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Sample records for france northern ireland

  1. Frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and coronary heart disease in France and Northern Ireland: the PRIME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Ferrières, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Yarnell, John W; Gey, Fred; Ducimetière, Pierre; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Haas, Bernadette; Evans, Alun; Bingham, Annie; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2004-12-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with low CHD risk in the USA and Northern Europe. There is, in contrast, little information about these associations in other regions of Europe. The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and CHD risk in two European populations with contrasting cardiovascular incidence rates; France and Northern Ireland. The present prospective study was in men aged 50-59 years, free of CHD, who were recruited in France (n 5982) and Northern Ireland (n 2105). Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of acute coronary events and angina were recorded over a 5-year follow-up. During follow-up there was a total of 249 ischaemic events. After adjustment on education level, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, employment status, BMI, blood pressure, serum total and HDL-cholesterol, the relative risks (RR) of acute coronary events were 0.67 (95% CI 0.44, 1.03) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.41, 0.99) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of citrus fruit consumption, respectively (P for trend fruit' consumption were 0.70 (95% CI 0.31, 1.56) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.24, 1.14) respectively in Northern Ireland (trend Pfruit, but not other fruits, intake is associated with lower rates of acute coronary events in both France and Northern Ireland, suggesting that geographical or related factors might affect the relationship between fruit consumption and CHD risk.

  2. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  3. The Cultural Clash in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver Brennan; Gerald M Cattaro

    1998-01-01

      This paper sets out to demonstrate that the religious, political, and socio-economic elements of the conflict in Northern Ireland should be considered as manifestations of a basic cultural divide...

  4. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  5. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  6. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  7. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  8. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  9. Cyberbullying, Schools and the Law: A Comparative Study in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the fast developing behavioural issue of cyberbullying in schools and its complex legal context. Purpose: This study set out to investigate teachers' perceptions of the extent of cyberbullying and the extent to which school leaders in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland feel knowledgeable and confident…

  10. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena

    2014-08-01

    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.

  11. Religious Segregation and Teacher Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the extent of religious segregation in teacher education in Northern Ireland and notes that there are elements of separation within a general context of (increasing) common teacher education. With reference to liberal and communitarian theories the case for separate teacher education is considered. It is acknowledged that a case…

  12. Sex Education in Northern Ireland Schools: A Critical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Bill; Schubotz, Dirk; Simpson, Audrey

    2005-01-01

    To date there has been little research on young people and sexuality in Northern Ireland. This paper draws on the first major study in this area to analyse the delivery of formal sex education in schools. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to access young people's opinions about the quality of the sex education they had received…

  13. Newcomer Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Pastoral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in Northern Ireland's demographic, resulting in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual school population, are presenting new opportunities and challenges for schools in a region emerging from a troubled recent past. Reflecting on this from a pastoral perspective, this article focuses on the relationships between the school…

  14. Northern Ireland: post-conflict education model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nolan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern Ireland’s Good Friday Agreement of 1998 calledfor “initiatives to facilitate and encourage integratededucation” but progress has been painfully slow. Only 5%of the total school population are in integrated schools(those bringing together students and staff from boththe Protestant and Catholic traditions. Only 1.4% of theadult population has experienced integrated schooling.

  15. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  16. Landscape as the Locus for Artistic Transfers Between Ireland, Northern Ireland and Great Britain (1968 - Present Day

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    Charlotte Gould

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This conference was the result of an observation: the violent events that occurred between the end of the 1960s and the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 have often been a focal point in the artistic practices in Ireland, Northern Ireland and Great Britain. The study of Irish art has privileged work based on the political situation in Northern Ireland during and after the Troubles. Recently, the Holden Gallery at Manchester Metropolitan University presented the exhibition Archiving Place and Time...

  17. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  18. Benchmarking care for very low birthweight infants in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, B P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Benchmarking is that process through which best practice is identified and continuous quality improvement pursued through comparison and sharing. The Vermont Oxford Neonatal Network (VON) is the largest international external reference centre for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This report from 2004-7 compares survival and morbidity throughout Ireland and benchmarks these results against VON. METHODS: A standardised VON database for VLBW infants was created in 14 participating centres across Ireland and Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Data on 716 babies were submitted in 2004, increasing to 796 babies in 2007, with centres caring for from 10 to 120 VLBW infants per year. In 2007, mortality rates in VLBW infants varied from 4% to 19%. Standardised mortality ratios indicate that the number of deaths observed was not significantly different from the number expected, based on the characteristics of infants treated. There was no difference in the incidence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage between all-Ireland and VON groups (5% vs 6%, respectively). All-Ireland rates for chronic lung disease (CLD; 15-21%) remained lower than rates seen in the VON group (24-28%). The rates of late onset nosocomial infection in the all-Ireland group (25-26%) remained double those in the VON group (12-13%). DISCUSSION: This is the first all-Ireland international benchmarking report in any medical specialty. Survival, severe intraventricular haemorrhage and CLD compare favourably with international standards, but rates of nosocomial infection in neonatal units are concerning. Benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning neonatal intensive care service provision.

  19. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

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    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  20. Island cities: the case of Belfast, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle Stephen A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers Belfast as an ‘island city’ with reference to issues of identity and economy and especially in connection with a series of statements from the ‘Futures of Islands’ briefing document prepared for the IGU’s Commission on Islands meeting in Kraków in August 2014. Belfast as a contested space, a hybrid British/Irish city on the island of Ireland, exemplifies well how ‘understandings of the past condition the future’, whilst the Belfast Agreement which brought the Northern Ireland peace process to its culmination after decades of violence known as the ‘Troubles’ speaks to ‘island ways of knowing, of comprehending problems - and their solutions’. Finally, Belfast certainly demonstrates that ‘island peoples shape their contested futures’

  1. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  2. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  3. 116 years of misplaced management: Portballintrae, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. W. T.

    2012-04-01

    Portballintrae has had a protracted history of human interference ranging from small-scale sand removal to hard coastal engineering. A small, horse shoe embayment and a once popular seaside destination on the north coast of Northern Ireland, it has suffered from progressive sediment loss over the last 116 years. From a once sediment abundant system, with a wide sandy beach, it now contains only a limited amount of sand draped over bedrock and/or gravel substrate and a relatively narrow beach. Installation of an obtrusive pier in its western section is thought to have interrupted the natural hydrody-namics and set in motion a progressive longshore transport and re-moval of sand into deeper water. Successive hard engineering 'solutions' prompted through public pressure and engineers keen to do business, have been largely ineffectual, located within a sediment-starved beach system.

  4. English as an Additional Language and Initial Teacher Education: Views and Experiences from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses training for teaching English as an Additional Language (EAL) at initial teacher education (ITE) level in Northern Ireland. This small-scale qualitative study describes 15 primary and post-primary teachers' perspectives on their preparation for teaching EAL in Northern Ireland. It explores reflections on EAL content in ITE…

  5. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  6. Young Women's Positive and Negative Perceptions of Self in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Siobhan; Neill, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents analysis of one aspect of a larger research project examining the everyday lives and experiences of young women in Northern Ireland. As an introductory exercise within focus groups, 48 young women considered and discussed the good and not so good things about being a young woman in Northern Ireland. Through these accounts…

  7. Ten Years after Patten: Young People and Policing in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jonny; Jarman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Through a comprehensive review of existing literature, this article documents young people's experiences of policing during the period of political transition and extensive reform of the structures of policing in Northern Ireland since the publication of the Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (The Patten Report) in 1999. The…

  8. Management of Bullying in Northern Ireland Schools: A Pre-Legislative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, Conor; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Unlike the rest of the UK, Northern Ireland has only recently (2003) implemented legislation regarding the requirement for anti-bullying policies in the province's school system. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the nature of the management of bully/victim problems across Northern Ireland schools prior to the…

  9. The Economic Impact of Queen's University Belfast on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Queen's University Belfast and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. Based in the City of Belfast, the university has over 22,500 students. Its turnover of nearly £290 million makes it Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of its financial standing. With origins going back…

  10. "It's Their Word against Mine": Young People's Attitudes to the Police Complaints Procedure in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Katy; Hamilton, Jennifer; Jarman, Neil

    2005-01-01

    One of the central aims of the police reform process in Northern Ireland has been to increase the legitimacy of the policing structures and police officers amongst those who are served and policed by the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI). To meet this aim, structures have been created to ensure that the PSNI is accountable to all sections…

  11. Student Teachers' Perceptions about Inclusive Classroom Teaching in Northern Ireland Prior to Teaching Practice Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jackie; Bones, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to obtain the views of student teachers in Northern Ireland as to the benefits and challenges of inclusive education and the key issues that may need to be addressed to ensure they become effective teachers in an inclusive classroom. Because of the system of academic selection that has prevailed in Northern Ireland, issues…

  12. Lightening Can Strike Twice: The Case for the Management and Control of Violent Offenders against Children in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, John F. T.; Jackson, Paul T.; Kelly, Margaret; Reid, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a case example to illustrate the need for robust arrangements manage violent offenders against children in Northern Ireland. It compares the legislative and policy framework used to deal with such offenders in England and Wales, demonstrating the more limited provisions in Northern Ireland. Within Northern Ireland, differing…

  13. Beach litter sourcing: A trawl along the Northern Ireland coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A T; Randerson, P; Allen, C; Cooper, J A G

    2017-09-15

    Fourteen non-recreational coastal locations in Northern Ireland were investigated as to whether beach litter deposition was related to seasonal or site specific factors. Litter items were counted in 100m width transects and 1km strand-line surveys over a five-season period (autumn to autumn). Survey sites comprised fishing ports; estuarine areas, north (high energy) and east coast (low energy) beaches. Fishing ports accumulated the most litter. In the 100m beach surveys, plastics, string and cord, bottle caps, food items, rope, and drink containers dominated. In strand-line surveys, large plastic pieces were dominant, followed by rope, string and cord, strapping bands (absent on beach surveys), cloth, wood (mainly pallets, fish boxes) and metal items. Multivariate analyses revealed major litter category differences between the ports and all other sites, with a lesser distinction between exposed and estuarine sites. There was no simple coastline trend and no apparent effect of seasonality between samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A history of bovine tuberculosis eradication policy in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P A

    2015-11-01

    Despite many years of state-sponsored efforts to eradicate the disease from cattle through testing and slaughter, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still regarded as the most important and complex of animal health challenges facing the British livestock agricultural industry. This paper provides a historical analysis of the ongoing bTB statutory eradication programme in one part of the UK - Northern Ireland (NI) - which began in 1949 as a voluntary scheme, but between 1959 and 1960 became compulsory for all cattle herd-owners. Tracing bTB back through time sets the eradication efforts of the present day within a deeper context, and provides signposts for what developed in subsequent decades. The findings are based primarily on empirical research using historical published reports of the Ministry of Agriculture and state documents held in the public archives in NI, and they emphasize the need to consider the economic, social and political contexts of disease eradication efforts and their influences on both the past and the present.

  15. Victim support services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćopić Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, authors tried to present activities of one of the oldest European Victim Support Services - Victim Support for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. During 1970s, through practice and research projects, the need for recognizing the physical and psychological status of victims after the crime was committed, as well as the need of providing them with the (informal assistance and support were noticed. That has resulted in establishing numerous of local victim support services (schemes, which united in the National Association of the Victim Support Services in 1979. Significant support was given to the Service in 1980s through the recommendations of the Council of Europe on the assistance for victims of crime and prevention of victimization through direct support given to the victim immediately after the incident, including protection and safety, medical, mental, social and financial support, as well as providing the victim with information on his/her rights, support during the criminal proceeding, assistance in getting compensation etc. Organization and structure of the service, referral system, code of practice and two main programs: Victim Service and Witness Service are reviewed in the paper.

  16. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict-Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion.

  17. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk...... samples (n = 101) were kindly provided by the Milk Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Presumptive arcobacters were identified by previously described genus-specific and species-specific PCR assays. Arcobacter spp. were found to be common...... contaminants of retail raw meats and raw milk in Northern Ireland. Poultry meat (62%) had the highest prevalence, but frequent isolations were made from pork (35%), beef (34%), and raw milk (46%). Arcobacter butzleri was the predominant species isolated from retail raw meats and was the only species isolated...

  18. A Rhaeto-Liassic flora from Airel, Northern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, M.; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.

    1970-01-01

    An assemblage of fossil plants from the Upper Triassic/Liassic of Airel (Manche), Northern France, is recorded, and two new species, Hirmerella airelensis sp. nov. and Classopollis harrisii sp. nov., are described and figured. In situ and dispersed pollen is compared and a lycopod megaspore and micr

  19. Bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsby, Amy; McKinley, Jennifer M; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Young, Mike; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soils and the association with specific soil parent material have been the focus of research for a number of years. Risk-based assessment of potential exposure scenarios to identified elevated PTE concentrations has led to the derivation of site- and contaminant-specific soil guideline values (SGVs), which represent generic assessment criteria (GACs) to identify exceeded levels that may reflect an unacceptable risk to human health. A better understanding of the 'bioavailable' or 'bioaccessible' contaminant concentrations offers an opportunity to better refine contaminant exposure assessments. Utilizing a comprehensive soil geochemical dataset for Northern Ireland provided by the Tellus Survey (GSNI) in conjunction with supplementary bioaccessibility testing of selected soil samples following the Unified BARGE Method, this paper uses exploratory data analysis and geostatistical analysis to investigate the spatial variability of pseudo-total and bioaccessible concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr. Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn. The paper investigates variations in individual element concentrations as well as cross-element correlations and observed lithological/pedological associations. The analysis of PTE concentrations highlighted exceeded levels of GAC values for V and Cr and exceeded SGV/GAC values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. UBM testing showed that for some soil parent materials associated with elevated PTE concentrations e.g. the Antrim Lava Group with high Ni concentrations, the measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively low. For other soil parent materials with relatively moderate PTE concentrations, measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively high (e.g. the Gala Sandstone Group of the Southern Uplands-Down Longford Terrain). These findings have implications for regional human health risk assessments for specific PTEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ICT Policy and Implementation in Education: Cases in Canada, Northern Ireland and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Roger; Hunter, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Countries with similar levels of economic development often implement different education ICT policies. Much of the existing research attributes such differences to economic and political factors. In this paper, we examine the development of ICT policy and implementation in the two parts of Ireland and in two Canadian provinces and find that…

  1. Le Multiculturalisme et l’Irlande du Nord Northern Ireland and Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Savaric

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the specific formulation multiculturalism takes on in Northern Ireland, both as an explanatory concept and a practice aimed at solving the conflict. First, we explore the origins of multiculturalism as a theory which emerged mainly in Canada among liberal thinkers. Then we look at the attraction of this model in Northern Ireland whereby the conflict is explained as resulting from a lack of recognition of “cultural identities,” each community being perceived as possessing its own, clearly distinct culture. After pointing out that the acceptance of the “multiculturalist” model is not unanimous in Northern Ireland, we highlight the danger of a reification of cultures inherent in that theory. We argue that “culture” and “community” are not necessarily the one and same thing. As it is applied in Northern Ireland, the multiculturalist model leads us to neglect the political significance of segregation. We think there is in fact a common culture of conflict between the two communities in Northern Ireland.

  2. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Thesis Advisor: Maria Moyano ACp r Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. > REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...later the Tudors finally conquered Ireland in 1603. The impact of Tudor rule, however, came from the course of maritime imperial glory it set for England...Prof. Maria Moyano Rasmussen Code NS/06 ......................................................... 1 National Security Department Naval Postgraduate

  3. Disablist Bullying in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: An Investigation of Student Teachers' Knowledge, Experience and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge, experience and confidence of student teachers from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland in relation to disablist bullying. Adopting a mixed methodological approach of four focus groups (N = 18) and a pencil-and-paper questionnaire (N = 257), the study explored the students knowledge, experience and…

  4. Moving out of Conflict: The Contribution of Integrated Schools in Northern Ireland to Identity, Attitudes, Forgiveness and Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire; Niens, Ulrike; Cairns, Ed; Hewstone, Miles

    2004-01-01

    As the integrated education movement in Northern Ireland passes its twenty-first anniversary, it is pertinent to explore the legacy of mixed Catholic and Protestant schooling. This paper summarises the findings of different studies regarding the impact of integrated education in Northern Ireland on social identity, intergroup attitudes and…

  5. Back to the Future: Do Lessons from Finland Point the Way to a Return to Model Schools for Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anne; Clarke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the school-based element of initial teacher education (ITE) and the ways in which it contributes to the professional learning of student teachers in Finland (University of Helsinki) and Northern Ireland (University of Ulster). In particular it seeks to assess the potential of Training Schools for Northern Ireland. Universities…

  6. Draft genome sequences of seven isolates of Phytophthora ramorum EU2 from Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes de la Mata Saez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present draft-quality genome sequence assemblies for the oomycete Phytophthora ramorum genetic lineage EU2. We sequenced genomes of seven isolates collected in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. Multiple genome sequences from P. ramorum EU2 will be valuable for identifying genetic variation within the clonal lineage that can be useful for tracking its spread.

  7. Burnout and engagement in relation with job demands and resources among dental staff in Northern Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Gorter; R. Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To investigate the psychological health - in particular, levels of burnout and engagement, job demands, job resources, and general psychological distress - among dental staff in Northern Ireland. Methods:  Three hundred questionnaires were administered to all dental offices in the weste

  8. Sharing Classes between Separate Schools: A Mechanism for Improving Inter-Group Relations in Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Schmid, Katharina; Carlisle, Karen

    2012-01-01

    One manifestation of division and the history of conflict in Northern Ireland is the parallel education system that exists for Protestants and Catholics. Although recent decades have seen some advances in the promotion of integrated education, around 95% of children continue to attend schools separated on ethno-religious lines. In 2007 a programme…

  9. GIS in Northern Ireland Secondary Schools: Mapping Where We Are Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) into Geography teaching in schools has been and is challenging, and it seems that much of the early promise for the technology supporting learning in Geography has not been realised. This paper examines the progress made in Northern Ireland in implementing GIS in…

  10. Critical incident stress debriefing following the terrorist bombing at Army Headquarters Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, A P; Cumming, P A; Piper, M E

    1998-02-01

    On the 7 October 1996 the Provisional Irish Republican Army launched a terrorist attack within Northern Ireland. This paper provides a descriptive reflective account of the psychological support and Critical Incident Stress Debriefings (CISD) provided for civilian/military personnel and service families. Between 66 hours and 96 hours following the incident, 407 people were debriefed.

  11. Negotiating Difference in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: An Analysis of Approaches to Integrated Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author critically examines a variety of approaches to multicultural education noted in integrated (mixed Catholic and Protestant) schools in Northern Ireland and considers their implications in the context of the wider debate around multiculturalism. She argues that educators should challenge sectarianism, but should also…

  12. Cohesion, Sharing and Integration? Migrant Languages and Cultural Spaces in Northern Ireland's Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the position of migrant languages in Northern Ireland's two largest cities, Belfast and Derry/Londonderry. The paper comments on how deliberations around public policy objectives in a post-conflict era have led to a broader understanding of cultural identity and consequently to an "opening-up" of urban spaces for speakers…

  13. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  14. GIS in Northern Ireland Secondary Schools: Mapping Where We Are Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that integrating Geographical Information Systems (GIS) into Geography teaching in schools has been and is challenging, and it seems that much of the early promise for the technology supporting learning in Geography has not been realised. This paper examines the progress made in Northern Ireland in implementing GIS in…

  15. Maternal Religiosity, Family Resources and Stressors, and Parent-Child Attachment Security in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the associations between mothers' religiosity, and families' and children's functioning in a stratified random sample of 695 Catholic and Protestant mother-child dyads in socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a region which has experienced centuries of sectarian conflict between Protestant Unionists and…

  16. Ideology and Poetics in Public Issue Construction: Thatcherism, Civil Liberties, and "Terrorism" in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1995-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Margaret Thatcher, indicating how Thatcherism intensified existing ideological tensions within the British context; how Thatcherism constructed the public issue of "terrorism" in Northern Ireland as an "epic tragedy"; and how such a construction materially shifted and ensnared commitments to…

  17. Culture and Caregivers: Factors Influencing Breastfeeding among Mothers in West Belfast, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…

  18. Rural Development in Northern Ireland: Policy Formulation in a Peripheral Region of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael R.; Greer, John V.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews local, national, and European Community influences on the formation of "integrated" rural development policy in Northern Ireland. Suggests three key issues on the policy formation agenda: agricultural versus more diversified programs as the basis of development, implementation problems, and education and training needs. Contains 43…

  19. Cohesion, Sharing and Integration? Migrant Languages and Cultural Spaces in Northern Ireland's Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the position of migrant languages in Northern Ireland's two largest cities, Belfast and Derry/Londonderry. The paper comments on how deliberations around public policy objectives in a post-conflict era have led to a broader understanding of cultural identity and consequently to an "opening-up" of urban spaces…

  20. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term health impact…

  1. Harnessing the Slipstream: Building Educational Research Capacity in Northern Ireland. Size Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Northern Ireland is uniquely distinguished from England, Scotland and Wales, by being a society in transition, emerging from a prolonged period of civil conflict and political instability that has affected its infrastructure and has increased the need for co-ordinated and specialist research. The current paper traces some of the systemic…

  2. Ideology and Poetics in Public Issue Construction: Thatcherism, Civil Liberties, and "Terrorism" in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1995-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Margaret Thatcher, indicating how Thatcherism intensified existing ideological tensions within the British context; how Thatcherism constructed the public issue of "terrorism" in Northern Ireland as an "epic tragedy"; and how such a construction materially shifted and ensnared commitments to "freedom" and civil liberties.…

  3. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  4. "Best Not to Forget Them": Secondary Students' Judgments of Historical Significance in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated Catholic and Protestant students' ideas about historical significance in Northern Ireland. The research was conducted in two secondary schools in a medium-sized rural town, and data were derived from a ranking task and semi-structured interview with 40 students, aged 12-17, equally divided between the two communities.…

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: laboratory detection methods in use in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2002-01-01

    There is no universally agreed laboratory protocol for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and hence a variety of approaches are used. As part of an all-island survey of MRSA in the Republic of Ireland (the South) and Northern Ireland (the North), a questionnaire was circulated to 14 participating laboratories in the North and 49 in the South, to determine the methods used to isolate MRSA from clinical specimens, identify S. aureus and test for susceptibility to methicillin. Almost two-thirds (64%) of laboratories in the North but only 16% of laboratories in the South use enrichment culture. There is heavy reliance on commercial kits to confirm the identification of S. aureus in the South but all laboratories in the North use the staphylocoagulase test. More than 90% of all laboratories use a disc method for susceptibility testing and 71% of laboratories in the North supplement this with the E-test; however, a range of methicillin disk concentrations are in use. There is a need to review current laboratory methods used to detect MRSA, with follow-up audit on their implementation. Additional resources may be needed in some laboratories to comply with revised guidelines, and reference facilities are required to assess new commercially available techniques and to confirm the identification of unusual or difficult strains.

  6. 'What Difference Does it Make?: The Construction of Liminal Plurality in Northern Ireland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2009-01-01

    This article performs a cursory critical discourse analysis of the construction of ‘difference’ among the Northern Irish population in the constitutional policy proposals in Northern Ireland between 1973 and 1998. Central to interpreting conflict resolution in a divided society is an understanding...... of the predefinition of the nature of differences and divisions. It is my claim that a critical discourse analysis, which grapples specifically with the construction of ‘difference’, can help interpret the ongoing crisis in the Northern Irish peace process. In other words, it might help explicate the extent to which...

  7. Geotechnical problems related with loess deposits in Northern France

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Antoine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Special problems were encountered in some areas in Northern France where the high speed railways (TGV Nord) crossed some loess deposits that appeared to be specially sensitive to change in water content and susceptible to collapse. Numerous sinkholes appeared along some sections of the line following wet climatic periods. After a general geological and geotechnical presentation of loess deposits and collapse susceptibility, in which some tools of the mechanics of unsaturated soils are reconsidered with special application to loess collapsibility, this paper describes the results of a geotechnical study carried out on block samples of intact loess. Collapse susceptibility is examined in the light of microstructure observation. The dependence of collapse to water content changes is examined and the validity of various existing collapse criteria is investigated.

  8. Could a ‘reverse Greenland’ arrangement keep Scotland and Northern Ireland in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2016-01-01

    While no member state has ever left the European Union, Greenland opted to leave the EEC in 1985. Ulrik Pram Gad assesses what lessons the case of Greenland might have for the UK following its decision to leave the EU. He suggests that while the two situations are radically different, Greenland c...... could serve as inspiration for a model in which Scotland, Northern Ireland and Gibraltar could retain membership of the EU while England and Wales pursue their own arrangements....

  9. Voluntary euthanasia in Northern Ireland: general practitioners' beliefs, experiences, and actions.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlade, K. J.; Slaney, L; Bunting, B. P.; Gallagher, A G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been much recent interest in the press and among the profession on the subject of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The BMA recently conducted a 'consensus conference' over the internet to collect views on physician-assisted suicide. Any surveys to date have addressed a variety of specialties; however, no recent surveys have looked at general practitioner (GP) attitudes and experiences. AIM: To explore the attitudes of GPs in Northern Ireland towards the issue o...

  10. Experiences and characteristics of women seeking and completing at-home medical termination of pregnancy through online telemedicine in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Ara; Gomperts, R; Trussell, J

    2017-07-01

    To examine the characteristics and experiences of women in Ireland and Northern Ireland seeking at-home medical termination of pregnancy (TOP) using online telemedicine. Population-based study. Ireland and Northern Ireland. Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015, 5650 women requested at-home medical TOP through online telemedicine initiative Women on Web. We examined the demographics and circumstances of women requesting medical TOP and examined the experiences of the 1023 women who completed TOP between January 2010 and December 2012. We conducted a content analysis of women's evaluations and used logistic regression to examine factors associated with lack of emotional support during and after TOP MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Satisfaction with TOP; feelings before and after TOP; emotional support during TOP. Women requesting TOP were diverse with respect to age, pregnancy circumstances and reasons for seeking TOP. Among those completing TOP, 97% felt they made the right choice and 98% would recommend it to others in a similar situation. Women commonly reported serious mental stress caused by their pregnancies and their inability to afford travel abroad to access TOP. The feelings women most commonly reported after completing TOP were 'relieved' (70%) and 'satisfied' (36%). Women with financial hardship had twice the risk of lacking emotional support (odds ratio = 2.0, P < 0.001). The vast majority of women who completed at-home medical TOP through Women on Web had a positive experience. These demonstrated benefits to health and wellbeing contribute new evidence to the debate surrounding abortion laws in Ireland and Northern Ireland. Irish and Northern Irish women completing at-home medical TOP report benefits for health, wellbeing and autonomy. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. A review of maternal alloimmunisation to Rh D in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, C J; Morris, K; Maguire, K

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the current incidence of maternal sensitisation to Rhesus (Rh) D in Northern Ireland, examine adherence to recommendations for administration of anti-D immunoglobulin and identify potential causes for all cases of anti-D alloimmunisation sensitisation from January 2010 to September 2015. Post-partum anti-D immunoglobulin administered to Rh D-negative women and routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis have greatly reduced the incidence of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to immune anti-D. Despite these measures, anti-D alloimmunisation sensitisation continues to occur, albeit much less frequently than in the past. This was a retrospective review of new sensitisations to Rh D detected in antenatal records between January 2010 and September 2015 in Northern Ireland. A review of patient notes and laboratory data was carried out to examine adherence to standards and identify potential causes of sensitisation. A total of 67 new sensitisations to Rh D were identified over a 69-month period, and the sensitisation rate for the full calendar years 2010-2014 was 0·310%. Only 4% of cases appear to have been preventable, with two cases involving failure to adhere to guidelines. A total 96% of sensitisations occurred despite full compliance with guidelines. In a large proportion, sensitisation occurred following delivery (51%). A change in practice in Northern Ireland is under consideration to increase the dose of anti-D immunoglobulin given following delivery from 500 to 1500 U in an attempt to reduce these sensitisations. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Rethinking prenatal care within a social model of health: an exploratory study in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jenny A; Reiger, Kerreen M

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of maternity reform agendas remains limited by the dominance of a medical rather than social model of health. This article considers group prenatal care as a complex health intervention and explores its potential in the socially divided, postconflict communities of Northern Ireland. Using qualitative inquiry strategies, we sought key informants' views on existing prenatal care provision and on an innovative group care model (CenteringPregnancy®) as a social health initiative. We argue that taking account of the locally specific context is critical to introducing maternity care interventions to improve the health of women and their families and to contribute to community development.

  13. An isolated case of leprosy presenting in a migrant worker in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, S J; Wilson, R R

    2006-09-01

    Leprosy was first recorded in 600 bc in India. Europe saw its first cases in the fourteenth century. The worldwide incidence is falling, but the disease can still present in the most unexpected places: this is a report of the first case of leprosy presenting to an emergency department in Northern Ireland. It is important for physicians in both community and hospital medicine to have a high index of suspicion for leprosy in patients with chronic skin conditions who were born outside the UK or other developed countries.

  14. Stop, Look and Cook: recipe book for schools in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition is central to health and children's diets can be an important influence now and in the future. Stop, Look and Cook is a new recipe book for use by catering staff in all grant-aided nursery, primary and post-primary schools in Northern Ireland.�Recipes have been collected from school caterers across the region. These recipes have been checked to ensure that they are compliant with nutritional standards for school lunches and have been tested in schools for taste and suitability. In a...

  15. Materialising power struggles of political imprisonment at Long Kesh/Maze prison, Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Prisons were one of the main arenas for contestation of rights, status and power during the course of the Northern Irish Troubles (c1969-c1998). A substantial number of the prisoners publicly denied the legitimacy of the state to imprison them and all those interned, remanded or convicted...... for paramilitary-related offences claimed political status. When a prison body communalises and actively contests its imprisonment the resulting power struggle become one of the most explicit witnessed in modern, capitalist societies. This paper explores Long Kesh/Maze prison, one of the seminal places...... of imprisonment during the conflict. It was a site where a number of major events emanated from, often catalyzing responses in wider society, as well as being the source of ongoing issues with ‘non-complying’ prisoners. It was a constant source of anxiety for the Northern Ireland and British governments...

  16. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in water in Northern Ireland: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J E; Caldwell, P S; Millar, B C; Murphy, P G

    2001-11-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp was examined in a variety of waters in Northern Ireland. Conventional cultural techniques were employed with 768 water specimens, including drinking waters (tap, spring, bore hole and bottled) and recreational waters (swimming pool, lough, river and sea). Positive waters included 1/11 (9.1%) drinking water from untreated well water, as well as 5/12 (41.7%) untreated surface waters from loughs and 7/8 (87.5%) untreated river waters. Overall, untreated surface waters may represent a source of contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Northern Ireland, where they have a recreational involvement or are used as a drinking source by man or agricultural livestock. Therefore waterborne campylobacteriosis should be considered in patients presenting with acute enteritis and a history of participation in water sports/activities. As faecal coliform organisms have been previously shown to be poor markers of water quality, especially for Campylobacter spp, new criteria should be established to assess the risk of this infection and to evaluate and monitor the quality of water used for recreational purposes.

  17. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  18. The Impact of Migration on National Identity in a Globalized World: A Comparison of Civic Education Curricula in England, France and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Laura; Faas, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which citizens of migrant origin are included within discourses of national identity in civic education curricula in England, France and Ireland. We explore how much space is given to citizens of migrant origin in discourses of national identity in civic education curricula and how they fit with central values…

  19. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets.

  20. A study of gunshot suicides in Northern Ireland from 1989 to 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A

    1996-01-01

    A study of 104 gunshot suicides, including six women, in Northern Ireland over a 5-year period. Forty-five suicides in the security forces are compared with 59 which took place in the civilian population. The former were commonly associated with marital problems and overwhelmingly occurred in young males under the age of 40, whereas the civilian deaths were predominantly associated with mental ill health, with a wider age range distribution. The security forces used rifled weapons in 44 cases, whereas civilians used shotguns in 46 cases. Twelve out of the 45 were witnessed, compared to one in the civilian population. The security forces favoured the head as site of entry in 40 cases compared to 35 in the civilian population. Alcohol consumption was involved in 23 of the security forces suicides and 18 civilian. Of the 6 women, one was in the security forces and 4 had a history of mental illness.

  1. Oral health behaviours of children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Ravaghi, V; Hill, K B; Watt, R G

    2016-09-01

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To describe the oral health behaviours in children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Method A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Children and parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire about oral health behaviours.Results Overall, the majority of children and young people reported good oral health behaviours. For example, more than three quarters of the 12- and 15-year-olds reported brushing their teeth twice a day or more often. However, a sizeable proportion of the sample reported less positive behaviours. Nearly 30% of 5-year-olds first started to brush their teeth after the age of one year. Among 15-year-olds, 11% were current smokers and 37% reported that they currently drank alcohol. Sixteen percent of 12-year-olds reported to consume drinks containing sugar four or more times a day. Of particular concern was the marked differences that existed by level of deprivation. Children living in lower income households (eligible for free school meals) were less likely to brush their teeth twice a day, more likely to start brushing after six months, more likely to be a smoker and more likely to consume frequent amounts of sugary drinks.Conclusion Despite some encouraging overall patterns of good oral health behaviours, a sizeable proportion of children and young people reported behaviours that may lead to poorer oral and general health. Preventive support should be delivered in clinical dental settings to encourage positive oral health behaviours. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce inequalities in oral health behaviours among children and young people.

  2. Voluntary euthanasia in Northern Ireland: general practitioners' beliefs, experiences, and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, K J; Slaney, L; Bunting, B P; Gallagher, A G

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been much recent interest in the press and among the profession on the subject of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. The BMA recently conducted a 'consensus conference' over the internet to collect views on physician-assisted suicide. Any surveys to date have addressed a variety of specialties; however, no recent surveys have looked at general practitioner (GP) attitudes and experiences. AIM: To explore the attitudes of GPs in Northern Ireland towards the issue of patient requests for euthanasia, their nature, and doctors' experiences of such requests. METHOD: An anonymous, confidential postal survey of all (1053) GP principals in Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of responders believe that passive euthanasia is both morally and ethically acceptable. Fewer (49%) would be prepared to take part in passive euthanasia. However, over 70% of physicians responding consider physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia to be wrong. Thirty per cent of responders have received requests from patients for euthanasia in the past five years. One hundred and seven doctors gave information about these requests. Thirty-nine out of 54 patient requests for passive euthanasia had been complied with, as had one of 19 requests for physician-assisted suicide and four out of 38 patient requests for active euthanasia. Doctors perceived the main reasons why patients sought euthanasia was because of fear of loss of dignity and fear of being a burden to others. CONCLUSIONS: While the majority of GPs support passive euthanasia, they, in common with those who approve of assisted suicide and active euthanasia, often express a reluctance to take part in such actions. This may reflect the moral, legal, and emotional dilemmas doctors encounter when facing end-of-life decisions. PMID:11127168

  3. Inclusion and Deaf Education: The Perceptions and Experiences of Young Deaf People in Northern Ireland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Marie Therese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine what the concept of inclusion means and how it relates to children who are deaf. The paper begins with a background to deaf education, followed by specific reference to how inclusion is perceived in Northern Ireland and in Sweden. It investigates the experiences and opinions of deaf pupils in Schools…

  4. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study: Phenomenology and Co-Morbidity in the First 25 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Karen; Short, Mary; Harvey-Smith, Diane; Rushe, Teresa M.; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing psychotic disorders in young people is difficult. High rates of co-morbidity may be one reason for this difficulty, but it may also be the case that current diagnostic categories are not the most useful when approaching the care of young people with psychotic symptoms. The Northern Ireland Early Onset Psychosis Study is the first study…

  5. A Critical Investigation of the Nature and Extent of Cyberbullying in Two Post-Primary Schools in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; York, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate internet usage among post-primary pupils in years 9, 11 and 13 in two contrasting post-primary schools in Northern Ireland, the nature and incidence of cyberbullying among these pupils, and the ways in which their schools are currently addressing the problem. A mixed methodological approach was adopted: a paper…

  6. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  7. Graduate Employment and Training in SMEs in Northern Ireland: An Overview Using the 2000 Labour Force Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard; Reid, Renee S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the UK Labour Force Survey, this paper considers whether graduate employment is more important in the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector in Northern Ireland than in other regions of the UK. The authors disaggregate their analysis by gender, occupation and industry to provide a detailed breakdown. The issue of whether graduates are…

  8. Working toward the De-Essentialization of Identity Categories in Conflict and Postconflict Societies: Israel, Cyprus, and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi; Zembylas, Michalinos; McGlynn, Claire

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, the authors have conducted research in their own countries, all of which are considered conflict or postconflict societies: Israel, Cyprus, and Northern Ireland. They have focused on a variety of topics related to peace education, reconciliation, and coexistence. Giving special emphasis to the formation of identity in…

  9. Caught in the Conundrum: Neoliberalism and Education in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland--Exploring Shared Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Donnelly, Caitlin; Leitch, Ruth; Burns, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Northern Ireland (NI) is emerging from a violent period in its troubled history and remains a society characterized by segregation between its two main communities. Nowhere is this more apparent than in education, where for the most part Catholic and Protestant pupils are educated separately. During the last 30 years there has been twofold…

  10. Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy: Associations with Alcohol Consumption in a Sample of Adolescents in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry R.; Cole, Jon C.; Percy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported equivocal findings regarding the association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and adolescent alcohol use. Data were collected from a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland (n = 4088) over two consecutive academic years measuring global self-esteem, academic, social and emotional…

  11. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  12. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, S P; Irvine, A D; McKenna, K E; Munro, C S; Nevin, N C; Smith, F J; Uitto, J; McLean, W H

    1998-12-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK, MIM #144200) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hyperkeratosis confined to the palms and soles is characterized histologically by cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), a type 1 keratin expressed exclusively in the suprabasal keratinocytes of palmoplantar epidermis, have previously been demonstrated in this disorder. Here, we have studied four Northern Irish kindreds presenting with EPPK. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products, heterozygous missense mutations in exon 1 of KRT9 were detected in all the families. These included a novel mutation M156T; as well as M156V in two kindreds; and R162Q in the remaining family. All mutations were confirmed by reverse strand sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The point prevalence of EPPK in Northern Ireland was found to be 4.4 per 100,000. To date, all reported EPPK mutations occur in the helix initiation motif at the start of the central coiled-coil rod domain of K9.

  13. Stakeholder perspectives on the use of pig meat inspection as a health and welfare diagnostic tool in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, C; Boyle, L; Teixeira, D L; O'Connell, N E; Hawe, M; Hanlon, A

    2016-01-01

    A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a strategic management tool applied to policy planning and decision-making. This short report presents the results of a SWOT analysis, carried out with n = 16 stakeholders i) involved in the pig industry in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, and ii) in general animal welfare and food safety policy areas. As part of a larger study called PIGWELFIND, the analysis sought to explore the potential development of pig meat inspection as an animal welfare and diagnostic tool. The final SWOT framework comprised two strengths, three opportunities, six weaknesses, and five threats. Issues around relationships and communication between producers and their veterinary practitioner, processors and producers were common to both the strengths and weakness clusters. Practical challenges within the processing plant were also named. Overall, the SWOT framework complements results reported in Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016) regarding problematic issues within the current system of information feedback on meat inspection especially within the Republic of Ireland, and the wider challenges of communication and problems of distrust. The results of the SWOT analysis support the conclusions from Devitt et al. (Ir Vet J 69:2, 2016), that trust between all stakeholders across the supply chain will be essential for the development of an effective environment in which to realise the full diagnostic potential of MI data. Further stakeholder engagement could seek to apply the findings of the SWOT analysis to a policy Delphi methodology, as used elsewhere.

  14. Beyond the Orange and the Green. The Diversification of the Qualitative Social Research Landscape in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schubotz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Ireland conflict has been described as one of the most over-researched conflicts in the world. However, this is a relatively recent development. For many years, when the conflict was most intense, social scientists in North­ern Ireland were silent and not vocal. The sectarian violence that dominated the life in Northern Ireland as well as the fact that the country was a funda­mentally unjust society con­tributed to this silence. However, since the peace process began in the mid 1990s, a growing num­ber of qualitative studies have been published, utilising one-to-one inter­views and focus group discussions, in order to "make people's voices heard" and deal with the con­se­quences of the so-called "Troubles". This paper looks into the emerg­ence of a qualitative social research landscape in Northern Ireland beyond the conflict and explores issues so far neglected. It is argued that a number of factors have con­trib­uted to this, among them the availability of research funding to voluntary and community sector organ­isations that use their data to influence policy-making and equality legislation in a country which is still deeply divided along socio-religious lines. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503293

  15. A Cross-national Perspective on Cyberbullying among School Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Supplement to Mora-Merchan and Jäger (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Conor Mc Guckin; Niall Crowley; Christopher Alan Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a review of the current knowledge regarding cyberbullying in the Northern Ireland school system. There is great value in exploring cyberbullying from a cross-national perspective. Whilst recent literature presents cross-national perspectives on the nature, incidence, correlates and prevention of cyberbullying, encompassing a wide range of countries, Northern Ireland is not included. Given its volatile social, ethnic and religious history, Northern I...

  16. A cross-cultural exploration of abortion fund patients in the USA and the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Gretchen E; Hales, Travis W; Jackson, D Lynn

    2017-08-16

    This paper details results of a study examining administrative case data from 2010-2015 from abortion funds serving the USA and the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. Driven by the available data, the researchers compared organisational characteristics, patient characteristics, procedural costs, patient resources and the ratio between patient resources and procedural costs. Independent t-tests were conducted to assess whether differences in characteristics, costs or resources were significant. The number of patients serviced by abortion funds across the two datasets increased yearly from 2010-2015. While patients in the USA had more resources, on average, to contribute to their abortion procedure, Irish, Northern Irish and Manx patients had the resources to pay for a greater percentage of their costs, on average, which was mainly attributable to the differences in gestational age of those helped by the different abortion funds. Patients across all nations were similar in terms of their marital status, average age and number of existing children. Patients across these countries face expensive procedures and a lack of resources that are bridged in part by abortion fund assistance.

  17. An outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 infection in a rural community in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, L; McCartney, M; Mitchell, E; Wilson, T S

    1997-05-02

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis arose in people who attended a charity barbecue at a hotel in a rural area of Northern Ireland in July 1995. About 120 people attended the barbecue, 98 of whom were identified. Fifty-one of them and seven members of hotel staff met the case definition. An epidemiological investigation showed that illness was significantly associated with eating foods containing mayonnaise that had been prepared using raw shell eggs and stored at too high a temperature. Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 was cultured from 17 out of 24 faecal specimens received from people who attended the barbecue and in 17 out of 34 faecal specimens from staff, including all seven staff cases. The primary source of infection was not identified despite thorough investigation. This paper highlights the value of administering questionnaires by telephone when investigating community outbreaks of infection in rural areas, the important role of general practitioners in the identification of community outbreaks, and the need to periodically reiterate public health messages, in particular for food handlers and caterers.

  18. Inequalities in preventive and restorative dental services in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, J; Sabbah, W

    2016-09-09

    Aims The objective of this study is to assess socioeconomic inequalities in the use of selected dental procedures.Methods Data is from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Overall, 6,279 participants were included in the analysis. Occupational classification and education were used to assess variations in the use of preventive, restorative services and tooth extraction using a series of logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, DMFT, self-reported oral health, dental visits and country.Results There were clear socioeconomic variations in the utilisation of preventive and restorative services. In the fully adjusted model those with no educational qualification were less likely to report ever having preventive services than those with a degree (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.36,0.65). Similarly, individuals in routine/manual occupation were significantly less likely to report ever having preventive services than those in managerial/professional occupation (OR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.46,0.74) in the fully adjusted model.Conclusion The findings imply that despite relatively equitable access and higher use of dental services in UK, the least educated and those at the bottom of social hierarchy are less likely to have preventive and restorative dental services.

  19. Zonation of the Newry Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland, based on geochemical and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. E.; Cooper, M. R.; Stevenson, C. T.; Hastie, A. R.; Hoggett, M.; Inman, J.; Meighan, I. G.; Hurley, C.; Reavy, R. J.; Ellam, R. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Late Caledonian Newry Igneous Complex (NIC), Northern Ireland, comprises three largely granodioritic plutons, together with an intermediate-ultramafic body at its northeastern end. New whole-rock geochemical data, petrological classifications, and published data, including recent Tellus aeromagnetic and radiometric results, have been used to establish 15 distinct zones across the four bodies of the NIC. These become broadly younger to the southwest of the complex and toward the centres of individual plutons. In places, zones are defined by both current compositional data (geochemistry and petrology) and Tellus results. This is particularly clear at the eastern edge of the NIC, where a thorium-elevated airborne radiometric signature occurs alongside distinct concentrations of various elements from geochemistry. However, in the northeastern-most pluton of the NIC, a prominent ring-shaped aeromagnetic anomaly occurs independent of any observed surface compositional variation, and thus the zones in this area are defined by aeromagnetic data only. The origins of this and other aeromagnetic anomalies are as yet undetermined, although in places, these closely correspond to facies at the surface. The derived zonation for the NIC supports incremental emplacement of the complex as separate, distinct magma pulses. Each pulse is thought to have originated from the same fractionally crystallising source that periodically underwent mixing with more basic magma.

  20. Home heating and respiratory symptoms among children in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothwell, Janice E; McManus, Lisa; Crawford, Vivienne L S; Burns, Gerry; Stewart, Moira C; Shields, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the authors assessed whether home heating with a glass-fronted solid fuel fire (GFF) affected the respiratory health of children in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Questionnaires were mailed to 2,480 households within 4 medical general practice areas of the city. Respiratory symptoms, tobacco exposure, socioeconomic status, and crowding were studied. The authors found statistically significant relationships (p GFF heating and wheeze, cough, and asthma diagnosis (odds ratios [ORs] = 3.23, 2.91, and 1.83, respectively). After controlling for tobacco exposure, social deprivation, and crowding, GFF heating remained associated with wheeze, cough, and asthma diagnosis (ORs = 2.47, 2.20, and 1.81, respectively). Respiratory symptoms were triggered 6 times more often when GFF heating was turned on, compared with when it was off. A pilot environmental study of 19 homes determined that levels of particulate matter with diameters GFF heating was on. Home heating with GFF is associated with respiratory symptoms in children; in fact, PM10 levels may be the causal link.

  1. Does social deprivation influence inter-group contact outcomes for pupils in Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Hughes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The education system in Northern Ireland is characterized by division, with around 95% of the pupil population attending predominantly co-religionist schools. In a society that is transitioning from a thirty year conflict that has been framed by hostilities between the main Catholic and Protestant communities, reconciliation interventions in education have sought to promote the value of intergroup contact between pupils attending separate schools. Some qualitative research suggests that such initiatives are more likely to have positive outcomes for pupils from more middle class backgrounds than those from more disadvantaged communities and areas that experienced high levels of conflict related incidents and deaths during the pre-ceasefire years. Drawing on contact theory and empirical evidence from a large scale quantitative study, we seek to examine this theory. Using free school meals as a proxy for social class, our findings are consistent in finding that there is a differential impact of contact for those from less affluent backgrounds, and we conclude by arguing that this should be reflected in policy responses.

  2. Maternal Religiosity, Family Resources and Stressors, and Parent–Child Attachment Security in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the associations between mothers' religiosity, and families' and children's functioning in a stratified random sample of 695 Catholic and Protestant mother-child dyads in socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a region which has experienced centuries of sectarian conflict between Protestant Unionists and Catholics Nationalists. Findings based on mother and child surveys indicated that even in this context of historical political violence associated with religious affiliation, mothers' religiosity played a consistently positive role, including associations with multiple indicators of better family functioning (i.e., more cohesion and behavioral control and less conflict, psychological distress, and adjustment problems) and greater parent-child attachment security. Mothers' religiosity also moderated the association between parent-child attachment security and family resources and family stressors, enhancing positive effects of cohesion and mother behavioral control on mother-child attachment security, and providing protection against risks associated with mothers' psychological distress. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the role of religiosity in serving as a protective or risk factor for children and families. PMID:26877597

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus in Northern Ireland-1991 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Allen

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus has far reaching animal health and economic impacts at both the local and national levels. Alongside traditional veterinary epidemiology, the use of molecular typing has recently been applied to inform on bacterial population structure and identify epidemiologically-linked cases of infection. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat VNTR analysis (MLVA was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a well-characterised Brucella abortus epidemic in Northern Ireland involving 387 herds between 1991 and 2012.MLVA identified 98 unique B. abortus genotypes from disclosing isolates in the 387 herds involved in the epidemic. Clustering algorithms revealed the relatedness of many of these genotypes. Combined with epidemiological information on chronology of infection and geographic location, these genotype data helped to identify 7 clonal complexes which underpinned the outbreak over the defined period. Hyper-variability of some VNTR loci both within herds and individual animals led to detection of multiple genotypes associated with single outbreaks. However with dense sampling, these genotypes could still be associated with specific clonal complexes thereby permitting inference of epidemiological links. MLVA- based epidemiological monitoring data were congruent with an independent classical veterinary epidemiology study carried out in the same territory.MLVA is a useful tool in ongoing disease surveillance of B. abortus outbreaks, especially when combined with accurate epidemiological information on disease tracings, geographical clustering of cases and chronology of infection.

  4. Exit and voice: an investigation of care service users in Austria, Belgium, Italy, and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger de Campo, Marianne

    2007-06-01

    The past decades have seen an introduction of market elements in the provision of social care services (Finer 1999; Mabbett and Bolderson 1999). Welfare state reforms all over Europe have produced welfare pluralism and claims that the increased choice will enhance user participation, promote older persons' autonomy, and improve the quality of services. Within the Fifth FP Research Project CARMA (Care for the Aged at Risk of Marginalization) a case study among users of care services in Austria, Belgium, Italy, and Northern Ireland was conducted that focussed on friction and conflict between clients and service providers and investigated the reasons for discharge and denial of admission to a service. The data from this study can be interpreted in terms of Hirschman's (Exit, voice, and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1970) theory on 'exit' and 'voice' as expressions of consumers' dissatisfaction with the quality of a product. Data were collected in different systems offering a variety of procedures for exit from one provider and the choice of a competitor. Also different practices of handling voice i.e., complaints have been documented. The paper questions to what extent various possibilities for exit and voice can enhance users' autonomy and increase the quality of the service supply. It thus contributes empirical findings to a debate that often emphasizes ideological arguments.

  5. Insulin knowledge and practice: a survey of district nurses in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Alison; Reid, Bernie; Laird, Elizabeth A

    2017-03-02

    Insulin is one of the top ten high-alert medications worldwide. Approximately 30% of people with diabetes in the UK use injectable therapies, most commonly insulin, to manage their condition. With an increasing number of people with diabetes being managed within the community, district nurses play an important role in the safe and effective use of insulin. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 164 district nurses working within one Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland to ascertain their knowledge and practice regarding insulin. Study response rate was 38% (n=63). It was found that district nurses' knowledge and practice relating to insulin therapy was lacking as indicated by a total mean score of 53.1%. Total knowledge scores were slightly higher (58%) than total practice scores (46%). Nevertheless, 79.4% of district nurses felt secure and 6.3% felt very secure in managing diabetes. Deficits in district nurses' knowledge and practice were identified in areas relating to insulin action, dosage, storage, injection site technique and rotation, hypoglycaemic/hyperglycaemic management, pharmacological action and prescription format. These deficits highlight the need for workplacebased learning and development programmes, incorporating real time, point of care interventions, to enhance and maintain district nurses' insulin knowledge and practice.

  6. Smoking and peer groups: results from a longitudinal qualitative study of young people in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Sittlington, Julie; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Harrisson, Sheila; Treacy, Margaret; Abaunza, Pilar Santos

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that young people are under considerable social pressure to take up smoking. This study has therefore sought to explore and better understand the mechanisms through which peer-related social factors operate to encourage young people to smoke. Individual qualitative interviews were held with adolescent children aged 11-12 years (N = 102) within youth clubs based in economically deprived areas of Northern Ireland, and then followed up on two occasions during the subsequent 3 years (N = 51/39). The data implied that, although peers influence smoking uptake, this seldom happens through direct persuasion, but rather as the result of the young person striving to conform to the normative behaviour of the peer group with which they identify. The findings are consistent with social identity theory and self-categorization theory in that for both smoking and nonsmoking 14-year-olds smoking activity appears to provide a means through which to define social groups, to accentuate similarity within groups and differences between groups. In-group favouritism was expressed in the sharing of cigarettes within the in-group and in the negative stereotyping of out-group members. There was some evidence that group affiliation may be negotiated differently for boys and girls. These findings imply that successful intervention needs to reconsider the normative processes that encourage young people to smoke.

  7. A Cross-national Perspective on Cyberbullying among School Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Supplement to Mora-Merchan and Jäger (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Mc Guckin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide a review of the current knowledge regarding cyberbullying in the Northern Ireland school system. There is great value in exploring cyberbullying from a cross-national perspective. Whilst recent literature presents cross-national perspectives on the nature, incidence, correlates and prevention of cyberbullying, encompassing a wide range of countries, Northern Ireland is not included. Given its volatile social, ethnic and religious history, Northern Ireland may potentially be an important addition to such cross-national perspectives.

  8. f2f and cyberbullying among children in Northern Ireland: Data from the Kids Life and Times Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline K. Cummins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively little is known about the nature, incidence andcorrelates of bully/victim problems in the Northern Ireland school system. The present study examined the prevalence of self-reported experiences of bully/victim problems (f2f and cyber, and the relationship between such experiences and levels of psychological wellbeing among representative samples of primary school pupils who participated in the 2008 and 2009 ‘Kids Life and Times Survey’ (ARK, 2008, 2009. Bully/victim problems among these children were pervasive. Personal experience of involvement in bully/victim problems was associated with impaired psychological well-being.Findings are interpreted within the context of previous data from Northern Ireland and the wider international literature on bully/victim problems.

  9. Does integration really make a difference? A comparison of old age psychiatry services in England and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, S; Challis, D; Burns, A; Hughes, J

    2003-10-01

    This paper seeks to address whether integrated structures are associated with more integrated forms of service. Northern Ireland has one of the most structurally integrated and comprehensive models of health and personal social services in Europe. Social and health services are jointly administered and this arrangement should, in theory, promote collaborative working and interdisciplinary arrangements. The study employed a cross-sectional survey of consultants in old age psychiatry in England and Northern Ireland. Potential respondents were sourced from the UK Royal College of Psychiatrists membership list and locally collected information. A self-administered postal questionnaire. Along with general service arrangements, the domains measured reflect core policy issues for older people's services. Under particular scrutiny in this study were the degree of integration of health and social service provision, as well as inter-professional team working. The integrated health and social care services in Northern Ireland do appear to provide more integrated patterns of working, primarily in managerial arrangements and in the location of staff. There was no evidence of the impact of integration on practice in areas such as: assessment, referral and medical screening. The factors found to be associated with greater integration of health and social care in the prediction model fell into three categories: provision of specialist services; provision of outreach activities; and shared policies by which the whole team worked. Health and personal social services in Northern Ireland have a distinct advantage over their counterparts in comparable areas of England. The results indicate that integrated structures in old age psychiatry services are associated more with integrated management systems and less with integrated practice-related activities. Further research is required on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of integrating services in general. It is important that

  10. 6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    6 March 2013 - Committee for Employment and Learning, Northern Ireland Legislative Assembly, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the LHC tunnel and visiting the LHCb experiment at LHC Point 8. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers with Vice-Chair T. Buchanan.

  11. Hospital Infection Society prevalence survey of Healthcare Associated Infection 2006: comparison of results between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, F

    2008-07-01

    As part of the Third Healthcare Associated Infection (HCAI) Prevalence Survey of the United Kingdom and Ireland, HCAI point prevalence surveys were carried out in Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Here we explore the potential benefits of comparing results from two countries with different healthcare systems, which employed similar methodologies and identical HCAI definitions. Forty-four acute adult hospitals in the RoI and 15 in NI participated with a total of 11 185 patients surveyed (NI 3644 patients and RoI 7541). The overall HCAI prevalence was 5.4 and 4.9 in NI and the RoI, respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence rates of HCAI, device-related HCAI or HCAI associated with bloodstream infection but there was a difference in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-related HCAI (P = 0.02) between the two countries. There were significantly more urinary tract infections and Clostridium difficile infections recorded in NI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). HCAIs were more prevalent in patients aged >65 years and in the intensive care unit in both countries. HCAIs were also more prevalent if patients were mechanically ventilated, had had recent non-implant surgery (RoI) or had more recorded HCAI risk factors. This is the first time that HCAI prevalence rates have been directly compared between NI and the RoI. By closely examining similarities and differences between HCAI prevalence rates in both countries it is hoped that this will influence healthcare planning and at the same time reassure the public that HCAI is important and that measures are being taken to combat it.

  12. Urban and rural variations in morbidity and mortality in Northern Ireland

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    Rosato Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a public health perspective and for the appropriate allocation of resources it is important to understand the differences in health between areas. This paper examines the variations in morbidity and mortality between urban and rural areas. Methods This is a cohort study looking at morbidity levels of the population of Northern Ireland at the time of the 2001 census, and subsequent mortality over the following four years. Individual characteristics including demographic and socio-economic factors were as recorded on census forms. The urban-rural nature of residence was based on census areas (average population c1900 classified into eight settlement bands, ranging from cities to rural settlements with populations of less than 1000. Results The study shows that neither tenure nor car availability are unbiased measures of deprivation in the urban-rural context. There is no indication that social class is biased. There was an increasing gradient of poorer health from rural to urban areas, where mortality rates were about 22% (95% Confidence Intervals 19%–25% higher than the most rural areas. Differences in death rates between rural and city areas were evident for most of the major causes of death but were greatest for respiratory disease and lung cancer. Conversely, death rates in the most rural areas were higher in children and adults aged less than 20. Conclusion Urban areas appear less healthy than the more rural areas and the association with respiratory disease and lung cancer suggests that pollution may be a factor. Rural areas however, have higher death rates amongst younger people, something which requires further research. There is also a need for additional indicators of deprivation that have equal meaning in urban and rural areas.

  13. Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006

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    Drobniewski Francis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have long been identified as capable of causing human disease and the number at risk, due to immune-suppression, is rising. Several reports have suggested incidence to be increasing, yet routine surveillance-based evidence is lacking. We investigated recent trends in, and the epidemiology of, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006. Methods Hospital laboratories voluntarily report non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections to the Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections. Details reported include age and sex of the patient, species, specimen type and source laboratory. All reports were analysed. Results The rate of non-tuberculous mycobacteria reports rose from 0.9 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 2.9 per 100,000 in 2006 (1608 reports. Increases were mainly in pulmonary specimens and people aged 60+ years. The most commonly reported species was Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (43%; M. malmoense and M. kansasii were also commonly reported. M. gordonae showed the biggest increase over the study period rising from one report in 1995 to 153 in 2006. Clinical information was rarely reported. Conclusions The number and rate of reports increased considerably between 1995 and 2006, primarily in older age groups and pulmonary specimens. Increases in some species are likely to be artefacts but real changes in more pathogenic species, some of which will require clinical care, should not be excluded. Enhanced surveillance is needed to understand the true epidemiology of these infections and their impact on human health.

  14. Patterns of suicidal ideation and behavior in Northern Ireland and associations with conflict related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Neill

    Full Text Available In this study, data from the World Mental Health Survey's Northern Ireland (NI Study of Health and Stress (NISHS was used to assess the associations between conflict- and non-conflict-related traumatic events and suicidal behaviour, controlling for age and gender and the effects of mental disorders in NI. DSM mental disorders and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI in a multi-stage, clustered area probability household sample (N = 4,340, response rate 68.4%. The traumatic event categories were based on event types listed in the PTSD section of the CIDI. Suicidal ideation and attempts were more common in women than men, however, rates of suicide plans were similar for both genders. People with mood, anxiety and substance disorders were significantly more likely than those without to endorse suicidal ideation, plan or attempt. The highest odds ratios for all suicidal behaviors were for people with any mental disorder. However, the odds of seriously considering suicide were significantly higher for people with conflict and non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with people who had not experienced a traumatic event. The odds of having a suicide plan remain significantly higher for people with conflict-related traumatic events compared to those with only non-conflict-related events and no traumatic events. Finally, the odds of suicide attempt were significantly higher for people who have only non-conflict-related traumatic events compared with the other two categories. The results suggest that traumatic events associated with the NI conflict may be associated with suicidal ideation and plans, and this effect appears to be in addition to that explained by the presence of mental disorders. The reduced rates of suicide attempts among people who have had a conflict-related traumatic event may reflect a higher rate of single, fatal suicide attempts in this population.

  15. A cross-national perspective on cyberbullying among school pupils in Northern Ireland: A supplement to Mora-Merchan and Jäger (2011).

    OpenAIRE

    McGuckin, Conor

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED The aim of the present study was to provide a review of the current knowledge regarding cyberbullying in the Northern Ireland school system. There is great value in exploring cyberbullying from a cross-national perspective. Whilst recent literature presents cross-national perspectives on the nature, incidence, correlates, and prevention of cyberbullying, encompassing a wide range of countries, Northern Ireland is not included. Given its volatile social, ethnic, and religious his...

  16. Schools as institutions for peace in Northern Ireland: pupils’, parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on the community relations dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Smith

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the research reported in this paper is to inform the processes of school improvement for better intercommunal relations in Northern Ireland. Notwithstanding the present peace process, the quality of community relations remains a crucial concern for those interested in long-term stability. The research strategy drew on data from nine case study schools and was considered to be part of an interpretist-constructivist paradigm involving an inductive or grounded theory approach to analysis. The views of pupils, parents and teachers on the contribution of schooling towards improved inter-group relationships were explored in some depth and the wealth of rich data shed light on school practices and key institutional factors implicated in effectiveness and improvement. Nineteen themes were identified which appeared not to be discrete or self-contained but interact in complex ways creating different patterns at different organisational sites. Furthermore, the patterns spun by these factors appeared to vary in nature through relationship with identities such as geographical location, socio-economic status, ethnicity and gender. It is argued that this study contributes towards the existing literatures on school effectiveness and improvement and schooling and sectarianism in Northern Ireland. The results suggested that education for community relations in N. Ireland required an alternative concept of school effectiveness to the received model. The emerging organisational picture was more consistent with sensitivity to context models of effectiveness and improvement. The analysis in the final section was designed to offer some broad pointers for school improvement.

  17. Older people--recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGee, Hannah M

    2008-09-01

    Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251\\/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033\\/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578\\/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102\\/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery.

  18. Older people--recipients but also providers of informal care: an analysis among community samples in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah M; Molloy, Gerard; O'Hanlon, Ann; Layte, Richard; Hickey, Anne

    2008-09-01

    Data on both the provision and receipt of informal care among populations of older adults are limited. Patterns of both informal care provided and received by older adults in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI) were evaluated. A cross-sectional community-based population survey was conducted. Randomly selected older people (aged 65+, n = 2033, mean age (standard deviation): 74.1 years (6.8), 43% men, 68% response rate) provided information on the provision and receipt of care, its location, and the person(s) who provided the care. Twelve per cent of the sample (251/2033) identified themselves as informal caregivers (8% RoI and 17% NI). Caregivers were more likely to be women, married, have less education and have less functional impairment. Forty-nine per cent (1033/2033, 49% RoI and 48% NI) reported receiving some form of care in the past year. Care recipients were more likely to be older, married, have more functional impairment, and poorer self-rated health. Receiving regular informal care (help at least once a week) from a non-resident relative was the most common form of help received [28% overall (578/2033); 27% RoI and 30% NI]. Five per cent (n = 102/2033) of the sample reported both providing and receiving informal care. Levels of informal care provided by community-dwelling older adults were notably higher than reported in single-item national census questions. The balance of formal and informal health and social care will become increasingly important as populations age. It is essential, therefore, to evaluate factors facilitating or impeding informal care delivery.

  19. Meningococcal ACWY vaccine uptake and awareness among student freshers enrolled at Northern Ireland universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Peter J A; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2017-01-18

    A new MenACWY conjugate meningococcal vaccination programme was introduced in Northern Ireland (NI) in August 2015, for 13-18 year olds, as well as for first-time university entrants up to 25 years. This reflected the response made by Public Health England, due to the recent rapid increase of meningococcal group W (MenW) disease and on advice of the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI). The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the uptake of the MenACWY vaccine among first-time university students, (ii) vaccine and meningitis awareness, (iii) optimal communication modalities via a multidisciplinary team (MDT) model and (iv) current international vaccination policies relating to non-UK students. A survey was completed by 1210 students, 868 first-time freshers and 342 non-freshers, from healthcare-related, non-healthcare-related and engineering/computing faculties. The survey included an anonymous questionnaire and consented students were aged 17-50 years with a 2:3 ratio of male:female. Vaccine uptake amongst 18-year-old students was 90.7% and 87.3% in female and male cohorts, respectively, falling to 72.1% and 67.7% (19-year cohort) and 32.7% and 39.6% (20- to 25-year cohort) in males and females, respectively. Students reported that posters, clinics and talks were the preferred methods of communication and not social media. There was general lack of awareness of the signs/symptoms of meningitis and approximately 30% of students falsely believed that administration of the MenACWY vaccine excluded the risk of contracting meningitis. Overall, there was a successful vaccination campaign; however, there was a lack of meningitis awareness. Due to differing international meningococcal vaccination schedules, international students enrolling at UK universities need to be informed about current UK policies. For the successful introduction of any vaccination programme amongst university students, it is fundamental that a MDT is established to inform

  20. The criminal use of improvised and re-activated firearms in Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlow, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    involved became more and more apparent, as was a move by them to bulk restoration. The use of restored arms in serious and often drug related crime, spread to the other mainland British cities, and eventually to Northern Ireland. More rigorous de-activation standards were introduced in 1995 to help counter this perceived threat, particularly in respect of handguns and full-automatic weapons. Blank cartridge pistols and air cartridge pistols were also being modified to allow their use with bulleted ammunition in the commission of criminal offences. As a result all air cartridge guns were placed into the prohibited weapons category in 2003, and the possession of imitation firearms in a public place without good reason, also became an offence. The Government is now considering further legislation, which will affect the sale of replica firearms and cartridge reloading equipment and materials.

  1. France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  2. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  3. Do dissociative disorders exist in Northern Ireland?: Blind psychiatric - structured interview assessments of 20 complex psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Dorahy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dissociative disorders remain relatively controversial diagnoses in British psychiatry. The aim of the current paper was to assess Northern Irish psychiatric patients with complex clinical presentations for dissociative disorders. Method: Twenty patients meeting operationally defined criteria for psychiatric complexity were blindly assessed by a psychiatrist in a diagnostic interview followed by a clinical psychologist in a structured interview. Results: Thirteen of the 20 participants were positive for at least one dissociative disorder. Those with a dissociative disorder had a range of co-morbid problems and all reported histories of childhood trauma and neglect. Conclusion: The psychiatric symptom profiles of dissociative disorders in Northern Ireland are similar to those reported in the literature. Complex psychiatric presentations offer a potential diagnostic clue for such conditions.

  4. Do dissociative disorders exist in Northern Ireland?: Blind psychiatric - structured interview assessments of 20 complex psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Dorahy

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dissociative disorders remain relatively controversial diagnoses in British psychiatry. The aim of the current paper was to assess Northern Irish psychiatric patients with complex clinical presentations for dissociative disorders. Method: Twenty patients meeting operationally defined criteria for psychiatric complexity were blindly assessed by a psychiatrist in a diagnostic interview followed by a clinical psychologist in a structured interview. Results: Thirteen of the 20 participants were positive for at least one dissociative disorder. Those with a dissociative disorder had a range of co-morbid problems and all reported histories of childhood trauma and neglect. Conclusion: The psychiatric symptom profiles of dissociative disorders in Northern Ireland are similar to those reported in the literature. Complex psychiatric presentations offer a potential diagnostic clue for such conditions.

  5. Spatial and temporal analyses for multiscale monitoring of landslides: Examples from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; McKinley, Jennifer; Hughes, David

    2013-04-01

    slopes with DEMs of difference showing areas of recent movement, erosion and deposition. In addition, changes in the structure of the slope characterised by DEM of difference and morphological parameters in the form of roughness, slope and curvature measures are progressively linked to failures indicated from temporal DEM monitoring. Preliminary results are presented for a case site at Straidkilly Point, Glenarm, Co. Antrim, Northern Ireland, illustrating multiple approaches to the spatial and temporal monitoring of landslides. These indicate how spatial morphological approaches and risk assessment frameworks coupled with TLS monitoring and field instrumentation enable characterisation and prediction of potential areas of slope stability issues. On site weather instrumentation and piezometers document changes in pore water pressures resulting in site-specific information with geotechnical observations parameterised within the temporal LiDAR monitoring. This provides a multifaceted approach to the characterisation and analysis of slope stability issues. The presented methodology of multiscale datasets and surveying approaches utilising spatial parameters and risk index mapping enables a more comprehensive and effective prediction of landslides resulting in effective characterisation and remediation strategies.

  6. Joint Interpretation of Magnetotellurics and Airborne Electromagnetics in the Rathlin Basin, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Robert; Rath, Volker; Jones, Alan G.; Reay, Derek; The Iretherm Team

    2015-04-01

    In this study we present results from geophysical investigation of the sedimentary Rathlin Basin in Northern Ireland in order to assess the potential for low-to-medium enthalpy geothermal aquifers within the porous Permian and Triassic sandstone groups. The area and groups were identified as a potential geothermal resource due to the presence of both an elevated geothermal gradient (observed in two deep boreholes onshore) and favourable hydraulic properties (measured on core samples in the offshore part of the basin). Previous seismic experiments were not able to fully characterise the sediments beneath the overlying flood basalt. Complementing these earlier results, magnetotelluric data were acquired on a grid of 56 sites across the north-eastern portion of the onshore Rathlin Basin, and an additional 12 sites on the nearby Rathlin Island, in order to image the thickness, depth, and lateral continuity of the target sediments. Analysis and 3D modelling, including the effects of the highly conducting ocean, has been successful in deriving a resistivity model that maps the variation in the top of the sediments (base of the basalts) and the truncation of the basin sediments against the Tow Valley Fault, and gives a reasonable estimate of the thickness of the sediment fill. However, the resulting models show significant effects from distortion caused by near-surface inhomogeneities in the responses that cannot be resolved using the given frequency range and site density. Fortunately, for the area of Rathlin Basin, airborne electromagnetic data from the TELLUS project (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/gsni/tellus/contact/index.html) are available. These data were measured at four frequencies between 0.9 kHz and 25 kHz in a verical-coplanar loop configuration, with the dipole axis in flight direction. The spatial sampling distance was less than 25 m, with about 200 m distance between flight lines. Survey altitudes vary between 56 m and 244 m. Thus, for the top ˜100 m penetrated by

  7. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...

  8. 浅析北爱尔兰冲突的根源%An Analysis of Northern Ireland Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽卿

    2001-01-01

    The political problem in Northern Ireland is the absence of common ground, and the communities are deeply divided in their political goals and aspirations. The balance of communal power is unstable and the political climate is one of ambiguity and uncertainty. Each community seeks a settlement which will improve its overall position; each fear an outcome which will leave it weaker than before. Fortunately, the past decade witnessed the steady growth of peace strength. Difficulties and twists and tums are to be expected.However, the ice has been broken, and Northern Ireland's history of conflict and violence has finally come to a new turn.%北爱尔兰冲突有其深刻的政治和历史原因,根深蒂固的民族和宗教矛盾、缺少共同的政治目标以及冲突双方对权利划分的分歧是北爱问题的症结所在.幸运的是在世纪之交,和平的力量在不断增强.虽然永久和平的路可能是艰难曲折的,但毕竟坚冰已破,曙光已经初现.

  9. The effects of location, experiences with the civil disturbances and religion on death anxiety and manifest anxiety in a sample of Northern Ireland university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G W; Bunting, B; Snook, S

    1979-06-01

    A total of 315 Northern Ireland university students were compared to 302 Republic of Ireland university students in terms of death anxiety, manifest anxiety, and perception of dangerousness of aspects of their environment and attitudes toward the civil disturbances in Northern Ireland. Also using these variables in the Northern Ireland sample, Protestants were compared to Catholics, those having had experiences with the disturbances were compared to those not having had such experiences, and those living in nominally dangerous areas of Belfast were compared to those living in nominally safer areas of Belfast. Students living in Northern Ireland had higher death anxiety and stronger fears than students living in the Republic. Those having had experiences with the civil violence had higher manifest anxiety and stronger fears than those not having has such experiences. Persons living in safe environments thought the disturbances to be more serious than those living in more dangerous environments, a result which is discussed in terms of the media and cognitive dissonance. Finally, an argument is made that the influence of religious denomination is an overemphasized variable in the understanding of the civil disturbances.

  10. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P light of the changing composition of broiler litter.

  11. Using Focus Groups to Research Sensitive Issues: Insights from Group Interviews on Nursing in the Northern Ireland “Troubles”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Jordan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.

  12. Drug Abuse and Parenting: The Impact on Young Children in the Social Care System in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years drug abuse has been recognised as a growing problem in Northern Ireland. The following article examines the family backgrounds of a group of young children (n=388 who were looked-after by social services and looks specifically at a group (n=162 whose family lives have involved adults who misuse drugs. Children from drug-abusing families did not show greater levels of recorded abuse or neglect than the other children in the "looked after" population nor were they more likely to stay within the care system. However, the prevalence of heroin and cocaine use in this population was extremely small. Drug abuse in this population was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse, mental health problems and offending behaviour within the family. There was evidence of a reduction in drug abuse within families over a two year period of social work involvement.

  13. Self reported outcomes and adverse events after medical abortion through online telemedicine: population based study in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Digol, Irena; Trussell, James; Gomperts, Rebecca

    2017-05-16

    Objectives To assess self reported outcomes and adverse events after self sourced medical abortion through online telemedicine.Design Population based study.Setting Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, where abortion is unavailable through the formal healthcare system except in a few restricted circumstances.Population 1000 women who underwent self sourced medical abortion through Women on Web (WoW), an online telemedicine service, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012.Main outcome measures Successful medical abortion: the proportion of women who reported ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Rates of adverse events: the proportion who reported treatment for adverse events, including receipt of antibiotics and blood transfusion, and deaths reported by family members, friends, or the authorities. Care seeking for symptoms of potential complications: the frequency with which women reported experiencing symptoms of a potentially serious complication and the proportion who reported seeking medical attention as advised.Results In 2010-12, abortion medications (mifepristone and misoprostol) were sent to 1636 women and follow-up information was obtained for 1158 (71%). Among these, 1023 women confirmed use of the medications, and follow-up information was available for 1000. At the time women requested help from WoW, 781 (78%) were <7 weeks pregnant and 219 (22%) were 7-9 weeks pregnant. Overall, 94.7% (95% confidence interval 93.1% to 96.0%) reported successfully ending their pregnancy without surgical intervention. Seven women (0.7%, 0.3% to 1.5%) reported receiving a blood transfusion, and 26 (2.6%, 1.7% to 3.8%) reported receiving antibiotics (route of administration (IV or oral) could not be determined). No deaths resulting from the intervention were reported by family, friends, the authorities, or the media. Ninety three women (9.3%, 7.6% to 11.3%) reported experiencing any symptom for which they were advised to seek medical advice

  14. Risk factors for visible lesions or positive laboratory tests in bovine tuberculosis reactor cattle in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Courcier, E A; Drewe, J A; Gordon, A W; McNair, J; Abernethy, D A

    2015-07-01

    An observational case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for confirmed bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection in cattle reacting positively to the single intradermal comparative cervical test (SICCT) in Northern Ireland in the years 1998, 2002 and 2006. Macroscopic lesions were detected at slaughter (positive visible lesion (VL) status) in 43.0% of reactor cattle, whilst 45.3% of those sampled were confirmed as bTB positive due to the presence of lesions or positive histopathology/mycobacterial culture (positive bTB status). In 97.5% of the reactors, the VL status and bTB status were either both negative or both positive. Generalized linear mixed model analyses were conducted on data of 24,923 reactor cattle with the variables herd identifier, local veterinary office (DVO) and abattoir being used as random effects within all the models generated at univariable and multivariable level. The other variables within the dataset were used as fixed effects. Significant risk factors associated with VL status and bTB status at multivariable level (pbovine tuberculin injection site, epidemiological status of skin test, total number of reactors at the disclosure test, mean herd size and prior response to the skin test. These risk factors are likely related to the time since infection, the strength of the challenge of infection and the susceptibility of the animal. These findings are important as the detection of visible lesions and the confirmation of bTB are an integral part of the overall bTB control programme in Northern Ireland and the veterinary meat inspection and hygiene programme. The visible lesion status and bTB status of an animal can affect the way in which bTB breakdowns are managed, since failure to detect visible lesions and recovery of Mycobacterium bovis can lead to a less stringent follow-up after other risk factors have been taken into account.

  15. The violence on London’s streets is less political and less structured than has been the case in Northern Ireland. It is the result of decades of social and economic deprivation and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Kissane, Bill

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday evening may see the possibility of the use of ‘baton rounds’ by the police to counter rioters in London. While rarely seen in mainland UK, Bill Kissane writes that their use is still normal practice in Northern Ireland. Making comparisons between the two places, he asks are British riots any less dangerous than those of Northern Ireland?

  16. The Potential of All the "P's"--Provision, Practice and Positioning of Parenting Programmes: Can Application of These Collectively Attain a P+ in Early Intervention for Families within Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Priscilla

    2017-01-01

    Consideration is given in this article to the provision, practice and positioning of universal parenting programmes in Northern Ireland. The article commences with an outline of the provision of programmes that currently exist in Northern Ireland, progressing to an overview of the practice and the positioning of these programmes. This is followed…

  17. Voice of Young People in Care: "Don't Be so Formal, I'm Normal" Caspar Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, January 25, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnity, Aine

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author gives a summary of a conference, organized by Voice of Young People in Care (VOYPIC). The event celebrated the publication of the Caspar Research Report--a report on the mental health of looked-after children and care leavers in Northern Ireland. The event was opened by Vivian McConvey, Director of VOYPIC, who gave some…

  18. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  19. Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing Pathways in a Social-Ecological Model Including Single- and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including…

  20. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  1. Giving Children Space to Express Themselves: Exploring Children's Views and Perspectives of Contact Programmes in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misoska, Ana Tomovska

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the perspectives of 10-11-year-old children from conflict-affected areas in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Macedonia. By drawing upon Bronfennbrenner's ecological theory and Bourdieu's notion of habitus, the main aim of the paper is to show different reactions to intergroup contact based on the children's previous…

  2. Subject-Based and Cross-Curricular Approaches within the Revised Primary Curriculum in Northern Ireland: Teachers' Concerns and Preferred Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A revision of the Northern Ireland Primary Curriculum took place in 2007. It promotes strongly a cross-curricular or thematic approach to planning and teaching and has an "Area of Learning" structure which includes geography alongside history and science and technology in an area called "The World Around Us". Responses from…

  3. Creating a Shared Society in Northern Ireland: Why We Need to Focus on Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ann Marie; Neill, Gail

    2011-01-01

    International evidence has increasingly highlighted the necessity to understand the impact of conflict on the lives of girls and women and the importance of addressing gender equality as part of peace processes. This article argues that women, and especially young women, have been left out of much of the conflict discourse within Northern Ireland…

  4. Modelling the development of rocky shoreline profiles along the northern coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; Trenhaile, Alan S.; Edwards, Robin J.

    2013-12-01

    A mathematical wave-erosion model is used to simulate postglacial shoreline profiles along the rocky, high energy coast of the north of Ireland. The wave erosion model is driven by a suite of relative sea-level (RSL) curves for the last 16,000 years produced from four glacial rebound models. Multiple runs are performed with different initial shore profiles and rock resistances to investigate shoreline evolution and the significance of inherited morphology on the resultant profile shape. The simulated profiles are then compared with mapped profiles from three areas of the north of Ireland with different lithological and hydrographic properties. Modelled profiles generally replicate the overall mean shoreline gradients observed across the region when rock resistance is relatively high and erosion rates correspondingly low. In these profiles, breaks in mean slope are observed at depths comparable to the RSL minima in several of the RSL scenarios (at c. - 10 m, - 15 m and - 20 m for North Antrim, Derry and Donegal respectively). At Portrush and Portballintrae (Derry), profiles may be influenced by structural controls relating to the underlying basalt surface and the removal of overlying glaciogenic sediments. All RSL scenarios replicate the observed eastward increase in cliff-platform junction height, reflecting the differential glacioisostatic rebound experienced along the coast. However, the precise elevation at which the simulated cliff base occurs is sensitive to the choice of RSL scenario, suggesting that this parameter may prove useful in evaluating glacial rebound model performance. Several of the RSL scenarios generate raised shore platforms or terraces in North Antrim and Derry at heights comparable to raised shoreline features reported in the literature. However, no single curve or combination of parameters is capable of generating the range of platform and terrace features observed in the bathymetric and topographic data. These misfits are consistent with

  5. Five years of beach drainage survey on a macrotidal beach (Quend-Plage, northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olivier; Toulec, Renaud; Combaud, Anne; Villemagne, Guillaume; Barrier, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    A drainage system was installed in 2008 on the macrotidal beach of Quend-Plage, close to Abbeville (Somme, northern France), following a period of significant erosion of recreational areas. The "Direction départementale des territoires et de la mer" (French Coastal Department Authority) has requested a biannual survey in order to validate the beach drainage setup and its efficiency. This paper presents the methodology used for this survey, and the response of the coastal system to this soft engineering method for preventing erosion. These five years of drainage operation have strongly modified the morphology of the beach. Three main modifications occurred: (i) accretion of the upper beach and foredune, (ii) erosion of the lower and middle beach and (iii) a slight shift in directions of the beach bars and troughs. These morphological changes finally led to the stabilization of the beach.

  6. Assessment of ecotoxicological risks related to depositing dredged materials from canals in northern France on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Yves; Babut, Marc; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Bray, Marc; Clement, Bernard; Delolme, Cécile; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Montuelle, Bernard

    2006-08-01

    The implementation of an ecological risk assessment framework is presented for dredged material deposits on soil close to a canal and groundwater, and tested with sediment samples from canals in northern France. This framework includes two steps: a simplified risk assessment based on contaminant concentrations and a detailed risk assessment based on toxicity bioassays and column leaching tests. The tested framework includes three related assumptions: (a) effects on plants (Lolium perenne L.), (b) effects on aquatic organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Xenopus laevis) and (c) effects on groundwater contamination. Several exposure conditions were tested using standardised bioassays. According to the specific dredged material tested, the three assumptions were more or less discriminatory, soil and groundwater pollution being the most sensitive. Several aspects of the assessment procedure must now be improved, in particular assessment endpoint design for risks to ecosystems (e.g., integration of pollutant bioaccumulation), bioassay protocols and column leaching test design.

  7. A possible tsunami deposit around the Jurassic Cretaceous boundary in the Boulonnais area (northern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Johann; Baudin, François; Deconinck, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    An unusual succession of facies locally deposited around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Boulonnais (northern France) is attributed to a tsunami event by comparison with recent tsunami deposits. This sedimentary succession includes basal erosion with reworked lithified blocks, soft-sediment deformations, an erosional conglomerate overlain by wood fragments and clays containing continental and marine fossils in one setting and conglomerate with mixed fauna in an other setting. The tsunami probably affected the coast of the Boulonnais area of the London-Brabant Massif. The origin of the event is unknown. It was most probably triggered by an earthquake, but other origins such as volcanic eruptions, a giant landslide, or even the impact of an extraterrestrial bolide into the ocean may also be considered.

  8. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  9. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection in cattle in Northern Ireland: a large-scale epidemiological investigation utilising surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; McBride, Stewart; Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Guelbenzu, Maria; McNair, Jim; Skuce, Robin A; McDowell, Stanley W J

    2016-04-14

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a widespread parasite of ruminants which can have significant economic impact on cattle production. Fluke infection status at the animal-level is captured during meat inspection of all animals processed for human consumption within Northern Ireland. These national datasets have not been analysed to assess their utility in uncovering patterns in fluke infection at animal- and herd-levels in Northern Ireland. We utilised a dataset of 1.2 million animal records from ~18,000 herds across 3 years (2011-2013) to assess animal- and herd-level apparent prevalence and risk-factors associated with fluke infection. Animal-level apparent prevalence was measured as the proportion of animals exhibiting evidence of fluke infection at slaughter; between herd-level infection prevalence was measured by binary categorisation of herds (infected or not). "Within herd" infection prevalence was measured using the proportion of animals within a herd that showed evidence of fluke infection per year (ranging from 0-100%). "Within herd" infection prevalence at the herd level was investigated using multivariable modelling. At the animal level, the proportion of animals slaughtered that exhibited evidence of infection was 21-25% amongst years. Across herds, the proportion of herds with at least one infected animal, varied between 61 and 65%. However, there was a significant sampling effect at the herd-level; all herds where at least 105 animals slaughtered over the study period exhibited evidence of fluke infection (100%). There was significant variation in terms of within-herd infection prevalence. Risk factors included herd type, long-term weather variation, geographic location (region) and the abattoir. Liver fluke apparent prevalence was high at the herd-level across years. However, there was lower prevalence at the animal level, which may indicate significant variation in the exposure to fluke infection within herds. The proportion infected within

  10. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  11. Anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland (III): uptake of 'SCOPS' (Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep) recommendations by sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; McCoy, M; Ellison, S E; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-03-31

    Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. A working group of UK researchers and practitioners devised a set of guidelines in 2003 (Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep, 'SCOPS') aimed at maintaining anthelmintic efficacy on farms. Over the years that followed, these guidelines were promoted through meetings, promotional literature and the agricultural press. Results from questionnaires conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which these campaigns have influenced parasite control on sheep farms. The percentage of flocks at risk of under-dosing through inaccurate weight estimation in NI has increased by 15.9% since 2005. The number of flocks at risk of under-dosing through non-calibrated equipment has increased by 14.3% since 2005. The size of the in refugia population may have potentially doubled, as indicated by an increased compliance with the recommendation (wherever possible) to leave a portion of the flock untreated. However, whether this is indeed the case cannot be explicitly determined without a measure of the impact of various factors, including host immunity, environment/climate, previous anthelmintic treatment and the species of parasite present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical phenotypes of autoimmune polyendocrinopathycandidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy seen in the Northern Ireland paediatric population over the last 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Sarinda; Carson, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a variable and evolving phenotypic course. It is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. APECED syndrome is diagnosed clinically by the presence of 2 from 3 major criteria; chronic mucocutaneous candidasis, primary hypoparathyroidism and primary adrenocortical insufficiency. Many of the patients develop all three before the age of 20 years. There is also a wide spectrum of other associated conditions including endocrine and non endocrine manifestations. This paper reviews the clinical phenotypes seen in the paediatric population of Northern Ireland during the last 30 years detailed from a retrospective review of clinical notes. Eight patients were identified with APECED and all patients were found to be homozygous for the c.964dell3 mutation. A wide clinical variation is apparent within APECED syndrome. Paediatricians should be vigilant of the diagnosis when they encounter any of the features described and consider the future development of associated diseases. In confirmed APECED syndrome, clinical and laboratory investigation is essential to initiate early treatment in the patient and other affected members of the family.

  13. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  14. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Devaere

    Full Text Available More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1 anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2 anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3 anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  15. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha) digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Alvaro, J Javier; Peel, John S; Vachard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  16. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspe...

  17. Relative water level change in the intracoastal zone of Belgium and northern France over the last 2500 years

    OpenAIRE

    S. Louwye; Declercq, E.

    1998-01-01

    Water level positions during the Subatlantic in the coastal plain of Belgium and Northern France are assessed by means of indicators such as tidal levees, upper tidal flat deposits and mature salt marshes. The indicators are evaluated for the reconstruction of local mean high water and local mean spring high water levels in the intracoastal zone. No significant altitude difference is observed between the indicators genetically related to the Dunkerque II inundation phase, i.e. before the land...

  18. Predictors of Strength of In-Group Identity in Northern Ireland: Impact of Past Sectarian Conflict, Relative Deprivation, and Church Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Cummings, E Mark

    2015-07-01

    Social identity in Northern Ireland is multifaceted, with historical, religious, political, social, economic, and psychological underpinnings. Understanding the factors that influence the strength of identity with the Protestant or Catholic community, the two predominate social groups in Northern Ireland, has implications for individual well-being as well as for the continuation of tension and violence in this setting of protracted intergroup conflict. This study examined predictors of the strength of in-group identity in 692 women (mean age 37 years) in post-accord Northern Ireland. For Catholics, strength of in-group identity was positively linked to past negative impact of sectarian conflict and more frequent current church attendance, whereas for Protestants, strength of in-group identity was related to greater status satisfaction regarding access to jobs, standard of living, and political power compared to Catholics; that is, those who felt less relative deprivation. The discussion considers the differences in the factors underlying stronger identity for Protestants and Catholics in this context.

  19. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  20. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  1. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Billon, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.billon@univ-lille1.fr [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ouddane, Baghdad [Equipe de Chimie Analytique et Marine, Universite de Lille 1, FRE CNRS Geosystemes 3298, Bat. C8, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boughriet, Abdel [Universite Lille Nord de France, Rue de l' Universite, P.O. Box 819, 62408 Bethune (France)

    2011-02-28

    Research highlights: {yields} A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. {yields} Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. {yields} Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. {yields} Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? {yields} Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water

  2. Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masalehdani, M.N.N.; Mees, F.; Dubois, M.; Coquinot, Y.; Potdevin, J.L.; Fialin, M.; Blanc-Valleron, M.M. [University of Lille 1, Villeneuve Dascq (France)

    2009-06-15

    A coal-waste heap in Avion, northern France, that has been undergoing subsurface combustion for several decades, is marked by the occurrence of efflorescences at combustion sites where gas and water vapor escape from surficial cracks and vents. Analysis of the efflorescences show that twenty different species of mineral are present, comprising various sulfates, as well as halides and native sulfur. The constituents needed for the formation of these minerals are ultimately derived from the heap of coalmine waste, composed mainly of pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shale, coal and minor amounts of sandstone. They may be partly released by acid weathering of waste-heap materials prior to combustion, but largely by thermal decomposition and oxidation of those materials during combustion processes. Formation of the efflorescences near gas-discharge zones indicates transport of constituent to those zones from the inner part of the waste heap, which can occur in the gas phase for some elements (S, N, H and Cl), but would require droplets of water vapor as carriers for most cations. Interaction between condensate solutions and the local debris at the surface of the waste heap may also contribute to cations input prior to the formation of secondary minerals. Most minerals formed from a liquid phase along the rock-debris surface at low temperatures (T {<=}100 {sup o}C), as confirmed by the occurrence of fluid inclusions. Only salammoniac, native sulfur and mascagnite (where crystallized as a monocrystalline phase) were formed directly from a gas phase. The coal-waste heap shows great variations in mineral assemblages among sampling sites, which must be related to variations in waste composition and in conditions at the level at which the elements are released and where mineral formation takes place.

  3. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  4. Correcting for static shift of magnetotelluric data with airborne electromagnetic measurements: a case study from Rathlin Basin, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Robert; Rath, Volker; Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark R.; Reay, Derek

    2017-05-01

    Galvanic distortions of magnetotelluric (MT) data, such as the static-shift effect, are a known problem that can lead to incorrect estimation of resistivities and erroneous modelling of geometries with resulting misinterpretation of subsurface electrical resistivity structure. A wide variety of approaches have been proposed to account for these galvanic distortions, some depending on the target area, with varying degrees of success. The natural laboratory for our study is a hydraulically permeable volume of conductive sediment at depth, the internal resistivity structure of which can be used to estimate reservoir viability for geothermal purposes; however, static-shift correction is required in order to ensure robust and precise modelling accuracy.We present here a possible method to employ frequency-domain electromagnetic data in order to correct static-shift effects, illustrated by a case study from Northern Ireland. In our survey area, airborne frequency domain electromagnetic (FDEM) data are regionally available with high spatial density. The spatial distributions of the derived static-shift corrections are analysed and applied to the uncorrected MT data prior to inversion. Two comparative inversion models are derived, one with and one without static-shift corrections, with instructive results. As expected from the one-dimensional analogy of static-shift correction, at shallow model depths, where the structure is controlled by a single local MT site, the correction of static-shift effects leads to vertical scaling of resistivity-thickness products in the model, with the corrected model showing improved correlation to existing borehole wireline resistivity data. In turn, as these vertical scalings are effectively independent of adjacent sites, lateral resistivity distributions are also affected, with up to half a decade of resistivity variation between the models estimated at depths down to 2000 m. Simple estimation of differences in bulk porosity, derived using

  5. Report on the seventh workshop organised by CRL-Salmonella. Ploufragan (France), 28 May 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver H; Raamsdonk EC van; Henken AM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    At 28 May 2002 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Ploufragan, France. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States, with the exception of the Greek and the Northern-Ireland NRLs-Salmonella,

  6. Revival of an old problem: an increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 8 infections in 2010 in England and Northern Ireland linked to duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, D J; Lane, C; Little, C L; Davies, R; De Pinna, E; Larkin, L; Morgan, D

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 8 is uncommon in humans in the UK. In July 2010, the Health Protection Agency reported an excess isolation rate of pan-susceptible S. Typhimurium DT8 in England and Northern Ireland. By the end of October, this amounted to 81 laboratory-confirmed human cases for all regions of England and Northern Ireland in 2010, an increase of 26% and 41% on 2009 and 2008, respectively. Descriptive epidemiological investigation found a strong association with infection and consumption of duck eggs. Duck eggs contaminated with S. Typhimurium DT8 were collected from a patient's home and also at farms in the duck-egg supply chain. Although duck eggs form a small part of total UK eggs sales, there has been significant growth in sales in recent years. This is the first known outbreak of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs in the UK since 1949 and highlighted the impact of a changing food source and market on the re-emergence of salmonellosis linked to duck eggs. Control measures by the duck-egg industry should be improved along with a continued need to remind the public and commercial caterers of the potential high risks of contracting salmonellosis from duck eggs.

  7. Comparison of Northern Ireland radon maps based on indoor radon measurements and geology with maps derived by predictive modelling of airborne radiometric and ground permeability data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Miles, J C H; Young, M

    2011-03-15

    Publicly available information about radon potential in Northern Ireland is currently based on indoor radon results averaged over 1-km grid squares, an approach that does not take into account the geological origin of the radon. This study describes a spatially more accurate estimate of the radon potential of Northern Ireland using an integrated radon potential mapping method based on indoor radon measurements and geology that was originally developed for mapping radon potential in England and Wales. A refinement of this method was also investigated using linear regression analysis of a selection of relevant airborne and soil geochemical parameters from the Tellus Project. The most significant independent variables were found to be eU, a parameter derived from airborne gamma spectrometry measurements of radon decay products in the top layer of soil and exposed bedrock, and the permeability of the ground. The radon potential map generated from the Tellus data agrees in many respects with the map based on indoor radon data and geology but there are several areas where radon potential predicted from the airborne radiometric and permeability data is substantially lower. This under-prediction could be caused by the radon concentration being lower in the top 30 cm of the soil than at greater depth, because of the loss of radon from the surface rocks and soils to air. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Fate of a Migrant Language in Northern France (1880-1914): Flemish in Song Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Elien; D'hulst, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    New research on the history of nineteenth-century Flemish migration into the North of France shows ample evidence of a complex pattern of transfer procedures taking place between the source and target cultures, both via institutions such as newspapers, magazines and associations and via practices such as popular theatre, almanacs and songs. The…

  9. Regional variation in hospital admission rates in the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Nordrhein-Westfalen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordt, M. van; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the analysis of regional variations in hospital admission rates a model was set up, including both supply and demand indicators. Data were gathered for regions in four health care systems (the Dutch, Belgian, French and German), for 1982, 1979, 1974 (France 1982 only). Hospital bed supply proved

  10. Petrochemistry and hydrothermal alteration within the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for VMS mineralization in the British and Irish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Steven P.; Roberts, Stephen; Earls, Garth; Herrington, Richard; Cooper, Mark R.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Archibald, Sandy M.; Moloney, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits can form within a wide variety of rift-related tectonic environments, most are preserved within suprasubduction affinity crust related to ocean closure. In stark contrast to the VMS-rich Appalachian sector of the Grampian-Taconic orogeny, VMS mineralization is rare in the peri-Laurentian British and Irish Caledonides. Economic peri-Gondwanan affinity deposits are limited to Avoca and Parys Mountain. The Tyrone Igneous Complex of Northern Ireland represents a ca. 484-464 Ma peri-Laurentian affinity arc-ophiolite complex and a possible broad correlative of the Buchans-Robert's Arm belt of Newfoundland, host to some of the most metal-rich VMS deposits globally. Stratigraphic horizons prospective for VMS mineralization in the Tyrone Igneous Complex are associated with rift-related magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, synvolcanic faults, and high-level subvolcanic intrusions (gabbro, diorite, and/or tonalite). Locally intense hydrothermal alteration is characterized by Na-depletion, elevated SiO2, MgO, Ba/Sr, Bi, Sb, chlorite-carbonate-pyrite alteration index (CCPI) and Hashimoto alteration index (AI) values. Rift-related mafic lavas typically occur in the hanging wall sequences to base and precious metal mineralization, closely associated with ironstones and/or argillaceous sedimentary rocks representing low temperature hydrothermal venting and volcanic quiescence. In the ca. 475 Ma pre-collisional, calc-alkaline lower Tyrone Volcanic Group rift-related magmatism is characterized by abundant non-arc type Fe-Ti-rich eMORB, island-arc tholeiite, and low-Zr tholeiitic rhyolite breccias. These petrochemical characteristics are typical of units associated with VMS mineralization in bimodal mafic, primitive post-Archean arc terranes. Following arc-accretion at ca. 470 Ma, late rifting in the ensialic upper Tyrone Volcanic Group is dominated by OIB-like, subalkaline to alkali basalt and A-type, high-Zr rhyolites. These units

  11. Structural data, geomorphology and rock slides in the SW of Barles (The Alps of Northern Provence, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau, D.

    2016-10-01

    The Alps of northern Provence in France is a familiar area to European geologists because numerous, long field studies have been organized by European universities and private petroleum companies during the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Nevertheless, geologists have made few comments on the consequences of some topographic slides and, more broadly, on the manner by which nature has sculpted the local geomorphology. After having set the local tectonic data (the thrust of the Blayeul Massif on an already folded para-autochtonous formation and locally up and down reversals in the area of the Heights of Chine and Proussier), a geological and geomorphological summary introduces a discussion on slides and slope formations; then the details of the morphology analysis lead us to the conclusions. (Author)

  12. On the Trend of the Annual Mean, Maximum, and Minimum Temperature and the Diurnal Temperature Range in the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, Dataset, 1844 -2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Examined are the annual averages, 10-year moving averages, decadal averages, and sunspot cycle (SC) length averages of the mean, maximum, and minimum surface air temperatures and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) for the Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland, during the interval 1844-2012. Strong upward trends are apparent in the Armagh surface-air temperatures (ASAT), while a strong downward trend is apparent in the DTR, especially when the ASAT data are averaged by decade or over individual SC lengths. The long-term decrease in the decadaland SC-averaged annual DTR occurs because the annual minimum temperatures have risen more quickly than the annual maximum temperatures. Estimates are given for the Armagh annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures and the DTR for the current decade (2010-2019) and SC24.

  13. The Effects of Living in Segregated vs. Mixed Areas in Northern Ireland: A Simultaneous Analysis of Contact and Threat Effects in the Context of Micro-Level Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Hughes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the consequences of living in segregated and mixed neighbourhoods on ingroup bias and offensive action tendencies, taking into consideration the role of intergroup experiences and perceived threat. Using adult data from a cross-sectional survey in Belfast, Northern Ireland, we tested a model that examined the relationship between living in segregated (N = 396 and mixed (N = 562 neighbourhoods and positive contact, exposure to violence, perceived threat and outgroup orientations. Our results show that living in mixed neighbourhoods was associated with lower ingroup bias and reduced offensive action tendencies. These effects were partially mediated by positive contact. However, our analysis also shows that respondents living in mixed neighbourhoods report higher exposure to political violence and higher perceived threat to physical safety. These findings demonstrate the importance of examining both social experience and threat perceptions when testing the relationship between social environment and prejudice.

  14. Availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support to the NHS ambulance service in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Rod; Ng, Gail; Reid, Cliff; Pearson, Gale

    2011-01-01

    Background Every day throughout the UK, ambulance services seek medical assistance in providing critically ill or injured patients with pre-hospital care. Objective To identify the current availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care capability across England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Design A postal and telephone survey was undertaken between April and December 2009 of all 13 regional NHS ambulance services, 17 air ambulance charities, 34 organisations affiliated to the British Association for Immediate Care and 215 type 1 emergency departments in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The survey focused on the availability and use of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Results The response rate was 100%. Although nine NHS ambulance services recorded physician attendance at 6155 incidents, few could quantify doctor availability and utilisation. All but one of the British Association for Immediate Care organisations deployed ‘only when available’ and only 45% of active doctors could provide critical care support. Eleven air ambulance services (65%) operated with a doctor but only 5 (29%) operated 7 days a week. Fifty-nine EDs (27%) had a pre-hospital team but only 5 (2%) had 24 h deployable critical care capability and none were used regularly. Conclusion There is wide geographical and diurnal variability in availability and utilisation of physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Only London ambulance service has access to NHS-commissioned 24 h physician-based pre-hospital critical care support. Throughout the rest of the UK, extensive use is made of volunteer doctors and charity sector providers of varying availability and capability. PMID:21427108

  15. Towards Educational Inclusion in a Transforming Society: Some Lessons from Community Relations and Special Needs Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…

  16. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  17. Outbreaks of food poisoning in adults due to Escherichia coli O111 and campylobacter associated with coach trips to northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, J P; Rhodes, P; Chapman, P A; Lee, S M; Finner, P

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-seven out of 48 people on a coach excursion to northern France developed gastrointestinal symptoms within 4 days of the trip. Twenty-six had stool samples positive for Escherichia coli O111, 8 were also positive for Campylobacter species, and 1 was positive for campylobacter alone. Strains of E. coli were positive for the effacing and attaching protein (eaeA) gene, but negative for other E. coli virulence genes, and therefore belonged to the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) group. Twenty-two out of 37 people in a second party which followed the same itinerary 2 weeks later also became ill. One had a stool sample positive for E. coli O111. Analytical epidemiology suggested that the source of infections was a restaurant in northern France at which both parties had eaten.

  18. Thermal anomalies and paleoclimatic diffusive and advective phenomena: example of the Anglo-Paris Basin, northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzer, Jacques; Violette, Sophie; Lopez, Simon; Bruel, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    This study is the first quantification of the combined impact of diffusive and advective paleoclimatic phenomena to explain the weak vertical thermal flux anomaly in the upper part of the Anglo-Paris intracratonic sedimentary basin in northern France. The aim of the research is to understand the mechanisms at the origin of the thermal flux anomaly at the level of the Meso-Cenozoic sediment pile. Based on a temperature profile representative of the basin, transient thermo-hydraulic simulations were performed along a representative vertical cross-section of about 400 km within the Lower Cretaceous multi-layer aquifer. Four paleoclimatic scenarios are the combination of two paleotemperature climatic forcings and two hydrodynamic regimes, one of them taking into account the interruption of the recharge linked to permafrost development. The simulation results clearly show the transient nature of the basin's thermal regime. Then, for the reference well, the majority of the thermal flux anomaly can be explained by advective and paleoclimatic mechanisms with a decrease in geothermal flux simulated up to a little over 30 mW/m2, depending on the scenarios. Decrease in heat flux because of basin-scale subsurface flows in the Lower Cretaceous is around 15 mW/m2. There are several ways forward from this first simple model, including simulation of development of permafrost and also the integration of vertical flows in the basin by use of a three-dimensional model to better explain the data.

  19. The link between the solar dynamo and climate - The evidence from a long mean air temperature series from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. J.; Johnston, D. J.

    1994-09-01

    It has been shown by Friis-Christensen and Lassen (1991) that there is a close correspondence in the behavior of the mean northern hemisphere air temperature and the length of the sunspot cycle, over the period 1861-1990. This result would appear to be of considerable importance for studies of both past and future climate and suggests that as the solar dynamo speeds up it causes, by some process as yet unknown, an increase in the temperature of the Earth's troposphere. In this paper we extend the comparison between sunspot cycle length and temperature back to the late 18th century using data accumulated at Armagh Observatory since 1795. Our data strongly support the contention that solar variability has been the principal cause of temperature changes over the past two centuries.

  20. Tracking selenium behaviour in chalk aquifer (northern France): Sr and 34S-sulphates isotopes constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Parmentier, Marc; Gourcy, Laurence; Négrel, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Groundwaters in parts of the Paris Basin (France) are facing increasing selenium (Se) contents that can exceed the drinking water limit of 10 μg/L according to the European Framework Directive in the field of water policy (2000/60/EC). To better understand the groundwater origins and the selenium dynamics, the water chemistry of the Chalk aquifer supplying drinkable water to Lille city was studied. This area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se. After a large chemical characterisation of the groundwater chemistry in the four field wells, a monthly monitoring was held in four wells and in the Deûle channel. Chemical analysis of major and trace elements, stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H), strontium isotopes, and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates were realised. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was also analysed. The specific geochemical signature of groundwater as revealed by Sr isotopes, in addition to element concentrations ratios like Mg/Sr and Se/Sr, highlighted mixture of three main groundwaters bodies: (1) the upstream groundwaters in the recharge area with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature; (2) the confined groundwaters with high Sr concentrations due to water-rock interactions and the lowest 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature close to the one of the chalk in Paris and London basins; (3) the Se-rich formations of Tertiary and Quaternary. The contents of Se, mainly present as SeV I (and locally as SeIV ), displayed spatial and temporal disparities that can be explained by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Se-rich clayed sediments originating from the dismantling of Se-rich tertiary formations (i.e. Ypresian) overlay the chalk formation and can be found in saturated conditions depending of the water table level. Oxidation of

  1. Multi isotopic tools to understand selenium origins in groundwaters of the Chalk aquifer in Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Gourcy, Laurence; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Laurent, Alexandra; Négrel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Four field wells exploiting the Chalk aquifer supply Lille city in water. The little catchment area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. Selenium (Se) concentrations are often higher than EU standards (0.12 µmol.L-1) for potable drinking water and can reach 0.4 μmol.L-1 leading to exploitation restrictions. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se, with the goal of managing both water quality and quantity. After a large chemical characterisation of the system, a monthly sampling campaign was held in 2012 in four wells and in the close Deûle channel. In situ physical and chemical parameters, chemical analysis of major and trace elements with a special focus on redox-sensitive elements including SeIV, SeVI, FeII, stable water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates measures were undertaken. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was analysed. Se concentrations in groundwaters and in the solid phase vary significantly. In the northern part of the Ansereuilles north of the Deûle channel, where the highest Se concentrations in solids was found in a 13 m alluvial clay deposit above the chalk, a first main type of waters can be defined with the variable and locally highest Se concentrations (0.19 to 0.4 µmol.L-1), relatively high and stable sulphate concentrations (2.5 µmol/L), no nitrates, dissolved Fe and Mn, negative δ34S (around -20 ‰) and δ18O typical of evaporated waters. A second main type of waters can be described at Houplin, south of the Deûle channel, where the geological profile show less than 1 mg/kg of Se, with intermediate Se concentrations (0.1 to 0.2 µmol/L), variable nitrate concentrations (0.4 to 1.2 mmol/L), not quantified dissolved Fe and Mn, sulphate concentrations close to 1.5 mmol/L, variable negative δ34S (-8 to -24 ‰) and δ18O in the

  2. Emotional insecurity in the family and community and youth delinquency in Northern Ireland: a person-oriented analysis across five waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Over one billion children are exposed worldwide to political violence and armed conflict. Currently, conclusions about bases for adjustment problems are qualified by limited longitudinal research from a process-oriented, social-ecological perspective. In this study, we examined a theoretically-based model for the impact of multiple levels of the social ecology (family, community) on adolescent delinquency. Specifically, this study explored the impact of children's emotional insecurity about both the family and community on youth delinquency in Northern Ireland. In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast (482 boys, 517 girls), drawn from socially-deprived, ethnically-homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 and were 12.18 (SD = 1.82) years old on average at Time 1. The longitudinal analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), allowing for the modeling of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Intraindividual trajectories of emotional insecurity about the family related to children's delinquency. Greater insecurity about the community worsened the impact of family conflict on youth's insecurity about the family, consistent with the notion that youth's insecurity about the community sensitizes them to exposure to family conflict in the home. The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about family and community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being, including reduced risk for delinquency. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  4. Analysing the development of bipartisanship in the Dáil : the interaction of Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil party politics on the Irish government policy on Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the two main parties in the Irish party system when dealing with the Northern Ireland question. Taking the Sunningdale Communiqué as a starting point, the paper argues that while aspirations for bipartisanship in the Dáil on this issue existed within the leadership of both parties at various times during the conflict, that the difference in approach and fundamental difference in ideology of party leaders meant that bipartisanship was not achieved u...

  5. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    OpenAIRE

    Noble Solveig; Sutton Matthew; Crealey Grainne; O'Neill Ciaran; Killough Seamus; Donaldson Michael; Milsom Keith M; Tickle Martin; Greer Margaret; Worthington Helen V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a c...

  6. A biological and economic comparison of 2 pasture-based production systems on a wetland drumlin soil in the northern region of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, D; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biological and economic efficiencies of 2 likely future pasture-based systems of milk production differing in overall stocking rate and concentrate supplementation level on a wetland drumlin soil in the Border Midlands Western region of Ireland. Physical performance data were obtained from a 3-yr systems comparison at Ballyhaise College, Co. Cavan, comparing 2 production systems: a high grass (HG) system (578 kg of concentrate/cow at 2.45 livestock units per hectare) and a high intensity (HI) system (1,365 kg of concentrate/cow at 2.92 livestock units/ha). Animal production data were analyzed using a mixed model, with feed system, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Feed system had a significant effect on all yield variables with higher yields in the HI system. Production system had no significant influence on reproductive performance. The Moorepark Dairy Systems Model, a stochastic budgetary simulation model, was used to simulate a model farm integrating biological data from each feed system to identify the economic effect of each system at 3 future milk prices of 22, 27, and 33 euro cents per liter (€c/L). Two economic scenarios were investigated within the model: scenario 1 (S1) assumed fixed cow numbers (n=55 cows) and scenario 2 (S2) assumed fixed land area (n=40 ha). At a milk price of 27 or 33 €c/L, profit per cow, per kilogram of milk solids, and per hectare were similar for HG and HI in S1 and higher for HI in S2. At a milk price of 22 €c/L, all systems were unprofitable, with increased losses realized in the HI system (both S1 and S2) compared with the HG system. Pasture-based systems of milk production in the northern region of Ireland are capable of highly efficient and profitable milk production. Moreover, the efficacy of increased supplementation to remove the constraints of pasture seasonality will depend on the cost of supplementation and the price paid for additional

  7. Processes and rate of retreat of the clay and sandstone sea cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Retreat of the clay and sandstone cliffs of the northern Boulonnais (France) has been quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The low retreat rate of this coastal strip — 0.08 m/yr between 1939 and 2003 — is far less than that encountered on chalk and clay-chalk cliffs of either side of the Channel, and even less than a previous estimate of 0.17 m/yr regularly quoted in management studies. The retreat rate is closely related to shore platform morphology and dynamics. The shore platform presents 1) a steeply sloping ramp due to the accumulation of flat calcareous megaclasts that reduce marine erosion; 2) upstanding bare platform surfaces, related to tectonic deformation; and 3) thick platform-beaches trapped in troughs. In all three cases, the reflective behaviour of the nearshore protects the cliff foot from the incoming waves. Two critical eroding segments are the result of changes in the platform sedimentary budget. Around Cran Poulet, and between Plage de la Sirène and Pointe de la Courte Dune, the retreat rate is up to 0.25 and 0.15 m/yr, respectively. At Cran Poulet, recession has been facilitated by the extraction of pebble for more than half a century, whereas erosion of the beach at la Sirène is probably linked to severe erosion of the coastline in the adjacent Wissant Bay. Mass movements on the cliff face are essentially shallow-seated translational slides along with small debris falls and mudflows. The instability of the Argiles de Châtillon is greatly diminished by their sandy and silty texture and by the presence of interstratified solid shelly limestone beds that allow steep slopes to develop in rather weak material. The 'vertical erosion antecedent' is the erosional mode of the cliff, and its reduced efficiency explains the slow recession of the cliff. This study will help to determine the long term evolution of the Boulonnais coast.

  8. Forced Dependency and Legal Barriers: Implications of the UK’s Immigration and Social Security Policies for Minoritized Women Living in Abusive Intimate Relationships in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica McWilliams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexities of the help-seeking process of minoritized women (primarily asylum-seekers and immigrants experiencing domestic violence in Northern Ireland. The term ‘minoritized’ is used here to emphasize that “minority” status is not a static or innate trait of certain groups but instead is the outcome of a process of being positioned as a minority. The paper addresses the intersections of ethnicity, nationality, class and gender and shows how state policies in relation to immigration and social security reinforce inequalities in gendered power relations. Despite attempts to improve the social security and immigration systems, the findings from a Northern Ireland study show how recent policy changes have not addressed the systemic institutional racism and institutionalised patriarchy in these agencies. Where avenues for action are undermined by such practices, the policies raise concerns about the safety and protection of minoritized women living in abusive relationships. We argue that the UK is failing to meet its human rights responsibilities to provide adequate support and assistance to minoritized women in abusive relationships and conclude that delivering state accountability alongside a human rights framework based on security, autonomy, liberty and equality is what is needed. Este artículo analiza las complejidades del proceso de búsqueda de ayuda en Irlanda del Norte para mujeres pertenecientes a minorías (principalmente solicitantes de asilo e inmigrantes que sufren violencia doméstica. El término 'minoritarizadas' se utiliza aquí para hacer hincapié en que la situación de "minoría" no es un rasgo estático o innato de ciertos grupos, sino que es el resultado de un proceso de ser posicionado como una minoría. El artículo aborda las intersecciones de origen étnico, nacionalidad, clase y género y muestra cómo las políticas estatales en relación a la inmigración y la seguridad social

  9. The importance of solid-phase distribution on the oral bioaccessibility of Ni and Cr in soils overlying Palaeogene basalt lavas, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Siobhan F; Chelliah, Merlyn C M; McKinley, Jennifer M; Palmer, Sherry; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Young, Michael E; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) including nickel and chromium are often present in soils overlying basalt at concentrations above regulatory guidance values due to the presence of these elements in underlying geology. Oral bioaccessibility testing allows the risk posed by PTEs to human health to be assessed; however, bioaccessibility is controlled by factors including mineralogy, particle size, solid-phase speciation and encapsulation. X-ray diffraction was used to characterise the mineralogy of 12 soil samples overlying Palaeogene basalt lavas in Northern Ireland, and non-specific sequential extraction coupled with chemometric analysis was used to determine the distribution of elements amongst soil components in 3 of these samples. The data obtained were related to total concentration and oral bioaccessible concentration to determine whether a relationship exists between the overall concentrations of PTEs, their bioaccessibility and the soils mineralogy and geochemistry. Gastric phase bioaccessible fraction (BAF %) ranged from 0.4 to 5.4 % for chromium in soils overlying basalt and bioaccessible and total chromium concentrations are positively correlated. In contrast, the range of gastric phase BAF for nickel was greater (1.4-43.8 %), while no significant correlation was observed between bioaccessible and total nickel concentrations. However, nickel BAF was inversely correlated with total concentration. Solid-phase fractionation information showed that bioaccessible nickel was associated with calcium carbonate, aluminium oxide, iron oxide and clay-related components, while bioaccessible chromium was associated with clay-related components. This suggests that weathering significantly affects nickel bioaccessibility, but does not have the same effect on the bioaccessibility of chromium.

  10. The effects of climate change on ovine parasitic gastroenteritis determined using veterinary surveillance and meteorological data for Northern Ireland over the period 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Gordon, A W; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2012-11-23

    While the influence of temperature and moisture on the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes have been described in detail, and evidence for global climate change is mounting, there have been only a few attempts to relate altered incidence or seasonal patterns of disease to climate change. Studies of this type have been completed for England Scotland and Wales, but not for Northern Ireland (NI). Here we present an analysis of veterinary diagnostic data that relates three categories of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep to historical meteorological data for NI. The infections are: trichostrongylosis/teladorsagiosis (Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus), strongyloidosis and nematodirosis. This study aims to provide a baseline for future climate change analyses and to provide basic information for the development of nematode control programmes. After identifying and evaluating possible sources of bias, climate change was found to be the most likely explanation for the observed patterns of change in parasite epidemiology, although other hypotheses could not be refuted. Seasonal rates of diagnosis showed a uniform year-round distribution for Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus infections, suggesting consistent levels of larval survival throughout the year and extension of the traditionally expected seasonal transmission windows. Nematodirosis showed a higher level of autumn than Spring infection, suggesting that suitable conditions for egg and larval development occurred after the Spring infection period. Differences between regions within the Province were shown for strongyloidosis, with peaks of infection falling in the period September-November. For all three-infection categories (trichostrongylosis/teladorsagiosis, strongyloidosis and nematodirosis), significant differences in the rates of diagnosis, and in the seasonality of disease, were identified between regions.

  11. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2013-11-06

    This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students' sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one's academic performance in comparison with one's peers). The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption. The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular/periodic monitoring of student use of alcohol, and

  12. Liver fluke control on sheep farms in Northern Ireland: A survey of changing management practices in relation to disease prevalence and perceived triclabendazole resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Edgar, H W J; Hanna, R E B; Ellison, S E; Flanagan, A M; McCoy, M; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A W; Irwin, D; Barley, J E; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2016-01-30

    Reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) among fluke populations have increased in recent years. Allied to this, there has been a rise in the prevalence of the disease, which has been linked to climate change. Results from questionnaire surveys conducted in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2005 (covering the years 1999-2004) and 2011 (covering the years 2008-2011) have provided an opportunity to examine the extent to which fluke control practices have changed over a prolonged time-frame, in light of these changes. A number of differences were highlighted. There was a significant shift away from the use of TCBZ over time, with it being replaced largely by closantel. The timing of treatments had moved earlier in the year, perhaps in response to climate change (and an altered pattern of disease). In relation to the frequency of drug treatments, there were no major changes in the overall pattern of drug treatments between the two survey points, although on both occasions approximately one-third of flock owners gave more than 3 treatments per year to ewes. In lowland areas in 2011, flock owners were rotating drug classes more often (each year and at each treatment) than in 2005, whereas in upland areas, flock owners were rotating less often and more were not rotating at all. Between 2005 and 2011, the percentage of flock owners giving quarantine treatments to bought-in stock had halved, to a very low level (approximately 10%). Using data from a complementary TCBZ resistance survey (Hanna et al., 2015), it has been shown that the way in which data are selected and which efficacy formula is applied can influence the calculation of drug efficiency and impact on diagnosis of resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Commemoration in conflict. Comparing the generation of solidarity at the 1916 Easter Rising Commemorations in Belfast Northern Ireland and the 1948 ‘Nakba’ Commemorations in Ramallah, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its focus the generation of solidarity through the commemoration of key and defining moments in modern Irish and Palestinian history, namely; the 1916 Easter Rising and the 1948 Palestinian Nakba. The paper explores the means by which annual commemorative rituals that take place in areas experiencing conflict, or a period of transition away from conflict, are constructed in such a way as to strengthen social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant. Reflecting on data gathered through semi-structured interviews with key respondents and ethnographic observations made over a three year period, (2010- 2013, the article reveals a more cohesive approach to commemoration in areas where the level of on-going conflict remains particularly high (Palestine and more fragmented and disjointed ritual activity when the commemoration takes place against the backdrop of relative peace and stability (Northern Ireland. In accounting for the difference in approach to constructing commemorative events against a conflicted or transitional background, the conclusion is reached whereby it is suggested that the relatively peaceful political climate, characterised through a reduction in violence with a once hostile ‘other’, permits for the emergence of heterogeneity, with rival factions permitted space to promote alternative interpretations of the past and different visions for the future through the highly public median of the commemorative ritual. Far from being events that generate a sense of social cohesion between groups for whom the past is relevant, commemorative rituals which take place in a hostile environment can be arenas of dissent; opportunities for marginalised factions to challenge the often state-sponsored hegemonic narrative, thus revealing the limits to the solidarity thesis.

  14. Non-European Union doctors in the National Health Service: why, when and how do they come to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edward B

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%, 'better work environment' (7.1% and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%. Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%, with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%, few report that they would be unaffected (3.7% and the rest are unsure (9.8%. Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries.

  15. Socio-demographic correlates of six indicators of alcohol consumption: survey findings of students across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the prevalence of six alcohol consumption indicators in a sample of university students. We also examined whether students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics were associated with any of the six alcohol consumption indicators; and whether associations between students’ sociodemographic and educational characteristics and the six alcohol consumption indicators differed by gender. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3706 students enrolled at 7 universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A self-administered questionnaire assessed six alcohol consumption measures: length of time of last (most recent) drinking occasion; amount consumed during last drinking occasion; frequency of alcohol consumption; heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks in a row); problem drinking; and possible alcohol dependence as measured by CAGE. The questionnaire also collected information on seven relevant student sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, academic year of study, current living circumstances - accommodation with parents, whether student was in intimate relationship, socioeconomic status of parents - parental education, income sufficiency) and two academic achievement variables (importance of achieving good grades at university, and one’s academic performance in comparison with one’s peers). Results The majority of students (65% of females, 76% of males) reported heavy episodic drinking at least once within the last 2 weeks, and problem drinking was prevalent in 20% of females and 29% of males. Factors consistently positively associated with all six indicators of alcohol consumption were male gender and perceived insufficient income. Other factors such as living away from home, being in 1st or 2nd year of studies, having no intimate partner, and lower academic achievement were associated with some, but not all indicators of alcohol consumption. Conclusions The high level of alcohol consumption calls for regular

  16. Caries status in 16 year-olds with varying exposure to water fluoridation in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, J

    2012-12-01

    Most of the Republic of Ireland\\'s public water supplies have been fluoridated since the mid-1960s while Northern Ireland has never been fluoridated, apart from some small short-lived schemes in east Ulster.

  17. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  18. Fluvial depositional environment evolving into deltaic setting with marine influences in the buntsandstein of northern vosges (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Jean-Claude

    The Buntsandstein in the Northern Vosges (France) originates mainly in an inland braidplain fluvial environment which passes in the upper part of the sequence into deltaic milieu in the coastal plain along the border of the sea, with the continental environment finally being drowned with the transgression of the shallow sea. The fluvial sedimentation is characterized by the presence of two facies throughout the Buntsandstein : channel facies and overbank plain facies. The channel facies comprises sandy and conglomeratic deposits forming within active streams by strong currents, whereas the overbank plain facies is built up of silty-clayey sandstones or silt/clay originating in stagnant water in abandoned watercourses, ponds, pools and puddles. The significance of particularly the floodplain sediments is subjected to considerable changes throughout the Buntsandstein sequence. There are all stages of transition between overbank plain deposits being only preserved in ghost-like facies as reworked clasts due to effective secondary removal of primarily occasionally formed suspension fines, and an abundance of autochthonous floodplain sediments in the depositional record resulting from favourable conditions of primary origin and secondary preservation. Reworked ventifacts within fluvial channel sediments testify to subordinate aeolian influences in the alluvial plain, with reasonable reworking, however, having removed all in situ traces of wind activity. Declining aridity of palaeoclimate towards the top is indicated by the appearance of violet horizon palaeosols in the Zone-Limite-Violette and the Couches intermédiaires being accompanied by Bröckelbank carbonate breccias originating from concentration of reworked fragments of pedogenic carbonate nodules. Biogenic traces are in the lower part of the sequence mainly present as Planolites burrows in the finer-grained sediments. Palaeosalinities as revealed from boron contents indicate progressively increasing

  19. Catchment and in-stream influences on iron-deposit chemistry, algal-bacterial biomass and invertebrate richness in upland streams, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Katrina Ann; Griffiths, David

    2013-04-01

    The density and composition of upland stream bed iron-deposits is affected by physical, chemical and biological processes. The basic chemical processes producing ochre deposits are well known. Mobilisation of iron and manganese is influenced by bedrock weathering, the presence of acidic and/or reducing conditions and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Ferromanganese-depositing bacteria are significant biogenic agents and can cause/enhance the deposition of metals in streams as (hydr)oxides. Metal concentrations from stream waters in two geological blocks in Northern Ireland were compared to determine the contributions of catchment characteristics and in-stream conditions. One block is composed of metamorphosed schist and unconsolidated glacial drift, with peat or peaty podzol (mainly humic) soils, while the other block consists of tertiary basalt with brown earth and gley soils. Water samples were collected from 52 stream sites and analysed for iron, manganese and aluminium as well as a range of other chemical determinands known to affect metal solubility. Stone deposit material was analysed for metal concentrations, organic matter content and epilithic algae, chlorophyll a concentration. Invertebrates were collected by area-standardised kick samples and animals identified to family and numbers counted. Higher conductivities and concentrations of bicarbonate, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium occurred on basalt than on schist. Despite higher iron and manganese oxide concentrations in basalt-derived non-humic soils, stream water concentrations were much lower and stone deposit concentrations only one third of those occurring on schist overlain by humic soils. Peat-generated acidity and the limited acid neutralising capacity of base-poor metamorphosed schist has resulted in elevated concentrations of metals and ochre deposit in surface waters. Algal biomass was determined by catchment level factors whereas in-stream conditions affected bacterial biomass

  20. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing.

  1. Two 18th Century Observatories of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Robert

    A visit to the two major observatories of Ireland, Armagh Observatory in Northern Ireland, and Dunsink Observatory in Dublin. Mentioned are Herschel, Thomas Grubb, Thomas Jones transit instrument, Howard Grubb, Kew Observatory, John Arnold & Sons clocks, Birr Castle, and the Earl of Rosse.

  2. UK Renal Registry 16th annual report: chapter 14 2012 multisite dialysis access audit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and 2011 PD one year follow-up: national and centre-specific analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Victoria; Pitcher, David; Shaw, Catriona; Fluck, Richard; Wilkie, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dialysis access should be timely, minimise complications and maintain functionality. Good functional access is required for renal replacement therapy (RRT) to be successful. The aim of the combined vascular and peritoneal dialysis access audit was to examine practice patterns with respect to dialysis access and highlight variations in practice between renal centres. The UK Renal Registry collected centre-specific information on vascular and peritoneal access outcome measures including patient demographics, dialysis access type (at start of dialysis and three months after start of dialysis), surgical assessment and access functionality. The combined access audit covered incident haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in 2012 from England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Centres who had reported data on incident PD patients for the previous audit in 2011 were additionally asked to provide one year follow up data for this group. Fifty-one centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (representing 82% of all centres) returned data on first access from 3,720 incident HD patients and 1,018 incident PD patients. A strong relationship was seen between surgical assessment and the likelihood of starting HD with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Type of first access was related to the length of time known to renal services with higher numbers of AVFs and PD catheters used in patients known to renal services for at least one year. Three month and one year outcomes of HD and PD access were poorly reported. This audit provides information on important patient related outcome measures with the potential to lead to an improvement in access provision. This represents an important advance, however data collection remains suboptimal. There is wide practice variation across the England, Wales and Northern Ireland in provision of both HD and PD access which requires further exploration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen.

  4. Ambient noise tomography with non-uniform noise sources and low aperture networks: case study of deep geothermal reservoirs in northern Alsace, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehujeur, Maximilien; Vergne, Jérôme; Maggi, Alessia; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2017-01-01

    We developed and applied a method for ambient noise surface wave tomography that can deal with noise cross-correlation functions governed to first order by a non-uniform distribution of the ambient seismic noise sources. The method inverts the azimuthal distribution of noise sources that are assumed to be far from the network, together with the spatial variations of the phase and group velocities on an optimized irregular grid. Direct modelling of the two-sided noise correlation functions avoids dispersion curve picking on every station pair and minimizes analyst intervention. The method involves station pairs spaced by distances down to a fraction of a wavelength, thereby bringing additional information for tomography. After validating the method on synthetic data, we applied it to a set of long-term continuous waveforms acquired around the geothermal sites at Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Northern Alsace, France). For networks with limited aperture, we show that taking the azimuthal variations of the noise energy into account has significant impact on the surface wave dispersion maps. We obtained regional phase and group velocity models in the 1-7 s period range, which is sensitive to the structures encompassing the geothermal reservoirs. The ambient noise in our dataset originates from two main directions, the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and is dominated by the first Rayleigh wave overtone in the 2-5 s period range.

  5. Ambient noise tomography with non-uniform noise sources and low aperture networks: case study of deep geothermal reservoirs in northern Alsace, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehujeur, Maximilien; Vergne, Jérôme; Maggi, Alessia; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2016-10-01

    We developed and applied a method for ambient noise surface wave tomography that can deal with noise cross-correlation functions governed to first order by a non-uniform distribution of the ambient seismic noise sources. The method inverts the azimuthal distribution of noise sources that are assumed to be far from the network, together with the spatial variations of the phase and group velocities on an optimized irregular grid. Direct modeling of the two-sided noise correlation functions avoids dispersion curve picking on every station pair and minimizes analyst intervention. The method involves station pairs spaced by distances down to a fraction of a wavelength, thereby bringing additional information for tomography. After validating the method on synthetic data, we applied it to a set of long-term continuous waveforms acquired around the geothermal sites at Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Northern Alsace, France). For networks with limited aperture, we show that taking the azimuthal variations of the noise energy into account has significant impact on the surface wave dispersion maps. We obtained regional phase and group velocity models in the 1-7 s period range, which is sensitive to the structures encompassing the geothermal reservoirs. The ambient noise in our dataset originates from two main directions, the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, and is dominated by the first Rayleigh wave overtone in the 2 - 5 s period range.

  6. Mapping End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): Spatial Variations on Small Area Level in Northern France, and Association with Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Florent; Deram, Annabelle; Génin, Michaël; Noël, Christian; Cuny, Damien; Glowacki, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors. Methods The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR) and credible intervals (CI) were estimated for each quintile. Results Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00–1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11–1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14–1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32–1.74] for Q5). Conclusion For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably

  7. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  8. 27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 June 2012 - Ambassador K. Pierce, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with Department Head P. Collier and CMS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson J. Virdee.

  9. Attributing the wet Winter season 2013/14 in Southern UK and Northern France using circulation analogues statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Hempelmann, Nils; Yiou, Pascal; Vautard, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Winter season 2013/14 was characterised by frequent storms and record breaking seasonal precipitation sums in Southern UK, causing severe flooding. High precipitation anomalies were likewise observed in Northwestern France and Slovenia for example. Assuming that such high impact events occur under specific atmospheric circulation configurations, circulation analogues are studied here. We present a method that consists of analysing distance statistics from the circulation analogue computation and precipitation simulations using observed precipitation (gridded EOBS data and station observations) on analogue days. This method allows to compare the probabilities of finding good circulation analogues for days with heavy precipitation or strong winds during different historic periods using reanalysis data. An increasing probability of finding good analogues for those days over time can then be interpreted as an increase in the probability of occurrence of such events in terms of circulation, whereas a change in precipitation drawn from different historic periods, given a constant probability of finding good circulation analogues, can be attributed to changes in the thermodynamics. The Winter season 2013/14 had an unusually high number of days with high zonal index over the North Atlantic, but no significant trend in the zonal index or its persistence was detected in the reanalysis data. We found no change in the probability of finding good analogues for the winter days 2013/14 over different historic periods. Despite high uncertainties related to the choice of the distance metric and the precipitation resampling methodology, we found consistently higher simulated precipitation when analogues were drawn from more recent years. We found further an increase of precipitation return level for same return times in an ensemble of bias corrected EURO-CORDEX projections for the 21st century under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. We conclude that it is likely that this precipitation event

  10. Assessment of a remediation technique using the replacement of contaminated soils in kitchen gardens nearby a former lead smelter in Northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, F; Roussel, H; Pruvot, C; Loriette, A; Fourrier, H

    2008-08-15

    Vegetables cultivated in kitchen gardens that are strongly contaminated by heavy metals (Pb, Cd) may represent to consumers a means of exposure to these metals. This exposure is more problematic for those families that include a large quantity of home-grown vegetables in their diet. Researchers have shown that the majority of vegetables produced in kitchen gardens in the vicinity of the Metaleurop Nord smelter (Northern France) do not conform to European regulations. This study was carried out in three of these kitchen gardens. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the topsoils were up to 24 and 3300 mg kg(-1) respectively. The method consisted of delineating a surface area of about 50 to 100 m(2) for each garden, then removing the contaminated soil and replacing it with a clean one. Seven species of vegetables were cultivated from 2003 to 2005 in the original contaminated soils and the remediated ones. The data showed a clear improvement of the quality of the vegetables cultivated in remediated soils, although 17% of them were still over the European legislative limits for foodstuffs. This suggested that there was a foliar contamination due to contaminated dust fallout coming from the closed smelter site and the adjacent polluted soils. In addition, the measurement of the Cd and Pb concentrations in the dust fallout showed that the substantial rise in metal concentrations in the remediated soil was not only due to atmospheric fallout. These results raise questions about possible technical, economic and sociological problems associated with this kind of remediation.

  11. Mercury Distribution in the Deûle River (Northern France) Measured by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique and Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviš, Pavel; Kadlecová, Milada; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of mercury in surface water and in sediment from Deûle River in Northern France was studied by application of conventional sampling methods and by diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Concentration of total dissolved mercury in surface water was 20.8 ± 0.8 ng l(-1). The particulate mercury concentration was 6.2 ± 0.6 µg g(-1). The particulate mercury was accumulated in sediment (9.9 ± 2.3 mg kg(-1)), and it was transformed by methylating bacteria to methylmercury, mainly in the first 2-cm layer of the sediment. Total dissolved concentration of mercury in sediment pore water obtained by application of centrifugation extraction was 17.6 ± 4.1 ng l(-1), and it was comparable with total dissolved pore water mercury concentration measured by DGT probe containing Duolite GT-73 resin gel (18.2 ± 4.3 ng l(-1)), taking the sediment heterogeneity and different principles of the applied methods into account. By application of two DGT probes with different resin gels specific for mercury, it was found that approximately 30% of total dissolved mercury in sediment pore water was present in labile forms easy available for biota. The resolution of mercury DGT depth profiles was 0.5 cm, which allows, unlike conventional techniques, to study the connection of the geochemical cycle of mercury with geochemical cycles of iron and manganese.

  12. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-10-06

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases' homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production.

  13. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gabrielle; Pihier, Nathalie; Vanbockstael, Caroline; Le Hello, Simon; Cadel Six, Sabrina; Fournet, Nelly; Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A prolonged outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmed S. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notification of S. Enteritidis cases in the Somme reinitiated investigations that confirmed a link with food bank A and with consumption of frozen beefburgers from the same Polish producer. In the face of a possible persistent source of contamination, all frozen beefburgers distributed by food bank A and from the same origin were blocked on 3 March 2015. Microbiological analyses confirmed contamination by S. Enteritidis of frozen beefburgers from a second lot remaining in cases’ homes. A second recall was initiated on 6 March 2015 and all frozen beefburgers from the Polish producer remain blocked after analyses identified additional contaminated lots over several months of production. PMID:27748250

  14. Investigation of heavy metal concentrations on urban soils, dust and vegetables nearby a former smelter site in Mortagne du Nord, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douay, F.; Roussel, H.; Fourrier, H. [Lab. Sols et Environnement, Inst. Superieur d' Agriculture, Lille (France); Heyman, C. [Cellule Inter regionale d' Epidemiologie Nord Picardie, Lille (France); Chateau, G. [Direction Regionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Lille (France)

    2007-06-15

    Environmental situations near former industrial sites like Mortagne du Nord (Northern France) in which the soil, dust and homegrown vegetables have been contaminated by heavy metals can represent a sanitary risk to the surrounding population. In order to evaluate the contamination level in different exposition media in this site, 26 urban topsoils, 17 dust and 38 vegetable samples were taken near the former zinc smelter site. All the observed levels on urban soil samples (except one) are over regional agricultural reference values for Cd and Pb. 45% of the vegetable samples are over the European foodstuff limits and one dust sample taken in the school playground outdoor tarmac area exceeds the French limit in dust set up at 1000 {mu}g m-{sup 2} for Pb. The Cd and Pb levels fluctuate depending on the use of the ground (kitchen garden, lawn, courtyard) and its location. The lack of simple correlations between the distance from the former smelter site and the Pb concentrations on sampled soils let us think that human activities contributed in the local urban contamination. In this context, who is now responsible for the soil contamination and the human exposure? (orig.)

  15. PREFACE: Kelvin and Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Raymond; McCartney, Mark; Whitaker, Andrew

    2009-07-01

    Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 Sir Joseph Larmor unveiling the Kelvin memorial in the Botanic Gardens, Belfast on a rainy day in 1913 © The Ulster Museum: Hogg collection William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, was born in Belfast in 1824, and his family had lived near Ballynahinch in the north of Ireland, quite close to Belfast, from the seventeenth century. At the time of Kelvin's birth, James Thomson, his father, was Professor of Mathematics at the Belfast Royal Academical Institution (Inst). However, following the death of his wife in 1830, James took up a new position as Professor at the University of Glasgow, and he and his children moved there in 1832. Apart from three years studying at Cambridge, and a very brief period immediately afterwards travelling and teaching in Cambridge, Kelvin was to spend the rest of his life in Glasgow, where he occupied the Chair of Natural Philosophy (or Physics) for 53 years. The natural assumption might be that his birth in Ireland was irrelevant to Kelvin's life and work, and that the fine monument erected in his honour in Belfast's Botanic Gardens, which is pictured on the front cover of this volume, was more a demonstration of civic pride than a recognition of an aspect of Kelvin's life which was important to him. The purpose of the meeting was to demon strate that this was not the case, that, great Glaswegian as he undoubtedly became, Kelvin always delighted in the title of Irishman. The influence of his father, very much an Ulsterman, was immense, and Kelvin and his siblings were to follow his non-sectarian and reforming approach. Also important for Kelvin was his Christian upbringing, which began in Belfast, and his beliefs were to play a role of importance in his life and indeed in much of his most important work, in particular that on thermodynamics. Two of his siblings returned to Belfast and spent much of their lives there, and Kelvin was a

  16. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is not yet sufficient to

  17. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vandromme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton, chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea. From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is

  18. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; Milsom, Keith M; Donaldson, Michael; Killough, Seamus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Crealey, Grainne; Sutton, Matthew; Noble, Solveig; Greer, Margaret; Worthington, Helen V

    2011-10-10

    Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group.The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will be obtained from parental

  19. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tickle, Martin

    2011-10-10

    Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP) trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education) with dental health education alone in young children. Methods\\/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years), fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F) (supplied twice per year), a toothbrush (supplied twice a year) or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit). 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine) or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs which will

  20. Protocol for Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial: a randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Solveig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is a persistent public health problem with little change in the prevalence in young children over the last 20 years. Once a child contracts the disease it has a significant impact on their quality of life. There is good evidence from Cochrane reviews including trials that fluoride varnish and regular use of fluoride toothpaste can prevent caries. The Northern Ireland Caries Prevention in Practice Trial (NIC-PIP trial will compare the costs and effects of a caries preventive package (fluoride varnish, toothpaste, toothbrush and standardised dental health education with dental health education alone in young children. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial on children initially aged 2 and 3 years old who are regular attenders at the primary dental care services in Northern Ireland. Children will be recruited and randomised in dental practices. Children will be randomised to the prevention package of both fluoride varnish (twice per year for three years, fluoride toothpaste (1,450 ppm F (supplied twice per year, a toothbrush (supplied twice a year or not; both test and control groups receive standardised dental health education delivered by the dentist twice per year. Randomisation will be conducted by the Belfast Trust Clinical Research Support Centre ([CRSC] a Clinical Trials Unit. 1200 participants will be recruited from approximately 40 dental practices. Children will be examined for caries by independent dental examiners at baseline and will be excluded if they have caries. The independent dental examiners will examine the children again at 3 years blinded to study group. The primary end-point is whether the child develops caries (cavitation into dentine or not over the three years. One secondary outcome is the number of carious surfaces in the primary dentition in children who experience caries. Other secondary outcomes are episodes of pain, extraction of primary teeth, other adverse events and costs

  1. Republic of Ireland: abortion controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The problems associated with illegal abortion dominate public discussion in Ireland. While abortion is illegal in Ireland, the Supreme Court directed in 1992 that Irish women can go to Britain for abortions when their lives are thought to be at risk. Abortion was a constant feature during the Irish Presidential election campaign in October, while a dispute about the future of a 13-year-old girl's pregnancy dominated the headlines in November. The presidential election on October 30 resulted in a victory for one of the two openly anti-choice candidates, Mary McAleese, a lawyer from Northern Ireland. With a voter turnout of 47.6%, McAleese polled 45.2% of the votes cast. Although the president may refuse to sign bills which have been passed by parliament, McAleese has said that she will sign whatever bill is placed before her, even if it liberalizes abortion law in the republic. As for the case of the 13-year-old pregnant girl, she was taken into the care of Irish health authority officials once the case was reported to the police. However, the health board, as a state agency, is prevented by Irish law from helping anyone travel abroad for abortion. The girl was eventually given leave in a judgement by a High Court Judicial Review on November 28 to travel to England for an abortion.

  2. Palaeoenvironment and dating of the Early Acheulean localities from the Somme River basin (Northern France): New discoveries from the High Terrace at Abbeville-Carrière Carpentier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Locht, Jean-Luc; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Moreno, Davinia; Voinchet, Pierre; Auguste, Patrick; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Dabkowski, Julie; Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Tombret, Olivier; Hardy, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    stratigraphy, ESR and ESR/U-series dating results, and biostratigraphic data, the fluvial deposits of the White Marl can be securely attributed to MIS 15. In addition, some Acheulean bifaces were discovered at the base of the slope deposits, directly overlying the fluvial sequence. These artefacts are most likely coeval with the end of MIS 15 or an early stage of MIS 14, between 550 and 500 ka, and represent, together with the artefacts from Amiens "Rue du Manège", the oldest in situ evidence of Acheulean occupation in Northern France. However, no unquestionable artefacts have been discovered in the White Marl or in the underlying gravel layer. These discoveries contribute to the chronology of the earliest evidence of hominin occupations in north-western Europe which may be related to Homo heidelbergensis.

  3. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  4. Gifted Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Colm

    2013-01-01

    This article will outline the current status of gifted education in Ireland. To fully understand the picture, one needs to look at the history of the Irish education system and how educational decisions are made in the country. Political climate is often an important factor in how people view special education programs and Ireland is no different…

  5. Sarcoidosis in Ireland: regional differences in prevalence and mortality from 1996-2005.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, T T

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.

  6. The Study on the Cross-curricular Skills in Northern Ireland New Curriculum%透视英国北爱尔兰地区中学跨学科技能培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钢

    2014-01-01

    跨学科技能是英国北爱尔兰地区义务教育阶段新课程的培养目标之一。跨学科技能主要包括交流技能、使用数学的技能和使用信息与技术的技能。跨学科技能的提出是为了培养学生问题解决能力、批判思维能力和人际交往能力等综合能力,跨学科技能是学生获得知识的基石,所有教师负有培养学生跨学科技能的责任。跨学科主题学习将学习领域中的不同学科和不同的学习领域整合起来,是培养跨学科技能的主要途径。%One of the main objectives in the new Northern Ireland curriculum is to cultivate the students’cross-curricular skills, which is composed of Communication, Using Mathematics, and Using Information and Communications Technology (ICT).Its aim is to develop integrating skills of problem-solving ,critical thinking and communication. As the cross-curricular skills are the bedrock skills through which young people access knowledge. These skills are developed across the curriculum and are the responsibility of all teachers;they are developed mainly through thematic learning, which makes connections within and between different learning areas.

  7. The Sunningdale Communiqué, 1973, and bipartisanship in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the political debates in the Republic of Ireland surrounding the publication of the Sunningdale communiqué in December 1973. It highlights the level of division that existed at that time on issues related to the communiqué and Northern Ireland generally between the government parties, Fine Gael and Labour, and Fianna Fáil. It demonstrates the limited nature of bipartisanship towards Northern Ireland at that time despite statements to the contrary.

  8. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  9. Meningococcal serogroup B strain coverage of the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine with corresponding regional distribution and clinical characteristics in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, 2007-08 and 2014-15: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sydel R; Newbold, Lynne; Slater, Stephanie; Stella, Maria; Moschioni, Monica; Lucidarme, Jay; De Paola, Rosita; Giuliani, Maria; Serino, Laura; Gray, Stephen J; Clark, Stephen A; Findlow, Jamie; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Ramsay, Mary E; Ladhani, Shamez N; Borrow, Ray

    2017-07-01

    The UK introduced 4CMenB-a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease-into the national infant immunisation programme in September, 2015. The Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) was used to estimate coverage by 4CMenB of invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2007-08 in England and Wales (MATS coverage). We aimed to repeat the MATS survey for invasive meningococcal group B isolates obtained during 2014-15, before 4CMenB introduction; compare strain coverage between 2007-08 and 2014-15; and investigate associations between MATS coverage, age, region, and disease outcomes. Invasive serogroup B meningococcal isolates from cases in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during 2014-15 were assayed using MATS and compared with 2007-08 data. MATS coverage was assessed by geographical region and age group. Clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes were assessed according to MATS coverage for 2014-15 English cases. In 2014-15, 165 of 251 (66%; 95% CI 52-80) meningococcal group B isolates were estimated by MATS to be covered by 4CMenB, compared with 391 of 535 (73%; 95% CI 57-87) in 2007-08. The proportion of MATS-positive isolates with one vaccine antigen increased from 23% (122 of 535) in 2007-08 to 31% (78 of 251) in 2014-15, whereas the proportion with more than one antigen fell from 50% (269 of 535) to 35% (87 of 251). This effect reflected changes in circulating strains, particularly ST-269 clonal complex strains. MATS coverage increased with age, varied by geographical region, and was associated with more severe disease. In 2014-15, two-thirds of meningococcal group B isolates were predicted to be covered by 4CMenB. Temporal changes in MATS coverage underscore the need for continued monitoring of antigen expression and diversity, particularly in countries with 4CMenB programmes. Public Health England, GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fasciola hepatica: a comparative survey of adult fluke resistance to triclabendazole, nitroxynil and closantel on selected upland and lowland sheep farms in Northern Ireland using faecal egg counting, coproantigen ELISA testing and fluke histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, R E B; McMahon, C; Ellison, S; Edgar, H W; Kajugu, P-E; Gordon, A; Irwin, D; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-01-15

    In order to investigate the incidence and distribution of adult fluke resistance to the fasciolicide tricalbendazole (TCBZ) amongst populations of Fasciola hepatica in sheep flocks in Northern Ireland (NI), individual rectal faeces samples were collected from 3 groups of 20 sheep, before (pre-dose), and 21 days after (post-dose) treatment of the animals with TCBZ, nitroxynil or closantel, on each of 13 well-managed sheep farms distributed across the province. The efficacy of each flukicide was determined for each farm, using faecal egg count reduction (FECRT) and F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA testing. In certain flocks, 2 sheep with high pre-dose faecal egg counts (FEC) were killed 3 days and 21 days respectively after TCBZ treatment, and the histology of the fluke reproductive organs was compared with that of flukes from untreated sheep, and from sheep treated with nitroxynil or closantel 2 days prior to death, using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and an in situ hybridisation method (TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling [TUNEL]) to demonstrate apoptosis. Results from FECRT revealed that in all flocks with a high fluke burden, TCBZ was ineffective in treating chronic fasciolosis, and this finding was generally supported by the results of the coproantigen reduction test (CRT). The histology of reproductive organs of flukes from TCBZ-treated sheep in these flocks was normal, when compared with untreated flukes, and this, together with the FECRT and CRT findings, indicated a likely diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in all the flocks with a high fluke burden. In contrast, nitroxynil and closantel were found to be fully effective against TCBZ-resistant flukes in each of the flocks bearing a high chronic fluke burden. All of the flocks with a high fluke burden and TCBZ resistance were managed on lowland in the South and East of NI. Upland flocks, in the North and West, had low fluke burdens, or were clear of infection; and FECs were too low to allow valid resistance

  11. Bibliothèque Bleue, Verte Erin: Some Aspects of Popular Printed Literature in France and Ireland in the 18th and 19th Centuries Bibliothèque Bleue et Verte Erin : quelques aspects de la littérature populaire en France et en Irlande aux dix-huitième et dix-neuvième siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Ó Ciosáin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article esquisse quelques éléments d’une comparaison entre les littératures populaires imprimées en France et en Irlande aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles. Un axe de comparaison possible consiste à rapprocher les historiographies des deux pays. On a commencé par adopter une approche quantitative et globale du corpus des textes en circulation, montrant des différences de contenu et aussi de réception. Les œuvres de piété du Moyen-Age, si répandues en France, étaient inexistantes en Irlande, à cause de la conquête anglaise protestante des XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Cette discontinuité créa aussi des contextes de réception différents dans les deux pays, par exemple pour les romans de chevalerie, et le cas irlandais conduit à remettre en cause l’image que donne l’historiographie française de ces textes comme porteurs de quiétisme politique.L’autre axe de comparaison est l’étude d’un texte, l’almanach, que l’on retrouve dans les deux pays. Bien que certains traits fondamentaux soient communs, certains types de textes, l’almanach politique par exemple, ou l’almanach en langue régionale, existaient en France et non  en Irlande, tandis qu’un certain style d’almanach littéraire très répandu en Irlande, dans lequel le contenu éditorial résultait des contributions envoyées par les lecteurs, était rare en France. On pourrait aussi avancer l’hypothèse selon laquelle la culture populaire imprimée irlandaise était plus textuelle et moins visuelle que la française.

  12. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  13. Vocational Training in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooney, Roy; Dunne, Paul

    This monograph, one of a series of studies of vocational education in the countries of the European Communities, describes the vocational training system in Ireland. The study was compiled from existing statistics and descriptions, and most figures cited refer to 1984. The report is organized in eight chapters. Chapter 1 covers population,…

  14. UK Renal Registry 18th Annual Report: Chapter 11 2014 Multisite Dialysis Access Audit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales and 2013 PD One Year Follow-up: National and Centre-specific Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anirudh; Evans, Rebecca; Wilkie, Martin; Fluck, Richard; Kumwenda, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented from the third combined vascular and peritoneal dialysis access audit. In 2014, 53 centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (out of 62) returned data on first access from 4,339 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients and 1,090 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Of the 5,429 incident patients, 20.1% started dialysis on PD, 27.8% started with an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 1.0% with an arteriovenous graft (AVG), 27.1% on a tunnelled line (TL) and 24.0% on a non-tunnelled line (NTL). Older patients (565 years) were more likely to start haemodialysis using AVF compared to their younger counterparts (36.2% vs. 32.8%). Thirteen of the nineteen centres (68%) using the physician led percutaneous insertion technique had over 20% of their incident patients starting on PD when compared to only seven out of fourteen centres (50%) which used single technique (open surgical or laparoscopic) for their PD catheter insertion. Wide variations were apparent between centres for use of AVF as the first haemodialysis access ranging from 10–54%. Eight of the 49 centres were achieving close to the 65% target for AV fistula in their incident patients. Length of time known to nephrology services and likelihood of commencing dialysis using either an AVF or a PD catheter are strongly associated. Patients who were known to a nephrologist for over one year were more likely to start dialysis with AVF, as compared to those who were referred between 90–365 days (39.2% vs. 24.6%). Similarly, patients who were known to a nephrologist between 90 days and one year were more likely to start on PD when compared to patients who were referred dialysis start (26.9% vs. 9.1%). By comparison, amongst the late presenters, only 3.5% had first access documented as an AVF and 87.3% started dialysis on either a tunnelled line or a non-tunnelled line. Initial surgical assessment was a key determinant of the likelihood of AVF formation. Of the incident patients known to renal

  15. Los documentos sucesorios en formato electrónico: macroestructura comparada (Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte y Escocia frente a España (Succession instruments in electronic format: Contrastive macrostructure (England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland versus Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vázquez y del Árbol

    2013-12-01

    instruments. Our research corpus consists of 90 wills in electronic format: 30 Spanish, 30 for England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and 30 Scottish. Our analysis results show striking differences in the macrostructure (and grammar of the legal genre analysed in the legal systems aforementioned. We suggest that the knowledge of macrostructural differences of a complex text genre such as the will contributes to carrying out its bi-directional translation: not only with direct directionality (English-Spanish but also with reverse directionality (Spanish-English, highly demanded in the current professional market.

  16. A randomised controlled trial to measure the effects and costs of a dental caries prevention regime for young children attending primary care dental services: the Northern Ireland Caries Prevention In Practice (NIC-PIP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Martin; O'Neill, Ciaran; Donaldson, Michael; Birch, Stephen; Noble, Solveig; Killough, Seamus; Murphy, Lynn; Greer, Margaret; Brodison, Julie; Verghis, Rejina; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common disease of childhood. The NHS guidelines promote preventative care in dental practices, particularly for young children. However, the cost-effectiveness of this policy has not been established. To measure the effects and costs of a composite fluoride intervention designed to prevent caries in young children attending dental services. The study was a two-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial, with an allocation ratio of 1 : 1. Randomisation was by clinical trials unit, using randomised permuted blocks. Children/families were not blinded; however, outcome assessment was blinded to group assessment. The study took place in 22 NHS dental practices in Northern Ireland, UK. The study participants were children aged 2-3 years, who were caries free at baseline. The intervention was composite in nature, comprising a varnish containing 22,600 parts per million (p.p.m.) fluoride, a toothbrush and a 50-ml tube of toothpaste containing 1450 p.p.m. fluoride; plus standardised, evidence-based prevention advice provided at 6-monthly intervals over 3 years. The control group received the prevention advice alone. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were the number of decayed, missing or filled tooth surfaces in primary dentition (dmfs) in caries-active children, the number of episodes of pain, the number of extracted teeth and the costs of care. Adverse reactions (ARs) were recorded. A total of 1248 children (624 randomised to each group) were recruited and 1096 (549 in the intervention group and 547 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. A total of 87% of the intervention children and 85% of control children attended every 6-month visit (p = 0.77). In total, 187 (34%) children in the intervention group converted to caries active, compared with 213 (39%) in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to

  17. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  18. Continuing Professional Development - Why Bother? Perceptions and Motivations of Teachers in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Dorothy J.; McConnell, Barbara; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In a larger study carried out by O'Sullivan "et al." to explore the perceptions and experiences of teachers in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland who were engaged in continuing professional development (CPD), one of the significant findings to emerge was the key role of teacher motivation. The current study therefore focuses on…

  19. Teachers' Stories of Engaging Students in Controversial Action Projects on the Island of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Majella; Cusack, Mella

    2016-01-01

    Civic, Social and Political Education (CSPE) in the Republic of Ireland and Local and Global Citizenship (LGC) in Northern Ireland keenly promote students' active participation in society. However, the purpose of this participation is not necessarily to encourage students to campaign for change in the present but rather that "students are…

  20. Exposure to Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in France: Results From the WMH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Gasquet, Isabelle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the conditional probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with both specific and broad classes of events in a nationally representative sample from France. The sample (N = 1,436) was a part of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Survey (ESEMeD), under the WHO World Mental Health Surveys-2000 initiative. Overall, exposure to any traumatic event was 72.7%, which appeared to be lower than what has been reported in Sweden (80.8%), similar to data from the Netherlands (71.1%), and higher than what has been reported in Spain (54.0%), Italy (56.1%), Northern Ireland (60.6%) or the U.S (55.9%). Lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9%, lower than in the United States (7.8%), Sweden (5.6%), or Northern Ireland (8.8%), but higher than in Spain (2.2%) or Italy (2.4%). Being beaten up by a romantic partner (25.0%), having a child with serious illness (23.5%), and rape (21.5%) were associated with the highest risk of PTSD. The average duration of PTSD was 5.3 years (0.2-28.1). The burden of PTSD in France appeared to come from the consequences of violence and social network events suggesting that prevention efforts might focus on limiting the occurrence of exposure to avoidable events such as violence as well as provide support for persons exposed to social network events.

  1. Peat slope failure in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Boylan, Noel; Jennings, Paul; Long, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Recent peat failures in Ireland in the autumn of 2003 at Pollatomish, County Mayo and Derrybrien, County Galway have focused attention on such events. However, peat failures are not a recent phenomenon with possible evidence of peat failures in Ireland having been identified as far back as the Early Bronze Age. This paper summarises the issues surrounding peat failures in Ireland that would be of interest to an engineer\\engineering geologist assessing this geohazard. The distri...

  2. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-01

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918.

  3. Autogenic versus allogenic controls on the evolution of a coupled fluvial megafan-mountainous catchment system: numerical modelling and comparison with the Lannemezan megafan system (northern Pyrenees, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchené, Margaux; van der Beek, Peter; Carretier, Sébastien; Mouthereau, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Alluvial megafans are sensitive recorders of landscape evolution, controlled by both autogenic processes and allogenic forcing, and they are influenced by the coupled dynamics of the fan with its mountainous catchment. The Lannemezan megafan in the northern Pyrenean foreland was abandoned by its mountainous feeder stream during the Quaternary and subsequently incised, leaving a flight of alluvial terraces along the stream network. We use numerical models to explore the relative roles of autogenic processes and external forcing in the building, abandonment and incision of a foreland megafan, and we compare the results with the inferred evolution of the Lannemezan megafan. Autogenic processes are sufficient to explain the building of a megafan and the long-term entrenchment of its feeding river on time and space scales that match the Lannemezan setting. Climate, through temporal variations in precipitation rate, may have played a role in the episodic pattern of incision on a shorter timescale. In contrast, base-level changes, tectonic activity in the mountain range or tilting of the foreland through flexural isostatic rebound do not appear to have played a role in the abandonment of the megafan.

  4. Dutch/Flemish in the North of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckeboer, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Dutch in the Northern France, specifically the historical retreat of Dutch from Pas-de-Calais, historical evolution of the language situation in the Department du Nord, reactions to official language policy and language loss, characteristics of Flemish in France, alienation from other Dutch dialects by communicative isolation, linguistic…

  5. Evaluation of groundwater-surface water interaction through groundwater modelling: simulation of the effects of removal of a dam along a river at a contaminated site in Northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Remonti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for an industrial site bounded by a river in in Basse Normandie, Northern France. The scope of the work was the optimisation of the existing groundwater pump and treat system and the prediction of possible effects on groundwater circulation after the future removal of a dam located along the river. The model has been implemented with the finite difference code MODFLOW 2005 and represents an area with an extension of approximately 800 x 500 m. It has been calibrated using static conditions groundwater head data (wells deactivated and verified with 1 abstracting conditions (wells abstracting head data, 2 simulating pumping tests with transient simulations and 3 comparing measured average river baseflow with modelled river drainage. The model indicates that the hydraulic barrier in the present abstraction scenario has some problematic areas and needs some improvements, as confirmed by the hydrochemical data of the river water. A first predictive scenario has been developed to optimise the barrier, indicating that a flow rate of 0.5 m3/h each at three new barrier wells, in addition to the present abstraction scenario, should ensure the hydraulic containment of the site. A second predictive scenario simulates the optimised groundwater abstractions without the presence of the dam along the neighbouring river. In these conditions, the river will increase the drainage effect on the aquifer, requiring a further increase in the rate of abstraction from the existing and new wells to ensure the hydraulic containment. With this paper we would like to present an example of what we think is a correct professional approach, with the design of the simplest model as possible depending on the hydrogeological conceptual model complexity, the abundance of data and the model objectives, and where multiple confirmations of the correctness of groundwater model results have been searched for.

  6. Immunisation Guidelines for Ireland (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2008-01-01

    Immunisation Guidelines for Ireland (2008) This revised report on immunisation guidelines for Ireland has been prepared with the assistance of an active Committee from associated disciplines in Paediatrics, Infectious Diseases, General Practice, Public Health, Microbiology, Occupational Health, Travel Medicine and the Irish Medicines Board. The report itself continues to be simple and concise in design and of course does not claim to contain all information on any pharmacological material....

  7. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement.

  8. Physicists of Ireland passion and precision

    CERN Document Server

    McCartney, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrating the strength of tradition in Ireland, Physicists of Ireland: Passion and Precision is a collection of essays on leading figures from the history of physics in Ireland. It includes physicists born outside of Ireland who carried out significant work in Ireland as well as those who had strong Irish roots but carried out their work outside of Ireland. The book is well illustrated with diagrams and photos of historical interest and rounded off with useful suggestions for further reading. It might come as a surprise to many that several leading English physicists are actually from Ireland.

  9. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  10. Integrated Logistics and Supply Chain Management: the State of Practice in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Austin; Huber, Bernd; Sweeney, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were provided with aid to offset locational disadvantages in the run up to the Single European Market. Since then the Republic has emerged as the fastest growing member of the E.U. Success has not been underpinned by the transport system, suggesting that business has had to overcome locational disadvantages by strong performance elsewhere in the supply chain. The evidence indicates that there are Irish firms operating supply chain management techni...

  11. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  12. Literacy and education in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the low ranking of Ireland in a major international study on literacy. In this paper we examine the dataset used in these studies to consider the reason behind the low ranking. We find significant evidence that the underlying reason for this is the low level of formal schooling of older individuals, possibly due to the lack of free secondary schooling. Moreover we find that formal schooling in Ireland has a bigger effect on literacy outcomes than in eithe...

  13. Using the ICF in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Anne

    2011-05-01

    This paper reflects on the use of ICF in Ireland, taking as a case study the experience of the first National Disability Survey (NDS). There were four clear effects in Ireland of using ICF as a framework for the NDS: a) that a broader range of people with disabilities was encompassed; b) that the environmental factors included from the ICF were comprehensive and policy relevant; c) that both barriers and facilitators were incorporated into the model; and d) that a focus on research ethics was encouraged. Some general conclusions regarding the benefits and limitations of ICF based on this experience are also drawn.

  14. Lost and found in Ireland; how a data label resulted in a postal delivery to Metriocnemus (Inermipupa carmencitabertarum (Orthocladiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan A. Murray

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A plastic vial containing reference chironomid adults and pupal exuviae and a data label in alcohol was sent by post in a package from the Republic of Ireland to a colleague in Northern Ireland (UK. The package was delivered but the vial with specimens was missing. Several months later the vial was found in the Northern Ireland Mail Centre and returned to the original sender using the species name and other information taken from the label in the vial as an address. The recovery of the lost specimens illustrates an additional benefit of accurate data labelling.

  15. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Mullane, Monica, E-mail: Monica.omullane@truni.sk [Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Care and Social Work/Fakulta Zdravotnictva a Socialnej Prace, Trnavska univerzita, Univerzitne namestie 1, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Quinlivan, Aodh, E-mail: A.quinlivan@ucc.ie [Department of Government, College of Business and Law, 2nd Floor O' Rahilly Building, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  16. Globalisation and Ireland s Export Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Frances; Siedschlag, Iulia; Murphy, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides empirical evidence on Ireland?s export performance in the context of increased globalisation over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland?s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialised in fast growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Th...

  17. Ireland's recent contribution to the radiological literature; a bibliometric analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, CE

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyse all articles published by Irish radiology departments in the medical literature since the year 2000. The PubMed database was searched to identify and review all articles published by radiologists based in the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland. Citation counts were then obtained and the top ten most cited articles were identified. There were 781 articles published during the study period. Of these, 558 (71%) were published in radiology journals and the remaining 223 (29%) were published in general medical journals. Abdominal radiology was the most represented sub-specialty (33% of all articles). There was a general trend of increased publications per year. Only 75 (9.6%) of articles were collaborative efforts by more than one radiology department. Irish radiology departments have a considerable research output and this has increased since the year 2000. More collaborative research between Irish radiology departments is encouraged

  18. Kelvin and industry in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Bernard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Whitaker, Andrew, E-mail: b.crossland@qub.ac.u, E-mail: a.whitaker@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-01

    Kelvin was a great mathematician, theoretical and experimental physicist, and educator, founding the first physical laboratory. He worked tirelessly for the creation of a reproducible set of physical units, and he was also an experienced and enthusiastic sailor. All these talents were linked to his extensive technological work, of which the most important examples were the laying of the Atlantic cable, and the marine compass. In Ireland his most important contributions were the occulting nature of the Holywood lighthouse, and his connection with the Giant's Causeway tramway. Kelvin's work on cabling and national maritime projects may have stimulated his later strong support of the British Empire and opposition to Home Rule in Ireland.

  19. Tracing and analytical results of the dioxin contamination incident in 2008 originating from the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Hoogenboom, R.; Herbes, R.; Traag, W.A.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs.

  20. Tracing and analytical results of the dioxin contamination incident in 2008 originating from the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Hoogenboom, R.; Herbes, R.; Traag, W.A.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs. Consequently

  1. Pingyao Traditional Cultural Exhibition Mounted in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan

    2014-01-01

    <正>On the initiative of Provins,a commune in the Nord Department of Northern France and a friendship city of Pingyao in Shanxi Province,an exhibition of Pingyao traditional cultural and art works was staged from June 14 to 17.On display in the ancient SaintQuiriace Collegiate Church were 40 artworks characteristic of the traditional folk art of North China including old photos of Pingyao,calligraphic works,paintings,paper-cut,embroidery and shadow puppets.

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  3. The Impact of Intergroup Emotions on Forgiveness in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Tania; Hewstone, Miles; Cairns, Ed; Tausch, Nicole; Maio, Greg; Kenworthy, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Although prejudice researchers have mainly focused their attention on changing attitudes toward outgroups, other outcome variables may also be important. In post-conflict reconciliation, intergroup forgiveness may play a crucial role in helping groups in conflict put the atrocities of the past behind them (Cairns, Tam, Hewstone, & Niens, 2005). Two studies showed that both the specific ...

  4. The Northern Ireland Framework for Peace: Terrorism and its Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    devolution of power to Stormont in 2007. There were four larger-than-life personalities who were the Troubles’ ‘four musketeers’: David Trimble and Ian...Paisley from the unionist side, and from the nationalist side Gerry Adams and John Hume , the leader of the Social Democratic and Labor Party (SDLP...from 1979 to 2001 and co-recipient of the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize, with David Trimble. The musketeers role and responsibility is just as important

  5. Use of Outcome Measurement by Paediatric AHPs in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Anita; Titterington, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional standards advocate routine use of outcome measurement (OM) in the practice of allied health professionals (AHPs). Historically, OM has focused on impairment and its immediate constraints on activity, while current policy encourages the development and addition of impact-based OM. There appears to be an assumption at this…

  6. Mephedrone (methylmethcathinone) in toxicology casework: a Northern Ireland perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosbey, Simon H; Peters, K Laota; Quinn, Amy; Bentley, Alastair

    2013-03-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is the beta-keto analogue of 4-methylmethylamphetamine. Before its control in April 2010, it became popular as a legal high in the United Kingdom, displacing methylenedioxymethylamphetamine as the stimulant drug of choice. The drug has stimulant and psychoactive properties, and therefore has forensic significance in criminal and morbid toxicology. The purpose of this study was to survey casework involving the drug (impaired driving and sudden death). The cases were received in the laboratory for analysis between late 2009 and the end of 2010. Analysis of blood samples for mephedrone was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Routine screening for alcohol and a range of other pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse was conducted using a combination of enzyme-linked immunoassay, gas chromatography (GC) headspace, GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Mephedrone was detected in a total of 12 fatal cases. Most of these cases involved death by mechanical means; in two cases, death was attributed directly to mephedrone intoxication (blood concentrations of 2.1 and 1.94 mg/L). Mephedrone was detected in a total of 32 impaired driving cases. Blood concentrations ranged up to 0.74 mg/L (mean 0.21, median 0.10). The casework evidence in this study indicated that recreational use of the drug can produce to blood levels as high as 0.74 mg/L, although the most common value encountered is likely to lie between 0.2 and 0.3 mg/L.

  7. Trailblazers and Cassandras: Other Voices in Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    2012-01-01

    . Through a close reading of selected publications it will then go on to analyse the ideas of two think tanks – The New Ulster Movement (1969-1976) and Democratic Dialogue (1995-2006) – in formulating alternative modes of discourse in a polarised society. Casting these think tanks as both ‘trailblazers...

  8. The Rough Field and The Grafted Tongue of Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rough Field de John Montague a été publié en 1972. Qualifié par Derk Mahon « d'œuvre riche et complexe par le meilleur poète irlandais de sa génération », The Rough Field est composé de dizaines de poèmes variés de par leur style, leur longueur et leur tonalité. Tantôt basés sur l'imprévisible et la pure juxtaposition, tantôt suivant un thème logique et cohérent, les poèmes retracent la jeunesse de l'auteur en Ulster sur le terrain d'un milieu rural condamné à vite disparaître et de l'histoire tragique d'Irlande.Le garbh acaidh, métaphore omniprésente dans les poèmes, est le nom gaélique du hameau où a grandi Montague que l'on traduit généralement par« la terre » ou « le champ en friche ». Cette métaphore établit un lien significatif entre le récit apparemment personnel du livre et l'histoire de la province de l'Ulster, ce Nord politiquement brisé, qui se meurt, stérile et marqué à jamais par les fractures politiques ; Dans The Rough Field il accumule des procédés différents et utilise souvent le collage en citant les sources historiques ou politiques diverses et en introduisant différentes langues, différents registres, différents niveaux de diction et différentes formes poétiques pour parvenir à la représentation de l'image complexe et émouvante d'une province déchirée d'une nation divisée, ce « paysage rude qui me hante ».In 1972 John Montague published his monumental The Rough Field, a long poetic sequence of varying styles and voices called by Derek Mahon « a rich and complex work by the best poet of his generation. » Functioning as much by surprise and sharp juxtaposition a as by coherent thematic development, the poems of The Rough Field examine an upbringing in a rapidly disappearing rural Ulster played out on the disappointing terrain of Irish history, its sad harvests little more than recurring betrayal and division.The guiding metaphor of The Rough Field is the garbh acaidh itself, the name, translated into English, of the hamlet where Montague grew up. Over the course of the sequence, the personally significant title takes on resonant public identification with the dying, politically fractured North, hopelessly sterile and crisscrossed by the fault lines of history. To Montague one of the most telling lines of division partitioning this field is linguistic, the severing of the native Irish tongue and its replacement by the « grafted tongue » of English.A trilingual Catholic born in faraway Brooklyn, raised in rural, divided Ulster, and writing in the English of the colonizer, Montague turns, not surprisingly, to language as a recurring subject and to the multiple resources of linguistic variation as method. In the accumulation of diverse materials that is The Rough Field, he frequently exploits the collage form, throwing different languages, registers, levels of diction, and poetic forms into fruitful collision or cohabitation.In this essay I investigate the way Montague assembles materials of disparate nature - fragments of Irish, the sonnets of Shakespeare, quotations from sources as diverse as a priest's letters or Unionist hate tracts - to give form to the complex, moving evocation of this fractured province of a divided nation, that « harsh landscape that haunts me. »The Rough Field (« La Tierra baldía » de John Montague fue publicada en 1972. Derek Mahon calificó la obra de« rica y compleja, por el mejor poeta irlandés de su generación », la cual se compone de decenas de poemas variados por su estilo, su largura y su tonalidad. Ya basados en lo imprevisible y la pura yuxtaposición, ya siguiendo un tema lógico y coherente, los poemas exponen la juventud del autor en Ulster en el terreno de un entorno rural destinado a desaparecer pronto y de la historia trágica de Irlanda.El gardh acaidh, metáfora omnipresente en los poemas, es el nombre gaélico de la aldea en que se crió Montague, que suele traducirse por« la tierra » o « el campo baldío ». Esta metáfora establece un vínculo significativo enre el relato aparentemente personal del libro y la historia de la provincia de Ulster, ese Norte políticamente quebrado que se está muriendo, estéril y para siempre marcado por las fracturas políticas. Para Montague una de las principales fronteras que ha partico en dos ese campo es de origen linguístico ; viene de la voluntad histórica deliberada de hacer desaparecer el irlandés, idioma del país, en provecho de lo que él llama « el idioma injertado », el inglés.

  9. Material culture in rural Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The objective of this thesis is to explore theatrical space and the cultural relationship of materials as they are experienced by people in rural Ireland. The method involved the investigation of five handball alleys in Co.Mayo, the identification of materials and the location of the sources of those materials. The results found that one of these handball alleys was part of an urban arrangement of theatrical spaces. The alley was no longer in use, in a state of disrepair ...

  10. The status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Cronin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The status of Ireland’s harbour seal population and its relationship with that of Britain and Western Europe are poorly understood. Prior to 2003, limited research efforts and poor co-ordination of survey methods fell short at providing an accurate assessment of overall distribution and population size on a regional or national scale. However, in August 2003, the Republic of Ireland’s harbour seal population was assessed by means of a geographically extensive survey conducted during the annual moult, providing an up-to-date minimum population estimate and a reliable baseline for future surveys. Trends on a national scale could not be assessed due to absence of a reliable historic population estimate; however there is some evidence of local decreases and increases in harbour seal numbers in Northern Ireland and southwest Ireland respectively. Research effort to date on aspects of the ecology of the harbour seal in the Republic of Ireland is reviewed and current research and management priorities highlighted.

  11. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  12. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  13. Emergency management on the island of Ireland – Recent cross-border developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Finian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergency management has developed separately in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland as a result of the differences in the political, legal, organisational and cultural backgrounds that exist in the two jurisdictions. Good cross-border cooperation has existed at individual organisational level between the principal emergency response agencies for many years. Now that regions in Europe are becoming more connected it is becoming increasingly obvious to agencies with responsibility for emergency management on both sides of the border that we need to be better prepared and ready to work effectively together to deal with any major emergency that may arise along the border. Emergencies and natural or manmade disasters do not respect geographical borders, particularly on a landmass as small as the island of Ireland. It is recognised that there is a need for more formalised joint planning and greater collaboration by the statutory agencies, which will result in a more coordinated and effective response to any possible major emergencies or disasters that may occur along the border areas. This paper reviews the current emergency management arrangements in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, how the structures, roles and responsibilities of the various agencies involved differ, and how a move to greater collaboration has occurred, as well as examining the drivers for this collaboration, how this has manifested itself so far, and how the potential for pragmatic, flexible and creative solutions will achieve further progress in the coming years.

  14. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  15. Cyber-Bullying: The Situation in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Moore, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the first major survey of cyber-bullying undertaken in Ireland. While preliminary results have been published they were based on a smaller and incomplete sample of 12-16 year olds living in Ireland. The preliminary results addressed the incidence level of cyber-bullying and that of the different subcategories of…

  16. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the main energy statistics of France for 2002: supplies, uses and sectoral consumption for all energies (coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, renewable energies); domestic production of primary energy (1973-2002); primary energy consumption (1973-2002); end-use energy consumption (1973-2002); general indicators (energy bill, US$ rate, prices, energy independence, GDP - 1973-2002); projections (primary energy consumption, 1973-2002); detailed data for petroleum, natural gas, electric power, and solid mineral fuels (resources, uses, prices, imports, production, domestic consumption, 1973-2002). (J.S.)

  17. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  18. Mise en évidence de déformations en faille inverse avec ruptures de surface cosismiques dans des dépôts colluviaux würmiens du versant nord du mont Ventoux (Provence occidentale, France)Evidence of reverse faulting and coseismic surface ruptures in Würm colluvial deposits from the Mt Ventoux northern slope (Western Provence, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutour, Alain; Philip, Hervé; Jaurand, Erwan; Combes, Philippe

    In western Provence (France), brittle deformation of Quaternary age occurring in the vicinity of the Nı̂mes and Durance faults has been linked to palaeoseisms of significant magnitude. Our new observations made on the southern rim of the Tertiary Malaucène Basin, in the continuation of a thrust to the north of Mt Ventoux, present evidence for reverse faulting deformation in deposits of a Würm colluvial fan. The analysis of a trench section provides clear evidence for: (1) the development of two successive surface ruptures and degradation of associated scarps during the Mid-Upper Würm, and, (2) the continuation of the reverse fault within the Oligocene basement. These tectonic events were associated with earthquakes of at least 6 in magnitude. To cite this article: A. Dutour et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 849-856.

  19. Urban Sociology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  20. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  1. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...

  2. Traveling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  3. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  4. Developments in victims' rights in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcommins, Shane; Leahy, Susan; Spain, Eimear

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed This chapter documents some of the legislative and policy developments relating to victims’ rights in Ireland, Internationally, there has been growing recognition of the interests and needs of victims in the criminal justice system over the past few decades, where previous emphasis had been predominantly on the rights of the offender (Christie, 1977; O’Hara, 2005). The result, in Ireland and in other jurisdictions, has been a series of developments which seek to enhance the s...

  5. Cinema Film Distribution and Exhibition in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, Damien

    1992-01-01

    This study of cinema film distribution and exhibition practices In Ireland examines key aspects of the Industry: firstly, the basic mechanics of the Industry and Its operations: secondly, the various alignments between exhibitors and distributors and consequences of those alignments: thirdly, the impact of the arrival of British multiplex companies: fourthly, the costs of film censorship; and finally, the idea of an 'art-house' circuit In Ireland.

  6. An early record of Meloidogyne fallax from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalović, Olivera; Moore, John F.; Janssen, Toon; Bert, Wim; Karssen, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., cause huge economic losses worldwide. Currently, three Meloidogyne spp. are present on the quarantine A2 list of EPPO, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, Meloidogyne fallax and Meloidogyne enterolobii. As a quarantine organism, Meloidogyne fallax has been detected in England and Northern Ireland on sport turf in 2011, and in England on leek in 2013. However, its presence in Ireland has probably been overlooked since 1965, when Mr. John F. Moore and Dr. Mary T. Franklin had detected a new Meloidogyne species for that time. While the relevant data was recorded and a preliminary manuscript describing the species was prepared but never submitted for publication, and together with the original slides, pictures and drawings, it was restudied recently. We compared the population of Irish Meloidogyne sp. to other similar Meloidogyne spp. Careful observation and comparison shows that it belongs to Meloidogyne fallax. The characters found to be common for Irish Meloidogyne sp. and Meloidogyne fallax are female stylet length (14.6 μm) with oval to rounded basal knobs, oval shaped perineal pattern with moderately high dorsal arch, slender stylet in males (18.5 μm) with set off and rounded basal knobs, slightly set off male head with one post-labial annule and incomplete transverse incisures, and second-stage juveniles with large and rounded stylet basal knobs, and a gradually tapering tail (46.9 μm) with a broadly rounded tip and a clearly delimitated smooth hyaline part sometimes marked by constrictions (12.9 μm). The host test and gall formation also correspond to Meloidogyne fallax. The identification could not be additionally supported by molecular analysis, as we were unable to extract DNA from the old permanent slides. Nevertheless, our study reveals that the Meloidogyne species detected in Ireland in 1965 belongs to Meloidogyne fallax. PMID:28144174

  7. An Assessment of the Potential for the Sustainable Development of the Edible Periwinkle, Littorina littorea, Industry in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, V.; Coughlan, S.; McClean, O.; Connolly, N.; Mercer, J; Burnell, G

    2002-01-01

    The edible periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.) has been exploited as a food source in Ireland since the stone age (Woodman, Anderson and Finlay, 1999). Today there is a large market for the edible periwinkle on the continent, principally in France. Pearson (1994) estimated that the Irish periwinkle industry was worth approximately €6.34 million (£5 million) in exports per annum. The edible periwinkle industry remains a fishery of economic and sociological importance in peripheral coastal commu...

  8. Injuries in amateur horse racing (point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra, Ganesh; Turner, Michael; McCrory, Paul; Halley, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To provide a breakdown of injury incidence from amateur jump racing (also known as point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993–2006 and to compare the injury epidemiology with professional horse racing in Great Britain, Ireland and France. Design Retrospective review. Setting Great Britain and Ireland. Participants Amateur jockeys. Main outcome measures Injury rates. Results Injury data suggest that point to point racing is more dangerous from an injury point of view than professional jump racing, which has previously been shown to be more dangerous than flat racing. Amateur jockeys have more falls than their professional counterparts, and this in turn puts them at greater risk of sustaining more serious injuries. Conclusions Amateur (point to point) jockeys represent a sporting population that previously has been little studied. They represent a group at high risk of injury, and hence formal injury surveillance tracking and counter measures for injury prevention are recommended. PMID:17138629

  9. Injuries in amateur horse racing (point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendra, Ganesh; Turner, Michael; McCrory, Paul; Halley, Walter

    2007-03-01

    To provide a breakdown of injury incidence from amateur jump racing (also known as point to point racing) in Great Britain and Ireland during 1993-2006 and to compare the injury epidemiology with professional horse racing in Great Britain, Ireland and France. Retrospective review. Great Britain and Ireland. Amateur jockeys. Injury rates. Injury data suggest that point to point racing is more dangerous from an injury point of view than professional jump racing, which has previously been shown to be more dangerous than flat racing. Amateur jockeys have more falls than their professional counterparts, and this in turn puts them at greater risk of sustaining more serious injuries. Amateur (point to point) jockeys represent a sporting population that previously has been little studied. They represent a group at high risk of injury, and hence formal injury surveillance tracking and counter measures for injury prevention are recommended.

  10. MANAGING AN ABUNDANT CRAYFISH RESOURCE FOR CONSERVATION -A. PALLIPES IN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYNOLDS J. D.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Irish white-clawed crayfish stocks show high genetic uniformity between systems, although individual populations usually show good heterozygosity. The inference is that they were derived from a single immigrating stock, related to those in Western France. Irish crayfish stocks occur widely and often in good numbers in lakes and streams; they are protected and rarely fished, and there are no alien species. Their use for reintroduction into depleted areas within Ireland, including Special Areas of Conservation, is examined. Irish crayfish also have potential value for restocking depleted continental locations, under stringent conditions of environmental suitability and genetic conformity.

  11. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  13. Terrorism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  14. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution.

  15. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  16. Factors influencing the provision of removable partial dentures by dentists in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Finbarr

    2010-10-01

    Factors influencing clinical treatment of partially dentate patients are varied, and there is a need to identify factors influencing success in the provision of removable partial dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Ireland towards tooth replacement and use of RPDs, in partially dentate older adults. The sample frame was the Register of Dentists in Ireland; data were also collected from a sample of dentists practising under NHS regulations in Northern Ireland. Validated questionnaires were sent to all dentists on the Register of Dentists in the Republic of Ireland, and dentists working under NHS regulations registered with the Central Services Agency in Northern Ireland. Content of the questionnaire included details of the dentist themselves, their dental practice and the profile of partial denture provision. They were also asked to give their views on factors influencing the success or failure of an RPD, the process of providing RPDs and their attitudes to RPD provision. A total of 1,143 responses were received, a response rate of 45%. A mean number of 61 RPDs per annum were provided, with 75% of dentures provided being acrylic based. Respondents indicate their belief that cobalt-chromium based dentures had a longer prognosis than acrylic dentures, but less than half (46%) claim to design the frameworks themselves. Patients\\' attitudes are considered influential in the success of RPD provision, and their influence on appearance is considered the most important factor influencing success. The most important factors influencing failure are: the patient not requesting a denture; an RPD restoring unbounded saddles; and, lower RPDs. Although considered important, approximately 60% of the sample do not routinely organise follow-up appointments for patients provided with RPDs. The fee structures in the DTSS and DTBS are considered a barrier to quality in the provision of partial dentures.

  17. Factors influencing the provision of removable partial dentures by dentists in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Finbarr

    2011-03-15

    Factors influencing clinical treatment of partially dentate patients are varied, and there is a need to identify factors influencing success in the provision of removable partial dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Ireland towards tooth replacement and use of RPDs, in partially dentate older adults. The sample frame was the Register of Dentists in Ireland; data were also collected from a sample of dentists practising under NHS regulations in Northern Ireland. Validated questionnaires were sent to all dentists on the Register of Dentists in the Republic of Ireland, and dentists working under NHS regulations registered with the Central Services Agency in Northern Ireland. Content of the questionnaire included details of the dentist themselves, their dental practice and the profile of partial denture provision. They were also asked to give their views on factors influencing the success or failure of an RPD, the process of providing RPDs and their attitudes to RPD provision. A total of 1,143 responses were received, a response rate of 45%. A mean number of 61 RPDs per annum were provided, with 75% of dentures provided being acrylic based. Respondents indicate their belief that cobalt-chromium based dentures had a longer prognosis than acrylic dentures, but less than half (46%) claim to design the frameworks themselves. Patients\\' attitudes are considered influential in the success of RPD provision, and their influence on appearance is considered the most important factor influencing success. The most important factors influencing failure are: the patient not requesting a denture; an RPD restoring unbounded saddles; and, lower RPDs. Although considered important, approximately 60% of the sample do not routinely organise follow-up appointments for patients provided with RPDs. The fee structures in the DTSS and DTBS are considered a barrier to quality in the provision of partial dentures.

  18. Clinical coder training initiatives in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Michelle; Reid, Beth A

    2005-01-01

    The Hospital In-Patient Enquiry and National Perinatal Reporting System (HIPE & NPRS) Unit of the Economic and Social Research Institute in Ireland requested a review of its coder training programs and data quality initiatives, primarily because of the decision to implement a major change in Ireland's morbidity classification in January 2005. In August 2004, a formative evaluation using qualitative methods was conducted to assess the Unit's programs and initiatives. A number of opportunities for building on the solid frameworks the Unit has implemented were identified. In this paper, we focus on the Unit's coder training programs. The Unit's data quality initiatives will be discussed in a subsequent paper (Bramley & Reid 2005).

  19. Unmarried mothers in Ireland, 1880-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luddy, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changing experiences and representation of Ireland's unmarried mothers from 1880 to 1973. It focuses on the stigma of illegitimacy in political and cultural discourse and the representation of unmarried mothers as immoral and their children as a drain on resources. These remained constant themes within the discourse of unmarried motherhood in Ireland throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The article uses the records of philanthropic, government and religious organisations to chart the rising interest in the moral reformation of unmarried mothers at the end of the nineteenth century and rising tolerance towards them by the end of the twentieth century.

  20. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica DeMilio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  1. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  2. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  3. A review of ireland's waterbirds, with emphasis on wintering migrants and reference to H5N1 avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowe O

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ireland is characterised by its diversity and large abundance of wetlands, making it attractive to a wide variety of waterbirds throughout the year. This paper presents an overview of Ireland's waterbirds, including ecological factors relevant to the potential introduction, maintenance, transmission and spread of infectious agents, including the H5N1 avian influenza virus, in Ireland. Particular emphasis is placed on five groups of wintering migrants (dabbling and sieving wildfowl, grazing wildfowl, diving wildfowl, waders and gulls, noting that the H5N1 avian influenza virus has mainly been isolated from this subset of waterbirds. Ireland's wetlands are visited during the spring and summer months by hundreds of thousands of waterbirds which come to breed, predominantly from southern latitudes, and during the autumn and winter by waterbirds which come from a variety of origins (predominantly northern latitudes, and which are widely distributed and often congregate in mixed-species flocks. The distribution, feeding habits and social interactions of the five groups of wintering migrants are considered in detail. Throughout Ireland, there is interaction between different waterbird populations (breeding migrants, the wintering migrants and resident waterbird populations. There is also a regular and complex pattern of movement between feeding and roosting areas, and between wetlands and farmland. These interactions are likely to facilitate the rapid transmission and spread of the H5N1 avian influenza virus, if it were present in Ireland.

  4. Battle of France WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  6. Dental Practitioners and Smoking Cessation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Keogan

    2015-10-01

    Smoking prevalence is low among dentists in Ireland. Most recognized the need to provide adequate smoking cessation support and advice to patients but felt under-trained to do so. Most were not aware of existing referral pathways to specialist smoking cessation services and, thus, referral rates were low.

  7. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  8. Postgraduate training in Ireland: expectations and experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, D

    2014-01-05

    Postgraduate medical training in Ireland has been compared unfavourably with training abroad and blamed for an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools. Exploration of features of a good training environment and development of tools to measure it have been the focus of much published research. There have been no Irish studies examining training environment using such validated tools.

  9. Modelling the wind climate of Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, H.P.; Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    The wind climate of Ireland has been calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The climatology is represented by 65 frequency classes of geostrophic wind that were selected as equiangular direction sectors and speed intervals with equal frequency in a sector. The results...

  10. Strategic Planning in Ireland's Institutes of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Larry; Rainnie, Al

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon Ireland's institute of technology sector, which has been transformed from a 1970s technical orientation to its broader current role of research and higher education provision. The transformational shifts experienced by institutes over the previous three decades have been profound: increased autonomy, new managerial and…

  11. Many Voices: Building a Biblioblogosphere in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Michelle; Kouker, Alexander; O'Connor, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Blogging has been associated with the Library and Information Science (LIS) community for some time now. Libfocus.com is an online blog that was founded in 2011. Its goal was to create a communal communication space for LIS professionals in Ireland and beyond, to share and discuss issues and ideas. The content of the blog is curated by an…

  12. Epidemiology of MRSA: the North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, P

    2003-06-01

    The North\\/South Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Ireland, 1999, includes a joint review of the epidemiology of MRSA across both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland. Data were gathered on all MRSA cases identified in laboratories in Northern Ireland (the North) and in the Republic of Ireland (the South) over a two-week period. The prevalence rate per 100000 population was 11.4 in the North and 14.0 in the South, with a marked variation across geographical regions. MRSA cases were located throughout hospitals and the community, were slightly more common in males than females, and occurred in all age groups, especially in the elderly. The majority of cases were inpatients in acute hospitals and were distributed across all types of wards. Most cases were colonized with MRSA but 5% of cases in the North and 10% in the South had invasive infection. Invasive infection was associated with intravascular lines and invasive procedures\\/surgery. Continuous surveillance is recommended to monitor the epidemiology of MRSA and the effectiveness of control measures.

  13. MRSA bacteraemia: North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Donald, P

    2002-12-01

    Retrospective aggregate data on all Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from blood cultures during 1998 were collected in both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland (North) and the Republic of Ireland (South), as part of the North\\/South Study of MRSA in Ireland 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to gather the data, and all diagnostic microbiology laboratories in the North and 98% of laboratories in the South participated. S. aureus bacteraemia occurred at rates of 20.4 per 100,000 population in the North and 24.5 per 100,000 in the South (missing data from one laboratory). In the North, 22% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 25% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA (some patients had more than one isolate). In the South, 31% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had MRSA and 36% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA. There was a marked variation in rates between different regions. The percentage of patients with blood cultures positive for S. aureus that had MRSA was considerably lower in the North (22%) than in the South (31%), and in both jurisdictions was lower than that found in England and Wales in 1999 (37%). It is recommended that data on S. aureus bacteraemia and methicillin-resistance rates (already available in many laboratories) are gathered at regional and national level for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. The wind energy market in the U.K. and Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, D. [Lindley and Associates, Buckinghamshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The market for renewable energy projects has been created in England and Wales by measures established by the Electricity Act 1989 which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). Identical market enablement mechanisms now exist for Scotland and Northern Ireland whilst yet another version of the NFFO mechanism has been established in Ireland. As a result, the UK now has 31 operational windfarms with a total rating of 195MW whilst the completion of the first windfarm in Ireland is expected in early 1997. This paper gives details of these mechanisms and the impact they have had on the creation of a renewables market. Current expectations are that additional wind energy capacity of about 900MW will be added in the UK and Ireland by the end of the millennium. This implies a market worth between US$525 million and US$600 million in turbine sales and a total turnkey investment cost of between US$1.2 billion and US$1.5 billion. 6 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. A review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Geoffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. The equids most severely affected by the virus are horses, ponies, and European donkeys; mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. as its vector, has drastically increased its range into previously unaffected regions in northern Europe, utilising indigenous vector species, and causing widespread economic damage to the agricultural sector. Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. While the current risk for the introduction of African horse sickness to Ireland is considered at worst ‘very low’, it is important to note that prior to the 2006 outbreak of Bluetongue in northern Europe, both diseases were considered to be of equal risk to the United Kingdom (‘medium-risk’. It is therefore likely that any outbreak of this disease would have serious socio-economic consequences for Ireland due to the high density of vulnerable equids and the prevalence of Culicoides species, potentially capable of vectoring the virus.

  16. Growing grass for a green biorefinery - an option for Ireland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, S.; Schulte, R.P.O.; O'Kiely, P.; O'Donoghue, C.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing grass for a green biorefinery – an option for Ireland? Mind the gap: deciphering the gap between good intentions and healthy eating behaviour Halting biodiversity loss by 2020 – implications for agriculture A milk processing sector model for Ireland

  17. Dr. William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland (left) with R. Cashmore. Photos 02, 03: Dr William C. Harris, Director-General, Science Foundation Ireland signing the CERN guest book with R. Cashmore.

  18. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  19. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  20. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  1. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  2. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  6. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  7. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  8. Entrepreneurship in Ireland 2012: global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimons, Paula; O'Gorman, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Report on entrepreneurship in Ireland in the year 2012. Data used is the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data for Ireland and selected comparative countries. The report profiles entrepreneurs, reports on the rate of entrepreneurship in Ireland, discusses female entrepreneurship, and positions these results in the context of Irish entrepreneurship policy.

  9. A Roof over your Head; House Price Peaks in the UK and Ireland

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, P

    2006-01-01

    We analyse, following recent work of Roehner, changes in house prices for both the UK and Ireland. We conclude that prices in London have reached a tipping point and prices relative to inflation are set to fall over the next few years. If inflation does not rise then a hard landing seems likely. House prices in the Irish Republic are shown to have broken away from the moderate rise still to be found in Northern Ireland and Dublin has emerged as another global 'hot spot'. An evolution of Dublin house prices similar to that in London can be anticipated. Keywords: Econophysics, house prices, real estate, prediction PACS: 89.65.Gh, 89.90.+n

  10. Imprisonment and the crime rate in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Eoin O’Sullivan; Ian O’Donnell

    2003-01-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, the number of indictable crimes recorded in Ireland dropped by 21 per cent and the daily average prison population rose by 33 per cent. The Government has claimed that a causal relationship exists here: more prisoners means less crime. The purpose of this paper is to map recent trends in the use of prison and to explore the interaction between rates of crime and rates of imprisonment.

  11. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot,; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private...

  12. Care of epidermolysis bullosa in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Rosemarie

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the medical care of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) have led to the development of National Service Centers for EB in many countries worldwide. The exemplary model of care to children and adults with EB in the United Kingdom, combined with the knowledge that people with EB were travelling to the United Kingdom for treatment, encouraged the development of the Irish national service. Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association of Ireland, founded in 1988 played a pivotal role in this development.

  13. Clean Seas Project Harbour Survey Report (Ireland)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubsky, K.; Tierney, A

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this EU co-funded INTERREG project were to help minimise waste discharge and loss from boats and harbours into the sea and to improve waste management practices in the Maritime INTERREG-IIA area. The project relied mainly on awareness raising work, including gathering and providing information on the level of littering, oil pollution and waste disposal methods, legislation and best practise. The partners - Keep Wales Tidy and Coastwatch Ireland - instigated and participated in cle...

  14. Sources of income inequality in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses inequality in Ireland via a decomposition of the Gini coefficient by source of income. Using data from the Irish Household Budget Survey of 1987, seventeen components of disposable income are identified and their contribution to inequality evaluated. Their contribution to inequality at the margin is also calculated. The paper also examines how policy changes addressing inequality can be assessed in terms of their effect upon both equality and output via an abbreviated soci...

  15. National survey of MRSA: Ireland, 1995.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Z

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain an indication of the size of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) problem in Ireland prior to introducing national MRSA control guidelines. A survey of all microbiology laboratories in Ireland was carried out over two weeks in Spring 1995. For patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the study period standard demographic and clinical data were requested and period prevalence\\/1000 discharges was calculated. All 45 microbiology laboratories surveyed responded. MRSA was isolated from 448 patients during the two-week period. The period prevalence of MRSA was 16.5\\/1000 discharges. Males aged > or = 65 had the highest rate (50\\/1000 discharges). Half of all isolates were from patients in surgical or medical wards, but 4% were from community-based sources such as GPs, nursing homes and hospices. Thirty-two percent of MRSA patients were infected rather than colonized. MRSA is clearly a significant problem in Ireland. While it is largely a hospital problem at present, the increasing trend towards day procedures and shorter hospital stay means that infection will increase in the community.

  16. The development of counselling psychology in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Allison; O'Callaghan, Dermot; O'Brien, Owen; Broderick, John; Long, Catherine; O'Grady, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinctive nature of the specialism of counselling psychology and outlines the development of the discipline in Ireland in the context of international developments and its recognition as a professional branch of applied psychology. Today, counselling psychologists are employed in varied clinical and non-clinical settings including health and mental health services (statutory, private and voluntary sector) along with education, forensic, justice, industry and private practices. Counselling psychologist is the primary professional identity of many practising psychologists in Ireland and the Psychological Society of Ireland's Division of Counselling Psychology is the main affiliation of at least 179 members. With its focus on facilitating personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span and its emphasis on the therapeutic process, the specialism continues to bridge the disciplines of psychology, counselling and psychotherapy. In this article, some of the challenges still faced by counselling psychology are explored as it navigates its way through the changing landscape of further development and evolution. PMID:26494940

  17. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  18. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  20. Energy drinks available in Ireland: a description of caffeine and sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaver, Laura; Gilpin, Susannah; Fernandes da Silva, Joana Caldeira; Buckley, Claire; Foley-Nolan, Cliodhna

    2017-06-01

    To describe the caffeine and sugar content of all energy drinks available on the island of Ireland. Two retail outlets were selected from each of: multinational, convenience and discount stores in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, and all available single-serve energy drinks were purchased. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2015 and brand name, price, volume, caffeine and sugar content were recorded for each product. Descriptive analysis was performed. Seventy-eight products were identified on the island of Ireland (regular, n 59; diet/sugar-free/light, n 19). Caffeine and sugar content was in the range of 14-35 mg and 2·9-15·6 g per 100 ml, respectively. Mean caffeine content of 102·2 mg per serving represents 25·6 % of the maximum intake advised for adults by the European Food Safety Authority. Per serving, mean sugar content of regular energy drinks was 37 g. This exceeds WHO recommendations for maximum daily sugar intake of energy intake (25 g for adults consuming 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) diet). If displaying front-of-pack labelling, fifty-seven of the fifty-nine regular energy drinks would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugar. Energy drinks are freely available on the island of Ireland and all products surveyed can be defined as highly caffeinated products. This has potential health issues particularly for children and adolescents where safe limits of caffeine have not been determined. Energy drinks surveyed also contained high levels of sugar and could potentially contribute to weight gain and adverse dental health effects.

  1. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  2. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  3. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  4. France Welcome Chinese Business Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the Press Communiqu(e) between China and France issued on 1st April,both sides decided to conduct high-level contact and strategic dialogue at a proper time to enhance bilateral cooperation in various fields and promote a harmonious and steady growth in Sino-France relations.Since then,the high officials from both countries experienced a frequent meet period.

  5. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  6. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  7. The Coming Out Experience in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis will tackle research into the coming out experience in Ireland and the affects of such experience. Such a topic is of importance to social care workers as the LGBT community are more likely to experience stress, depression, suicide ideation and drug use. The research reviewed was divided up into the following themes, in order to answer the research question; ‘age of realisation versus age of coming out, the ‘LGBT stereotype’, ‘experience of homophobia, the ‘acceptance ...

  8. Information and punitiveness: trial reconstruction in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sato; Hough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this paper: to report results from a rape trial reconstruction in Ireland \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: A studio audience of 100 members of the Irish public were selected to attend a TV programme by the Republic of Ireland’s national broadcasting organisation (RTÉ). This involved the examination of the sentencing of a rape case. The audience’s sentencing preferences were measured at the outset, when they had been given only summary information about the case, and later, when...

  9. Strategic Project/ CanTeen Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Feehan, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    CanTeen Ireland is an organisation set up to support, empower and develop young people who have or have had cancer between the ages of 12 and 25. Set up in May 1990, the nationwide support group provides members with a place where they can simply be young people, away from the day to day pressures that come with living with cancer in the hospital or at home. Having no dedicated wards in Irish hospitals for teenagers with cancer, CanTeen is an important resource for the country and steps up wh...

  10. Family SMEs in Ireland as learning organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Birdthistle, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether small and medium-sized family businesses in Ireland have the potential to be classified as learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology adopted for this study is that of multiple-case studies. In this research, personal interviews were selected as the data collection method. On the basis of Eisenhardt’s premise that a study of between four and ten cases is suitable for qua...

  11. Communication on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassaad Ben Mahjoub

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393

  12. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  13. Ireland, Europe and the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Coakley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For Ireland – along with Spain, Portugal and Greece – membership of ‘Europe’ was seen as an opportunity to escape their historical legacy of ‘underdevelopment’ and become fully integrated into core positions in the global system. Each of these states, and especially Ireland experienced significant growth in the European Union but once the global financial crisis struck, they suffered a deep economic and social crisis, and came to be categorised once again as ‘peripheral’ to Europe. This acute recurrence of a core-periphery divide in the European Union has been accompanied by a rapid diminution of democracy in the EU and its transformation into an increasingly coercive formation. The deprivation programmes imposed by the EU on the peripheral societies has not only damaged growth in the European economy, they have hugely diminished the legitimacy of the European integration project. The essay explores the roots of Europe’s changing power structures and assesses the implications of the Eurozone crisis for the future of the European integration project.

  14. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  15. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Peter; Hynes, Geralyn; McCallion, Philip; Payne, Sheila; Larkin, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the 'policy analysis triangle' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postgraduate training in Ireland: expectations and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D; Dornan, T; Bergin, C; Horgan, M

    2014-12-01

    Postgraduate medical training in Ireland has been compared unfavourably with training abroad and blamed for an "exodus" of graduates of Irish medical schools. Exploration of features of a good training environment and development of tools to measure it have been the focus of much published research. There have been no Irish studies examining training environment using such validated tools. The aim of this study was to use a validated tool, to examine the expectations and experience of training, amongst those training under the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI). The Dutch Residency Education Climate Test (D-RECT) is a 50 item tool to measure postgraduate learning environments. D-RECT was sent to all new entrants to RCPI training programmes in July 2012 (n = 527) and completed in regard to expectations of training (response rate 80.6 %). In March 2013, D-RECT was sent to all RCPI trainees (n = 1,246) to complete in relation to the post held on 1 March (response rate 32.6 %). Data were analysed in SPSS version 18. Experience fell short of expectations for basic specialist training, however, scores for experience rose with greater seniority to match expectations. Positive aspects were teamwork, consultant willingness to discuss patients and respectful treatment of trainees. Areas of weakness were provision of feedback and time to learn new skills. Measurement of learning environment at a national level using a quantitative tool provides useful information for quality assurance and improvement of training.

  17. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  18. The detection of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kane, Maurice J

    2012-05-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) is an autosomal dominant condition with a population prevalence of 1 in 500, and is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It may be caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein B100 (Apo B100), or proprotein convertase subtilisin\\/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes, with over 1,000 causative mutations described. Statin therapy in HeFH is considered effective and safe. Audit data suggest that approximately 80% of the putative HeFH population remains unidentified and, therefore, there is a need to develop a strategy for the identification of affected individuals so that early lipid-lowering treatment may be offered. There is good evidence showing the effectiveness and acceptability of HeFH screening programs in Europe. The authors describe a protocol for an all island approach to HeFH detection in the Republic of Ireland\\/Northern Ireland. Index cases will be identified by opportunistic screening using the Simon Broome, or Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Death (MedPed) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Patients identified as "definite," "probable," or "possible" HeFH criteria will be offered genetic testing. The authors expect causative mutations to be identified in approximately 80% of patients with "definite" HeFH but in only approximately 20% of patients with "possible" HeFH. Cascade screening will be undertaken in first-degree relatives of the index case using genetic testing (where a causative mutation has been identified), or otherwise using LDL cholesterol concentration. The establishment of a HeFH screening program on an all-island basis will require: expansion of the existing molecular genetics diagnostic services, the establishment of a cohort of nurses\\/genetic counselors, a HeFH database to support cascade testing, the development of a network of lipid clinics (in a primary or secondary care setting), and an educational

  19. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  20. "Managed competition" for Ireland? The single versus multiple payer debate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mikkers, Misja

    2014-09-01

    A persistent feature of international health policy debate is whether a single-payer or multiple-payer system can offer superior performance. In Ireland, a major reform proposal is the introduction of \\'managed competition\\' based on the recent reforms in the Netherlands, which would replace many functions of Ireland\\'s public payer with a system of competing health insurers from 2016. This article debates whether Ireland meets the preconditions for effective managed competition, and whether the government should implement the reform according to its stated timeline. We support our arguments by discussing the functioning of the Dutch and Irish systems.

  1. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  2. New Phase Between China and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years,the economic cooperation between China and France has developed rapidly.In despite of the bilateral relationship was fluctuating last year,two countries kept on making their efforts to improve the relation.The 15th China-France Economic Seminar was held on April 8 and 9,in Beijing.The theme of this seminar is "Challenges and Opportunities:Beginning New Cooperation between China and France",after a statement concerning "France fully recognizes 'the importance and sensitivity of the Tibet issue' and that France refuses to support any form of Tibet independence"issued by China and France on April 1.

  3. Surface-wave tomography of Ireland and surroundings using ambient noise and teleseismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadio, Raffaele; Arroucau, Pierre; Lebedev, Sergei; Meier, Thomas; Schaeffer, Andrew; Licciardi, Andrea; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Ireland's geology is dominated by northeast-southwest structural trends and suture zones, mostly inferred from geological mapping and a few active source seismic experiments. However, their geometry and extent at depth and their continuity across the Irish Sea are still poorly known. Important questions also remain unanswered regarding the thickness and bulk properties of the sedimentary cover at the regional scale, the deformation and flow of the deep crust during the formation of Ireland, the thickness of Ireland's lithosphere today, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the asthenosphere beneath Ireland. In this work, we take advantage of abundant, newly available broadband data from temporary array deployments and permanent seismic networks in Ireland and Great Britain to produce high-resolution models of seismic velocity structure and anisotropy of the lithosphere. We combine Rayleigh and Love phase velocity measurements from waveform cross-correlation using both ambient noise and teleseismic data in order to produce high-quality dispersion curves for periods ranging from 1 to 300 s. The phase velocity measurement procedures are adapted from Meier et al.[2], Lebedev et al.[1] and Soomro et al.[3] and are automated in order to deal with the large amount of data and ensure consistency and reproducibility. For the nearly 200 stations used in this study, we obtain a very large number of dispersion curves from both ambient noise and teleseimic data. Dispersion measurements are then inverted in a tomographic procedure for surface-wave phase velocity maps in a very broad period range. The maps constrain the 3D seismic-velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle underlying Ireland and the Irish Sea. {9} Lebedev, S., T. Meier, R. D. van der Hilst. Asthenospheric flow and origin of volcanism in the Baikal Rift area, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 249, 415-424, 2006. Meier, T., K. Dietrich, B. Stockhert, H.P. Harjes, One-dimensional models of shear wave velocity for

  4. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  5. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  6. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  7. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Evidence of both phenological and range shifts in birds in response to increasing temperature in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Cooney, Tom; Stirnemann, Rebecca; O'Halloran, John

    2010-05-01

    It is well established that the timing of arrival of long-distance migrant birds in spring is advancing throughout Europe and that this response is, at least in part, due to an increase in temperature in line with current global warming. In Ireland, we have seen a number of sub-Saharan species, such as, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) and sand martin (Riparia riparia) advance their arrival time over a 31-year period. In addition, a medium-distance winter migrant, the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), has significantly advanced its spring departure time from its wintering ground in Ireland. Furthermore, a number of species, such as the little egret (Egretta garzetta), more typically associated with a warmer climate than Ireland, was considered to be a ‘rare visitor' up to 1990 and has now begun to breed and to establish a population on the island. All of these phenological and range shifts have been correlated with various temperature variables. The consequences of early arrival at wintering and breeding grounds could result in increased fitness but only if an appropriate food resource is in adequate supply at the new earlier time. If temperatures continue to rise as predicted, the status of some bird species in Ireland may change from ‘rare' to ‘common' or from ‘visitor' to ‘resident' with a possible concurrent increase in population size. Equally, the opposite trend may occur, for birds that prefer cold temperatures, whereby we may see a decrease in population size followed by the loss of certain species.

  9. Tectonic control of offshore sedimentary basins to the North and West of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, M.D.

    1978-07-01

    A newly compiled tectonic map of Ireland and part of the offshore area can be used to show that a pattern of rejuvenated Caledonian structures was superseded by newly imposed structures at about the time of the opening of the northern North Atlantic Ocean. There are three distinct patterns of structural control: 1. Older Caledonian structures, 2. Younger Caledonian structures, and 3. Oceanic structures. Younger structural patterns are each superimposed on older, so that locally interference patterns are developed. Each of the structural regimes has controlled sedimentation in particular zones, and where superimposition has occurred, mixed shelf-continental and oceanic sedimentation can be expected at different structural levels. One of the major control structures in and immediately off NW Ireland is the Great Glen Fault system, which has been repeatedly rejuvenated since its development in Caledonian times. Other major control structures are associated with the Porcupine Seabight, which probably developed during the initiation of the immediately adjacent North Atlantic Ocean basin. Where these structural systems intersect at the head of the Seabight, sedimentational provinces can be defined. A poorly defined E-W structural line at about 53/sup 0/ 25' across the northern part of the Seabight may reflect deep wrench faulting related to a subjacent transform. Major structures along this line would have influenced sedimentation and consequent growth structures. This line may be an eastward analogue of the Gibbs Fracture Zone against which the axial zone of quasi-oceanic or attenuated continental crust in the Porcupine Seabight could terminate. 3 figures.

  10. The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; Lyashevska, Olga; Van Franeker, Jan Andries; O'Connor, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Marine plastic litter has become a major threat to wildlife. Marine animals are highly susceptible to entanglement and ingestion of debris at sea. Governments all around the world are being urged to monitor litter sources and inputs, and to mitigate the impacts of marine litter, which is primarily composed of plastics. European policies, such as Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) have adopted the monitoring of a seabird species, the Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), as an environmental quality indicator through the analysis of stomach contents of beached Fulmar specimens. The aims of this research were to: firstly set a baseline investigation of multispecies of seabirds in Ireland affected by the ingestion of litter and, secondly to investigate the feasibility of using Fulmar and/or other potential species of seabird as an indicator for marine debris in Ireland through beached bird surveys. Within 30 months, 121 birds comprising 16 different species were collected and examined for the presence of litter. Of these, 27.3% (n = 33) comprising 12 different species were found to ingest litter, mainly plastics. The average mass of ingested litter was 0.141 g. Among 14 sampled Northern Fulmars, 13 (93%) had ingested plastic litter, all of them over the 0.1 g threshold used in OSPAR and MSFD policy target definitions. Results show that seabirds in Ireland are ingesting marine litter, as in many other countries in the world. Monitoring seabird litter ingestion has the potential to form part of a wider marine litter monitoring programme that can help to inform mitigation and management measures for marine litter.

  11. Indicators for managing biosolids in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amajirionwu, Magnus; Connaughton, Noel; McCann, Brian; Moles, Richard; Bartlett, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-09-01

    Sustainable development indicators (SDIs) have emerged as a tool to measure progress towards sustainable development for a number of fields. However, no indicator initiative to date has been aimed at biosolids management at local authority, regional or national levels. This paper presents a study where stakeholders involved in the management of biosolids in Ireland participated in the development of SDIs for managing biosolids at the local/regional level. A significant 81% of participating stakeholders find SDIs either 'useful' or 'very useful' as a tool for managing biosolids. A suite of 22 indicators has been developed and arranged according to the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator framework. The indicators address all the domains of biosolids management namely, production, quality, cost, legislation/regulation, training/research and recycling/disposal. The stakeholder approach is recognition that no effective indicator set can be developed without the input of stakeholders.

  12. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mehanni, M

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2\\/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8\\/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children\\'s health.

  13. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  14. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  15. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, V?ronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Maril?na; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, Fran?ois; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  16. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  17. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  18. [Nurse home visits in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguillon, Dominique; Gracia, Pierre-Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Nurse home visits in France. More and more nurses carry out home visits, either as freelance nurses or employees of a nurse home visits service, a home hospital care structure or a nursing care centre. These home visits are both demanded by patients and encouraged by the health authorities. As a consequence, the service is expanding every year.

  19. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  20. Sexually transmitted infection incidence among adolescents in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2014-10-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.

  1. The ''Société Géologique du Nord'' (SGN) and Earth Sciences in Northern France; La « Société Géologique du Nord » y las ciencias de la tierra en el norte de Francia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blieck, A.; Meilliez, F.

    2016-10-01

    The ''Société Géologique du Nord'', located in Lille, in northern France, was founded in 1870, with Jules Gosselet as the first president. It has always been closely connected to the geology department of the Faculty of Sciences of Lille, now called the ''Université de Lille Sciences et Technologies'', and keeps strong links with the Natural History Museum of Lille. Its activities and evolution were closely related to those of the coal-mining basin of the area until the last shaft was closed in 1990. Its activities are both in the fields of applied and fundamental geosciences. From its beginning, the Society has published the results of the research of its members, both in a periodical journal, the Annales, and as monographies called Mémoires. From the 1970s, the Mémoires have been progressively replaced by Publications, mostly devoted to State doctoral theses. During the transition from the 20th to the 21st century, the activities of the Society have strongly declined, due to several internal and external factors. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the SGN has tried to adapt itself to the new conditions of both the university and the regional territory. It is still a scientific society, but it is open to its social environment. (Author) [French] La « Société Géologique du Nord » tiene su sede en Lille, en el norte de Francia. Se fundó en 1870, con Jules Gosselet como primer presidente. Siempre ha estado vinculada al Departamento de Geología de la Facultad de Ciencias de Lille, actualmente Université de Lille – Sciences et Technologies, y mantiene fuertes vínculos con el Museo de Historia Natural de Lille. Sus actividades y su evolución han estado relacionadas con las de la cuenca minera (hullera) de la región, hasta que, en 1990, cerró el último pozo de mina. Sus intereses son, a la vez, en el campo de las geociencias fundamentales y aplicadas. Desde su fundación, la Sociedad ha publicado los

  2. IRETHERM: Research and Exploration Challenges in Assessing Ireland's Deep Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Fullea, J.; Vozar, J.; Blake, S.; Delhaye, R.; Farrell, T.; Yeomans, C.; Loewer, M.; Reay, D.

    2012-12-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is a new, academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. A regional south-to-north trend in surface heat-flow is mapped across Ireland, ~40 to >80 mWm-2, but the source of the heat variation (whether crustal and/or lithospheric-mantle in origin) is unknown. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. Our paper discusses the approaches and strategies that IRETHERM has adopted to meet the challenges of exploring for unknown deep geothermal resources (either hydrothermal aquifers or hot, dry rock) starting from a limited knowledge-base. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type

  3. Alcohol use among amateur sportsmen in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, Anne M

    2010-11-18

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish baseline data on alcohol consumption patterns, behaviours and harms among amateur sportsmen in the Republic of Ireland. FINDINGS: The study presents findings from the baseline survey for a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a community intervention programme to reduce problem alcohol use among a representative sample of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) clubs in two counties in the Republic of Ireland. Self reported alcohol use, prevalence of binge drinking, AUDIT scores and alcohol-related harms were assessed in amateur GAA sportsmen aged 16 years and over. Nine hundred and sixty (960) players completed questionnaires (72% response rate). Mean age was 24.0 years (S.D. 5.2). Of those aged 18 years or over, 75% had post-primary education; most (864, 90%) were current drinkers and 8.2% were regular smokers. The self-reported average yearly alcohol consumption was 12.5 litres. Almost one third (31%) of current drinkers reported drinking over the recommended limit of 21 standard drinks per week and just over half (54.3 %) reported drinking 6 or more standard drinks in a row at least once a week (regular binge drinking). Of those who (self) completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire, three-quarters (74.7%) had a score of 8 or more; 11.5% had a score of 20 or above warranting referral for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. Almost all (87.6%) of the 864 drinkers reported experiencing at least one harm due to their drinking. These alcohol misuse outcomes were higher than those found in a nationally representative sample of males of a similar age. There were strong associations between regular binge drinking and reporting harms such as being in a fight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.02, p<0.001), missing time from work or college (adjusted OR 1.39, p=0.04) or being in an accident (adjusted OR 1.78, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These male amateur

  4. 2035: a no nuclear France; 2035: une France sans nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  5. CLP activities and control in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The 10(th) December 2010 marked a new beginning for Regulation (EC) no. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) in Ireland with the start of its operational phase. It was on this date that the administrative and enforcement provisions for CLP were encompassed in the new Chemicals Amendment Act, 2010. In this Act, the Health and Safety Authority, known as the "the Authority" is named as Competent Authority (CA) for CLP, along with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in respect of pesticides and plant protection products and the Beaumont Hospital Board with responsibility for receiving information relating to emergency health response. In practice, the Authority has been de facto CA for CLP since its publication on the 31(st) December 2008, given its role in existing classification and labelling regimes. This article focuses on the work undertaken by the Authority on CLP at a National, European and International level including its implementation, training, helpdesk, guidance, enforcement and awareness raising activities.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infection in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single stranded RNA virus causing infection worldwide. In developing countries HEV genotypes 1 and 2 spread faeco-orally via water. Recently, infections with HEV have been detected in Europe and North America in patients with no travel history. These are food-borne HEV genotypes 3 and 4, a pig-associated zoonosis. Most infections are asymptomatic but morbidity and chronic infection may occur with prior liver disease or immunosuppression. International seroprevalence rates vary and with improved diagnostics have increased. To determine the current prevalence in this region we studied anonymised serum samples submitted in 2015 for routine testing. We detected anti-HEV IgG in 16\\/198 (8%) individuals, highest rate in 40-59 year olds (43.8%). This is higher than reported for the same region in 1995 (0.4%) using a previous generation assay. This study provides evidence of HEV circulation in Ireland and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.

  7. CLP activities and control in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 10th December 2010 marked a new beginning for Regulation (EC no. 1272/2008 on the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP in Ireland with the start of its operational phase. It was on this date that the administrative and enforcement provisions for CLP were encompassed in the new Chemicals Amendment Act, 2010. In this Act, the Health and Safety Authority, known as the "the Authority" is named as Competent Authority (CA for CLP, along with the Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, in respect of pesticides and plant protection products and the Beaumont Hospital Board with responsibility for receiving information relating to emergency health response. In practice, the Authority has been de facto CA for CLP since its publication on the 31st December 2008, given its role in existing classification and labelling regimes. This article focuses on the work undertaken by the Authority on CLP at a National, European and International level including its implementation, training, helpdesk, guidance, enforcement and awareness raising activities.

  8. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  9. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  10. [End of life in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  11. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  12. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  13. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays...

  14. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  15. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  16. Religion, education and conflict in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Renehan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The place of religion in education in the Republic of Ireland generates significant conflict between groups promoting different agendas. Such conflict, however, is not peculiar to Ireland and it is also to be found in most countries. Contexts vary enormously and in Ireland the issue takes a very particular shape. This is because the vast majority of schools in the primary sector are under denominational patronage, that is, they are sponsored by Churches or religious bodies. This article examines two documents where conflicting demands regarding the relationship between education and religion are given especially explicit, pronounced and elaborated expression.

  17. Youth Work in Ireland – A Decade On

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Jenkinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the development of youth work policy and practice in Ireland over the past decade. The paper emerged from a research project carried out by the author which sought to establish the main issues and themes which have characterised youth work in Ireland since the passing of the Youth Work Act in 2001. Themes such as the increased professional identity of youth work; greater unity within the sector; the impact of changing economic conditions; and a move towards outcomes led and evidence based work are explored. The paper also examines future challenges facing voluntary youth work organisations in Ireland.

  18. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  19. Approaches for the Evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention: lessons from the all-Ireland NCI cancer consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Isabel V; Williams, Makeda; Harford, Joe B

    2012-06-01

    The NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention (SCCP) has provided interdisciplinary training in cancer prevention and control to cancer health-care professionals, including nurses, physicians, and scientists, since 1986. It has trained over 1,200 participants, 256 of them from Ireland and Northern Ireland through two summer courses: a 4-week course on Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control (PP) and 1-week on Molecular Prevention (MP). This report is our attempt to measure achievements and level of satisfaction among alumni from the island of Ireland upon return to their home institution. A questionnaire was developed to assess this. Our analysis found statistically significant differences in the types of accomplishments reported among respondents of the MP and PP courses as well as statistically significant differences in their level of satisfaction. More data are needed to better explain the differences observed as well as level of resources available to alumni upon their return home.

  20. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  1. Pharmacoeconomic evaluation in Ireland: A review of the process

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacoeconomic assessment process in Ireland and to provide examples of recent appraisals and the subsequent impact on pricing and reimbursement decisions.\\r\

  2. Poisonings and clinical toxicology: a template for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2013-03-01

    Poisons information is accessed around the clock in the British Isles from six centres of which two are in Ireland at Dublin and Belfast accompanied by consultant toxicologist advisory service. The numbers of calls in Ireland are down to about 40 per day due to easy access to online data bases. Access to Toxbase, the clinical toxicology database of the National Poisons Information Service is available to National Health Service (NHS) health professionals and to Emergency Departments and Intensive Care units in the Republic of Ireland. There are 59 Toxbase users in the Republic of Ireland and 99 % of activity originates in Emergency Departments. All United States Poison Control Centres primarily use Poisindex which is a commercial database from Thomson Reuters.

  3. Trinity mysteries: university, elite schooling and sport in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gerry P T

    2010-01-01

    The development of sport in Ireland was, contrary to some arguments, highly influenced by English examples and Anglo-Irish institutions. Trinity College and prestigious Irish schools did have an impact, as did the number of Irish students sent to England for public school or university education. Athleticism was evident in Ireland as it was in England. Although the development of soccer did follow a slightly different trajectory from other sports, as was also the case in both England and Scotland, this does not mean that it departed from this broad evolutionary model of Irish sport. Yet this was Ireland: and Ireland was different. As opposition to British rule intensified, forms of sporting participation took on more and more of a national symbolism. The outcome was the emergence of a very potent form of athleticism: an Irish athleticism for an Irish people.

  4. Nurses' and Midwives' - Understanding and Experiences of Empowerment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2003-01-01

    Nurses’ and Midwives’ Understanding and Experiences of Empowerment in Ireland With the recently launched national health strategy (Department of Health and Children, 2001) and a tightening fiscal policy there is a requirement for a more innovative use of existing resources dedicated to healthcare in Ireland. Nurses and midwives, one of the largest professional groups within the health service, will play a critical role in developing this â?onewâ?Âù health service. Click he...

  5. Pertussis outbreak in northwest Ireland, January - June 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2010-09-02

    We report a community pertussis outbreak that occurred in a small town located in the northwest of Ireland. Epidemiological investigations suggest that waning immunity and the absence of a booster dose during the second year of life could have contributed to the outbreak. The report also highlights the need to reinforce the surveillance of pertussis in Ireland and especially to improve the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of cases.

  6. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  7. Studying in France,Serving at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    DEAR EDITOR, I am a 75-year-old retired primary school teacher. I published my new work The Work-Study Movement of Young Chinese in France (1912-1930) three years ago, expressing my fondness of history, especially China’s history. Currently, I pay more attention to the Chinese women who came to France for studies in their early years, Could you publish some precise information on their situations before and after returning to China? GABRIELLE REYGNER FRANCE

  8. Increased Population Risk of AIP-Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna-Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W; Herincs, Maria; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J; Hunter, Steven J; Thomas, Mark G; Morrison, Patrick J; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304(*) (or p.R304(*) ; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304(*) carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027-0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011-0.0047) and zero in ROI (0-0.0014). R304(*) prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P acromegaly/gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP-related disease. © 2016 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Quantifying the severity of fuel poverty, its relationship with poor housing and reasons for non-investment in energy-saving measures in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, John D. [Dublin Univ. Coll., Urban Inst. of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Clinch, J. Peter [Dublin Univ. Coll., Dept. of Environmental Studies, Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-01-01

    Fuel poverty has generally been calculated by quantifying the number of households spending in excess of 10% of income on home heating. This definition has a number of significant practical and scientific limitations. This paper employs self-reported data to calculate the severity of fuel poverty in Ireland to identify chronic fuel-poor households from occasional sufferers. It also assesses domestic energy-efficiency levels. Ireland is a useful case study as it demonstrates the highest variations in seasonal mortality and morbidity in northern Europe, both of which are associated with fuel poverty. Ireland is also experiencing extreme difficulties meeting its environmental emissions targets in light of recent spectacular economic growth. Reducing fuel poverty would lower energy-related emissions, assisting policy makers achieve these challenging targets. Furthermore, little empirical research has been undertaken on fuel poverty in Ireland. This paper identifies key social groups at risk by conducting detailed socio-economic and socio-demographic analyses. The relationship between fuel poverty and adverse housing conditions (damp, condensation) is also examined. Moreover, the reasons behind householders not investing in energy-saving measures are reported. The results show that Ireland suffers from similar levels of fuel poverty as the UK, with low-income households suffering the greatest. The key policy implications are outlined. (Author)

  10. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  11. Regional factors interact with educational and income tax levels to influence food intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndels, K; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Ruidavets, J-B; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Amouyel, P; Dauchet, L

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess whether geographic factors affect the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the French National Nutritional Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)) guidelines. The MONA LISA-NUT study (2005-2007) is a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample from northern, northeastern and southwestern France. Educational level and household income tax were recorded by trained interviewers. Food intake was assessed with a 3-day food diary in 3188 subjects aged from 35-64 years. Adherence to the PNNS guidelines was assessed with a validated score (the French score of indicators of the PNNS objective (FSIPO)). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, body mass index, energy intake and medically prescribed diets. The FSIPO score was higher in southwestern France than in the two other regions (P<0.0001). The FSIPO score was correlated with the educational level in northern and northeastern France (P<0.0001) but not in southwestern France (region-education interaction: P<0.001). This interaction was accounted for by fruit and vegetable (P<0.0001), calcium (P=0.03), saturated fatty acid (P<0.0001), and fibre (P=0.0001) components of the FSIPO score. In contrast, the income tax level and the FSIPO score were positively correlated (P<0.0001) to a similar extent in all three regions (region × income tax interaction: P=0.09). The relationship between educational level and adherence to the national nutritional health guidelines differs from one region of France to another, suggesting that nutrition education programmes should perhaps be adapted on a regional basis. In contrast, guideline adherence is correlated with income tax level independently of geographical factors, suggesting that financial constraints on food choices are uniform across France.

  12. The public safety and Gaz de France; La securite du public et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of its utilities missions, Gaz de France has to assure the public safety and the continuity of the gas supply chain. To avoid accidents and help victims of accidents, Gas de France implemented a system of financial assistance but also a preventive action to verify the installations. The first part of the document presents the liabilities of Gas de France, the second part deals with the voluntarist approach of Gas de france towards the public safety. (A.L.B.)

  13. Two outbreaks of botulism associated with consumption of green olive paste, France, September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingeon, J M; Vanbockstael, C; Popoff, M R; King, L A; Deschamps, B; Pradel, G; Dupont, H; Spanjaard, A; Houdard, A; Mazuet, C; Belaizi, B; Bourgeois, S; Lemgueres, S; Debbat, K; Courant, P; Quirin, R; Malfait, P

    2011-12-08

    Two family outbreaks of botulism (a total of nine cases) were identified in south-east and northern France in early September 2011. The source of infection was considered to be a ground green olive paste. Botulinum type A toxin was identified in seven cases and in the incriminated olive paste. Incorrect sterilisation techniques were observed at the artisanal producer’s workshop. These episodes highlight the potential public health threat of Clostridium botulinum linked to inadequate sterilisation of food products.

  14. Potential glacial origin of the seabed geomorphology of the Porcupine Bank, west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The Porcupine Bank lies west of Ireland between 51-54N and 11-15 W, located approximately between 150 km and 250 km from the Irish western coastline. The topography of the bank is gently sloping from the Porcupine Ridge contained within the 200m depth contour to the edge at the 500m depth contour. From then on, sharp escarpments occur to the north and west while the slope is gentler toward the Porcupine Seabight to the southeast. The Bank is linked to the Irish western shelf through a low ridge roughly 100km wide to the northeast. This region's geomorphology and shallow stratigraphy is still widely unexplored although it is located critically for our understanding of the last glaciation inception and termination of the British Irish Ice Sheet. The north-eastern Atlantic shelf region West of Ireland contains a relatively pristine record of glacial ice extension from Ireland and Scotland onto the shelf, probably during the last cold period (Late Midlandian glaciation in Ireland). Furthermore, national economic interest in the region is rising with long term investment being put forward for the Irish Marine Economy. Using multibeam and subbottom data collected more than a decade ago, the seabed surface of the region has been interpreted and mapped. Bedrock outcrop, sand ridges, erosional channels, iceberg scours and ridges of various forms have been recognised. These features show some clear influence of the proximal ice sheets as illustrated by the extensive coverage of iceberg scours. Similarly, the northern edge of the Porcupine Bank and the Porcupine Ridge in particular is characterised by large elongated ridges for which the origin is obscure. These appear roughly parallel to a W-E direction with some displaying a levelling effect on one of their sides. This paper will introduce the results of the mapping effort and argue for the interpretation of the above mentioned ridges as glacial in origin. Various scenarios of the consequences of that statement will then be

  15. Elastic structure and seismicity of Donegal (Ireland): insights from passive seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Ireland's crust is the result of a complex geological history, which began in the Palaeozoic with the oblique closure of the Iapetus Ocean and, probably, it is still on-going. In the northwestern portion of the island, the geology of Donegal has been the subject of detailed geological investigation by many workers in the last century. The most widely represented rock types in Donegal are metasediments of Dalradian and Moinian age, invaded by several granites of Caledonian age (so called Donegal granite). Smaller and separate intrusions are present (e.g. Fanad Head). On the contrary, it is widely accepted that the the deep crustal structure of the northern portion of Ireland has been re-worked in more recent time. The several phases of lithospheric stretching associated to the opening of the Atlantic ocean interested such portion of Ireland, with the extrusion of flood basalts. Moreover, the presence of a hot, low-density asthenospheric plume spreading from Iceland has been suggested, with the formation of a thick high-velocity layer of magmatic underplated material at the base of the crust. Oddly, at present, Donegal is the only seismically active area in Ireland, with an average rate of one Mw=2-3 event every 3-4 years. In the last three years, passive seismic data have been recorded at 12 seismic stations deployed across the most seismically active area in Co. Donegal, with the aim of reconstructing the seismic structure down to the upper-mantle depth and of locating the microseismic activity within investigating volume. Both local and teleseismic events were recorded giving the opportunity of integrating results form different techniques for seismic data analysis, and jointly interpret them together with surface geology and mapped fault traces. Local events have been used to define constrain faulting volumes, focal mechanisms and to reconstruct a low-resolution 3D Vp and VpVs velocity models. Teleseismic events have been used to compute receiver function data

  16. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  17. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because crimin

  18. Natech disasters risk management in France

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    International audience; France is subjected to several types of natural phenomena (floods, earthquake, landslides, storms, forest fires...) and to attacks potentially generated by human activities (industrial facilities, nuclear power plants, transportation of dangerous goods...). The natural and technological risks are managed in France, as regards prevention, protection, intervention, in order to limit their human and economic consequences. Furthermore, an industrial accident could be trigg...

  19. Arctic interests and policy of France

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-01-01

    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  20. DISENGAGING FROM TERRORISM: A NORTHERN IRISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferguson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the disengagement and deradicalization experiences of Northern Irish loyalist paramilitaries from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF and Red Hand Commando (RHC. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to develop an understanding of how the former combatants interpreted and made sense of their disengagement from violence extremism in Northern Ireland after the Belfast Agreement. The analysis of the interviews focusses around push and pull factors which either promote or hinder their ability to move away from violent extremism. The results find a resonance with recent research exploring disengagement and deradicalization processes with terror groupings across the globe and the ideological spectrum. The findings are discussed in relation to a number of topics, including the role of prison, barriers to disengagement, continued commitment and radicalization after desistence from violent extremism, the role of life changes in promoting disengagement and how organizational pressures contain and influence individual disengagement.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries: Ireland 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Ireland's remarkable economic growth over the last 15 years had strong effects on the energy sector. Due to rapidly increasing demand, Ireland has become much more dependent on international energy markets than it was in the past. For Irish energy policy, 2007 marks the end of the transition in market liberalisation with the introduction of a unified national electricity market. In addition, the publication of a new energy policy should help to ensure future security of supply and bring environmental improvements of energy use. Ireland is highly dependent on oil and increasingly dependent on natural gas. The price of these two commodities has strongly increased recently, which results in a heavy burden for the Irish economy and a risk for energy security. The main alternative in the supply side is coal and peat, which causes greenhouse gas emissions to rise much faster than expected. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Ireland and suggests solutions, focussing on moving ahead with market reform and increasing the energy efficiency of the Irish economy. Establishing the 'all-island' electricity market will be of critical importance. Sharper focus on energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy, but in particular in transport and buildings, must be a priority. Finally, to achieve its ambitious goals for renewables in energy supply, Ireland will have to provide ample resources for research and development, to allow technologies such as ocean power to move from the laboratory to the market. 23 figs., 26 tabs., 4 annexes

  2. The welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; O'Shea, Eamon

    2013-04-01

    Recent data analysed for Ireland suggest a strong link between disability status and household poverty, while there exists substantial evidence to suggest that disability is highly prevalent among persons of older age. Within this context, this paper estimates the welfare implications of disability for older people in Ireland. We define and estimate models of the private costs borne by households with older persons who have a disability in Ireland, both in general and by severity of illness or condition. Our modelling framework is based on the standard of living approach to estimating the cost of disability. The model quantifies the extra costs of living associated with disability and is estimated by comparing the standard of living of households with and without disabled members at a given income, controlling for other sources of variation. The analysis suggests that the estimated economic cost of disability for older people in Ireland is significant and varies by severity of disability, as well as by household type. The results also suggest that the cost of disability increases in proportionate terms as the number of people in the household decreases. Our results are important when considering the effectiveness of policies that aim to address the economic problems associated with disability for older people, suggesting that current policy in Ireland does not go far enough. They indicate that older people face a double jeopardy through age and disability, which is not reflected in official poverty rates and support the case for the introduction of disability-adjusted poverty payments.

  3. What is the energy balance of grass biomethane in Ireland and other temperate northern European climates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Murphy, Jerry D.; O' Brien, Catherine M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-12-15

    Biofuels have had bad press in recent years. There are primarily two distinct issues. The biofuel crops with the best yields (such as sugarcane or oil palm) grow in tropical countries where habitat destruction has occurred in association with the biofuel system. First generation indigenous energy crops commonly used for transport fuel in Europe (such as rapeseed and wheat) have low yields and/or the energy balance of the associated biofuel system is poor. This paper shows that grass is a crop with significant yields and grass biomethane (a gaseous renewable transport biofuel) has a very good energy balance and does not involve habitat destruction, land use change, new farming practices or annual tilling. The gross and net energy production per hectare are almost identical to palm oil biodiesel; the net energy of the grass system is at least 50% better than the next best indigenous European biofuel system investigated. Ten percent of Irish grasslands could fuel over 55% of the Irish private car fleet. (author)

  4. Inter-Group Contact at School and Social Attitudes: Evidence from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Campbell, Andrea; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Gallagher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the relationship between schools divided on ethno-religious lines and their implications for social cohesion. One argument against the existence of separate schools is that they limit opportunities for children from different groups to engage with each other, promoting intergroup suspicion and sectarianism. Using intergroup…

  5. The Making of an Outsider: Growing Up in Poverty in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Goretti

    2011-01-01

    The young people who are the focus of this article grow up in communities ravaged by poverty and conflict. School is where they spend most of their time, but their experience of school is, generally, not motivating and increases their feelings of social exclusion; almost one in ten young people whose family depends on benefits leaves school with…

  6. Peacemaking: The Effectiveness of British Strategy in Northern Ireland, 1969-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    terwiinate with pT’omI[ withdrawal uponP reachinrg a settlernent. Al i usuicccsfuAl pezc-ernakilng pato may trap the force in a situation itcaran not...II-TNIFY US I" FRE5ST~SIENIMLNF’ OFI NA DONAL ROWI R WI \\KNIFS’SFSI LKI’-(0 j(RSi) OF A\\]I ,N, &. Ii L-MININ 01 N. k]IO)NAI IUVA3Z IfVI It ~ T ’ t ill

  7. Constructions of Social Exclusion among Young People from Interface Areas of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargie, Owen; O'Donnell, Aodheen; McMullan, Christel

    2011-01-01

    The concept of social exclusion has attracted considerable interest and debate over the past 20 years. It is a multifaceted concept, which has been delineated in a variety of ways by different theorists. This article explores the main defining features of social exclusion, and proceeds to investigate the extent to which these are manifested in…

  8. Vice Premier Liu Yandong Meets Northern Ireland First Minister and Deputy First Minister

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Chi

    2013-01-01

    <正>"China and the United Kingdom,countries with major influence in the world,have broad common interests and wide areas for cooperation.Their friendly cooperation has great significance for the wellbeing of their

  9. Conceptualisation of Children's Rights: What Do Child Care Professionals in Northern Ireland Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, Esmeranda; McCrystal, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The twentieth century began with children having virtually no universally accepted rights but ended with the most powerful international legal instrument supporting their rights: the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The challenge for interested parties in the twenty-first century is effective implementation of this Convention.…

  10. Gender, Religion, and Adolescent Patterns of Self-Disclosure in the Divided Society of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; Tourish, Dennis; Curtis, Louise

    2001-01-01

    The effects of gender and religious affiliation on adolescents' disclosure to friends and strangers were assessed with Year 11 students (N=288). Adolescents of Catholic and Protestant denominations were willing to disclose to friends and strangers. Although females were significantly higher disclosures, religion did not play a key role. Gender was…

  11. Changing Policy and Legislation in Special and Inclusive Education: A Perspective from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron

    2014-01-01

    It is now 15 years since the signing of the 1998 Belfast (or "Good Friday") Peace Agreement which committed all participants to exclusively democratic and peaceful means of resolving differences, and towards a shared and inclusive society defined by the principles of respect for diversity, equality and the interdependence of people. In…

  12. Spina bifida and lower limb amputation in Northern Ireland: A retrospective study of demographics and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Spina bifida is an uncommon cause for lower limb amputation. The causes and level of amputation and mobility outcome for these patients have not been reported previously. To identify the causes and level of amputation and the mobility outcome for amputee patients with spina bifida. Retrospective case series. Chart review of patients identified by computer as having an amputation secondary to neurological or congenital cause. Additional patients identified from the Regional Spina Bifida Medical Clinic. Demographics, cause and level of mobility pre- and post-amputation recorded from the prosthetic notes. In total, 16 patients were identified who had a diagnosis of spina bifida and a lower limb amputation. Mean age at the time of amputation was 28.5 years. In total, 15 patients had a transtibial amputation. In total, 14 patients post-amputation were able to maintain their mobility, wheelchair or walking, without any change in type of aid needed. Patients with spina bifida appear to require lower limb amputation at a younger age than patients with peripheral vascular disease. Almost all patients had prior chronic skin infection/osteomyelitis as precursors for amputation. The most common level for amputation was transtibial. Mobility was maintained for all patients, albeit for two in a more supported way. Clinical relevance Spina bifida is an uncommon reason for amputation. Patients, are often younger and medically complicated. Chronic skin ulceration, was the most common indication for amputation. Wheelchair or walking ambulance was maintained at the same level for most patients.

  13. Engaging the Insurgent in Negotiation: Lessons from Northern Ireland Applied to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    convictions. Bobby Sands election in 1981 to Parliament during his Maze Prison Hunger Strike protest for special category status and his subsequent...security for drug runners , levy taxes on farmers, offer protection from government eradication programs, assist opium brokers and laboratory

  14. Positioning Thinking within National Curriculum and Assessment Systems: Perspectives from Israel, New Zealand and Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Carmel; Hipkins, Rosemary; Zohar, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a major move to position "thinking" (however thinking is defined and enacted) as a more explicit outcome within the curriculum of many nations, with implications for teachers' professional development, assessment, and examination requirements. This paper analyses approaches to this challenge taken by…

  15. What Really Happened in Northern Ireland’s Counterinsurgency: Revision and Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    functions to revitalize industries, transfer technology , and increase production. All these efforts, and others, aimed to alleviate unemployment, which...the earth and putting entire towns to the sword as Tacitus noted in Agricola . This famous Roman historian recorded a Caledonian (the Latin name for...warfare is transferable . What had worked in Belfast could be made to work also in Basra, against another set of urban terrorists, with a different

  16. The spatial distribution of caesium-137 over Northern Ireland from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlins, B. G.; Scheib, C.; Tyler, A.N.; Jones, D.; Webster, R; Young, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of caesium-137 (137Cs) across the land is of much interest because it can tell us about the redistribution of the radionuclide as a result of soil erosion, differential migration through the soil—or its complement, differential retention in the soil. Any such inferences from survey measurements depend on the assumption of a broadly even distribution from weapons testing fallout, and the substantial deposition of 137Cs in rain following the Chernobyl accide...

  17. Tiocfaidh ar la : A Critical Examination of British Counterinsurgency Operations in Northern Ireland 1969-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    This dissatisfaction gave rise to a number of prominent Irish Protestant figures calling for economic reforms, Irish unity and questioning the...National archives: Secret Talks Labour in Contact with the Provisional IRA.” The Guardian, January 2005, 11. Carlough, Montgomery. “Pax Brittania

  18. Piloting a Therapeutic Residential for Children, Young People and Families Bereaved through Suicide in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braiden, Hannah Jane; McCann, Monica; Barry, Helen; Lindsay, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Families bereaved by suicide can experience an extremely intense and complicated grieving process. This can be associated with a range of difficulties and can put bereaved family members at risk of a range of problems. In recognition of this, Barnardo's Child Bereavement Service piloted a two-day residential programme (integrating separate…

  19. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  20. Pain during medical abortion: a multicenter study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Opatowski, Marion; David, Philippe; Bardy, Françoise; Dunbavand, Annabel

    2015-11-01

    To compare the level of pain reported by women by dose of mifepristone, 200 or 600mg, and describe the main factors related to the pain level in the 5 days after a medical abortion. Observational study in 11 medical centers in France between October 2013 and September 2014. The protocols were 200 or 600mg orally mifepristone on day 1 of the medical abortion and 400, 600 or 800μg orally misoprostol on day 3. Women returned a questionnaire that they completed during 5 days following the abortion; pain was recorded on a visual analog scale (0-10) daily. 453 women were included; the mean age was 29 years (range 18-49 years). Pain was greater with 200 than 600mg mifepristone: 33% of women reported a pain level of ≥8 on day 3 with 200mg as compared with 16% with 600mg. This difference remained after controlling for age, gestational age, gravidity, usual painful menstruation and misoprostol dose. Percentages of symptoms as vomiting or diarrhea were also lower with 600mg mifépristone than 200mg. The mean pain severity experienced by women undergoing medical abortion is high; it is higher with a regimen of 200mg mifepristone. The findings emphasize the need to improve analgesic strategies and invite to opt for a protocol of 600mg instead of 200mg mifepristone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  2. Conceiving silence: infertility as discursive contradiction in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jill

    2011-03-01

    This article examines the production and reproduction of silence around infertility in Ireland. Based on narratives collected during 18 months of fieldwork, this article locates the contradictory role of silence in both the private experiences of individuals faced with a difficulty conceiving and in institutions constituted as mechanisms of public support. For many people who experience infertility, silence is rooted in the social stigma associated with reproductive failure or sexual inadequacy. Silence protects privacy while at the same time foreclosing both challenges to assumptions that fertility is the norm and any counterdiscourse to the heteronormative, profamily society in Ireland. I show how the reproduction of silence about infertility is a legacy of Ireland's history, reproductive politics, and the cultural idiom of choice. I argue that support networks and Internet bulletin boards on websites create opportunities to dialogue in silence, reproducing isolation rather than creating public discourse.

  3. William Wilde and the early records of consumption in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, C S; Moynihan, J B

    2011-01-01

    Absence of documentary or bony evidence before the seventeenth century in Ireland is not conclusive evidence of freedom from tuberculosis. Clear records begin with Bills of Mortality kept in Dublin, the city at the centre of English administration of Ireland, and they show that the basis for an epidemic was firmly established therein before 1700. In the middle of the nineteenth century the cataclysmic Famine opened the floodgates of poverty and urban overcrowding that resulted in an alarming death rate that continued to increase until the early years of the twentieth century. It is to William Wilde (1815-1876) we owe the nuanced investigation of the earliest numerical records of consumption and related disorders in Ireland.

  4. Alcoholics Anonymous in Ireland: AA's first European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane; Jordan, Tony

    2007-06-01

    To trace the evolution of Alcoholics Anonymous in Ireland from its establishment there in 1946, focusing on the efforts of early members to publicize the fellowship and negotiate a role for themselves in relation to existing religious and healthcare institutions. Archival research, drawing mainly on primary sources in AA archives in New York and Dublin. Anticipated tensions between this fellowship, which had its roots in Evangelical Protestantism, and the politically powerful Roman Catholic Church in Ireland were skillfully avoided; initial hostility from the medical profession quickly dissipated; and AA distanced itself from policy debate on the wider topic of alcoholism as disease. The relatively smooth introduction of AA to Ireland, the first European country in which it was established, may be attributed to the essentially pragmatic nature of the fellowship and the strategic abilities of its early members.

  5. Midwifery education in Ireland--The quest for modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Rhona; Bradshaw, Carmel

    2016-02-01

    Midwifery education in Ireland has undergone significant changes in recent years including the introduction of direct entry midwifery programmes and a transfer of education to the university sector. While this has provided increased educational opportunities for midwives, the challenge for midwife educators is to prepare students for the increasing complexities of maternity care with a focus on obstetric risk and maternal morbidities with the need to educate midwifery students to support normality and provide woman centred care. The Nursing and Midwifery Board of Ireland has recently produced new Standards and Requirements for midwifery education and Practice Standards for midwives. This article provides information on midwifery education in Ireland and the documents that support the development of the profession.

  6. Invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland, 2001-2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó Maoldomhnaigh, Cilian

    2016-12-01

    In 1999, invasive meningococcal disease was hyperendemic in Ireland at 14.75\\/100 000 population, with 60% group B and 30% group C diseases. National sepsis guidelines and meningococcal C vaccines were introduced in 2000. Despite a spontaneous decline in group B infection, invasive meningococcal disease remains a leading cause of sepsis. This study characterises the epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in children in Ireland since the introduction of meningococcal C vaccine and reviews its clinical presentation, hospital course and outcome in anticipation of meningococcal B vaccine introduction.

  7. The decline of the computer hardware sector: how Ireland adjusted

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Frank; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2008-01-01

    By the late 1990s Ireland had become one of the major European centres of computer hardware production, accounting for 5 per cent of global computer exports and about one-third of all personal computers sold in Europe. Ireland at this stage also accounted for around 6 per cent of global exports of electronic components. The sector has experienced a sharp decline since then as production has relocated eastwards to China and to Central and Eastern Europe. About one-third of the j...

  8. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  9. Geochemical signatures of fluid paleo-transfer in fracture filling calcite from low permeability rock masses: examples taken from Bure's and Tournemire's site in France and northern Switzerland; Signatures geochimiques de paleocirculations aqueuses dans la calcite de remplissage de fracture de massifs argileux peu permeables et de leurs encaissants: exemples pris sur les sites de Bure, Tournemire et Suisse du nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, D

    2002-12-15

    Fractures in rock masses represent preferential path for fluid transfer and, as such, are the most efficient way for migration of radionuclides at a regional scale. The impact of fracturing on hydrogeological system is a major challenge for underground radioactive waste storage projects. In this context, geochemistry of fracture-filling calcite is used to better understand physical and chemical properties of palaeo-fluids. A new methodology has been developed to analyze Mg, Mn, Fe, Sr and Rare Earth Elements REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy and Yb) in calcite by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Analyses of calcite crystals have been performed in fractures from Jurassic clays and limestones in France (Bure and Tournemire sites) and northern Switzerland (Mt Terri's tunnel and deep borehole). On each case, several geochemical signatures are observed, according to REE partitioning and Mn and Fe concentrations. In the Bure site, a dependence of calcite geochemistry from fracture host rock has been evidenced. On the other hand, speciation of REE in solution equilibrated with clayey or calcareous rocks at circum-neutral pH (7 to 8) is not significantly influenced by the media: speciation is dominated by carbonate species in both cases and phosphate complexes can modify heavy REE availability in relatively to light REE. These results point out that in fractures in clays, calcite crystallizes at equilibrium with a fluid expulsed during diagenesis from clay minerals, recording the effect of clays and accessory phases. In limestone fractures, calcite records a later event related to the past functioning of the present aquifer, and the fluid has reached equilibrium with the rock minerals. In secondary filling calcite from Toarcian Argilites faults close to Tournemire's tunnel, three successive generations of calcite are observed in an extensive fault, and a fourth in a compressive one. In Aalenian Opalinus Clays veins, comparison between existing isotopic data and Mn, Fe

  10. Observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th Century and the development of astronomy in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. J.

    2005-04-01

    We review the small number of known observations of planetary transits made in Ireland in the 18th century with particular reference to the 1769 observations of Venus by Charles Mason. Though inconclusive, there is evidence to suggest that planetary transits were instrumental in the foundation of at least one of the principal observatories in Ireland. In addition, we note the close personal involvement and the contributions of Nevil Maskelyne, the prime mover of the UK 1769 Transit observations, in the design and equipment of these observatories.

  11. A 15 year record of high-frequency, in situ measurements of hydrogen at Mace Head, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grant

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous high-frequency measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen have been made at Mace Head atmospheric research station on the west coast of Ireland from March 1994 to December 2008. The presented data provides information on long term trends and seasonal cycles of hydrogen in background northern hemispheric air. Individual measurements have been sorted using a Lagrangian dispersion model to separate clean background air from regionally polluted European air masses and those transported from southerly latitudes. No significant trend was observed in background northern hemispheric air over the 15 year record, elevations in yearly means were accounted for from large scale biomass burning events. Seasonal cycles show the expected pattern with maxima in spring and minima in late autumn. The mean hydrogen mole fraction in baseline northern hemispheric air was found to be 500.1 ppb. Air transported from southerly latitudes showed an elevation from baseline mean of 11.0 ppb, reflecting both the latitudinal gradient of hydrogen, with higher concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere, and the photochemical source of hydrogen from low northern latitudes. European polluted air masses arriving at Mace Head showed mean elevation of 5.3 ppb from baseline air masses, reflecting hydrogen's source from primary emissions like fossil fuel combustion. Forward modelling of transport of hydrogen to Mace Head suggests that the ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide in primary emissions is considerably less in non-traffic sources than traffic sources.

  12. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M P

    2012-02-03

    SETTING: The Southwest of Ireland (Counties Cork and Kerry) 1987-2000, average population 549,500. OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant morbidity worldwide and the study of epidemiology and characteristics helps in their prevention and treatment. This study was performed to determine the incidence of NTM disease in comparison to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Southwest Ireland, over the above time period. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out in all human isolates of NTM, M. tuberculosis and M. bovis between 1987 and 2000, in the Southwest Region of Ireland. RESULTS: The mean incidence of NTM (0.4\\/100,000 population) has risen since 1995, principally of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC). The annual incidence of M. tuberculosis in humans over 14 years in the same region was 971\\/100,000 population with a significant reduction since 1994 and M. bovis remained constant at 0.5\\/100,000 population. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of disease causing NTM noted in Southwest Ireland reflects global data and is surmised to be due to an ageing population, increased incidence related to chronic fibrotic lung disease, and environmental mycobacterial factors.

  13. Caligus elongatus as parasites of farmed salmonids in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, David; Deady, Sandra; Hassett, Daniel; Leahy, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Infestation patterns of Caligus elongatus on farmed Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout were investigated at several sites along the west coast of Ireland. Parasite abundances were examined in relation to host species, farm location and season. Differences were found in the relative prevalence of infe

  14. Belatedly hatching ornithology collections at the National Museum of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigwart, J.D.; Callaghan, E.; Colla, A.; Dyke, G.J.; McCaffrey, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    For the first time, summary details are presented for the ornithological collections of the National Museum of Ireland (Natural History) (NMINH). To date, new cataloguing efforts in collaboration with University College Dublin have documented close to 10,000 non-passerine bird skins and taxidermy mo

  15. Counselors Abroad: Outcomes of an International Counseling Institute in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; McAuliffe, Garrett; Michalak, Megan

    2014-01-01

    As the counseling profession continues to build an international community, the need to examine cultural competence training also increases. This quantitative study examined the impact of the Diversity and Counseling Institute in Ireland (DCII) on participants' multicultural counseling competencies. Two instruments were utilized to examine…

  16. A Strategy for the Digital Content Industry in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is a real opportunity for Ireland to develop a significant strength in the digital content industries of the future and to develop strong digital content clusters of high-growth, high-value digital businesses. This report identifies five key target areas: e-Learning, Games, Business and Consumer Wireless Services, Digital Libraries, and Non-Media Digital Applications

  17. The customized fetal growth potential: a standard for Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and pregnancy-related physiological and pathological variables associated with fetal growth and birthweight in Ireland and to develop customized birthweight centile charts for the Irish population that will aid in appropriate identification and selection of growth-restricted fetuses requiring increased antenatal surveillance.

  18. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one way analysis…

  19. Reviving a Community, Modernizing an Industry: Ireland's Furniture College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Technology Strategies, Inc., Carrboro, NC.

    Connemara, a rural region in Ireland, is characterized by high unemployment, high emigration, poor infrastructure, inadequate public services, and a low rate of transfer to third-level education. To address the situation, the Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), joined forces with Connemara West (a community-owned development organization…

  20. Cultural Flashpoint: The Politics of Teacher Education Reform in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The publication of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 (Cosgrove et al., 2010; Perkins et al., 2010) reading literacy results heralded a crisis of confidence in educational standards in Ireland. This article examines the national and international context of teacher education reform and the politics of the policy…

  1. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Michael; And Others

    Fifteen adult education programs being conducted in Ireland are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to university degree courses in management and industrial relations, from marriage preparation to inservice teacher education. The following programs are profiled: (1) certificate in farming…

  2. The People Left Behind: Anomic Themes in Rural Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

    This paper examines the major conflicts and stresses which surround the coming of age in rural Ireland today and which commonly contribute to mental breakdown. The study is based on ten months of participant observation in an Irish-speaking village of Southwest Kerry, combined with weekly visits to the county mental hospital. The author uses a…

  3. Concentrations, cumulative exposure and critical levels of ozone in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Aherne, J.; Farrell, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3) and exceedance of critical levels to vegetation have been investigated and mapped for Ireland. Hourly ozone concentration data (1995–1997) at 7 seven monitoring stations and the CORINE landcover database, supported by a Geographical Information System, were

  4. Relationships of People with Learning Disabilities in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Geraldine; Deely, Marie; Donohoe, Brian; Dooher, Martin; Flaherty, Josephine; Iriarte, Edurne Garcia; Hopkins, Rob; Mahon, Ann; Minogue, Ger; Mc Donagh, Padraig; O'Doherty, Siobhain; Curry, Martin; Shannon, Stephen; Tierney, Edel; Wolfe, Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the perspectives of people with learning disabilities on relationships and supports in the Republic of Ireland. A national research network consisting of 21 researchers with learning disabilities, 12 supporters, and 7 university researchers conducted the study. Researchers with learning disabilities and their supporters ran 16…

  5. Refusal of emergency caesarean section in Ireland: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the issue of emergency caesarean section refusal. This raises complex legal and ethical issues surrounding autonomy, capacity, and the right to refuse treatment. In Ireland, the situation is complicated further by the constitutional right to life of the unborn. While cases involving caesarean section refusal have occurred in other jurisdictions, a case of this nature has yet to be reported in Ireland. This article examines possible ways in which the interaction of a woman's right to refuse treatment and the right to life of the unborn could be approached in Ireland in the context of caesarean section refusal. The central argument of the article is that the liberal individualistic approach to autonomy evident in the caesarean section cases in England and Wales is difficult to apply in the Irish context, due to the conflicting constitutional rights of the woman and foetus. Thus, alternative visions of autonomy which take the interests and rights of others into account in medical decision-making are examined. In particular, this article focuses on the concept of relational consent, as developed by Alasdair Maclean and examines how such an approach could be applied in the context of caesarean section refusal in Ireland. The article explains why this approach is particularly appropriate and identifies mechanisms through which such a theory of consent could be applied. It is argued that this approach enhances a woman's right to autonomy, while at the same time allows the right to life of the unborn to be defended.

  6. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one…

  7. Yield model for unthinned Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omiyale, O.; Joyce, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past few decades the construction of yield models, has progressed from the graphical through mathematical and biomathematic approach. The development of a biomathematical growth model for Sitka spruce plantations is described. It is suggested that this technique can serve as a basis for general yield model construction of plantation species in Ireland. (Refs. 15).

  8. Burnout among Accounting and Finance Academics in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Chughtai, Aamir; Flood, Barbara; Murphy, Evelyn; Willis, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the levels of burnout experienced by accounting and finance academics in Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: Data for this cross-sectional survey study were collected from 100 accounting and finance academics teaching in Irish third level institutions. Independent sample "t"-tests, one…

  9. [The occupational physician in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  10. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  11. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  12. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  13. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  14. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  15. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  17. Register for the local elections in France

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    If you are a European Union citizen residing in France and wish to vote in the forthcoming local elections you must register on the supplementary register at your town hall (mairie) before 31 December 2007. EU citizens are regarded as residing in France if their primary residence is in France or if they live there continuously. To be eligible to vote you must: be a national of one of the 26 listed States of the European Union and present a valid identification document. Residence permits are valid; be at least 18 years old by the closing date of revision of the supplementary electoral register, i.e. by the last day of February; enjoy civic rights both in France and in your State of origin. For more information: http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/particuliers/F1937.xhtml?&n=Elections&l=N4&n=Elections%20politiques&l=N47

  18. Chinese Peking Opera Troupe Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Municipal Government of Marmande, France and the Festival de Sylvanes, a Chinese Peking Opera troupe, drawn mainly from the National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts and sent by the CPAFFC,visited France from August 19 to 31 to introduce the quintessence of Chinese culture through their performances.An additional purpose was to promote exchanges between the two countries in theatrical arts and culture,thus enhancing mutual

  19. Privatizations and corporate governance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, A.

    2013-01-01

    From the middle of 1993, the French government has followed an ambitious privatisation programme. Nine major state-owned enterprises have been at least partially sold; other companies some of which are amongst the largest in France, will be sold in the next few years. An analysis is undertaken of how the post-1993 privatisations have related to changes in both the mechanisms of corporate governance and the market for corporate control. Privatisation in France is found to be tactically motivat...

  20. IRETHERM: Magnetotelluric Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential of Hydrothermal Aquifer, Radiothermal Granite and Warm Spring Targets in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan G.; Muller, Mark; Fullea, Javier; Vozar, Jan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Farrell, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    IRETHERM (www.iretherm.ie) is an academic-government-industry, collaborative research project, funded by Science Foundation Ireland, with the overarching objective of developing a holistic understanding of Ireland's low-enthalpy geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. With the exception of Permo-Triassic basins in Northern Ireland, hosting geothermal aquifers of promising but currently poorly-defined potential, rocks with high primary porosity have not been identified elsewhere. Whether any major Irish shear zones/faults might host a geothermal aquifer at depth is also unknown, although clusters of warm-springs in the vicinity of two major shear zones are promising. IRETHERM's objectives over a four-year period are to: (i) Develop multi-parameter geophysical modelling and interpretation software tools that will enhance our ability to explore for and assess deep aquifers and granitic intrusions. (ii) Model and understand temperature variations in the upper-crust. Firstly, by building a 3-D model of crustal heat-production based on geochemical analysis of surface, borehole and mid- to lower-crustal xenolith samples. Secondly, by modelling, using a fully self-consistent 3-D approach, observed surface heat-flow variation as a function of variation in the structure and thermal properties of the crust and lithosphere, additionally constrained by surface elevation, geoid, gravity, seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data. (iii) Test a strategic set of eight "type" geothermal targets with a systematic program of electromagnetic surveys (MT, CSEM) across ten target areas. During 2012, IRETHERM collected over 220 MT/AMT sites in the investigation of a range of different geothermal target types. Here we present preliminary electrical resistivity modelling results for each target investigated and discuss the implications of the models for geothermal energy potential: 1. Rathlin Basin The only sedimentary strata

  1. Increased Population Risk of AIP‐Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Serban; Diekmann, Yoan; Gabrovska, Plamena; Holland, Brendan; Bradley, Lisa; Wallace, Helen; Stals, Karen; Bussell, Anna‐Marie; McGurren, Karen; Cuesta, Martin; Ryan, Anthony W.; Herincs, Maria; Hernández‐Ramírez, Laura C.; Holland, Aidan; Samuels, Jade; Aflorei, Elena Daniela; Barry, Sayka; Dénes, Judit; Pernicova, Ida; Stiles, Craig E.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; McCloskey, Ronan; Ajzensztejn, Michal; Abid, Noina; Akker, Scott A.; Mercado, Moises; Cohen, Mark; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Baldeweg, Stephanie; Barkan, Ariel; Musat, Madalina; Levy, Miles; Orme, Stephen M.; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kumar, Ajith V.; Ellard, Sian; McPartlin, Joseph; McManus, Ross; Linden, Gerard J.; Atkinson, Brew; Balding, David J.; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Chris J.; Hunter, Steven J.; Thomas, Mark G.; Morrison, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304* (or p.R304*; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304* carrier frequency in 936 Mid Ulster, 1,000 Greater Belfast (both in NI) and 2,094 Republic of Ireland (ROI) volunteers and in 116 NI or ROI acromegaly/gigantism patients. Carrier frequencies were 0.0064 in Mid Ulster (95%CI = 0.0027–0.013; P = 0.0005 vs. ROI), 0.001 in Greater Belfast (0.00011–0.0047) and zero in ROI (0–0.0014). R304* prevalence was elevated in acromegaly/gigantism patients in NI (11/87, 12.6%, P < 0.05), but not in ROI (2/29, 6.8%) versus non‐Irish patients (0–2.41%). Haploblock conservation supported a common ancestor for all the 18 identified Irish pedigrees (81 carriers, 30 affected). Time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was 2550 (1,275–5,000) years. tMRCA‐based simulations predicted 432 (90–5,175) current carriers, including 86 affected (18–1,035) for 20% penetrance. In conclusion, R304* is frequent in Mid Ulster, resulting in numerous acromegaly/gigantism cases. tMRCA is consistent with historical/folklore accounts of Irish giants. Forward simulations predict many undetected carriers; geographically targeted population screening improves asymptomatic carrier identification, complementing clinical testing of patients/relatives. We generated disease awareness locally, necessary for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of AIP‐related disease. PMID:27650164

  2. Mutuals and Alternative Banking: A Solution to the Financial and Economic Crisis in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, JAMES CHARLES

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper looks at the financial crisis in Ireland and the state?s responses, and considers the role of civil society institutions operating in the financial sector in Ireland, and how their role might be expanded.

  3. Undergraduate Courses in Family Medicine in the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge

    1993-01-01

    Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries......Almen medicin, Family Medicine, undergraduate Courses, the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Nordic Countries...

  4. [Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudon, M

    2005-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent disease that affects about 10% of people in western countries. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has been constantly increasing during the past fifty years in France as well as in other industrialized countries. Stone composition varies depending to gender and age of patients and also underlines the role of other risk factors and associated pathologies such as body mass index and diabetes mellitus. The decrease in struvite frequency in female patients is the result of a significantly improved diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections by urea-splitting bacteria. In contrast, the increasing occurrence of weddellite calculi in stone forming women aged more than 50 years could be the consequence of post-menopausal therapy. A high prevalence of uric acid was found in overweight and obese stone formers and in diabetic ones as well. Another important finding was the increased occurrence with time of calcium oxalate stones formed from papillary Randall's plaques, especially in young patients. Nutritional risk factors for stone disease are well known: they include excessive consumption of animal proteins, sodium chloride and rapidly absorbed glucides, and insufficient dietary intake of fruits and potassium-rich vegetables, which provide an alkaline load. As a consequence, an excessive production of hydrogen ions may induce several urinary disorders including low urine pH, high urine calcium and uric acid excretion and low urine citrate excretion. Excess in calorie intake, high chocolate consumption inducing hyperoxaluria and low water intake are other factors, which favour excessive urine concentration of solutes. Restoring the dietary balance is the first advice to prevent stone recurrence. However, the striking increase of some types of calculi, such as calcium oxalate stones developed from Randall's plaque, should alert to peculiar lithogenetic risk factors and suggests that specific advices should be given to prevent stone

  5. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  6. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  7. From Emigration to Immigration: New Dawn for an Intercultural 21st Century Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwarasibo, Fidele

    2005-01-01

    Within the course of a decade Ireland has emerged from being a country of emigration to a country of immigration. Since the mid-1990s, Ireland has undergone rapid economic expansion with the recent economic growth resulting in approximately 252,000 migrants entering Ireland over the last 6 years, according to the Irish Times (2003). While a large…

  8. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  9. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcia, J.A.; Carrat, J.; Poughon, A.; Sanselme, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  10. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-08-05

    SUMMARY Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995-1999 and 2004-2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.

  11. Financial development and economic growth. An empirical analysis for Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Adamopoulos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between financial development and economicgrowth for Ireland for the period 1965-2007 using a vector error correction model (VECM.Questions were raised whether financial development causes economic growth or reverselytaking into account the positive effect of industrial production index. Financial marketdevelopment is estimated by the effect of credit market development and stock marketdevelopment on economic growth. The objective of this study was to examine the long-runrelationship between these variables applying the Johansen cointegration analysis takinginto account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Granger causality testsindicated that economic growth causes credit market development, while there is a bilateralcausal relationship between stock market development and economic growth. Therefore, itcan be inferred that economic growth has a positive effect on stock market development andcredit market development taking into account the positive effect of industrial productiongrowth on economic growth for Ireland.

  12. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, P; Connell, J; O'Flanagan, D; McKeown, P

    2014-04-01

    Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995-1999 and 2004-2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.

  13. A sustainability strategy for Ireland's electricity network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.; Shine, J.; Walsh, A. (ESB Networks (Ireland)); Keane, A.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M. (Univ. College Dublin, Electricity Research Centre (Ireland))

    2009-09-15

    The electricity system of Ireland is unique as it has no synchronous connections to other systems, while the existing non-synchronous connection provides limited flexibility. When coupled with a target of 40% electricity from renewables by 2020, exceeding any other country, the challenge is truly striking. However, this challenge also gives Ireland the opportunity to be the world leader in this area. The unique experience in solving this problem will provide the technology and knowledge to harness renewable energy sources globally and limit the dependency on petrochemicals. The continued development of the electricity distribution network as a smart network is a critical element of this process which spans electricity generation, transportation and energy end use. This paper described the various elements of ESB Networks' sustainability strategy and the associated research themes being jointly pursued by ESB Networks, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin. (au)

  14. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  15. Service user involvement in mental health practitioner education in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, A; Maguire, G; Watts, M; Creaner, M; McCann, E; Rani, S; Alexander, J

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, there is an ever increasing call to involve people who use mental health services in the development, delivery and evaluation of education programmes. Within Ireland, there is very little evidence of the degree of service user involvement in the educational preparation of mental health practitioners. This paper presents the findings on service user involvement in the education and training of professionals working in mental health services in Ireland. Findings from this study indicate that in the vast majority of courses curricula are planned and delivered without consultation or input from service users. Currently the scope of service user involvement is on teaching, with little involvement in curriculum development, student assessment and student selection. However, there is evidence that this is changing, with many respondents indicating an eagerness to move this agenda forward.

  16. Analysing the relationship between voter turnout and health in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, K; Doyle, O

    2007-09-01

    Health issues are an integral part of the political agenda in Ireland. Yet no study to date has examined the impact of health concerns on political outcomes. This study investigates the relationship between health, both physical and psychological, and perceptions of the health service, and voter turnout in Ireland using the European Social Survey in 2005, (n = 2286, RR 59.7%). The results show that individuals with poor subjective health are significantly less likely to vote in a General Election. Dissatisfaction with the health service is also associated with a lower probability of voting. However these effects interact: those with poor health and who are dissatisfied with the health service are more likely to vote. Psychological well-being has no effect on voter turnout. The health effects identified in this study are large and further work is needed in this area to identify the causal mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  17. Environmental assessment of biofuel pathways in Ile de France based on ecosystem modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle, Benoît; Gagnaire, Nathalie; Massad, Raia Silvia; Dufossé, Karine; Bessou, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here was to reduce the uncertainty on the greenhouse gas balances of biofuels using agro-ecosystem modeling at a high resolution over the Ile-de-France region in Northern France. The emissions simulated during the feedstock production stage were input to a life-cycle assessment of candidate biofuel pathways: bioethanol from wheat, sugar-beet and miscanthus, and biodiesel from oilseed rape. Compared to the widely-used methodology based on fixed emission factors, ecosystem modeling lead to 55-70% lower estimates for N2O emissions, emphasizing the importance of regional factors. The life-cycle GHG emissions of first-generation biofuels were 50-70% lower than fossil-based equivalents, and 85% lower for cellulosic ethanol. When including indirect land-use change effects, GHG savings became marginal for biodiesel and wheat ethanol, but were positive due to direct effects for cellulosic ethanol.

  18. Ireland's medical brain drain: migration intentions of Irish medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gouda, Pishoy

    2015-12-01

    To provide the optimum level of healthcare, it is important that the supply of well-trained doctors meets the demand. However, despite many initiatives, Ireland continues to have a shortfall of physicians, which has been projected to persist. Our study aimed to investigate the migration intentions of Irish medical students and identify the factors that influence their decisions in order to design appropriate interventions to sustain the supply of trained doctors in order to maintain a viable medical system.

  19. Earnings inequality, returns to education and immigration into Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Alan; Fitz Gerald, John; Nolan, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Increasing earnings inequality has been an important feature of the US and UK labour markets in recent years. The increase appears to be related to an increased demand for skilled labour and an increase in the returns to education. In this paper we examine what has happened to earnings inequality and the returns to education in Ireland between 1987 and 1997. We find that while both increased between 1987 and 1994, the increases slowed dramatically between 1994 and 1997. This is somewhat surpr...

  20. Ireland in Crisis 2008-2012: women, austerity and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Ursula; Conroy, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    The is the first book to analyse the current economic crisis from a gender perspective and to explore the impact of austerity policies on women in nine selected countries in Europe and America, including a chapter on Ireland. The question is asked as to whether, and to what extent, gender equality gains made in recent decades have been undermined during the crisis years and what is the future for gender equality strategies.