applications. Because siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria are contained in over 100 separate documents, comprehensive licensing and technical reviews were performed to establish whether the requirements and documentation are self-consistent, whether the acceptance criteria are sufficiently well-defined and clear, and whether the licensing process leading to the issuance of an ESP is unambiguously specified. The results of the technical and licensing evaluations are presented in this report. The purpose, background, and organization of the ESPDP is delineated in Section 1. Section 11 contains flowcharts defining siting application requirements, environmental report requirements, and emergency planning/preparedness requirements for ALWRS. The licensing and technical review results are presented in Section III.

  4. Franchising technologies for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganebnykh Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes factors of environmental change that cause the need to form new forms of interaction between economically active market subjects for sustainable development of territories. The authors of the article analyze franchising as one of the most flexible forms of interaction in small business. Modern trends in small business show a gradual merger of the production of goods and their trade with the provision of services. It leads to the necessity to create a fundamentally new mechanism that meets the needs of the modern market. The article proposes a new complex model of franchising which combines all the specified forms.

  5. FRANCHISING AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    MIRIAM JANKALOVÁ; RADOSLAV JANKAL

    2010-01-01

    The paper focus on characteristic of franchising as the opportunity for firms to start the business. Franchising is an agreement in which franchisees receive the right to operate a business under the franchisor’s trade name in exchange for paying a fee and operating according to a specific plan (Flităr, 2003). In other words, this method of distribution is based on a contract in which the franchisor gives franchisees the right to operate a business under its trade name. In exchange, the franc...

  6. 30 CFR 902.10 - State regulatory program approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street, Suite 800, Anchorage, AK 99503-5925, Telephone: (907) 762... Section 902.10 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ALASKA § 902.10 State...

  7. Regulatory research and support program for 1993/1994 - project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board's regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear facilities and materials. The program is divided into nine main areas of research (mission objects) covering the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security, the development of regulatory processes, and special services. In addition, for the first time in this year's program, sub-programs (collections of related projects) have been organized in some areas of study; these sub-programs may cut across several mission objects. More sub-programs will be introduced in future years. A total of 96 projects are planned for 1993/94, including a number which are ongoing from the previous fiscal year. Projects that are held in reserve in case funding becomes available are also listed and provisionally ranked. The spending estimates for the RSP were calculated on the basis of an expected budget of $3.85 M

  8. Regulatory research and support program for 1993/1994 - project descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The Regulatory Research and Support Program (RSP) is intended to augment and extend the Atomic Energy Control Board`s regulatory program beyond the capability of in-house resources. The overall objective of the research and support program is to produce pertinent and independent information that will assist the Board and its staff in making sound, timely and credible decisions on regulating nuclear facilities and materials. The program is divided into nine main areas of research (mission objects) covering the safety of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, health physics, physical security, the development of regulatory processes, and special services. In addition, for the first time in this year`s program, sub-programs (collections of related projects) have been organized in some areas of study; these sub-programs may cut across several mission objects. More sub-programs will be introduced in future years. A total of 96 projects are planned for 1993/94, including a number which are ongoing from the previous fiscal year. Projects that are held in reserve in case funding becomes available are also listed and provisionally ranked. The spending estimates for the RSP were calculated on the basis of an expected budget of $3.85 M.

  9. Research program on regulatory safety - Overview report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailaender, R

    2011-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2010 and the results obtained. The main highlights of the research program, which was co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI are reported on. Topics reported on include nuclear fuels and materials, the development of a data base on damage and internal incidents, external incidents and human factors. Also, system behaviour and hazardous accident events are reported on, as are radiation protection and waste disposal. Project highlights include the KORA II project, which examined corrosion crack development in austenitic structural materials, the OECD's Halden Reactor Project in the man-technology-organisational area, and work done in the Mont Terri rock research laboratory. Also, national and international co-operation is briefly looked at and work to be done in 2011 is reviewed. A list of current and completed projects completes the report

  10. Research program on regulatory safety research - Synthesis report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailaender, R

    2009-06-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the program's main points of interest, work done in the year 2008 and the results obtained. The main points of the research program, which is co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, are discussed. Topics covered concern reactor safety as well as human, organisational and safety aspects. Work done in several areas concerning reactor safety and materials as well as interactions in severe accidents in light-water reactors is described. Radiation protection, the transport and disposal of radioactive wastes and safety culture are also looked at. Finally, national and international co-operation is briefly looked at and work to be done in 2009 is reviewed. The report is completed with a list of research and development projects co-ordinated by ENSI

  11. Environmental and regulatory considerations when planning a geophysical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down-Cicoria, C.

    1999-01-01

    Public concerns regarding the environmental impact of geophysical programs have resulted in more pressure on the federal and provincial governments to regulate and protect unique ecosites. In the past decade, about 1 million kilometres of seismic have been shot by the petroleum industry in Alberta alone, representing about 70,000 hectares of land base. This paper reviewed how a preliminary assessment of any geophysical project should consider the effects of all projects on the terrain, climate, vegetation, soils, fisheries, wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, heritage resources, and timber dispositions. Geo-administrative boundaries, field assessments, environmental assessments and mitigation measures such as low impact line cutting methods, timing methods, and heli-portable operations must also be considered. Special considerations when planning a three-dimensional program were highlighted. Certain equipment suitable as mitigation measures such as mulchers, hydro-axes, enviro-drills, biodegradable lathes, tracked/low PSI equipment, and doglegs were also reviewed. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission low-level radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    It is believed that the priorities of NRC work in low-level waste management as described in this action plan are consistent with the needs of the overall national waste management program. Present licensing procedures and criteria are adequate for the short term, and priority attention is being given to the longer term, when the quantities of waste to be managed will be greater and licensing demand will increase. The plan makes use of expertise within NRC to achieve early results and is coordinated with other Federal agencies having related responsibilities. Since NRC decisions will affect industry, other governmental jurisdictions, private interest groups, and the public at large, procedures were developed to involve them in planning the program

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This document is the Second Annual Revision to the NRC Human Factors Program Plan. The first edition was published in August 1983. Revision 1 was published in July of 1984. Purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design and operation of nuclear power plants. This document describes the plans of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to address high priority human factors concerns of importance to reactor safety in FY 1986 and FY 1987. Revision 2 of the plan incorporates recent Commission decisions and policies bearing on the human factors aspects of reactor safety regulation. With a few exceptions, the principal changes from prior editions reflect a shift from developing new requirements to staff evaluation of industry progress in resolving human factors issues. The plan addresses seven major program elements: (1) Training, (2) Licensing Examinations, (3) Procedures, (4) Man-Machine Interface, (5) Staffing and Qualifications, (6) Management and Organization, and (7) Human Performance

  14. Näkökulmia franchising-yrittäjyyteen

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Blerina

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, mitkä ovat franchising-ketjun toimin-tatavat, hyödyt, kannattavuus ja mitä rajoituksia se tuo yrittäjille. Työssä selvitetään myös miksi franchising-yrittäjät valitsivat franchising-toiminnan, vaikka heillä oli myös mahdollisuus perustaa yritys oman liikeideansa pohjalta. Taustaksi esitellään muitakin yritysmuotoja. Franchising-sana virallistettiin vuonna 1987 suomenkieleen vakinaiseksi vierassanaksi. Franchising-toiminnan laajentumisen johdos...

  15. Reliability programs for nuclear power plants. Regulatory standard S-98 revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this regulatory standard is to help assure, in accordance with the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), that a licensee who constructs or operates a nuclear power plant (NPP) develops and implements a reliability program that assures that the systems important to safety at the plant can and will meet their defined design and performance specifications at acceptable levels of reliability throughout the lifetime of the facility. This regulatory standard describes the requirements of a reliability program for a nuclear power plant. The licensee shall implement the requirements described in this regulatory standard when a condition of a licence or other legally enforceable instrument so requires.(author)

  16. Battelle's human factors program for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikiar, R.

    1983-10-01

    Battelle has been involved in a programmatic effort of technical assistance to the Division of Human Factors Safety of the NRC. This program involves the efforts of over 75 professionals engaged in over 20 projects. These projects span the areas of human factors engineering, procedures, examinations, training, staffing and qualifications, and utility management and organization. All of these bear, one way or another, on the role of operators in nuclear power plants. This programmatic effort can be viewed as part of an integrative approach to system safety

  17. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's research reactor inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, George L.

    1977-01-01

    The Division of Reactor Inspection Program's functional responsibilities are presented. The include (a) inspections and investigations necessary to determine whether licensees are complying with license provisions and rules, and to ascertain whether licensed operations are being conducted safely; (b) establishment of bases for the issuance or denial of a construction permit or license; (c) investigation of accidents, incidents, and theft or diversion of special nuclear materials; (d) enforcement actions; and (e) evaluation of licensed operations as a basis for recommending changes to standards and license conditions and for issuance of reports to the nuclear industry and the public

  18. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... of their regulatory program and abandoned mine land plan, make grammatical changes, correct..., make grammatical changes, correct punctuation, revise dates, and add citations. The Arkansas... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING 785.14, 785.16, 785.18, and 785.25 Mountaintop Removal Mining; Permits...

  19. 76 FR 9028 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Duvall-Miller, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire... to provide the following: (1) Firsthand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a...

  20. 75 FR 10806 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... INFORMATION CONTACT: Beth Duvall-Miller, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration... to provide the following: (1) First hand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a...

  1. 77 FR 10538 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Brum, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave...) Firsthand exposure to industry's drug development processes and (2) a venue for sharing information about...

  2. 78 FR 8544 - Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...] Training Program for Regulatory Project Managers; Information Available to Industry AGENCY: Food and Drug... Brum, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave... to industry's drug development processes and (2) a venue for sharing information about project...

  3. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the Franchised Strategic Praxis from the Practice Established by Franchise System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Vitor Medeiros Júnior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the perception of a franchise on building strategies located around practices experienced by referencing franchisor's standards and regional reality. There is a complexity in the relationship between franchisee and franchisor in a franchise system and its implications in the strategies developed by these actors. This qualitative research adopted the theoretical approach called Strategy as Practice, which seeks to understand the strategy considering its stakeholders (practitioners, practices established and incorporated in addition to the practice that represents the effective implementation of strategic actions, socially constructed and reconstructed. For data collection, in-depth open interviews were conducted with the owner of two franchise stores, located in a city in the Brazil´s Northeast. The data were analyzed and categorized according to feedback from the franchisee on how he responds to practices imposed by the franchise system. As a result, four categories were identified that represent relevant practices: workshops sponsored by the franchisor, the franchisee's annual planning, visiting consultants, and business strategies for sales. It was concluded that although there is considerable control of the franchisor on its franchisees, many of the practices of the franchise system are adapted and transformed in practice by the franchisee, often in a different way than was originally imposed. We emphasize the importance of strategy as practice approach in understanding the construction and interpretation of the strategy in a franchise system based on social relationships developed in this system.

  5. Methodology for value/impact assessment of nuclear regulatory research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1978-12-01

    A methodology for conducting a value/impact assessment of research programs has been developed to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an improved capability for allocating resources for confirmatory research. This report presents a seven-step evaluation process and applies it to selected units of research. The methodology is intended to provide insight into the technical merits of the programs, one dimension of the complex problem of resource allocation for confirmatory research

  6. Dunkin’ Donuts: Global Expansion Through Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFor more than 60 years, beginning in 1950, Dunkin’ Donuts was one of the world's leading franchisors of quick service restaurants (QSR). Its franchising model fostered consistent growth and allowed it to open more than 10,000 stores in the US and abroad, selling high quality coffee with

  7. Tacit Knowledge Barriers in Franchising: Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise; Githens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that hinder tacit knowledge transfer in a franchise environment and offer a compendium of solutions that encourage franchisees and franchisors to leverage tacit knowledge as a resource for competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the research on franchise…

  8. Franchising Technology Education: Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dan; Newcomer, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes educational technology franchises that sell services to students, either through schools or directly through retail centers, to educate them about and with technology. Topics addressed include the emphasis on personalized instruction; cooperative learning; curriculum; cost effectiveness; site-based management in public education; and…

  9. Pengembangan Bisnis Rahasia Dagang dengan Cara Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Isran

    2012-01-01

    Pembangunan ekonomi suatu negara tidak boleh hanya mengandalkan keunggulan  komperatif (comperative advantage), tetapi harus diiringi dengan keunggulan kompetitif (kompetitif advantage), bahkan banyak negara pada saat ini justru mengadalkan keunggulan kompetitif seperti Hak Kekayaan Intelektual sebagai dasar membangun perekonomian. Franchise adalah salah satu cara pembiakan usaha yang bertujuan melipat gandakan nilai ekonomi Hak Kekayaan Intelektual khusnya Rahasia Dagang yang sangat terkenal...

  10. Pengembangan Bisnis Rahasia Dagang dengan Cara Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Isran

    2010-01-01

    Pembangunan ekonomi suatu negara tidak boleh hanya mengandalkan keunggulan komperatif (comperative advantage), tetapi harus diiringi dengan keunggulan kompetitif (kompetitif advantage), bahkan banyak negara pada saat ini justru mengadalkan keunggulan kompetitif seperti Hak Kekayaan Intelektual sebagai dasar membangun perekonomian. Franchise adalah salah satu cara pembiakan USAha yang bertujuan melipat gandakan nilai ekonomi Hak Kekayaan Intelektual khusnya Rahasia Dagang yang sangat terkenal...

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of franchise in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganebnykh Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian tourism industry is going through hard time. Devaluation of Russian ruble and bankruptcy of several major tour operators caused customers mistrust. Market players are forced to unite, consolidate. One of the most effective ways to withstand in this hard time is franchising. But how a beginner of touristic retail market can pick the right one? How a tour operator can build an effective franchise and attract more professional agents in own network? Developed model is based on mathematic analysis of the most important factors – component parts of franchise. This model as well as the general technique allows by simple calculation evaluate the effectiveness of franchise. The modern condition of Russian tourism market is next: strengthening of the tour operator market; those who survived gained the reputation, others are out of game; а clearer division of Agency market into niches; the change of relations scheme between market players. Small players are forced to unite, consolidate; increasing the service quality in attempt to keep customers.

  12. Determinants of Contractual Completeness in Franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); J. Windsperger (Josef)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the study is to explain the determinants of contractual completeness in franchise relationships by formulating and testing various propositions derived from transaction cost theory, agency theory, property rights theory, organizational capability theory and relational view of

  13. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission human-factors program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This initial plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, The NRC Action Plan Developed as a Result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements, and (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-83 through FY-85 time frame

  14. Establishing a regulatory framework for a RCRA corrective action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the environmental community has become keenly aware of problems associated with integration of the demanding regulations that apply to environmental restoration activities. Once can not attend an EPA-sponsored conference on Superfund without hearing questions concerning the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the applicability of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) to sites that do not qualify for the National Priorities List (NPL). In particular, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been greatly criticized for its inability to define a comprehensive approach for cleaning up its hazardous waste sites. This article presents two decision flowcharts designed to resolve some of this confusion for DOE. The RCRA/CERCLA integration diagram can help the environmental manager determine which law applies and under what conditions, and the RCRA corrective action decision flowchart can guide the manager in determining which specific sections of RCRA apply to a RCRA-lead environmental restoration program

  15. Franchising As Hybrid Organization: Russian Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuzel F. Yusupova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has favorable conditions for development of hybrid cooperation (franchising on the different markets. On the one hand, as well as for the majority of countries with transition economies many Russian markets has been undersaturated. On the other hand, as for the developed countries, Russia has highly skilled human resources and the developed structure of consumption. In these conditions a model of coordination of the relations of franchising has been more and more popular. The benefit of this form can be explained from the side of institutional approach. The matter is that in real practice to determine the borders of firm is not simple. Key decisions of firm sometimes can be performed not in one center that can complicate distribution of control and responsibility and the determination of its borders. On the other hand, the determination of key decisions in the market, distribution of its assets and responsibility within one firm can strongly increase agency expenses. Therefore the hybrid form of coordination of the relations (to which the franchising belongs can lower these expenses, but in case of strict accomplishment of terms of the contract. The hybrid forms of coordination includes the combination of characteristics of the market and hierarchy. Transactions are controlled via the price mechanism for coordination. For control and management of united actions, the maintenance of a certain symmetry in relations are necessary the hierarchical elements. The different conditions of franchise are the reasons of risks for both parties. And for decrease in risk of opportunism the special tools are developed for disciplining of the franchisee. The described examples of the Russian franchises through comparison of contract terms showed how hybrid agreements solve the cooperation problems connected with specificity of resources, transactional expenses and the competition.

  16. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of the NRC Human Factors Program Plan (NUREG-0985) is to ensure that proper consideration is given to human factors in the design, operation, and maintenance of nuclear facilities. This revised plan addresses nuclear power plants (NPPs) and describes (1) the technical assistance and research activities planned to provide the technical bases for the resolution of the remaining human factors related tasks described in NUREG-0660, THE NRC Action Plan developed as a result of the TMI-2 Accident, and NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements; (2) the additional human factors efforts identified during implementation of the Action Plan that should receive NRC attention; (3) conduct of developmental activities specified in NUREG-0985 during FY-83; and (4) the impact of Section 306 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, PL 97-425. The plan represents a systematic and comprehensive approach for addressing human factors concerns important to NPP safety in the FY-84 through FY-86 time frame

  17. 76 FR 65909 - Medicare and Medicaid Program; Regulatory Provisions To Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS...-regulatory changes to increase transparency and to become a better business partner. As explained in the plan...

  18. Regulatory strategy and status for the Y2K readiness program of the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Choong Heui; Ji, Seong Hyon; Oh, Soung Hun; Shin, Won Ki

    1999-01-01

    KINS established a Regulatory Strategy for Y2K Readiness Program of the Nuclear Power Plants in May 1998. On July 29, 1998, the Regulatory Action was enforced on licensees to setup the Y2K Readiness Program and report the stepwise Implementation Results of the Program. KEPCO established the Y2K Readiness Program and finished the Detailed Assessment following the Program. The Assessment showed that 108 out of 726 assets are Non-Compliant. KINS has performed the evaluation for Initial and Detailed Assessment Reports and the site audit for the Wolsong Site Division. Through those regulatory activities, we have gotten much assurance that no Y2K problem will impact on safety-related systems. And considering the progress forwarded by the licensee, we expect that all Y2K issues can be resolved before July 1999. However, to obtain the perfect assurance of the safety against the challenge of Year 2000, we will perform a thorough Audit for Validation Tests at Sites, perform a proper review for the major issues, and complete an in-depth evaluation of Submittals including Contingency Plan

  19. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, Manon; Santos, Andreia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Lange, Isabelle; Matovu, Fred; Benova, Lenka; Wong, Kerry L M; Goodman, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/or delivery services at franchise clinics (in Uttar Pradesh only ANC services were offered). Women were allocated to national (Uganda) or state (India) SES quintiles. Franchise users were concentrated in the higher SES quintiles in all settings. The percent in the top two quintiles was highest in Uganda (over 98% for both ANC and delivery), followed by Rajasthan (62.8% for ANC, 72.1% for delivery) and Uttar Pradesh (48.5% for ANC). The percent of clients in the lowest two quintiles was zero in Uganda, 7.1 and 3.1% for ANC and delivery, respectively, in Rajasthan and 16.3% in Uttar Pradesh. Differences in SES distribution across the programmes may reflect variation in user fees, the average SES of the national/state populations and the range of services covered. We found little variation in content of care by SES. Key factors limiting the ability of such maternal health social franchises to reach poorer groups may include the lack of suitable facilities in the poorest areas, the inability of the poorest women to afford any private sector fees and competition with free or even incentivized public sector services. Moreover, there are tensions between targeting poorer groups, and franchise objectives of improving quality and business performance and enhancing financial sustainability, meaning that middle income and poorer groups are unlikely to be reached in large numbers in the absence of additional subsidies.

  20. How equitable is social franchising? Case studies of three maternal healthcare franchises in Uganda and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerli, Manon; Santos, Andreia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Lange, Isabelle; Matovu, Fred; Benova, Lenka; Wong, Kerry LM

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Substantial investments have been made in clinical social franchising to improve quality of care of private facilities in low- and middle-income countries but concerns have emerged that the benefits fail to reach poorer groups. We assessed the distribution of franchise utilization and content of care by socio-economic status (SES) in three maternal healthcare social franchises in Uganda and India (Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan). We surveyed 2179 women who had received antenatal care (ANC) and/or delivery services at franchise clinics (in Uttar Pradesh only ANC services were offered). Women were allocated to national (Uganda) or state (India) SES quintiles. Franchise users were concentrated in the higher SES quintiles in all settings. The percent in the top two quintiles was highest in Uganda (over 98% for both ANC and delivery), followed by Rajasthan (62.8% for ANC, 72.1% for delivery) and Uttar Pradesh (48.5% for ANC). The percent of clients in the lowest two quintiles was zero in Uganda, 7.1 and 3.1% for ANC and delivery, respectively, in Rajasthan and 16.3% in Uttar Pradesh. Differences in SES distribution across the programmes may reflect variation in user fees, the average SES of the national/state populations and the range of services covered. We found little variation in content of care by SES. Key factors limiting the ability of such maternal health social franchises to reach poorer groups may include the lack of suitable facilities in the poorest areas, the inability of the poorest women to afford any private sector fees and competition with free or even incentivized public sector services. Moreover, there are tensions between targeting poorer groups, and franchise objectives of improving quality and business performance and enhancing financial sustainability, meaning that middle income and poorer groups are unlikely to be reached in large numbers in the absence of additional subsidies. PMID:29373681

  1. Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratliff, R.A.; Dornsife, B.; Autry, V.; Gronemyer, L.; Vaden, J.; Cashman, T.

    1985-08-01

    Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary for conducting a confirmatory monitoring program, and providing suggestions in other areas which, based on experiences, would result in a more effective regulatory program

  2. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments

  3. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  4. The enforcement program of the nuclear regulatory commission in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornburg, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    The enforcement program of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission consists of a clearly spelled out, evenly applied program of deterrents which escalate according to the nature of the offense and the past history of the licensee's noncompliances. Ninety-eight percent of all enforcement actions are normally handled by the five Regional offices. Only one percent of noncompliances have been classed as violations where significant safety consequences occurred. A strong and timely enforcement program is essential to insure that licensees fulfill their obligations to protect the public and the environment. (Auth.) [fr

  5. An Overview of Franchising In The Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Suria Pranoto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, franchising is the most significant part in the hospitality industry through hotels and fast food restaurant. Franchisor gives the right to the franchisee to sell their product and service also to sub franchise it and worked under their brand name. Furthermore, in franchising there must be a contract between the franchisor and the franchisee which include the term and condition. Franchises include some aspects such as, screening, site selection, operating manuals and the pre opening. However, there are some advantages and disadvantages for both the franchisor and the franchisee. The expansion of franchise can be achieved through different strategies of distribution and the knowledge of the targeted market. The future of franchise can be gained through strategies of distribution system, which could emerge the entrepreneur into the majority economy and business. 

  6. Franchising as an Integrated Form of Business Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko Margaryta L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at substantiating the possibilities of using franchising for effective integration of enterprises in the market economy. A study on the essence of franchising relations with consideration of their historical formation and the current legal representation was carried out. Features of such relationships for franchisor and franchisees in the form of two business models of franchising together with different types of payments for franchise have been provided. It has been identified that franchising allows for integrative relations, which are established between the representatives of big and small business over a certain period of time, forming for each party some positive and negative moments of interaction. It is proposed to carry out an analysis of economic problems leading to delays in the formation of franchising schemes at both the State and regional levels.

  7. Franchising-yrittäjyys uravaihtoehtona

    OpenAIRE

    Tomperi, Antti; Määttä, Reijo

    2011-01-01

    Yrittäjäksi ryhtyminen on todella suuri päätös, ja monelle myös vaikea. Monet saattavat haluta yrittäjäksi, mutta eivät oikein tiedä mikä olisi niin kannattava liikeidea että yrittäjäksi kannattaa sekä uskaltaa ryhtyä. Franchising-yrittäjyys on helppo tapa aloittaa liiketoiminta toimien kuitenkin samalla itsenäisenä yrittäjänä. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia aikuisrestonomiopiskelijoiden käsitystä Franchising-yrittäjyydestä. Opinnäytetyössä selvitetään, ovatko restonomit kiinnostu...

  8. Starting a business through a franchise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mahaček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A business can be launched by establishing a new entity, purchasing an existing entity or through a franc - hise. There are certain prerequisites for starting a business, the most important ones being a quality idea and start-up capital. Potential start-up difficulties are inadequate financing, existing competition as well as the process of building your own market position. By purchasing an existing business some risks may be avoided and the opportunity for gaining profit may arise. Profitable operation is possible only if this business has up-to-date products and no outstanding liabilities. This paper discusses franchising business opportunities and the requisite investments and costs, which will bring success if they are accompanied by franchisee’s efforts. The paper aims to present the main characteristics of a franchise business, the necessary investment and the costs which arise in the process, as well as advantages, disadvantages and experiences with this kind of business

  9. 77 FR 55475 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Permits, Authorities, or Franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...; Information Collection; Permits, Authorities, or Franchises AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... approved information collection requirement concerning permits, authorities, or franchises for regulated..., Authorities, or Franchises, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov...

  10. Le contrat de franchise - aspects internationaux

    OpenAIRE

    Wautelet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a review of the main private international law issues arising from cross-border franchise relationships, with a focus on drafting issues. The paper first reviews the issues linked to dispute resolution, emphasizing the need to provide dispute resolution provision in the agreement. It then turns to the rules relevant in case of dispute, with a focus on the potential impact of certain mandatory rules. In a final section, the paper discusses the process of determining which law...

  11. Collective Reputation, Professional Regulation and Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Evans; Timothy W Guinnane

    2007-01-01

    Collective reputation and its associated free-rider problem have been invoked to justify state licensing of professions and to explain the incidence of franchising. We examine the conditions under which it is possible to create a Pareto-improving collective reputation among groups of heterogeneous producers. If the regulator or franchisor cannot credibly commit to high quality then a common reputation can be created only if the groups are not too different and if marginal cost is declining. H...

  12. Regards sur le contrat de franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvier , Amandine

    2015-01-01

    As an idea valued by distribution agreements reflect a modern understanding of the contract in which different characteristics are combined. It is at the same, a network distribution agreement, belonging in the category of reiterative agreements, a financing agreement, and a collaboration agreement. Franchise agreements are also an idea that is disparaged by ditribution. There are some challenges un connection whith changes in legislation and case law that feed the critiques against them. Lik...

  13. EU Perspective of the Legal and Economic Aspects of Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiroski, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    The concept of franchising, most often is defined as a method of marketing of goods and services. Certainly this kind of definition is insufficient. Franchising is more than a method of distribution, a specific way of financial depletion of the meaning without an investment of own capital from franchisee. Franchising system of business people give the required experience and access to methods and enable them to get profit from the reputation of the mark which defined reputation. This paper ai...

  14. International Franchising as a Method for Business Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Karpushina, Darya Evgenjevna

    2009-01-01

    The present Master Thesis investigates the concept of international franchising from both business and legal standpoints. The actuality of the topic is obvious: Franchising becomes one of the most perspective and fast-developing method for business expansion, and this Diploma was written as a reflection of such tendency. In the meantime, Franchising is an extremely complex and arguable business issue and still causes a kind of confusion in people's mind. For this reason, my effort in this Wor...

  15. Franchising in the Middle East: The Example of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaman, Radwa S.

    2017-01-01

    With the largest population in the Arab Middle East and a central location between Europe and East Asia, Egypt offers one of the biggest sources of franchising markets in the world for new business opportunities. Egypt, however, does not have specialized laws regulating franchising, which results in real challenges for investors who are seeking to franchise their businesses in Egypt, along with their legal advisors. It also creates problems for the courts who must rule on disputes arising fro...

  16. The Perspectives of New Franchising Models in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyudmila A. Mikhailova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: the main goal of the article is to define the development perspectives of the new franchising models in Russia (specifically quasifranchising, freedom franchising and branchising). To achieve this the following tusks should be completed: to define the specific characteristics of the following models as well as the factors which influenced their occurrence; to question Russian franchisors in order to understand their desire to develop their business under the new franchising models; t...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...

  18. A highly successful model? The rail franchising business in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Jupe, Robert E.; Funnell, Warwick N.

    2017-01-01

    A crucial feature of rail privatisation in Britain was franchising. Passenger services were franchised in competitive bidding processes to train operators which were meant to function with declining subsidy. The paper adopts the framework of social cost-benefit analysis to examine rail privatisation's impact on three key groups; consumers, producers and the government. It establishes that privatisation did not achieve all the supposed benefits. Further, franchising only appears to be profitab...

  19. Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Jarkina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This doctoral thesis is a scientific study “Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad” which analyses in detailed and systematic manner peculiarities and trends of development of legal franchise regulation in the countries of the world, as well as issues of legal qualification and content of the franchise agreement in the context of Romanic-Germanic system of law. The theoretical basis of the study is scientific works of renowned experts of law, articles...

  20. Transactional analysis of the service delivery system in franchising

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. Franchising is growing in stature as one of the most powerful business methods. Fifty percent of retail sales in the USA are generated through franchised chains. Franchising happens when an entrepreneur seizes a viable business opportunity. A system is developed to extract the maximum value and the rights to use the business system are sold to a franchisee to operate a business along the same principles and systems as the original opportunity. The franchisee and franchisor work tog...

  1. Analysis of efficiency and profitability of franchise services

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MARTIN, CONSTANTINO JOSE; Medal Bartual, Amparo; Peris-Ortiz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyses the relative efficiency of franchise services and characterises the best companies, confirming the relationship between efficiency and profit. These companies are from the trade and other services sector , the main group of service-providing companies in the Spanish economy. The methodology calls for first comparing the relative efficiency of franchisers and ownership enterprises. Second, the focus turns to the most efficient franchise services, usin...

  2. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  3. Franchising as a potential growth strategy for a small enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Lavonen, Riikka

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is to examine franchising as a possible growth strategy for a clothing store called Aku & Ada. The company is new; it has been open for only eight months now. Already during the business plan writing process was franchising brought up as a possibility for the company. The purpose for this thesis is to find out whether franchising could be an option for Aku & Ada to expand their business operations. The theoretical part has been separated into two different categories. The fist...

  4. Franchise value, ownership structure, and risk at savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer, III; Marc R. Saidenberg

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between asset risk and franchise values and between asset risk and ownership structure. Stock price data from publicly traded S&L is used to measure portfolio risk and franchise or charter values. The empirical results provide support for the moral hazard hypothesis. The standard deviation of equity returns is negatively related to S&L franchise values, as measured by the market-to-book asset ratio. This research also finds empirical support for models of ...

  5. Franchising v oboru fitness pro ženy

    OpenAIRE

    Horáčková, Simona

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor's thesis are analysing and comparing of two franchises in fitness for women in the Czech Republic. Common franchise terms, definitions of franchising and advantages, disadvantages for franchisee and usual methods - take place in business plans in the theoretical part. The application part contains the following analyses: analysis of competition, target market, marketing mix, SWOT analysis and a five year financial plan. In the application part, Net Present Value, Intern...

  6. Successfully Operationalizing a Franchise-Level Scientific Communication Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Kistler, Jamie; Wilson, Leanne; Wehner, Erica; Fallon, Judy; Gooljarsingh, Tricia

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To ensure consistency in language and communication points across a franchise of products by developing a franchise-level scientific communication platform (SCP) and creating a tool for its dissemination for use by a cross-functional team. Challenge/Problem: A franchise-level SCP was needed to achieve broad alignment on external communications supporting the products, leverage strengths and opportunities, and optimize differentiation in a competitive landscape. An ef...

  7. An Incomplete Contracting Model of Governance Structure Variety in Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikse, George; Jiang, Tao

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFor the purpose of explaining governance structure variety in franchising, we explore the impact of governance structure on the incentives to invest in specific assets for the franchisor as well as the distributors. Wholly-owned, wholly-franchised, and mixed (dual distribution) franchise systems are considered. Circumstances are identified when a dual distribution governance structure uniquely allocates efficient ownership over assets. Whether dual distribution benefits are realiz...

  8. Franchising ako metóda vstupu na trh

    OpenAIRE

    Koreňová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    My Bachelor thesis analyzes franchising as the method of market entering.The analysis consists of two parts, theoretical and practical. The forms of expansion to the foreign markets are defined, while the accent is put on the franchising. SUBWAY, one of the world's most successful franchise companies, is taken to show how the concept operates. I tried to point out the problems which a young company must face in Czech Republic, find out the strengths and weaknesses of the concept, suggest the ...

  9. Franchising as a method of entering the market

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a method of entering the market. My work is divided into theoretical and practical part. In the first part I describe the essential principals of functioning every franchising system. I explain the mutual relationship between franchisor and franchisee and also advantages and disadvantages for both of them. As a next part I mention the importance of using franchising in the world and also in the Czech Republic. Practical part deals with concrete u...

  10. Franchising system in Ghana : merits and demerits to the franchisee

    OpenAIRE

    Asante, Bismark Kwesi

    2008-01-01

    Mastergradsoppgave i bedriftsøkonomi - Høgskolen i Bodø, 2008 This thesis pertains to franchising in Ghana. It seeks to provide the information on the stage of franchising in the economy, like a product life cycle, which goes through different stages. It is a descriptive case study which stands to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of franchising system of international business to the Ghanaian franchisees found in various industry sectors in the country using same ...

  11. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  12. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J [comp.

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  13. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Boccio, J.L.; Diamond, D.

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987

  14. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A J [comp.

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs

  16. 36 CFR 51.78 - Will a concession contract require a franchise fee and will the franchise fee be subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... require a franchise fee and will the franchise fee be subject to adjustment? 51.78 Section 51.78 Parks... Concession Contract Provisions § 51.78 Will a concession contract require a franchise fee and will the franchise fee be subject to adjustment? (a) Concession contracts will provide for payment to the government...

  17. Regulatory approach of the monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgel, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    The electrical power generation using nuclear power plants requires this installation being safety, reliable and available for the working periods. For this purpose, an adequate, effective and well conducted maintenance program makes an essential and useful tool to the owner of the plant. However, it is necessary to follow the regulatory requirements for this program implementation which monitories this maintenance effectiveness. There are Brazilian norms requirements which must be followed. The international regulatory guides establish these requirements in good details but it is necessary to verify if this methodology for implementing can be totally applied here in Brazil. Then, the american guide NUMARC 93-01 which details how can be implemented a program for this monitoring, shows some methods for using. In this thesis, the Delphi and Probabilistic Safety Analysis were briefly included because they were preferred for implementing this monitoring.in a Brazilian plant. The results which are being obtained show that, looking the regulatory aspects, the NUMARC 93-01 follows our regulations and gives good results for the plant management. (author)

  18. The impact of promotion in franchising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Buljubašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is a model of company growth, which significantly reduces uncertainty in the riskiest stages of growth: business start–up and growth phase. The impact of promotion in franchising has not been investigated in relevant literature. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of promotion on franchising through unconventional marketing on the example of private company X which is the main context of the present study. This private company X was chosen as a relevant example because it was selected in 2012 as one of the most successful Croatian franchisee companies in the segment of automotive industry and also because of the quality of service. The results show that the most successful promotional tool is “word of mouth” that attracts the largest number of clients. However, it must be emphasized that conventional marketing is very important, too, because it contributes to the visibility of the company. Conventional marketing is a diverse field which includes many forms of advertising like print, broadcast, direct mail, telemarketing etc. and is still widely recognized by the audience.

  19. Selvitys Robert's Coffee franchising-kahvilan perustamisesta Tampereen talousalueelle

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmikolu, Karoliina

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda tekijälleen mahdollisimman kokonaisvaltainen käsitys franchising-yritystoiminnasta sekä siitä, mitä franchising yrityksen perustaminen vaatii. Franchising-ottajalla tulee olla selvä käsitys alan markkina- ja kilpailutilanteesta sekä yrityksestä, jonka toimintaan hän on kiinnostunut liittymään mukaan. Ennen kuin yritystoimintaa aloitetaan, franchising-ottajan tulee laatia laskelmia, jotka auttavat arvioimaan yrityksen menestymisen mahdollisuuksia ja pi...

  20. Franchise Business as a Generator of Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Baresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The franchise in the global marketplace enables many globally known brands. With its business concept, it enables integration, learning and acceptance of various cultural, historical, religious and other customs and habits. Consumers prefer a proven and expected standard product quality and services, no matter where they are, they expect and want the same quality provided by franchise companies (shops, restaurants, hotels, and others of well-known brands in different places. It can be concluded that the franchise enables the transfer of business knowledge, experience and technology to an unlimited space. Franchise is largely present as a way of doing business in the world and it has an impact on national economies. Companies can use it as a strategic growth model, as a model for launching a whole new business. Since Croatia has enough potential to develop franchise business that is not sufficiently exploited, that potential could be largely exploited in addition to overcome certain problems. Conducting a systematic analysis of franchise business and development would contribute to this. This paper deals with basic concepts related to the franchise business, features and characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of franchise business, the impact it has on the national economy (US example, and a comparative analysis of the franchise business in Croatia compared to other Central European countries.

  1. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  2. The Franchising Decision: The Perspective Of The Franchisee In The Hospitality Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Diaz-Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Franchising is a major trend in the hotel industry. Despite the fact that almost two-thirds of branded hotels in the U.S. are franchised, there is a lack of empirical research on franchising in the hospitality industry. In this article, I reviewed one of the most relevant lines of research in franchising literature, usually referred as creating franchising systems, and we have concentrated on analyzing the reasons and motivations to use franchising from franchisee perspective within the hospi...

  3. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission seismic safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneally, R.M.; Guzy, D.J.; Murphy, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The seismic safety research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is directed toward improving the evaluation of potential earthquake effects on nuclear power plant operations. The research has been divided into three major program areas: earth sciences, seismic design margins, and fragilities and response. A major thrust of this research is to assess plant behavior for seismic events more severe and less probable than those considered in design. However, there is also research aimed at improving the evaluation of earthquake input and plant response at plant design levels

  4. Regulatory oversight strategy for chemistry program at Canadian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswaran; Ram

    2012-09-01

    Chemistry program is one of the essential programs for the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It helps to ensure the necessary integrity, reliability and availability of plant structures, systems and components important to safety. Additionally, the program plays an important role in asset preservation, limiting radiation exposure and environmental protection. A good chemistry program will minimize corrosion of materials, reduce activation products, minimize of the buildup of radioactive material leading to occupational radiation exposure and it helps limit the release of chemicals and radioactive materials to the environment. The legal basis for the chemistry oversight at Canadian NPPs is established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and its associated regulations. It draws on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's regulatory framework and NPP operating license conditions that include applicable standards such as CAN/CSA N286-05 Management System Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants. This paper focuses on the regulatory oversight strategy used in Canada to assess the performance of chemistry program at the nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensed by CNSC. The strategy consists of a combination of inspection and performance monitoring activities. The activities are further supported from information gathered through staff inspections of cross-cutting areas such as maintenance, corrective-action follow-ups, event reviews and safety related performance indicators. (authors)

  5. The Perspectives of New Franchising Models in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila A. Mikhailova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the article is to define the development perspectives of the new franchising models in Russia (specifically quasifranchising, freedom franchising and branchising. To achieve this the following tusks should be completed: to define the specific characteristics of the following models as well as the factors which influenced their occurrence; to question Russian franchisors in order to understand their desire to develop their business under the new franchising models; to identify the key development possibilities of the new franchising models in Russia based on the gathered data. Methods: the article was prepared with the help of theoretical as well as economic analysis. Moreover, the series of the formalized telephone interviews with the Russian businessmen were conducted by the author. Based on the results gathered the conclusions on the development perspectives of the new franchising models in Russia were drawn. Results: currently new franchising models are conquering the Russian market. In comparison to the classical franchising model new franchising models are riskier for the franchisor due to the certain freedom available to franchisees. Quasifranchising, which is based on the business model transfer without the brand transfer, is suitable for the young concepts and for the franchisors seeking for the increasing number of franchisees. Freedom franchising enabling assortment and outlook variety of the point of contact is a good alternative for the franchisees who struggle for individuality even in the boundaries of the franchise as well as for the franchisors looking for the franchisees of that kind. Finally, branchising, which means franchisor’s and franchisee’s co-investment, is applicable for the franchises with high level of investments needed. Conclusions and Relevance: the materials of the article show the certain place of the new franchising models on the Russian market. They make it possible to adjust the

  6. 47 CFR 76.950 - Complaints regarding cable programming service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cable programming service. The franchise authority may file a complaint with the Commission only upon receipt of more than one subscriber complaint made to the franchise authority within 90 days after the...

  7. Application of principles of quality assurance recommended by ISO 9000 Standards to Regulatory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres; Bilbao Alfonso, Alejandro Victor

    2001-01-01

    For several years, the necessity of applying the programs of quality assurance to the radiation protection activities has been highlighted; however there has been little progress in this direction, even in the philosophical and methodological development of the topic. The objective of this work is to transmit some recommendations of how the Regulatory Authorities of developing countries can organize the quality assurance system of their own activity, following the main precepts of the international standard series ISO 9000. In very tight synthesis it describes the importance that has the definition of a policy of quality for a Regulatory Authority, the quality objectives, the definition of the responsibilities and attributions in relation with quality assurance, and others elements of the ISO 9000, and how to apply it. (author)

  8. US Department of Energy wind turbine candidate site program: the regulatory process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; York, K.R.

    1982-06-01

    Sites selected in 1979 as tentative sites for installation of a demonstration MOD-2 turbine are emphasized. Selection as a candidate site in this program meant that the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the site as eligible for a DOE-purchased and installed meteorological tower. The regulatory procedures involved in the siting and installation of these meteorological towers at the majority of the candidate sites are examined. An attempt is also made, in a preliminary fashion, to identify the legal and regulatory procedures that would be required to put up a turbine at each of these candidate sites. The information provided on each of these sites comes primarily from utility representatives, supplemented by conversations with state and local officials. The major findings are summarized on the following: federal requirements, state requirements, local requirements, land ownership, wind rights, and public attitudes.

  9. Establishing and Scaling-Up Clinical Social Franchise Networks: Lessons Learned From Marie Stopes International and Population Services International

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, Sarah; Chakraborty, Nirali M; Hayes, Brendan; Mackay, Anna; Moon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries, a majority of people seek health care from the private sector. However, fragmentation, poor economies of scale, inadequate financing, political opposition, a bias toward curative services, and weak regulatory and quality control systems pose serious challenges for the private sector. Social franchising addresses a number of these challenges by organizing small, independent health care businesses into quality-assured networks. Global franchisors Marie ...

  10. Modelling a technology push by using hybrid franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, Jan; Pennink, Bartjan; Simaputang, T.; Siswanto, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a technology push to stimulate entrepreneurship in remote areas in developing countries can be examined in the context of a franchising model (social or commercial franchising). The results of this study (fieldwork in Kalimantan, Indonesia) point to a high feasibility of introducing a

  11. Plural Form in Franchising: An Incomplete Contracting Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); T. Jiang (Tao)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPlural form franchising is modeled from an incomplete contracting perspective. Complete franchising is the unique, efficient governance structure only when the plural form externality is limited and the costs of investment are low for both franchisees. Governance structure choice is

  12. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Gikonyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theoretical framework that helps to understand the background of why organizations seek to expand using franchising method and consequently the CSFs of franchised restaurants entering the Kenyan market. The study used qualitative methodology with the use of in-depth interviews for collecting data. The results yielded CSFs from the franchisors’ perspective. As revealed by the study, the CSFs include brand power/concept, competitive environment, government policies, distance management, cultural appeal, excellent selection of franchisees, good site/location selection, good relationship with the franchisees, and proper contract management. These findings can be used by restaurant franchises that seek to establish successful businesses in the Kenyan market and other similar regional markets. The Africa franchise partners may also find some useful information from this article as they seek to set up the Franchise Association of Kenya. Other franchise businesses may also benefit from some aspects of the study.

  13. Seeking New Civilizations: Race Normativity in the "Star Trek" Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Allen

    2007-01-01

    As with many science fiction works, the "Star Trek" franchise uses allegory to address contemporary social issues. Taking a liberal humanistic stance, it addresses race and racism using aliens as allegorical stand-ins for humanity. However, the producers of the "Star Trek" franchise were inadvertently perpetuating the racism they were advocating…

  14. Critical Success Factors for Franchised Restaurants Entering the Kenyan Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Gikonyo; Adele Berndt; Joseph Wadawi

    2015-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, businesses look to expand to have a global presence. Restaurant businesses have expanded internationally using franchising. This study sought to determine the critical success factors (CSFs) of a franchised restaurant system entering the Kenyan market from the franchisors’ perspective. It sought to establish how franchisors define, identify, and evaluate success. This study provides a theor...

  15. Exploring Madoka Magica: Producing Narratives in Japanese Media Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    SIMON ELLIOTT GOUGH

    2018-01-01

    This thesis examines the changing patterns of media production and consumption in the Japanese anime media marketplace. By performing a deep analysis of the Madoka Magica media franchise, this thesis highlights how the franchise demonstrates a particular system of media production within Japan, focused on fostering individual interpretation of its intellectual property.

  16. Working Paper for the Revision of San Francisco's Cable Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Video Task Force.

    Ideas are presented for the revision of San Francisco's cable franchise. The recommendations in the report are based upon national research of library and urban use of cable communications and are designed to help the city's present and future cable franchises to comply with the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission by March 31,…

  17. 27 CFR 11.36 - Termination of franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of franchise. 11.36 Section 11.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... franchise. When an industry member has sold products for cash or credit to one of its wholesalers and the...

  18. Franchising in Post-16 Education. Coombe Lodge Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Geraldine; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This document contains eight papers in which the principals of eight U.S. and British postsecondary institutions describe the franchising negotiations and arrangements into which their schools have entered. Franchising arrangements at a wide variety of postsecondary institutions are discussed, including community colleges, polytechnics, further…

  19. Franchising of health services in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, Dominic

    2002-06-01

    Grouping existing providers under a franchised brand, supported by training, advertising and supplies, is a potentially important way of improving access to and assuring quality of some types of clinical medical services. While franchising has great potential to increase service delivery points and method acceptability, a number of challenges are inherent to the delivery model: controlling the quality of services provided by independent practitioners is difficult, positioning branded services to compete on either price or quality requires trade-offs between social goals and provider satisfaction, and understanding the motivations of clients may lead to organizational choices which do not maximize quality or minimize costs. This paper describes the structure and operation of existing franchises and presents a model of social franchise activities that will afford a context for analyzing choices in the design and implementation of health-related social franchises in developing countries.

  20. Dunkin’ Donuts: Global Expansion Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFor more than 60 years, beginning in 1950, Dunkin’ Donuts was one of the world's leading franchisors of quick service restaurants (QSR). Its franchising model fostered consistent growth and allowed it to open more than 10,000 stores in the US and abroad, selling high quality coffee with fast service and low prices. The company had an ambitious goal to open 15,000 new stores by 2020. While Dunkin’ Donuts was able to achieve enormous success, all QSR restaurants were under pressure ...

  1. Franchising-yrityksen mahdollisuudet erottuvaan markkinointiin

    OpenAIRE

    Koro, Karoliina

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kehittää markkinoinnin keinoja franchising-yrityksen erottumiseen kilpailijoistaan sekä ketjun muista ravintoloista. Toimeksiantaja oli yrittäjä Mirko Pajunen, joka omistaa kaksi Subway-ketjun ravintolaa. Subway on amerikkalaislähtöinen, maailmanlaajuisesti toimiva pikaruokaketju, jonka ravintolat toimivat täsmällisesti alkuperäisen konseptin mukaisesti. Markkinoinnissa liikkumavaraa on annettu niukasti. Ketju on halunnut tehdä ravintoloista tarkoituksella...

  2. Brand Identity, Adaptation, and Media Franchise Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marazi Katerina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the noticeable practices within the field of Adaptation, Adaptation theory seems to be lagging behind whilst perpetuating various fallacies. Geoffrey Wagner’s types of Adaptation and Kamilla Elliott’s proposed concepts for examining adaptations have proved useful but due to their general applicability they seem to perpetuate the fallacies existing within the field of Adaptation. This article will propose a context-specific concept pertaining to Media Franchise Culture for the purpose of examining Adaptations and re-assessing long-held debates concerning the Original, the Content/Form debate and Fidelity issues that cater to the twelve fallacies discussed by Thomas Leitch.

  3. Advertising Fee in Business-Format Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Preyas S. Desai

    1997-01-01

    Most franchisors charge an advertising fee in addition to the better known royalty and franchise fee. We study the role of the advertising fee in improving channel coordination. We begin our analysis with a simple case of one franchisor dealing with two identical franchisees and find that the advertising fee allows the franchisor to commit to a specific level of advertising spending at the time of contract acceptance. We also find that the lump-sum advertising fee is better than the sales-bas...

  4. Connecticut Takes a Cautious First Step in Establishing a Statewide, Interactive, Distance Learning Cable Franchise Operator Interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Jesse John

    Remote education has arrived in Connecticut and is promising to expand, as this discussion of its development, progress, and difficulties demonstrates. In June 1993, state legislation mandated a feasibility study of ways to bring about bidirectional educational programming among Connecticut's 26 cable-franchise operators. Cost allocation for the…

  5. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances, franchise...

  6. Medical program in radiation protection from the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. R.; Gisone, P.; Di Trano, J.L.; Dubner, D.L.; Michelin, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    This program is carried out by the Radio pathology Laboratory, belonging to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The program includes the following aspects: 1) planning and organization of medical response in radiological emergencies. A three-level system of medical assistance has been developed considering: a- determination of each level of care and their potential roles; b- choice of medical facilities for medical assistance; c- preparedness for medical response (equipment s, logistic support, human resources, training). 2) scientific research activities related to radio pathology subjects: a- hematological indicators in radioinduced aplasia; b- biological and biophysical dosimeters; c- radiation effects on the developing brain. 3) edition of practical guidelines for diagnostic and treatment: a- external and internal radioactive contamination; b- acute radiation syndrome; c- radiological burns. 4) medical advising in radioprotection (risk assessment in radiation workers, medical exposures, potential effects of prenatal irradiation). 5) international interactions: activities related with the constitution of a Latin American radio pathology network, linkage with international reference centers. (author) [es

  7. Resolution of regulatory issues facing the DOE in situ vitrification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corathers, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a technology for remediating soils, underground storage tank residuals, and buried materials that have been contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes (i.e., wastes containing both radioactive and hazardous wastes) at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal of the DOE ISV technology development program (i.e., the ISV Integrated Program) is to ensure that ISV is a workable technology for environmental restoration applications for DOE and other agencies. A DOE complex-wide plan was prepared during Fiscal Year 1991 to coordinate all levels of activities associated with the deployment of ISV. As part of this plan, a programmatic regulatory strategy was developed which focused on the federal environmental, health, safety, and nuclear regulations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE regulations, believed to have the most significant near-term impact on the use of ISV as a remediation technology. The portion of the programmatic regulatory strategy addressing compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, as amended, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, is presented in this paper

  8. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  9. NRC review of passive reactor design certification testing programs: Overview and regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Reactor vendors are developing new designs for future deployment, including open-quotes passiveclose quotes light water reactors (LWRs), such as General Electric's (G.E.'s) simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) and Westinghouse's AP600, which depend primarily on inherent processes, such as national convection and gravity feed, for safety injection and emergency core cooling. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has implemented a new process, certification of standardized reactor designs, for licensing these Plants. Part 52 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR52) contains the requirements that vendors must meet for design certification. One important section, 10CFR52.47, reads open-quotes Certification of a standard design which . . . utilizes simplified, inherent, passive, or other innovative means to accomplish its safety functions will be granted only if: (1) The performance of each safety feature of the design has been demonstrated through either analysis, appropriate test programs, experience, or a combination thereof; (2) Interdependent effects among the safety features have been found acceptable by analysis, appropriate test programs, experience, or a combination thereof; and (3) Sufficient data exist on the safety features of the design to assess the analytical tools used for safety analyses. . . . The vendors have initiated programs to test innovative features of their designs and to develop data bases needed to validate their analytical codes, as required by the design certification rule. Accordingly, the NRC is reviewing and evaluating the vendors programs to ensure that they address adequately key issues concerning safety system performance. This paper provides an overview of the NRC's review process and regulatory perspective

  10. Motivation and Career-Development Training Programs: Use of Regulatory Focus to Determine Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Peter J.; Weide, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van…

  11. Review and evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety research program for Fiscal Year 1983. Report to the Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    Public Law 95-209 includes a requirement that the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards submit an annual report to Congress on the safety research program of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report presents the results of the ACRS review and evaluation of the NRC safety research program for Fiscal Year 1983. The report contains a number of comments and recommendations

  12. Franchisees' level of satisfaction with the franchise relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard J Van Wyk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem investigated and objectives: Franchisees often complain that franchisors do not meet their needs, and are generally viewed as being unhappy with the franchise relationship between franchisees and franchisors. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of satisfaction of franchisees with the franchise relationship, including the following elements: franchisee independence, support with the selection of a distribution point, allocation of geographical trading areas, support with the design and layout of distribution points, comprehensive training programmes, the provision of continuous market and product information and operational support, and advertising and financial support, including systems for bookkeeping. Approach: The data represents two groups of the same franchise, namely franchisees operating for two years and less as franchisees and franchisees who have been operating for longer than two years as franchisees. The extent to which these two groups view the relationship elements differently will be examined. Findings: The findings indicate that both groups had a high level of satisfaction with the franchise relationship between franchisees and franchisors, with the exception of identified opportunities, which could be further developed in order to increase the franchisees' level of satisfaction with the franchise relationship between franchisees and franchisors. Conclusion: In view of the results of this research, it was concluded that the franchisees of the selected franchisor in the franchise industry displayed a high level of satisfaction with the franchise relationship between franchisors and franchisees.

  13. The Parametric Evaluation of Competitiveness of the Franchising Tourism Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachuk Tetyana M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying and evaluating competitiveness of the franchising tourism networks by the proposed options with the possibility to define the characteristics of the relevant tourism franchise at the national market of services. The dynamic changes of positions of Ukraine and of the countries-leaders in the ranking of competitiveness of the travel and tourism sector have been analyzed. The actual parameters of an evaluation of competitiveness of the franchising networks, operating at the domestic market of tourism services, have been defined and substantiated. For the implementation of quantitative evaluation of specific parameters, a questionnaire survey along with point rating of 50 tourism franchisee enterprises was conducted. The franchising networks which are leaders at the national tourism market were analyzed and defined. Based on the results obtained by calculations, a parametric model for evaluation of competitiveness of franchising tourism networks has been proposed and the key characteristics of a tourism franchise have been determined. Further researches will focus on the formation of a structured system for increasing the efficiency of interaction between the tourism enterprises in the franchising system and on the basic principles to ensure their competitiveness.

  14. SOCIAL FRANCHISING IN CONTEXT OF MARKETING LONG-TERM AND REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTIVES (LARCS IN UGANDA: ANALYSIS OF PACE SOCIAL FRANCHISE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon SENSALIRE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda is TFR is among the world’s highest at six children per woman, and contributes to the rising rate of poverty and maternal and infant mortality across the country. A social franchise model was adopted in Uganda to market and scale up contraceptive prevalence through the private sector. In 2008 PACE launched the Women’s Health Project, a core component of their reproductive health strategy to increase access to and demand for affordable, quality long‐term Family Planning (FP services, through the setup of a network of private healthcare providers, branded as “ProFam” social franchise health facilities. The program expanded and included services aimed to offer and improve reproductive health services, limiting births through increased use of IUDs and implants as well change negative perceptions to FP. Until 2014, this network consisted of 189 private facilities spread out in 56 districts, following a business model of social franchising. Methods: The multifaceted effect of the social franchise intervention under PACE was then measured through a longitudinal cross sectional survey on perceptions towards Long-Term and Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs use among the target population through a cross-sectional studies over two periods. The studies covered 53 districts hosting 194 privately owned health facilities branded Profam. Multi-stage cluster sampling approaches was used to draw a representative sample of women of reproductive age group. However, for Kampala (capital city, given its population size, the catchment area was restricted to a parish/Ward. Findings: There is an evident rise in current use of FP methods among WRA. Availability of LARCs particularly IUCDs significantly increased over the two time periods. Use of FP services among WRA is a socially sanctioned behavior/practice. There was reported increase in social support for FP services. There were high levels of correct knowledge about FP services and

  15. Is franchising in health care valuable? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Karlijn J; Fabbricotti, Isabelle N; Huijsman, Robbert

    2014-03-01

    Franchising is an organizational form that originates from the business sector. It is increasingly used in the healthcare sector with the aim of enhancing quality and accessibility for patients, improving the efficiency and competitiveness of organizations and/or providing professionals with a supportive working environment. However, a structured overview of the scientific evidence for these claims is absent, whereas such an overview can be supportive to scholars, policy makers and franchise practitioners. This article provides a systematic review of literature on the outcomes of franchising in health care. Seven major databases were systematically searched. Peer-reviewed empirical journal articles focusing on the relationship between franchising and outcomes were included. Eventually, 15 articles were included and their findings were narratively synthesized. The level of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. The review shows that outcomes of franchising in health care have primarily been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries in the reproductive health/family planning sector. Articles about high-income countries are largely absent, apart from three articles evaluating pharmacy franchises. Most studies focus on outcomes for customers/clients and less on organizations and professionals. The evidence is primarily of low quality. Based on this evidence, franchising is predominantly positively associated with client volumes, physical accessibility and some types of quality. Findings regarding utilization, customer loyalty, efficiency and results for providers are mixed. We conclude that franchising has the potential to improve outcomes in healthcare practices, but the evidence base is yet too weak for firm conclusions. Extensive research is needed to further determine the value of healthcare franchising in various contexts. We advocate more research in other healthcare sectors in both low- and

  16. FRANCHISING AS A GROWTH STRATEGY. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways in which businesses can growth. Aim of this article is to make the business owner aware of the scope of the franchise and business opportunity law and how they may affect growth strategy tried to be employed by the business owner. For this purpose we present a list of advantages and disadvantages of franchising for the franchisee and for the franchisor and examined the status and trends of the Romanian market franchise, especially in clothing, which are available for prospective franchisees in Romania. We find out that although it is increasing its level of development is much lower than in EU, (according to Romanian Franchise Association in Romania are slightly over 400 franchises, with various business fields, while in the Europe there are about 10,000 franchise networks. Reasons for slower development of the textile franchise business in Romania can be found in the effects of economic crisis on the Romanian economy, which shifted the structure the consumer spending of the people of Romania, expenditures for clothing and footwear have decreased and have reached at 5.3% of total household expenditure. In these conditions, the clothing franchises who had suffered most in Romania were those whose offer to address at high-income consumers (Escada, Esprit, Etam and medium (Debenhams, Gap. Less affected were franchises for which targets are low-income consumers and who besides the low price of products offers a wide range of products and models with a very short life cycle (fast fashion. The information for this paper was gathered from literature, from the analysis financial indicators of the different companies and by Internet

  17. Contribution of franchise research to entrepreneurship: a review and new opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Larty, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between franchising and entrepreneurship. The paper begins with a review of studies on franchising in leading entrepreneurship and management journals over a 12 year period. It illustrates how although the franchisor, franchise and the franchise organization are important elements of entrepreneurship, there has been only a tenuous link in the contribution of studies in franchising to entrepreneurship theorising and vice versa. The paper suggests fruitful n...

  18. MICRO FRANCHISING AS A TOOL FOR INCREASING SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS: CROATIAN EXAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Kukec; Aleksandar Erceg

    2017-01-01

    Franchising has been present in the global economy in its current format for more than a hundred years. Companies have used franchising for growing their business and geographical expansion by bridging the distance in partnership with local entrepreneurs. Micro franchising provides a proven business model and a chance for self-employment by exploiting all advantages of franchising on a far smaller scale than traditional franchising. This model also helps potential entrepreneurs with low incom...

  19. The Impact of The Iowa Franchise Law on Restaurant Franchisor Expansion Strategy: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Angela L. M.

    1997-01-01

    The enormous success of franchising as an expansion instrument has resulted in a franchising boom over the past few decades. In response to the success of franchising as a business expansion method and the subsequent complaints by unsuccessful or defrauded franchisees, legislation was enacted at the federal and state level to attempt to prevent franchisor abuses. The 1992 Iowa Franchise Law has been called the most controversial and restrictive pieces of franchise legislation in recent memory...

  20. The Main Directions in Comparative Franchising Regulation – Unidroit Initiative and its Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Milenkovic KERKOVIC

    2010-01-01

    Franchising is a growing and overspread business activity but its legal aspects create many potential difficulties for those intended to oblige themselves in legal relationship of franchising agreement. The legal problems in franchising arise not only because of the numerous controversies which are immanent to the franchising agreements but because franchising is not one type of agreement; it is a rather a concept which covers a number of different types of contracts in various aspects of bus...

  1. IMPLEMENTING FRANCHISING INTO A BUSINESS. : Based on my own business plan.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyzaniak, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to successfully implement a business system based on franchising into the author's own business. The thesis will provide information about the actual busi-ness plan, theoretical and practical investigation on how franchising would efficiently work in the Finnish market, basic principles of cooperation on a franchise basis, categories of fran-chising (in general and in cooperation with the author's business plan), advantages and dis-advantages of having franchising as ...

  2. Franchising jako metoda vstupu na zahraniční trh

    OpenAIRE

    Vágnerová, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entering a foreign market. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The first part is focused on the history of franchising, advantages and disadvantages connected with this kind of enterprise, franchise treaty and the development of franchising in the Czech Republic. The practical part describes two fitness franchise chains, the companies Expreska and Contours.

  3. Franchising- možná forma spolupráce

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalská, Jana

    2009-01-01

    The work provides the basic knowledge and principles of operation of the franchise business methods. In theory explains the path which leads to a formation of franchise system, from creation of conception to signing of franchise contract. The introduction captures dedicate to development of franchising from the very beginning, explains the basic concepts and the nature of franchise, advantages and disadvantages that brings stakeholders and briefly describes the legal environment in Czech repu...

  4. Economic sustainability in franchising: a model to predict franchisor success or failure

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Monge, Esther; Pastor Sanz, Ivan .; Huerta Zavala, Pilar Angélica

    2017-01-01

    As a business model, franchising makes a major contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). A model that predicts franchisor success or failure is therefore necessary to ensure economic sustainability. In this study, such a model was developed by applying Lasso regression to a sample of franchises operating between 2002 and 2013. For franchises with the highest likelihood of survival, the franchise fees and the ratio of company-owned to franchised outlets were suited to the age ...

  5. Motivation and career-development training programs: Use of regulatory focus to determine program effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to focus on the relationship between career-development training programs and the motivation of employees. The study used a qualitative method and a phenomenological design using semistructured interviews conducted with a script of open-ended questions. Two main components of the research design were the modified van Kaam method for exploration of experiences and the purposive selection of the participants. The 20 participants in the sample were project managers and consultants from south-central Texas, all of whom had experience with governmental projects. Based on interview responses, the findings of this study highlighted a concern from the participants that training programs have a major influence on workplace productivity and morale. Furthermore, the findings suggest the training program’s quality may influence workplace productivity. The authors conclude by pointing out the analysis of the answers showed that not only does workplace productivity decline from the changes in a training program, but employee motivation is altered as well. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i2.214 

  6. The Dynamics of Franchise Contracting: Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Lafontaine; Kathryn L. Shaw

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we model the determinants of franchise contract terms, namely royalty rates and franchise fees, using a unique panel data set of about 1000 franchisors for the period 1980-1992. We focus on the extent to which firms adjust the terms of their contracts as they become better established, and find that adjustment is relatively infrequent and that firms do not systematically raise or lower their royalty rates or franchise fees when they do adjust them. These results tend to refute ...

  7. Model franchise agreements with public utilities. Musterkonzessionsvertraege mit Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menking, C. (Niedersaechsischer Staedte- und Gemeindebund, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, the Committee of Town and Community Administrations of Lower Saxonia established the task force 'Franchise Agreements'. This is a forum where town and community officials interested in energy issues cooperate. The idea was to improve conditions and participation possibilities for local administrations in contracts with their present utilities, and to draw up, and coordinate with the utilities, a franchise agreement creating possibilities for the communities, inter alia, in the sectors power supply concept, advising on energy conservation, energy generation. A model of a franchise agreement for the electricity sector is presented in its full wording. (orig./HSCH).

  8. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  9. Franchising as a Form of Market Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Říhová, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis will discuss franchising as a business model. The structure of this thesis is the following; firstly I describe franchising and its context and secondly I apply the theory on the company Dancing Crackers. The purpose of this thesis is to line up steps and prepare a plan for the realisation of a franchise project. I start with the more general perspective and then move on to the practical aspect of the thesis. Based on the lined up steps which were applied to the company D...

  10. ANALISIS SISTEM PENETAPAN FRANCHISE FEE DAN ROYALTY FEE PADA FRANCHISE BRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Darmawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pada saat ini bisnis franchise atau waralaba di indonesia, semakin menjamur dan banyak diminati oleh masyarakat untuk mencari peluang baru, dari mulai waralaba lokal seperti Ayam bakar Wong Solo, Es Teller 77, Burger Mr.Edam,Alfa Mart, Indomart dan lain-lain. Sampai waralaba mancanegarapun semakin banyak diminati seperti KFC, Mc.Donalds, Hoka-Hoka Bento, Starbuck Coffiee dan lain sebagainya.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v2i1.2472

  11. Master Franchising as Foreign Entry Mode: Evidences from the Spanish Franchise System

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Baena

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may constrain entry mode choice into Middle East nations. Specifically, this paper focuses on master franchising and analyzes the determining factors in this entry mode decision. A quantitative approach was applied to a sample of Spanish franchisors operating through 96 franchisee outlets across 6 Middle East countries in January 2010. They are Bahrain, Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. Findings show th...

  12. Analisis Sistem Penetapan Franchise Fee dan Royalty Fee pada Franchise Brc

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan, Walid

    2010-01-01

    Pada saat ini bisnis franchise atau waralaba di indonesia, semakin menjamur dan banyak diminati oleh masyarakat untuk mencari peluang baru, dari mulai waralaba lokal seperti Ayam bakar Wong Solo, Es Teller 77, Burger Mr.Edam,Alfa Mart, Indomart dan lain-lain. Sampai waralaba mancanegarapun semakin banyak diminati seperti KFC, Mc.Donalds, Hoka-Hoka Bento, Starbuck Coffiee dan lain sebagainya.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v2i1.2472

  13. European franchise expansion into Latin America. Evidences from the Spanish franchise system

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion. In this sense, it is worth mentioning that although the body of literature on international management focusing on emerging markets is growing, the attention paid to the Latin American context continues to be limited. This is surprising given the substantive economic importance of the region with a population over 590 million, and a gross domestic product of approximately US$5 trillion. To cover...

  14. Recent developments in the Clean Water Act: Section 404 regulatory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsch, T. (EPA, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Since the late 1970's and the 1980's, the Nation has become increasingly aware of the vital role wetlands play in providing habitat, protecting us from flooding and maintaining surface water quality. This public awakening came at the same time that the Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory published reports indicating that less than one half of the wetlands that existed when the Europeans came to the US remain. The reports also indicated that the US was continuing to lose approximately 450,000 acres of our wetlands per year. Although recent data updating the status and trends of wetland losses for the 1980's indicate that the rate of loss has decreased, the Fish and Wildlife Service estimates indicate that approximately 290,000 acres of wetlands are still lost each year. Any loss in the natural functions provided by wetlands is not just felt in the environment; we simultaneously sustain, as a loss to our national economy, a decline in the income that could have been derived from the fisheries, recreation and other critical services performed by wetland systems. Clearly wetlands merit protection. However, in the US, where over 75 percent of our remaining wetlands are on private property, the protection of wetlands is often a difficult and sometimes contentious issue -- evoking debate about private property rights, economic development, the public interest in protecting wetland values, and the kind of world we wish to leave for future generations. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act establishes the primary Federal regulatory program providing protection for the Nation's remaining wetlands. The Section 404 permit program is recognized by both its supporters and critics as one of the strongest, yet often most contentious, Federal environmental protection programs. This presentation provides an overview of the Section 404 regulatory requirements and discusses some of the recent developments that have stirred considerable

  15. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Factual Update: Insurance Sector Market and Regulatory Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a factual update of the Insurance Core Principles including insurance sector market and regulatory developments for Switzerland. Regulatory reforms since 2003 have updated Switzerland’s regulatory and supervisory regime for the insurance industry to bring it in line with international best practices. The Insurance Supervision Law (ISL) has reoriented the regulatory focus and expanded the regulatory scope to include group/conglomerate supervision, corporate governance, risk...

  16. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  17. Franchising versus yksityisyrittäjyys

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä käydään läpi franchising-yrittäjyyteen sekä yksityisyrittäjyyteen liittyviä vahvuuksia, heikkouksia, mahdollisuuksia sekä riskejä. Työssä verrataan kahta eri yritysmuotoa ja niiden soveltuvuutta alkavalle yrittäjälle. Opinnäytetyön alussa avataan työssä toistuvat käsitteet ja jäsennetään työn eteneminen. Opinnäytetyön teoriaosuus koostuu franchisingin ja yksityisyrittäjyyden perustamisesta, haasteista, historiasta, lopettamisesta sekä markkinoinnista. Työ on tehty ravinto...

  18. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BAGI PARA PIHAK DALAM PERJANJIAN FRANCHISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry D Sitompul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available  Sistem yang sedang popular dan cenderung diminati oleh wirausahawan adalah cara berbisnis menngunakan sistem franchise atau yang lebih dikenal dengan pemberian waralaba. Sistem franchise sebagai model pengembangan kemitraan bisnis telah membuktikan keberadaannya dalam perekonomian nasional karena menawarkan segudang peluang yang sangat besar kepada calon wirausahawan untuk memiliki dan mengembangkan usahanya dengan rasio keberhasilan yang tinggi. Kepastian hukum di dalam menerapkan sistem franchise di Indonesia adalah sebagai salah satu cara untuk memajukan bisnis wirausahawan merupakan hal yang mutlak, oleh karena itu segala hal mengenai konsep, format, proses dan produk franchise tidak boleh luput atau terlepas dari aturan-aturan serta hukum yang berlaku di Indonesia. Sebelum dikeluarkannya PP Nomor 16 Tahun 1997. Selanjutnya untuk melaksanakan pendaftaran pada tanggal 30 Juli 1997 Menteri Perindustrian dan perdagangan telah mengeluarkan Kepmenperindag Nomor 259/MPP/Kep/7/1997 tentang Ketentuan dan Tata Cara Pendaftaran Waralaba. 

  19. Franchising-yrittäjyys ja sen mahdollisuudet Lapissa

    OpenAIRE

    Mukku, Veera; Heikkilä, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyömme aiheena on franchising-yrittäjyys ja sen mahdollisuudet Lapissa. Työn tavoitteena on esitellä franchising-yrittäjyyden teoriaperusta, yrittäjyyden riskejä ja niiden hallintaa, esitellä pohjoista toimintaympäristöä sekä pohtia franchising-yrittäjyyden tulevaisuudennäkymiä. Työssä on teoriaosuus, joka käsittää tiedot franchising-yrittäjyyden perustasta, yrittäjyyden riskeistä sekä niiden hallinnasta. Teoriaosuus käsittää myös esittelyn Lapista toimintaympäristönä sekä esittel...

  20. Franchise as a Way to Organize Travel Industry in Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daut V. Adzhba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution states the franchise system importance amid the financial crisis, which can be regarded as one of the ways to overcome crisis situations and develop tourism industry in Abkhazia.

  1. Eshetu Yadeta Temesgen Abstract In franchise business the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protect the franchisee from the information asymmetry and financial and technical power of ..... like China, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, ... Markets State Franchise Laws, Dealer Terminations, and the Auto Crisis.

  2. Franchising partnerships for roads engineering infrastructure operation and maintenance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation delivered at the 27th SATC (Southern African Transport Conference) conference 2008, focusing on franchising principles and applying these principles to water services infrastructure, operation and maintenance...

  3. A Word to the Wise: Study That Franchise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtenburg, Ben

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that in deciding what should be written into the franchise of cable television and to whom it should be given, local groups can have their first and perhaps greatest influence over the way cable will affect their community. (JM)

  4. Identifying Strategic Groups: An Assessment in Mexican Franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesario Armando Flores Villanueva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of strategic groups in the franchising sector has been previously documented in the context of different countries. Our proposal is the franchise industry in Mexico should be formed by groups of differentiated franchisors. The identification and analysis of the different strategic groups formed in the franchise system of the Mexican market is the objective of this research. Our evaluation was performed using the factor analysis technique in a sample of 167 franchises of national origin. Seven strategic dimensions supported by the theory of scarce resources and agency theory make up the existence of differentiated groups of franchisors in the Mexican market. Our research confirmed the identification of five strategic groups called: rapid growth, converters, experienced and international franchisors, high entry fees and expensive conservatives, which use differentiated strategies to compete in the Mexican market.

  5. Franchise Agreements and Clean Energy: Issues in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates the impact on energy efficiency of municipal franchise agreements that supply electricity or gas service without a direct charge (unbilled energy) for certain municipal government facilities in Illinois.)

  6. High-level waste program management: A ratepayers' and regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The nation's electric utility regulators have joined the effort to enhance the federal project to dispose of high-level nuclear waste. Because all financial support comes from ratepayers, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC), through the mechanism of a subcommittee, seeks to investigate and monitor the federal program to provide to the Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) the NARUC's unique expertise. Its views to enhance program management and improve cost control are its central contribution. While conveying no lack of confidence in the federal management, the NARUC is imparting its relevant experience derived from review of nuclear power plant construction and cost control. Recommendations are made for more cost-effective program direction and views on its management are given. Financial control, public input and cost responsibilities for disposal of defense and commercial wastes are separately identified. Needs for the DOE's heightened insight into and development of the monitored retrievable storage proposal to the Congress are described. Finally, with a warning that there exists a limit to ratepayer funding of this effort, the request is made for Congressional cost-control hearings and for expanded dialogue between the Department of Engery and financially responsible parties

  7. What does it require to open a franchising clothing business?

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Heidi-Helena; Pikarinen, Helmi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out how to open a franchising clothing business in Finland and what is required from the new franchisee. The goal of this thesis work was to make preparation work for a potential future business. This thesis was to find out the possibility if a franchising business could be a possible future career for the authors. The information for this thesis was gathered from literature, the Internet and by interviewing the franchisees and franchisors from differe...

  8. Franchising as the model of internationalisation of retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov-Mladenović, Svetlana; Ćuzović, Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is a system that can be applied in many sectors of the economy. In recent years, it has become a major driving force in the process of internationalisation of the service sector, especially in retailing. Retail chains are increasingly using franchising in the process of expanding their operations on the domestic as well as the international market. The issue of expansion of retail chains to international markets attracted the attention of theoreticians and practitioners in the lat...

  9. Franchise Business as a Generator of Development in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Baresa; Zoran Ivanovic; Sinisa Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The franchise in the global marketplace enables many globally known brands. With its business concept, it enables integration, learning and acceptance of various cultural, historical, religious and other customs and habits. Consumers prefer a proven and expected standard product quality and services, no matter where they are, they expect and want the same quality provided by franchise companies (shops, restaurants, hotels, and others) of well-known brands in different places. It c...

  10. How market environment may constrain global franchising in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2011-01-01

    Although emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world and represent countries that are experiencing a substantial economic transformation, little is known about the factors influencing country selection for expansion in those markets. In an attempt to enhance the knowledge that managers and scholars have on franchising expansion, the present study examines how market conditions may constrain international diffusion of franchising in emerging markets. They are: i) ge...

  11. Starting a food Franchise in Finland, Case: Koti Pizza

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Food industry is the fastest growing business sector around the world. Consequently, the demand of different kinds of food is growing rapidly. Food franchisors companies are taking advantages of this demand and they are doing very well. As food franchising industry is developing day by day, it can be a great choice for entrepreneurs for their next business idea. This thesis is a concise idea of franchise business forms, its advantages and disadvantages, entrepreneurial qualities and requireme...

  12. Heuristic Evaluation of Optical and Optometry Franchise Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Martínez Martínez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the degree of quality, stated in terms of interactivity and usability, of websites from Spanish franchises in the field of Optics and Optometry. For this purpose, all the existing bibliography was checked and the concept of interactivity and usability in websites was also defined. Besides, a series of indicators (Nielsen were chosen which enabled us to set up parameters to measure the level of interactivity. The objective public for the franchise company was outlined and hence the analysis of websites of companies from the Optical and Optometry sector was carried out. The techniques of analysis used were those which limit observation to a single moment in time with the aim of describing the present situation. The objective was to determine whether the websites are being designed, and therefore used, as corporate catalogues or else, they favour the participation of possible users (customers, current franchisers and potential franchise-holders thus establishing a feed-back process by means of which the addressees play an active role. As a final conclusion, the hypothesis of the research is corroborated and it can be stated that websites of franchises from the Optical and Optometry sector are not designed offering a high degree in interactivity and accesibility in communication through the Internet with their different objective publics. The possible advantages of the Internet are wasted by a low level of interaction. Our research team is in favour of a higher interactivity level which corresponds to that in which a marketing and communication strategy of the franchise may offer added value to the brand and could let the contributions of customers, franchisers and potential franchise holders be taken into account.

  13. A Strategic Analysis of a Vegetarian Quick-Service Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential success rate of Lean, a vegetarian quick-service restaurant franchise currently in its infancy, in both the local Vancouver market where Lean is attempting to launch, as well as assess the potential growth opportunities for franchise locations. The industry analysis done on the foodservice industry indicates that it is a competitive industry that is highly saturated with many players. It also indicates that Lean is attempting to undertake ...

  14. Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist; Laurent L. Jacque

    1995-01-01

    What determines a service firm's organizational choice between equity-based control and franchising? This question, which has elicited some theoretical answers and a few empirical tests in a domestic setting, has never been addressed in an international context before. This study explains the mode of control chosen in terms of a theoretical framework which borrows from agency theory and transaction cost analysis. The propensity to franchise internationally was found to be directly related to ...

  15. Franchisees' level of satisfaction with the franchise relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard J Van Wyk; Johan W. De Jager

    2009-01-01

    Problem investigated and objectives: Franchisees often complain that franchisors do not meet their needs, and are generally viewed as being unhappy with the franchise relationship between franchisees and franchisors. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of satisfaction of franchisees with the franchise relationship, including the following elements: franchisee independence, support with the selection of a distribution point, allocation of geographical trading areas, support ...

  16. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants.This paper introduces the development of this pilot project,including the foundation,purpose,objects,demands and procedures.It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation,involving the understanding,legislation,financing,taxation,pricing and management of franchise.At...

  17. Marketing strategies in the internationalization process of Brazilian franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Maria Adriana de A. P.; Rocha, Thelma Valéria; Silva, Susana Costa e

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aimed to analyze the influence of marketing strategies on the internationalization process of Brazilian franchises. The objective was to identify the marketing strategies used by Brazilian franchises during different stages of their internationalization processes and to analyze these strategies according to the Global Marketing Strategy (GMS). Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopted a qualitative research methodology based on three case studie...

  18. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    OpenAIRE

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-01-01

    Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which ...

  19. Franchising as a tool for sustainable regional development

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor I. Korsak

    2014-01-01

    One of the instruments of regional management of retail trade networks on this stage of development in the world economy, in our opinion, there is franchising. Actuality of his implantation in a regional economy consists in that franchising can execute the row of such important functions, as development of regional enterprise, creation of workplaces, increase of tax payment in local budgets, stimulation of development of regional producers, including of various industries to the economic clus...

  20. Dinamika Baru Pemilihan Lokasi Bagi Perusahaan Ritel Sistem Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Sujadi, Sujadi

    2010-01-01

    For retail companies for expansion of the franchise system is a must to be done. For that companies need an appropriate strategy to support the opening of new outlets. Strategies that can be done in addition to site selection strategy is qualitati1'ely Flexible manufacturing system (FMS, Just-In-Time (JIT) and total quality management ( TQM). Kata Kunci : Perusahaan Ritel, Sistem Franchise, FMS, JIT, TQM

  1. Deja vu all over again? Rail franchising in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress of passenger rail franchising in Britain since the mid-1990s, building on earlier contributions to the Thredbo Conferences and identifies five main phases. A welfare assessment suggests that the reforms were mildly welfare positive up to the middle of the third phase, but some concerning trends have emerged, not least the spiralling transaction costs associated with franchise bids and the apparent prevalence of strategic bidding. The problems that emerged, and ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Alpeza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the first phase of which was conducted in 2006, and second in 2014. The overall results of this research were presented in a form of PEST analysis and compared with the results of the 2006 research aiming to detect changes (improvements/ deterioration in individual areas of the research political, economic, legal and technologic factors of influence on the development of franchising in Croatia. Based on the detected changes, conclusions and policy recommendations were identified.The obstacles can be divided in two categories: franchising specific barriers and general business related obstacles for doing business in Croatia. Without removing most of these obstacles, it is unrealistic to expect high growth of franchising activities in Croatia in near future.

  3. The importance of innovations for the development of franchising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's global competitive business environment, innovations are crucial for the success of the company. It is necessary to emphasize the importance of understanding wishes and needs of consumers and an innovative manner in which their needs can be met more efficiently in comparison to competition. Franchising is, certainly, one of the business concepts that is difficult to associate with innovation, as it presents the use of a proven business model. At the global level, there is a constant tendency in the development of existing and new franchise systems. In this regard, the paper points out the importance of innovation for the development and improvement of the franchise systems. The phenomenon of open innovation is increasingly important in recent years. The paper highlights the importance of open innovation as the best way to innovate the franchising company's business through the adoption of ideas from the external environment and the exchange of internally created ideas. The model of open innovation involves the integration of customers, suppliers and franchisees in the new product development process. The open strategy of new product development is very important for franchising companies that want to be leaders. The paper reviews the development perspectives of open innovation in franchising systems in the future.

  4. 76 FR 72220 - Incorporation of Risk Management Concepts in Regulatory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... actions? 4. What are the key characteristics for a holistic risk management regulatory structure for... accomplishing the goal of a holistic risk management regulatory structure? How could these challenges be... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0269] Incorporation of Risk Management Concepts in...

  5. PRATIQUES DE CONTROLE TOUT AU LONG DE LA RELATION DE FRANCHISE : UNE DOUBLE ENQUETE FRANCHISEUR-FRANCHISE

    OpenAIRE

    Goullet , Catherine

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This communication proposes a study of the control in the service franchising networks throughout the franchisors-franchisees relationship. From an interview-based exploratory research previously realized, a franchising network control model was proposed. An empirical research from the dyad franchisors - franchisees presents a descriptive analysis of the control system and tests on the evolution of these practices all to the life cycle of the relation. The results show...

  6. Implementing 'Continuous Improvement' in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D. A.; Buckley, J. T.; Johnson, R. L.; Gillen, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (US NRC's) comprehensive decommissioning program encompasses the decommissioning of all US NRC licensed facilities, ranging from the termination of routine licenses for sealed sources, to the closure of complex materials sites and nuclear power reactor facilities. Of the approximately 200 materials licenses that are terminated each year, most are routine and require little, if any, remediation to meet the US NRC unrestricted release criteria. However, some present technical and policy challenges that require large expenditures of resources, including a few complex materials sites that have requested license termination under the restricted-use provisions of 10 CFR 20.1403. Fiscal constraints to reduce budgeted resources in the decommissioning program, as well as concerns over the time to complete the decommissioning process have led to actions to improve the program and use resources more efficiently. In addition, the US NRC's Strategic Plan requires efforts to identify and implement improvements to US NRC programs in order to improve efficiency, effectiveness, timeliness, and openness, of the US NRC's activities, while maintaining the necessary focus on safety. Decommissioning regulations, and more recently the analysis of several issues associated with implementing those regulations, also have been significant catalysts for improvements in the decommissioning program. Actions in response to these catalysts have resulted in a program focused on the management of complex sites in a comprehensive, consistent, and risk-informed manner, as opposed to the past practice of focusing on sites deemed to be problematic. This paper describes the current status of the decommissioning of US NRC-licensed nuclear facilities, including an overview of recent decommissioning project completion efforts. It provides a detailed summary of past, current, and future improvements in the US NRC decommissioning program including the

  7. UPDATING RUSSIAN FRANCHISING LEGISLATIVE CONTROL IN SERVICE SECTORS WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kolinchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient use of franchising is one of the major factors hampering the development of services in Russia. Main problems of franchising in Russia concentrate currently in the legislative and legal spheres. There is no specific law on franchising in the domestic legislation system. Russia is substantially behind the U.S. and Europe, so far as laws and operating practices related to franchising are concerned. Urgent adjustments are needed for current legislation in Russia, first of all to bring it in line with accepted standards of franchising in the West, particularly relating to theprotection of franchisers and franchisee.

  8. Overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Adam, J.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental impacts from Table S-3 of 10 CFR Part 51 are included in individual environmental impact statements for LWR's. In response to a U.S. Court of Appeals finding of inadequate documentation to support Table S-3, ''Environmental Survey of Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116) and ''Public Comments and Task Force Responses Regarding Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0216) were published. As a result of these in-house studies, an interim rule revising Table S-3 has been published. These documents include discussions of shallow land burial of low-level waste, past experiences and sensitivity calculations estimating potential dose commitments from the groundwater migration of the wastes. An NRC task force report (NUREG-0217) examining the Federal and Agreement State programs for regulating commercial low-level waste disposal recommends increasing the federal role in low-level waste disposal. The need to investigate alternatives to shallow land burial is identified. The NRC is developing a radioactive waste management program which includes a plan for the implementation of the task force recommendations, the development of environmental impacts for low-level waste disposal, development of standards and criteria, and the establishment of a regulatory framework and licensing procedures for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

  9. Humanitarian Use Device and Humanitarian Device Exemption regulatory programs: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernad, Daniel Maxwell

    2009-03-01

    The US FDA established the Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) and Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) program to encourage medical device firms to address rare diseases. Despite being in existence for over a decade, there has only been one peer-reviewed publication examining this field. The objective of this report is to investigate how the HUD/HDE program differs from the standard regulatory system, discuss its potential advantages and disadvantages, and to speculate which humanitarian devices will be brought to market within the next 5 years. A total of 40 semistructured interviews with stakeholders, representing approximately half (n = 20, 49%) of the firms that have successfully obtained HDE-approved products, were performed in order to acquire the primary data for this paper. There appear to be short-term gains and long-term drains associated with launching humanitarian devices to market. This report aims to provide sponsors with information that may allow them to make better decisions during their product development of humanitarian devices and may, hopefully, also play a role in encouraging other sponsors to take the necessary steps forward in helping to find treatments for patients with rare diseases.

  10. Regulatory activities related with the modification of the frequency of the programmed stoppings of the Argentine nuclear centrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, E.; Calvo, J.; Waldman, R.; Navarro, R.

    2006-01-01

    The mandatory character documentation of the Argentinean nuclear power stations in Embalse and Atucha I, required the realization of a programmed stoppings every twelve months to execute that settled down in the maintenance and surveillance programs for each installation. Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A., in it character of Responsible Entity of the operation of these power stations, requested to the Argentinean Nuclear Regulatory Authority, in 2003 and 2005 respectively, the authorization to change the period of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance of the systems related with the safety, to extend them from twelve to eighteen months. The mentioned applications were founded in economic aspects and in inclining to a decrease in the doses of the workers that perform in the activities that are carried out in the programmed stops. The adopted position by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority to decide on these applications was based on the result of diverse evaluations that included the use of the Probabilistic Analysis of Safety specific of each power station, the operative experience resultant of the execution of the preventive maintenance program, and of the results of the repetitive tests and of the inspections in service. The regulatory decisions were different in each case. Indeed, the Embalse nuclear power station was authorized by the Regulatory Authority to modify from twelve to eighteen months the period among the realization of the repetitive tests and of the preventive maintenance, conditioned to the execution of some specific regulatory requirements. On the other hand, the Atucha I nuclear power station was not authorized to modify this period. In this presentation that is detailed the acted by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in both cases, the used analysis tools, and the foundation of the adopted decisions. (Author)

  11. Services Marketing Mix of Foreign Coffee Franchiser in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Kombenjamas, Warangkana; Lertrattananon, Nuchanart

    2011-01-01

                                                                           Abstract Title:                     Services Marketing Mix of Foreign Coffee Franchiser in Bangkok Program:               International Marketing Authors:                Miss Warangkana Kombenjamas (19801029)                             Miss Nuchanart Lertrattananon (19870818) Supervisor:            Jean-Charles Languilaire Examiner:              Ole Liljefors Final Seminar:        30/5/2011 Research Question: How services...

  12. Comparative analysis of the development of franchising in Serbia and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of franchising as a business model is of great importance for the further development of this concept. At the global level, there is a constant tendency of development of existing and new franchise systems. This area is still unexplored in Serbia. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of franchising on the global level and the need for more intensive development in Serbia, based on a comparative analysis of development of this concept in Serbia and worldwide. The paper presents the development of franchising as a business concept in the modern economy, with special focus on fundamental characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of franchising systems. Analysis of the franchise worldwide and in Serbia indicates that franchising is still insufficiently regulated by the law in Serbia. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the best known franchise systems in the developed market economies and Serbia, we start from the representative examples of franchise concepts in the United States, Great Britain and Serbia. The paper indicates that a small number of domestic franchise is internationalized, based on a review of selected franchise systems and the presence of foreign franchises in Serbia and Serbian franchise all over the world.

  13. Social franchising for community owned renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, K. [Community Renewable Energy, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    In some European Union (EU) States community owned renewable projects have made a major contribution to the development of renewables as a whole, and this project wishes to build on their success. Other states have yet to establish relatively significant community renewable sectors. Community Renewable Energy (CoRE) has developed a new social enterprise franchise model to accelerate the take-up of renewable energy technologies across the EU. The model focuses on the three difficulties faced by communities wishing to develop renewable energy in a globalized and deregulated energy market. CoRE provides support in the forms of time, money and expertise, as a central function, to a federated or cooperative membership. In return CoRE takes a share of profits from each community project that it works with to cover its running costs, work with more communities and develop financial mechanisms to fund futher projects. The plan is to set up CoRE Europe to enable communities to become part of a decentralized energy network and share resources and knowledge. It will add to community sustainability and resilience, develop and support a range of other community benefits, for example: job creation, tackling fuel poverty and empowering communities in meeting the climate change challenge.

  14. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-09-27

    From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were "additional users" of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. © Bellows et al.

  15. Increasing Contraceptive Access for Hard-to-Reach Populations With Vouchers and Social Franchising in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Benjamin; Mackay, Anna; Dingle, Antonia; Tuyiragize, Richard; Nnyombi, William; Dasgupta, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT From 2001 to 2011, modern contraceptive prevalence in Uganda increased from 18% to 26%. However, modern method use, in particular use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs), remained low. In the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, only 1 of 5 married women used a LARC or PM even though 34% indicated an unmet need for contraception. Between 2011 and 2014, a social franchise and family planning voucher program, supporting 400 private facilities to provide family planning counseling and broaden contraceptive choice by adding LARCs and PMs to the service mix, offered a voucher to enable poor women to access family planning services at franchised facilities. This study analyzes service trends and voucher client demographics and estimates the contribution of the program to increasing contraceptive prevalence in Uganda, using the Impact 2 model developed by Marie Stopes International. Between March 2011 and December 2014, 330,826 women received a family planning service using the voucher, of which 70% of voucher clients chose an implant and 25% chose an intrauterine device. The median age of voucher users was 28 years; 79% had no education or only a primary education; and 48% reported they were unemployed or a housewife. We estimated that by 2014, 280,000 of the approximately 8,600,000 women of reproductive age in Uganda were using a contraceptive method provided by the program and that 120,000 of the clients were “additional users” of contraception, contributing 1.4 percentage points to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate. The combination of family planning vouchers and a franchise-based quality improvement initiative can leverage existing private health infrastructure to substantially expand family planning access and choice for disadvantaged populations and potentially improve contraceptive prevalence when scaled nationally. PMID:28963175

  16. Water services and franchising partnership principles flowing together for improved delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa studies have found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training...

  17. Piloting franchising O&/M partnerships: connecting unrelated concepts, to create something innovative

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships, using the basic principles of franchising, could address many challenges in the operation and/or maintenance of water services. Franchising provides appropriate training to people at services sites, and also offers backup off...

  18. Franchising O&M water services infrastructure in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available South African research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers...

  19. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which allows generalizing and organizing the research data and calculations of the previous stages of the analysis. The most important criteria and sequence of the selection of the potential franchisees for the franchise retail network have been identified, the technique for their evaluation has been proposed. The use of the suggested methodological approaches will allow the franchiser making sound decisions on the selection of potential target markets, minimizing expenditures of time and efforts on the selection of franchisees and hence optimizing the process of development of the franchise retail network, which will contribute to the formation of its structure.

  20. SOCIAL FRANCHISING AND SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING: A QUALITATIVEANALYSIS OFFACILITATORS’PERCEPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Schalkwyk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Franchising, a business concept that originated in the United States of America (USA, is asystem of doing business via contracts through which the franchiser shares a system ofknowledge, intellectual property and trade secrets in return for fees and royalties. Socialfranchising, on the other hand, utilises the same principles and format to achieve socialbenefits. Social franchising has been associated with, among others, the health services andeducation. Health services such as Marie Stopes International make use of social franchisingto increase their services by engaging existing private providers to deliver high quality sexualreproductive health services in underserved areas. In education, social franchising can be seenas a quick fix to national problems regarding education. The purpose of this study was toqualitatively analyse facilitators’perceptions of social franchising in education through theprovision of supplementary lessonsand its potential to improvestudents’ performance. Thesample of the study comprised facilitatorsactively involved in the facilitation of lessons tosupplement existing knowledge/impart new learning methodologies in mathematics, scienceand languages for school-going learners. An interview schedulewas developed andparticipants were interviewed at the site of deliveryduring the period when students were onrecess. From a content analysis of the transcripts of the interviewsfour themes, namely,challenges,opportunities,motivationandsustainabilityemerged. It is recommended thatthere should be greater parental as well as university involvement in the provision ofsupplementary tuition for learners. Existing schools with adequate resources should also beconsidered as possible venues for supplementary tuition.

  1. Factors inhibiting the franchising of Indian fast food stores in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Franchising systems in South Africa have experienced high and sustained growth over the last decade. The South African government has recognised and supports business format franchising as a low risk way of creating jobs, transferring skills and creating wealth. At the forefront of this growth, is the fast food franchising industry, which is made up of a mix of global brands and a significant few, highly successful, locally founded, franchised operations based on Portuguese or Ameri...

  2. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET OF MEDIA FRANCHISING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Emirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the media market of franchising in Russia - a rather new phenomenon in the domestic business. We study the general rules and laws affecting the media attractiveness for investors, for entrepreneurs intending to buy a franchise in the field of media. Results statistics of volumes of the advertising market in the media, correlated with indicators of success specific franchising projects. Examples of the various categories of franchising companys in the media. 

  3. UPDATING RUSSIAN FRANCHISING LEGISLATIVE CONTROL IN SERVICE SECTORS WITH DUE ACCOUNT OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Kolinchenko

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient use of franchising is one of the major factors hampering the development of services in Russia. Main problems of franchising in Russia concentrate currently in the legislative and legal spheres. There is no specific law on franchising in the domestic legislation system. Russia is substantially behind the U.S. and Europe, so far as laws and operating practices related to franchising are concerned. Urgent adjustments are needed for current legislation in Russia, first of all to bri...

  4. Physicians in private practice: reasons for being a social franchise member

    OpenAIRE

    Huntington Dale; Mundy Gary; Hom Nang; Li Qingfeng; Aung Tin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence is emerging on the cost-effectiveness, quality and health coverage of social franchises. But little is known about the motivations of providers to join or remain within a social franchise network, or the impact that franchise membership has on client volumes or revenue earnings. Methods (i) Uncontrolled facility based of a random sample of 230 franchise members to assess self-reported motivations; (ii) A 24 month prospective cohort study of 3 cohorts of physicians...

  5. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARKET OF MEDIA FRANCHISING IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Emirova

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the media market of franchising in Russia - a rather new phenomenon in the domestic business. We study the general rules and laws affecting the media attractiveness for investors, for entrepreneurs intending to buy a franchise in the field of media. Results statistics of volumes of the advertising market in the media, correlated with indicators of success specific franchising projects. Examples of the various categories of franchising companys in the media. 

  6. SOCIAL FRANCHISING AND SUPPLEMENTARY TUTORING: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FACILITATORS’ PERCEPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Schalkwyk, Pieter van; Surujlal, Jhalukpreya

    2017-01-01

    Franchising, a business concept that originated in the United States of America (USA), is a system of doing business via contracts through which the franchiser shares a system of knowledge, intellectual property and trade secrets in return for fees and royalties. Social franchising, on the other hand, utilises the same principles and format to achieve social benefits. Social franchising has been associated with, among others, the health services and education. Health services such as Marie St...

  7. MODELING THE NEW FRANCHISE CREATION DECISION: THE RELEVANCE OF BEHAVIORAL REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    AGUIAR,HELDER DE SOUZA; PAULI,SERGI; YU,ABRAHAM SIN OIH; NASCIMENTO,PAULO TROMBONI DE SOUZA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Franchising is one of the fastest-growing operating modes in Brazil. In 2014, the Brazilian Franchising Association reported 2,492 active brands in the country. Some theories with an economic point of view, such as the agency theory, plural forms theory, or scarcity principle, explain why companies choose franchising. However, did the decision makers and founders of these franchises decide on this strategy taking only economic reasons into consideration? The purpose of this...

  8. User experiences with clinical social franchising: qualitative insights from providers and clients in Ghana and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sieverding, Maia; Briegleb, Christina; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical social franchising is a rapidly growing delivery model in private healthcare markets in low- and middle-income countries. Despite this growth, little is known about providers? perceptions of the benefits and challenges of social franchising or clients? reasons for choosing franchised facilities over other healthcare options. We examine these questions in the context of three social franchise networks in Ghana and Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a purpo...

  9. International franchise expansion of service chains: Insights from the Spanish market

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the effects of several variables on the international expansion pursued by Spanish service franchise chains. These include: management and franchising experience, brand awareness, the international franchise ratio, and a franchisor's size. Specifically, the study looks at 125 franchisors doing business in 44 foreign countries in late 2009. Findings allow us to conclude that management and franchising experience, together with brand awareness, the international ...

  10. Les raisons d'être de la franchise dans les transactions de services aux entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Délila

    2008-01-01

    The Reason for the Franchise in Transactions Business Services Abstract - The franchise, as hybrid form of coordination undertake an asymmetric allocation of legal and economic rights between the parties. The franchise is a governance structure that is particularly successful in achieving balance incentive and control. However, business services represent less than 7% of franchise networks in France. We study why the markets for business services could become "new land of conquest" for the fr...

  11. Impact of Economic Crisis on Business to the Franchise System in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Parpandel Denisa Elena; Gãnescu Cristina; Codreanu Diana Elena

    2011-01-01

    Given the national context, but also international economic crisis, businesses are seeking the highest returns. Why would a business franchise win a bet? Because franchising is the most dynamic and powerful method practiced for business development and economic opportunity and the franchisee has the opportunity to become its own franchise architect of the scheme and detailed plan of procedures. Franchising remains a good recipe for business and crisis. What have changed because of economic di...

  12. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Thermal-Hydraulic Research Program: Maintaining expertise in a changing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Shotkin, L.M.; Baratta, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal-hydraulic research program enjoyed ample funding, sponsored extensive experimental and analytical development programs, and attracted worldwide expertise. With the completion of the major experimental programs and with the promulgation of the revised emergency core-cooling system rule, both the funding and prominence of thermal-hydraulic research at the NRC have declined in recent years. This has led justifiably to the concern by some that the program may no longer have the minimal elements needed to maintain both expertise and world-class status. The purpose of this article is to describe the NRC's current thermal-hydraulic research program and to show how this program ensures maintenance of a viable, robust research effort and retention of needed expertise and international leadership

  13. Evaluation of a social franchising and telemedicine programme and the care provided for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, Bihar, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan, M.; Giardili, S.; Das, V.; Rabin, T. L.; Raj, S. S.; Schwartz, J. I.; Seth, A.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D.; Miller, G.; Vera-Hernández, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on the quality of the care provided for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in Bihar, India, of a large-scale, social franchising and telemedicine programme - the World Health Partners' Sky Program. METHODS: We investigated changes associated with the programme in the knowledge and performance of health-care providers by carrying out 810 assessments in a representative sample of providers in areas where the programme was and was not implemented. Providers were ...

  14. Evaluation of a social franchising and telemedicine programme and the care provided for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan, Manoj; Giardili, Soledad; Das, Veena; Rabin, Tracy L; Raj, Sunil S; Schwartz, Jeremy I; Seth, Aparna; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Miller, Grant; Vera-Hern?ndez, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact on the quality of the care provided for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in Bihar, India, of a large-scale, social franchising and telemedicine programme ? the World Health Partners? Sky Program. Methods We investigated changes associated with the programme in the knowledge and performance of health-care providers by carrying out 810 assessments in a representative sample of providers in areas where the programme was and was not implemented. Provider...

  15. Increasing Access to Family Planning Choices Through Public-Sector Social Franchising: The Experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Judy; Burke, Eva; Ciss?, Boubacar; Mackay, Anna; Eva, Gillian; Hayes, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mali has one of the world's lowest contraceptive use rates and a high rate of unmet need for family planning. In order to increase access to and choice of quality family planning services, Marie Stopes International (MSI) Mali introduced social franchising in public-sector community health centers (referred to as CSCOMs in Mali) in 3 regions under the MSI brand BlueStar. Program Description: Potential franchisees are generally identified from CSCOMs who have worked with MSI outrea...

  16. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. Cable operators shall comply with franchising authorities' and the Commission's requests for information, orders...

  17. Franchising a možnosti jeho financování

    OpenAIRE

    Nevečeřalová, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor tesis deals with the financing of franchising in the Czech Republic. This tesis is devided into three parts. In first part are described the characteristics of franchising and his history. The second part is about the franchise.The last part is dedicated to possibilities of financing for franchisee.

  18. Development Stages of Franchising Relations in Civil Law Relations in Kazakh Law

    OpenAIRE

    ASSIL’BEKOVA, Galia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I dealt the history and establishment process of relations of contract of package entrepreneurial license (franchising). I also discussed concept and attributes of contract of package entrepreneurial license (franchising). Ishowed the types of contract of package entrepreneurial license (franchising).

  19. Akibat Hukum Pemutusan Perjanjian Franchise Secara Sepihak Oleh Franchisor Sebelum Berakhirnya Kontrak

    OpenAIRE

    Lannemey, Lannemey

    2015-01-01

    Bisnis franchise merupakan suatu sistem di mana pihak franchisor memberikan lisensi menggunakan hak kekayaan intelektual seperti hak cipta, merek, paten serta rahasia dagang kepada franchisee. Sebaliknya pihak franchisee berkewajiban untuk membayar royalty fee. Perjanjian franchise merupakan hubungan hukum antara franchisor dan franchisee yang memuat hak dan kewajiban yang menimbulkan akibat hukum bagi para pihak. Dalam pelaksanaan perjanjian franchise sangat rentan terjadi permasalahan sepe...

  20. 47 CFR 76.502 - Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limits applicable to franchise authority... Cable Systems § 76.502 Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications. (a) A franchise authority shall have 120 days from the date of submission of a completed FCC Form...