WorldWideScience

Sample records for france impact des

  1. Geology of uranium vein-deposits in France; Geologie des gites uraniferes et filoniens en France

    Sarcia, J A; Carrat, J; Poughon, A; Sanselme, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of the characteristics of the main uranium vein deposits in France; it underlines the structural, petrographic and metallogenic similarities of these deposits. (author) [French] La note presente est un expose des caracteres generaux des principaux gites uraniferes filoniens de France; elle insiste sur les similitudes structurales, petrographiques et metallogeniques de ces gisements. (auteur)

  2. Immigration et affirmation : le cas des Africains en France

    Claude Zesseu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est un tour d’horizon des questions reliées à l’immigration et à l’intégration des Africains en France, de la période coloniale à nos jours. Il retrace les dates marquantes et les réseaux du flux migratoire Afrique-France et présente une synthèse ciblée des politiques d’immigration françaises. Il engage une réflexion sur les facteurs susceptibles d’entraver ou de favoriser l’intégration et l’affirmation socio-économique et politique des immigrants africains en France.

  3. L’émergence de l’âge adulte : de l’impact des référentiels institutionnels en France et au Québec 

    Stéphane Moulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La théorie de l’âge adulte émergeant soutient que la période de 18 à 25 ans constitue un nouvel âge des parcours de vie qui n’est pas structurée par les institutions. Cet article vise à mettre cette affirmation à l’épreuve de la comparaison internationale à travers une analyse qualitative comparée de l’entrée des étudiants dans l’âge adulte au Québec et en France. Un contraste important est observé dans le processus d’émergence du sentiment d’être adulte : les étudiants se déclarent adultes dès le début du post-secondaire au Québec mais seulement à la fin de leurs études en France. Ce contraste est expliqué par des référentiels institutionnels nationaux qui structurent des conceptions différenciées de l’être adulte, du rôle des parents ainsi que du travail rémunéré.Emerging Adulthood: differential impacts of institutional referentials in France and QuébecThe theory of ‘Emerging Adulthood’ argues that the period between 18 and 25 years of age constitutes a new stage of the life-course that is unstructured by institutions. This article seeks to put this statement to the test of international comparison by a qualitative comparison of student entry to adulthood in France and Québec. A gap is observed between the two processes of emerging adulthood: Quebec students tend to identify themselves as adults at the very beginning of their postsecondary studies while French students declare themselves adults only after their postsecondary studies. We suggest that this gap is explained by national institutional referentials that shape differential conceptions of adulthood, role of parents and remunerative work.La accesión a la edad adulta. Impacto de los elementos de referencia institucionales en Francia y en Quebec (CanadaLa teoría de la “adultez emergente” afirma que el periodo comprendido entre los 18 y los 25 años no está estructurado por las instituciones. Este artículo intenta poner a

  4. Protection et valorisation du patrimoine géomorphologique en Île- de-France (Bassin de Paris, France)État des lieux et perspectives

    Bétard, François

    2015-01-01

    Reconnu depuis une dizaine d’années seulement, le patrimoine géomorphologique fait l’objet d’une attention accrue de la part des scientifiques et des acteurs du territoire, en raison des menaces grandissantes qui pèsent sur la préservation des reliefs et des paysages, mais aussi compte tenu des potentialités qu’offre la valorisation culturelle et touristique des sites d’intérêt géomorphologique (ou géomorphosites) pour le développement local. En France métropolitaine, la région Île-de-France ...

  5. La légitimation des journalistes professionnels en France

    Christine Leteinturier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Le statut juridique des journalistes français a été établi par une loi du 29 mars 1935 complétée par un décret du 17 janvier 1936. Ce statut est caractérisé par la mise en place d’une carte de journaliste professionnel et surtout par l’instauration de procédures particulières de rupture de contrat de travail (articles L-7611 & sq. du Code du Travail français. Toutefois l’accès à l’activité de journalistes reste très ouvert car la détention de la carte n’est pas obligatoire pour son exercice. La reconnaissance symbolique du professionnalisme des journalistes français passe donc par l’obtention d’une carte professionnelle, dite carte de presse, délivrée par une Commission - la Commission de la carte d’identité des journalistes professionnels / CCIJP - composée, à parts égales, de représentants des journalistes et de représentants des patrons de médias et renouvelée tous les trois ans. C’est une organisation indépendante qui attribue, en toute autonomie de jugement la carte professionnelle à ceux des journalistes qui en font la demande en prenant en compte la situation personnelle de chaque demandeur, en interprétant l’ensemble des textes réglementaires qui régissent à la fois l’activité des journalistes et celle des entreprises médiatiques. Elle a ainsi construit des règles d’attribution ce qui, à l’inverse, l’amène à définir les conditions de non-attribution, donc de refus de la carte. C’est précisément ce dernier point que nous allons analyser ici, à partir d’un corpus de 585 refus prononcés en 2010. Nous montrons comment la CCIJP fonctionne, quels sont les arguments qu’elle utilise pour refuser la carte et donc comment elle délimite le territoire, les « frontières » du journalisme professionnel légitime. L’existence d’une Commission supérieure d’appel, composée majoritairement de magistrats, ouvre un espace de tension autour des décisions de la CCIJP

  6. Statistics on the production and the use of the artificial radioelements in France; Statistiques sur la production et l'emploi des radioelements artificiels en France

    Fisher, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA is, in France, the unique producer of artificial radioelements for public uses. These products have been provided to the users since 1949. They include until now only radioelements formed in nuclear reactors. The following aspects of use in France of the artificial radioelements will be described: - Consumption of the artificial radioelements in France, - French production and import, - Teaching and study of applications. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique est, en Franoe, le seul producteur de radioelements artificiels pour l'utilisation publique. Ces produits ont ete fournis aux utilisateurs des 1949. Ils ne comprennent jusqu'a present que des radioelements formes dans des reacteurs nucleaires. Les aspects suivants de l'utilisation en France des radioelements artificiels seront decrits: onsommation des radioelements artificiels en France, Production francaise et importation, - Enseignement et etudes d'applications. (M.B.)

  7. L’engagement des femmes catholiques dans des associations familiales en France et au Portugal

    Sophie Rétif

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, résultat d’une enquête sur des associations familiales catholiques, en France et au Portugal, se propose de montrer à quelles conditions des mouvements conservateurs peuvent favoriser la prise de responsabilité des femmes. Dans ces mouvements où l’adhésion se fait en couple et où la différence de nature entre les sexes est en permanence réaffirmée, on observe une nette division sexuelle du travail militant. Les postes les plus prestigieux sont occupés par les hommes, qui sont également majoritairement en charge des tâches de réflexion et d’impulsion politique. Les femmes, quant à elles, prennent en charge l’essentiel des services fournis aux familles, ainsi que la plus grande partie des tâches d’organisation et d’exécution. Cependant, certaines femmes peuvent connaître une ascension très rapide au sein des mouvements et traverser les frontières de la division sexuelle du travail, à condition de disposer d’un capital social important et, surtout, d’une expérience professionnelle. Pour les femmes, peu nombreuses, qui cumulent ces propriétés, l’engagement dans ces mouvements familiaux conservateurs peut constituer le point de départ d’une véritable carrière militante et politique.Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación acerca de unas asociaciones familiares católicas, en Francia y en Portugal. Propone evidenciar cuales son las condiciones que favorecen las toma de responsabilidad por parte de las mujeres en estos grupos conservadores. En estas asociaciones, a las cuales la pareja es la que se afilia, la diferencia “natural” entre hombres y mujeres está permanentemente reafirmada y se observa claramente una división sexual del trabajo militante. Los hombres ocupan las plazas más prestigiosas y se encargan de la mayor parte del trabajo de reflexión e impulsión política, mientras que las mujeres se dedican a los servicios a las familias y a las tareas de organizaci

  8. Coli see des Bois-Francs Victoriaville, Quebec : major retrofit

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This profile presented details of a major retrofit of the Colisee des Bois-Francs Ice Rink in Victoriaville, Quebec. The retrofit included the recovery of heat rejected from the refrigeration system; extensive integration of the refrigeration system with heating, ventilation, and dehumidification systems; short-term heat storage; and the installation of a variable condensing temperature and pressure system. Characteristics of the arena were presented, including details of annual energy consumption, energy costs, and the surface area of the building, which was built in 1978. Annual energy costs for the building were estimated at $90,000. The overall cost of the retrofit was $693,300, with technical support provided by the CANMET Energy Technology Centre. Two factory-built commercial refrigeration systems were installed using floating head pressure. Heat transfer fluid in the cold secondary loop was a mixture of water and methanol, while the warm secondary loop contained a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. Energy efficiency measures included using condensation heat rejected in the warm secondary loop and transferred through a coil in the ventilation duct. A simplified system schematic was presented. Building energy consumption savings were estimated at 14 per cent savings for 50 per cent greater cooling capacity compared with the previous system. The use of modular package refrigeration units confined the refrigerant in the mechanical room and reduced the amount of refrigerant required by 70 per cent. Potential refrigerant leaks were also reduced. With the older system, leaks accounted for 120 t equivalent of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) released per year. Additional benefits of the new system include better quality ice, a more reliable system and greater comfort for spectators. 2 figs.

  9. La moindre performance scolaire des enfants de couples mixtes en France

    Unterreiner, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Rares sont les études portant spécifiquement sur les enfants de couples mixtes en France. Cette population est souvent confondue avec les descendants d’immigrés dans l’étude des performances scolaires de ceux-ci. Or, la socialisation intrafamiliale et le rapport au pays de résidence des enfants de couples mixtes divergent de ceux des descendants de Français et de ceux des descendants d’immigrés. Se pose alors la question de savoir si la définition de leur univers normatif et leur degré de sti...

  10. Present development of scintillator counters in France; Etat actuel du developpement des compteurs a scintillation en France

    Koechlin, Y; Koch, L; Lansiart, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Pietri, G [Laboratoire d' Electronique et de Physique Appliquee (France)

    1958-07-01

    For a number of years photomultipliers and scintillators have been produced on an industrial scale in France. The AEC has accepted the task of testing their performance, and advising the industry in consequence. This combined effort has resulted in the wide range of photomultipliers and scintillators summarised in the following paper. (author)Fren. [French] La france fabrique industriellement depuis quelques annees des photomultiplicateurs et des scintillateurs. Le Commissariat a l'Energie atomique s'est charge de mesurer leurs performances et de conseiller l'industrie fran ise a ce sujet. C'est ainsi que nous disposons actuellement de toute une gamme de photomultiplicateurs et de scintillateurs fran is dont nous donnons ci-dessous un apercu. (auteur)

  11. Les filières de traitement et de valorisation des boues d'épuration en France. Rapport d'enquête

    Richard, M.; Pradel, M.

    2014-01-01

    / Irstea, en partenariat avec l'Onema, étudie les impacts environnementaux des filières de traitement et de valorisation/élimination des boues d'épuration présentes dans les stations de traitement des eaux usées (STEU) en France. Dans le cadre de la conception et de la structuration d'un outil ACV simplifié, la connaissance des filières boues mises en place en France est nécessaire. Ainsi, une enquête au niveau national a été menée en 2014. L'objectif de cette enquête est dans un premier t...

  12. Orientations scientifiques des filles en France : un bilan contrasté Girls choosing science in France: contrasted results

    Biljana Stevanovic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En s’appuyant sur les enquêtes de l’Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE et de la Direction de l’évaluation, de la prospective et de la performance (DEPP, cet article étudie l’évolution de l’orientation scientifique des filles dans l’enseignement secondaire et supérieur en France sur une période de vingt ans, de 1985 à 2008. L’objectif est d’étudier les permanences et les changements des choix des filles dans l’enseignement scientifique. Les résultats montrent que les choix d’orientation des filles vers les filières scientifiques sur la période considérée sont en nette évolution. Cette évolution est positive au niveau du secondaire mais en revanche plus ambiguë au niveau du supérieur. Le rôle joué par les politiques éducatives sur l’orientation scientifique des filles, les représentations des métiers (Mosconi & Stevanovic, 2007, le sentiment de compétence (Bandura, 1977 ; Betz & Hackett, 1981, les stéréotypes et perceptions (Armstrong & Crombi, 2000 et l’influence parentale, sont étudiés pour expliquer les liens possibles entre les représentations des sujets individuels selon leur sexe et leur décision d’une orientation scientifique.Based on surveys carried out by the INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des études Economiques and the DEPP (Direction de l’Evaluation de la Prospective et de la Performance, this article examines how the rate of girls choosing to study science in secondary and higher education in France evolved over a period of twenty years, from 1985 to 2008. The aim is to study continuity and change in girls’ choices into science. The findings of this study show that girls’ choices into science over the period clearly changed. There was a positive evolution at the secondary level but rather less obvious at higher education. The role of educational policies on girls’ scientific career choices, adolescents’ representations

  13. SYNSYSTEMATIQUE DES PRAIRIES DE FRANCE (SYNSYSTEMATIC OF THE MEADOWS OF FRANCE

    J.M. GEHU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The synsystematic diagram of the meadows of France proposed in this work enumerates the main associations and the prairial superior unities of France giving them their great synecological features. The majority of these communities of meadows are usable in cutting or in pasture. They are grouped in the three following classes: Arrhenatheretea elatioris, Molinio-Juncetea and Agrostietea stoloniferae.

  14. RÉGIME FISCAL DES MEMBRES DU PERSONNEL EN FRANCE: DÉCLARATION DES REVENUS 2002 - French version only

    2003-01-01

    http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/generalinfo/impots/impots_fr.asp IMPORTANT 1) Les autorités fiscales françaises ont informé l'Organisation de certaines modifications concernant le régime fiscal applicable à certains membres du personnel du CERN domiciliés en France. La Direction générale du CERN tente actuellement de clarifier certaines modalités d'application de ces mesures. Pour le moment, les membres du personnel résidant en France sont priés de se conformer aux instructions ci-après, ainsi qu'à celles qui seront éventuellement publiées en la matière au cours de l'année 2003. 2) Pour faire face à l'augmentation des demandes de consultation, la Division des Ressources humaines a mis en place un service de "première orientation" ("help desk") au 72838 qui vous adressera vers les services internes ou extérieurs compétents. Cependant, la Division des Ressources humaines ne pouvant se substituer aux autorités fiscales et ne disposant pas des ressources nécessaires pour traiter l'ensemble ...

  15. Impact de la forêt sur l’évolution des ressources en eau en moyenne montagne alpine depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle (massif de Chartreuse, France

    Dominique Dumas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la révolution industrielle, une grande partie des terres des espaces de moyenne montagne a été abandonnée au profit d’une extension de la couverture forestière. Or, la forêt intercepte et retient un pourcentage plus ou moins élevé des pluies sur son feuillage, diminuant du même coup la quantité d’eau réellement reçue par le sol. Le transfert de l’eau atmosphérique en une eau utilisable comme ressource a donc été progressivement modifié au cours de ces dernières décennies par la transformation progressive du paysage. Dans cette étude, conduite à l’échelle du massif de Chartreuse, la pluviométrie annuelle, le rôle de la forêt dans l’interception des pluies et l’extension de la forêt, sont appréciés tour à tour. L’impact de l’extension de la forêt depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle sur les quantités d’eau perdues pour l’écoulement et les réserves souterraines peut ainsi être évalué. Cette étude montre que, depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle, l’extension de la couverture forestière en Chartreuse aurait accru de presque 100 mm les pertes en eau par les processus d’interception. Et, sur cette même période, cette quantité d’eau perdue n’a pas été compensée par une hausse des précipitations. Au total, le bilan hydrologique a donc été notablement modifié, avec une quantité d’eau disponible pour l’écoulement, ou les réserves souterraines, plus réduite que celle définie traditionnellement à partir des uniques relevés météorologiques.

  16. Production and use artificial radioelements in France; Production et utilisation des radioelements artificiels en France

    Fisher, C; Cassin, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give a picture of the French accomplishment in the field of artificial radioelement production, and to review their uses up to march 31, 1958. The Commissariat a l'Energie atomique plays a major role in this work, accounting for practically the whole of the French production, centralising the imports, helping to control the distribution and contributing to research on, and development of, new applications. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter l'ensemble des realisations francaises dans le domaine de la production des radioelements artificiels et de faire le point, a la date du 31 mars 1958, de leur utilisation. Le Commissariat a l'Energie atomique joue un role preponderant puisqu'il assure la quasi totalite de la production francaise, centralise les importations, participe au controle de la distribution et contribue a l'etude et au developpement de nouvelles applications. (auteur)

  17. Industrial uses of radioelements in France; Utilisation industrielle des radioelements en France

    Gueron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The birth of a nuclear industry has permitted the use of radioelements in an increasing number of domains. Currently, the majority of radioelements applications in industrial problematic are essentially on nondestructive control and on problems of static electricity, as well as in a least way for the use of the intense radiation sources, on agronomic problems, for hydrology or chemical analyses. In order to promote the industrial applications, The CEA took to this purpose several sets of decisions: 1 - institution of teachings and collaboration; 2 - encourage the constructors of devices; 3 - creation of a help service to the users. (M.B.) [French] La naissance d'une industrie nucleaire a permit l'emploi des radioelements dans un nombre croissant de domaines. Actuellement, la majorite des applications industrielles de radioelements porte essentielement sur le controle non destructif et les problemes d'electricite statique, ainsi que dans une moindre mesure l'utilisation des rayonnements intenses, les problemes agronomiques, les questions d'hydrologie, les analyses chimiques. Afin de promouvoir les applications industrielles, Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a pris a cet effet plusieurs series de mesures: 1- institution d'enseignements et de collaboration; 2- encouragement aux constructeurs d'appareils; 3- creation d'un service de consultation aux usagers. (M.B.)

  18. Tables of energy consumptions in France; Tableaux des consommations d`energie en France

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This work presents in a detailed way important data about the evolution of energy in France during the last twenty years. for the totality of economic sectors, then for each of them ( industry, residential, transports and agriculture sector), this analysis brings to light the part that each form of energy takes to the supply of the French market, the importance of equipment parks and the energy economies that have been realized. (N.C.)

  19. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Japan; Retour des residus vitrifies de France au Japon

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The radioactive wastes resulting from the burnup of nuclear fuels in nuclear reactors represent 3 to 5% of the spent fuel. These wastes cannot be reused nor recycled and thus are vitrified after reprocessing. Japanese power companies have signed contracts with Cogema in France and BNFL in the UK for the reprocessing of their spent fuels. Then, the ultimate reprocessed wastes are sent back to Japan for storage. This information dossier takes stock of different questions relative to the transport of the vitrified wastes from France to Japan: why France sends back containers of vitrified wastes to Japan? What is a vitrified wastes container made of? How containers are transported? What is the regulatory frame applicable to these transports? Which safety measures are taken during transport? Which physical protection is applied? Which temporary storage facilities are used before and after transportation? How is performed the ultimate storage of wastes in Japan? Which quality and safety warranties are taken? Which emergency plans and exercises are provided? What are the applicable civil liability regimes? And what kind of information is given to the public about these transports. Some general information about energy and nuclear power worldwide, energy and environment, radioactivity, BNFL, Cogema and ORC is given in appendixes. (J.S.)

  20. Des vitraux par milliers… Bilan d’un inventaire : le recensement des vitraux anciens de la France

    Françoise Gatouillat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Recensement des vitraux anciens de la France sera bientôt achevé, conduit dans le cadre du ministère de la Culture depuis 1972 et intégré aux missions de l’Inventaire général depuis 1979. Cet inventaire méthodique et exhaustif est régulièrement publié dans des ouvrages conçus comme des instruments de travail qui visent à apporter au monde de la recherche une documentation précise, critique et présentée avec objectivité, sur toutes les œuvres de ce domaine patrimonial, sans hiérarchie. Ce recensement fait émerger une multiple et inépuisable matière à réflexion, qui alimente des problématiques communes à d’autres disciplines de l’histoire de l’art (usages techniques, questions de la commande artistique, de la diffusion des formes, etc.. Un retour sur la documentation accumulée et sur les travaux qui se sont ajoutés au fil de l’expérience permet d’apprécier l’évolution du champ scientifique que constitue le vitrail, qui a beaucoup gagné en participant d’une vision élargie.Soon will be completed the Recensement des vitraux anciens de la France, France’s general inventory of stained-glass windows from the Middle Ages to the end of the Ancien Régime, which has been carried out since 1972 under the auspices of the Ministry of Culture, in charge since 1979 of the Inventaire général. The results of this methodical and exhaustive inventory are published at regular intervals in works which are designed as tools for research, providing precise critical documentation covering all the works in this particular field of the national heritage, objectively and without hierarchical judgement. The survey work has drawn attention to stained–glass windows as an extremely rich and varied source, informing problematics shared by other disciplines in art history (technical usages, problems relating to artistic patronage, to the diffusion of forms, etc. An overview of the documentation accumulated over the years

  1. New applications of radio-isotopes in France; Quelques nouvelles applications des radioelements en France

    Leveque, P; Hours, R; Martinelli, P; May, S; Sandier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Brillant, J [Societe Soletanche (France)

    1958-07-01

    By measuring the transmission of a flat beam of thermal neutrons, the moisture content of a parallelepiped shaped soil sample can be measured to {+-} 4 per cent and the moisture gradient along the longitudinal axis determined. The method permits the determination of chemically bound water and the measurement of diffusion coefficients of water into low hydrogenated materials. By measuring the intensity of fluorescence excited by 13 radiation it is possible to determine the thickness of metal coatings of less than 20 p. for metals of atomic number less than 40. This method has been applied to chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc. By using a suitable metal filter it is possible to measure coating thicknesses of metals differing by only one atomic number from the supporting material. By employing labeled cement it is possible to determine the extent or movement of cement grout used for soil stabilization and waterproofing. The kinetic of ion exchange of different ultramarines in aqueous solutions were studied by tracing the movement of labeled ions in the solution or in the exchanger. Values of the diffusion coefficients and activation energies were determined from the exchange studies. (author)Fren. [French] La mesure de la transmission d'un faisceau plat de neutrons thermiques permet d'evaluer a {+-} 4 pour cent l'humidite d'un echantillon parallelepipedique de sol et d'en effectuer une exploration longitudinale systematique. La methode peut s'appliquer a la determination de l'eau de constitution ainsi qu'a la mesure des coefficients de diffusion de l'eau a travers des substances faiblement hydrogenees. En utilisant la fluorescence X excitee au moyen de rayons {beta} il est possible de mesurer des epaisseurs (< 20) de depots metalliques de faible numero atomique (Z < 40). Ces essais ont porte sur: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu et Zn. L'emploi d'ecrans metalliques convenables permet de mesurer l'epaisseur d'un metal dont le numero atomique differe de 1

  2. Status of the methanization sector in France; Etat des lieux de la filiere methanisation en France

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report aims at describing the status of methanization installations, either operating or under construction, on the French national territory, all sectors included (industry, agriculture, sewage treatment, municipal wastes). In a first part, the authors propose a definition of methanization, a presentation of the various implementation techniques, a presentation of the different sectors using methanization (industry, agriculture and breeding, sewage treatment plants, household wastes), and a presentation of a survey. Then, they comment and discuss more precisely the different sectors, their history, their geographical distribution in France, their technologies, their effluents, their production, their economic data, their perspectives

  3. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    -pool type reactors. The authors show how the problem of the industrial production of rolled fuel elements has been solved in France, and give the three steps involved: 1 - Assembly of the plates made in the U.S.A., 2 - Rolling of the cores made in the U.S.A. to obtain the plates, 3 - Fabrication of the U-Al alloy and production of the cores. They then recall briefly the characteristics of the different fuel elements now in production. A description is given of the various stages of the production including information about the equipment; stress is laid on the extent of the controls carried out at each stage. In conclusion the authors consider the future development of this type of production taking into account the improvements planned and those which are possible. (authors) [French] Les auteurs traitent successivement de la fabrication industrielle des elements combustibles pour reacteurs de puissance de la filiere U naturel graphite-gaz et plus particulierement pour les centrales energetiques d'E.D.F. et de celle des elements combustibles a base d'U enrichi destines aux reacteurs experimentaux du type 'piscine'. 1ere Partie - LES ELEMENTS COMBUSTIBLES AVANCES POUR LES REACTEURS E.D.F.: Apres un bref rappel des caracteristiques des elements combustibles actuellement fabriques industriellement pour les reacteurs de MARCOULE et de CHINON, les auteurs indiquent les differentes etapes suivies pour aboutir au stade de la fabrication industrielle d'un element combustible nouveau, tant en ce qui concerne la gaine et eventuellement la chemise de graphite que le combustible lui-meme. Pour ce qui est de l'elaboration du combustible, ils decrivent les differentes operations en insistant sur les points originaux de la fabrication et de l'appareillage tels que: - coulees en moules chauds, - traitement thermique des alliages U.Mo 1 p. 100, - soudure des pastilles de fermeture des tubes, - gainage - controle aux differents stades. En ce qui concerne la fabrication des gaines, ils

  4. Parliamentary Office of technological and scientific choices evaluation. Document on the evaluation of climatic changes fullness, cause and foreseeable impacts on the France geography for 2025,2050 and 2100; Office parlementaire d'evaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques. Rapport sur l'evaluation de l'ampleur des changements climatiques, de leurs causes et de leur impact previsible sur la geographie de la France a l'horizon 2025, 2050 et 2100

    Deneux, M

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive and detailed report illustrates the importance of the climatic change and the impacts on the agricultural, energetic, industrial and the transport activities, in France. The effects on the biodiversity and the people are also studied. It is presented in four main parts: the climatology where the author details the climate and the greenhouse effect; the origins and the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases and the aerosols; a socio-economical analysis of the climatic changes facing the human liabilities; solutions and stakes of these solutions. The second volume collects the sixty seven auditions of experts interviewed on the topic. It allows the reader a possible research to trump up its own opinion. (A.L.B.)

  5. Parliamentary Office of technological and scientific choices evaluation. Document on the evaluation of climatic changes fullness, cause and foreseeable impacts on the France geography for 2025,2050 and 2100; Office parlementaire d'evaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques. Rapport sur l'evaluation de l'ampleur des changements climatiques, de leurs causes et de leur impact previsible sur la geographie de la France a l'horizon 2025, 2050 et 2100

    Deneux, M.

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive and detailed report illustrates the importance of the climatic change and the impacts on the agricultural, energetic, industrial and the transport activities, in France. The effects on the biodiversity and the people are also studied. It is presented in four main parts: the climatology where the author details the climate and the greenhouse effect; the origins and the consequences of the greenhouse effect gases and the aerosols; a socio-economical analysis of the climatic changes facing the human liabilities; solutions and stakes of these solutions. The second volume collects the sixty seven auditions of experts interviewed on the topic. It allows the reader a possible research to trump up its own opinion. (A.L.B.)

  6. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Vergne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  7. Estimating biogenic contributions to secondary pollutants: formation at regional scale (Fosse Rhenan, France); Impact des emissions naturelles sur les episodes de pollution photochimique: application a la region du Fosse Rhenan

    Moukhtar, S.

    2005-02-15

    Biotic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a significant role in the formation and development of photochemical pollution events. In this context, the integration of biotic VOCs in the CHIMERE chemical transport model has been improved by the use of a double numerical and experimental approach. Field measurements have permitted to determine the flux of emissions of biotic VOCs from three tree species particularly abundant in France: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica and Pseudotsuga menziesii. A database has been updated and used to estimate the annual VOC emissions by the French forestry system. A critical synthesis of the bibliography about the reactivity of biotic VOCs has led to the elaboration of a new chemical mechanism which has been implemented in the CHIMERE model. The results of this model have been compared to the observations available for the region of the Rhine through (Fosse Rhenan) characterized by strong biotic VOC emissions. These modifications does not change much the ozone concentrations but they have strong impacts on the modeling of peroxy-acetyl-nitrate (PAN) and formaldehyde concentrations. (J.S.)

  8. Agriculture and greenhouse effect: economic regulation of cross impacts and combination of agricultural and environmental policies - analysis for the France and extension to the european union. Economic analysis of the interactions agriculture- greenhouse effect; Agriculture et effet de serre: regulation economique des impacts croises et combinaison des politiques agricole et environnementale - Analyse pour la France et extension pour l'Union Europeenne. Analyse economique des interactions agriculture - effet de serre

    Jayet, P.A

    2002-09-15

    The objectives of the research program are: the impacts evaluation of a double relation climate - agriculture on the agricultural production and the greenhouse gases emission; the compatibility of agricultural policies and environmental policies of the sector. Simulations are realized at a regional scale with a coupling of economical and biophysical models (manure spreading, cultivation yield). (A.L.B.)

  9. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers; Rapport sur les incidences environnementales et sanitaires des essais nucleaires effectues par la France entre 1960 et 1996 et elements de comparaison avec les essais des autres puissances nucleaires

    Bataille, Ch; Revol, H

    2002-07-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  10. Radioecological impact of Saharan dusts fallout. Case study of a major event on the 21. of february 2004 in south part of France; Impact radioecologique des retombees de poussieres sahariennes. Episode majeur du 21/02/2004 dans le sud de la France

    Masson, O.; Pourcelot, L.; Gurriaran, R.; Paulat, P

    2005-07-01

    Lithometeors, Sirocco or more commonly 'red mud' are all in fact related to a single phenomenon which affects France every year: the wind transport and deposit of desert particles from the Sahara. On the 21. of February 2004, the southern part of France is swept by a weather event of wind transport of Saharan particles. The recordings of atmospheric dust contamination and the deposit of dust, which results from it, make an episode of exceptional width. In a few hours, the thickness of the deposit exceeds 1 mm (up to 4 mm in Corsica) with a maximum density of surface charge of 50 g.m{sup -2} (50 tons per km{sup 2}). The loads of the PM{sub 10} type particles in the air, recorded by associations of monitoring of the quality of the air, indicate concentrations multiplied to the maximum by 10 and an influence on the ground of the plume ranging between 300 000 and 350 000 km{sup 2}. To the end, 2 million tons are deposited on a portion of the territory located at the south of a line from Nantes to Besancon. This event also had a significant radio-ecological impact, leading to significant {sup 137}Cs, {sup (239+240)}Pu, {sup 241}Am, activity levels of 38 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec, 1 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec and 0,46 Bq. kg{sup -1} sec, respectively. Quality of air monitoring organisations recorded 10-fold increases in the concentration of charged PM{sub 10} {sup 2}type particles within the cloud; ground coverage stretched over a 300 000 km{sup 2} surface area. Across this whole area, the artificial radioactivity deposits are estimated to 37.10{sup 10} Bq. In term of flow of deposit, this episode represents, with him only, i.e. in a few hours, a {sup 137}Cs deposition equivalent to that recorded on average in a cumulated time of one year. Data from this study show that these weather-climatic episodes generate today, environmental samples which on average, present the highest levels and flux of artificial radioactivities, more than those in the sediments of the Rhone river

  11. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences

  12. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France; Prevention des causes et des consequences d'un accident de criticite - solutions adoptees en France

    Fruchard, Y; Lavie, J M

    1966-07-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [French] La surete relative aux risques d'accidents de criticite presente deux aspects: la prevention des causes et les parades aux consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies. L'effort consenti a la prevention des causes decoule de l'importance des consequences humaines economiques et psychologiques possibles d'un eventuel accident. Les accidents de criticite survenus dans l'industrie nucleaire, malgre leur rarete, d'une part devoilent les imperfections des techniques de prevention des causes, d'autre part constituent la seule base realiste disponible d'evaluation des consequences et de mise au point des parades a ces consequences. Les auteurs presentent une analyse des

  13. Victoriaville's Colisee des Bois-Francs innovates and takes the challenge; La Colisee des Bois-Francs de Victoriaville innove et releve le defi

    Giguere, D.; Leroy, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2005-09-01

    Victoriaville's 2100 seat Colisee des Bois Francs was constructed in 1978 and houses 1 ice surface that is used extensively by local hockey clubs. In 2000, the municipality in collaboration with the Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) initiated a project to increase the energy efficiency of the cooling and heating system of the arena. The objective was to integrate the ice surface cooling system with the building's heating system. The existing ice cooling system, which included a brine circulation circuit under the ice was replaced by 2 mono-block cooling units using R22 refrigerant. The brine heat exchange fluid was replaced by a mixture of water and methanol solution for use in piped cooling networks such as those found in skating rinks. The methanol/water solution offers simple repair solutions for leaks under ice, because unlike brine, it does not soften the ice. The solution is less corrosive than brine and offers efficient heat transfer in heat exchangers. A secondary loop was installed to extract heat from the condensers in order to use it to heat the interior of the building. Sanitary hot water heaters were also integrated into the new system. The new installations have proven to be easy to operate and extremely reliable. The capacity of the new system is 50 per cent greater than the previous installations. Energy savings are in the order of 16 per cent. 2 figs.

  14. PLACE DU MEDECIN GENERALISTE, EN FRANCE, DANS LE PARCOURS DE SOINS DES MALADIES CHRONIQUES

    Claude JAFFIOL

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Les maladies chroniques sont la première cause de décès et la source principale des dépenses de santé. Leur dépistage précoce devrait permettre de limiter leur gravité évolutive et de réduire sensiblement leur coût.Le médecin généraliste est le mieux placé pour assurer la prise en charge de ces affections tout au long du parcours de soins. Mais plusieurs obstacles limitent cette évidence : la diminution régulière du nombre de praticiens de premier recours affectant de nombreux bassins de santé en France,  mais aussi, pour ceux en activité, des difficultés tenant au manque de formation, de temps médical et à une rémunération inadaptée à la prise en charge de ces pathologies. De ce fait, la prévention des maladies chroniques est insuffisante, leur diagnostic souvent trop tardif,  tandis que leur suivi se heurte au défaut d’observance du traitement par le patient et, plus rarement, à l’inertie thérapeutique médicale.   C'est pourquoi, il faut revoir fondamentalement la prise en charge des patients  pour les rendre autonomes dans la gestion de leur affection tout en donnant au praticien les moyens de gérer et de coordonner efficacement les diverses étapes du parcours de soin. Cela exige de changer les mentalités de part et d'autre, mais aussi de donner au médecin les moyens financiers lui permettant de consacrer à ses patients plus de temps, au centre d'une nouvelle organisation interprofessionnelle. La prévention et l’éducation thérapeutique du patient (ETP sont les clés de cette révolution thérapeutique. Il convient, en outre,  de revoir la formation des étudiants en privilégiant les sciences humaines et les stages chez le praticien, en favorisant  un accès accru au numérique et en assurant la reconnaissance, par des mesures concrètes, de la place du médecin généraliste dans un nouveau parcours de soins où il doit avoir un rôle central de coordinateur.

  15. Elections présidentielles 2007, typologie des candidats. Les deux France

    Michel Bussi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près de 25 ans, la géographie électorale de la France a été en grande partie marquée par la forte spatialisation du vote Front national, qui coupait en deux, d’Est en Ouest, le territoire national. Cependant, si cette  « lune brune »  s’est avérée durable de 1988 à 2007, les autres candidats apparaissaient jusqu’à présent indifférents à ce clivage géographique.   L’un des enseignements de ce scrutin semble l’élargissement de ce clivage Est/Ouest à d’autres courants, en particulier à l’...

  16. Analysis of the Fukushima accident impact in France (mainland and overseas territories) from the results of the reinforced environmental radioactivity monitoring; Analyse de l'impact de l'accident de Fukushima en France (metropole et DROM-COM) a partir des resultats de la surveillance renforcee de la radioactivite de l'environnement

    Chaptal-Gradoz, N.

    2011-07-01

    The enhanced environmental radioactivity monitoring settled in France (and the country's overseas territories) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident detected trace levels of the main radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the accident (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137, and smaller quantities of tellurium 132) and monitored their evolution until May. In mainland France, the various measurement results relating to air, rainwater and terrestrial products revealed that no traces of radionuclides attributable to the Fukushima accident were detected prior to 24 March. Airborne particulate iodine 131 was detected for the first time in a sample collected on 24 March at the summit of the Puy-de-Dome mountain, and this observation was confirmed nationwide with effect from 25 March. In the other compartments of the environment, the first significant results for iodine 131 were obtained over the following days. The maximum iodine 131 levels detected were of the order of: - a few milli-becquerels per cubic metre of air (mBq/m{sup 3}); - approximately 10 becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of plant matter (grass or leafy vegetables); - a few becquerels per litre (Bq/L) in rainwater or milk. Caesium 137 (together with an equivalent level of caesium 134) was also detected, generally at concentrations ten times lower than those observed for iodine 131. Tellurium 132 was occasionally detected in the air in late March. The various observations revealed that all French regions were affected to the same extent, albeit with some geographic and chronological fluctuations due to the movements of air masses. These levels are consistent with the forecasts based on modelling by IRSN in association with the French meteorological institute, Meteo-France. These concentrations were between 500 and more than 1, 000 times lower than those measured in France in early May 1986, following the Chernobyl accident. The maximum potential exposures (thyroid equivalent dose in one year

  17. Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2016-01-01

    Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des autres organisations internationales en Suisse République française Son Excellence Monsieur Roberto Balzaretti Ambassadeur Directeur,

  18. LES PROLIFÉRATIONS VÉGÉTALES AQUATIQUES EN FRANCE :CARACTÈRES BIOLOGIQUES ET ÉCOLOGIQUES DES PRINCIPALESESPÈCES ET MILIEUX PROPICES.II. IMPACT SUR LES ÉCOSYSTÈMES ET INTÉRÊT POUR LECONTRÔLE DES PROLIFÉRATIONS.

    PELTRE M. C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available De nombreux milieux aquatiques de nature et d’usages divers sont plus ou moins régulièrement le siège de proliférations végétales. Le contrôle de celles-ci pose des difficultés, principalement liées à l’appréciation des déséquilibres induits dans le milieu et à celle des nuisances anthropiques qui en découlent. En effet, dans le cas d’un constat de prolifération, source et témoin d’un dysfonctionnement, le manque d’analyse objective des situations, les limites de compatibilité des différents usages du milieu, la mauvaise connaissance des végétaux en cause et du fonctionnement écologique des milieux sont autant de freins à une gestion cohérente de ces sites. La présentation de quelques exemples, à travers différents modes connus de gestion des milieux et de régulation des peuplements végétaux (notamment les méthodes mécaniques, chimiques ou biologiques, illustre la mise à profit des connaissances sur les caractéristiques biologiques et écologiques des macrophytes proliférants. La mise en Oeuvre de cette démarche devrait permettre à l’avenir de mieux évaluer les perturbations induites par les proliférations, d’intervenir si nécessaire dans de meilleures conditions, en vue d’envisager une restauration des écosystèmes concernés compatible avec une meilleure satisfaction des différents usages.

  19. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors; Conception de la surete en france et influence des imperatifs de surete sur la conception des reacteurs

    Vathaire, F de; Vernier, Ph; Pascouet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This paper reviews the experience acquired in France on the question, of reactor safety. Since a special paper is being presented on reactors of the graphite gas type, the safety of the other types studied in France is discussed here: - heavy water-gas reactors, - fast neutron reactors, - water research reactors of the swimming-pool and tank types. The safety rules peculiar to the different types are explained, with emphasis on their influence on the reactor designs and on the power limits they impose. The corresponding safety studies are presented, particular stress being placed on the original work developed in these fields. Special mention is made of the experimental systems constructed for these studies: the reactor CABRI, pile loop for depressurization tests, loops outside the pile, mock-ups etc. (authors) [French] La presente communication propose une synthese de l'experience acquise en France en matiere de surete des reacteurs. Les reacteurs de la filiere graphite-gaz faisant l'objet d'une communication particuliere, on examine ici la surete des autres types de reacteurs etudies en France: - reacteurs eau lourde-gaz, - reacteurs a neutrons rapides, - reacteurs de recherche a eau des types piscines et tank. Les imperatifs de surete propres aux differentes filieres sont developpes, en mettant l'accent sur leur influence sur la conception des reacteurs et sur les limitations de puissance qu'ils entrainent. Les etudes de surete correspondantes sont presentees, en insistant plus particulierement sur les travaux originaux developpes dans ces domaines. On indique notamment les moyens d'essais qui ont ete construits pour ces etudes: le reacteur CABRI, boucle en pile pour essais de depressurisation, boucles hors pile, maquettes, etc. (auteurs)

  20. France

    Hourcade, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The French energy system, like that of most energy-importing nations, was profoundly transformed by the first oil shock. But France was more vulnerable than any other industrialized country besides Japan to oil supply disruption: in 1973, the nation imported 77 percent of total primary energy requirements of 7.6 EJ, and 98 percent of its petroleum. Two imperatives have since formed the 'French response' to the threat of external energy supply disruptions: augmentation of the rate of energy self-sufficiency, and minimization of major macroeconomic dislocations. These two objectives displaced a high priority in France in the early 1970s - protection of the natural environment. Because France has embraced nuclear power, it is often viewed by its European neighbors as having feeble ecological sensibility. At that time, France had a rather advanced policy in this field: sulfur emissions laws were enacted in 1967 and a Ministry of Environment was created in January 1971. Now that environmental concerns have re-emerged as an important force, France finds itself with a plausible greenhouse response in a mix of policies - without environmental protection having been the objective envisioned

  1. France

    Schubert, K.

    1991-01-01

    The grandeur of the nation is the most important national concern in the France of the Fifth Republic. National independence and maximum world status have been (and still are) characteristic imperatives of French policy. Any asset or resource which promises to strengthen the nation, which seems suitable for improving the global status and glory of France, becomes a worthwhile policy device. Of course, the sots incurred in the pursuit of these objectives are frequently the subject of critical discussion, but all in all these costs are accepted. This has been the case with numerous prestige projects including the French nuclear deterrent, the force de frappe. This paper reports that an analysis of the French ambition to possess nuclear weapons must begin with the complete loss of world status which France suffered as a consequence of World War II. Throughout the post-war period, French political leaders have concentrated their efforts on reversing this loss of status and on preventing a similar occurrence

  2. Une géographie de la coopération universitaire France-Brésil, analyse des accords Capes-Cofecub

    Hervé Théry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse et la cartographie des 750 accords de coopération universitaire entre la France et le Brésil fait apparaître, au-delà de l’effet évident des hiérarchies urbaines (les villes les plus peuplées sont aussi les grands centres universitaires, des spécialisations qui renvoient à des traditions locales et la résultante des réseaux des équipes candidates.The analysis and mapping of the 750 agreements for academic cooperation between France and Brazil shows, beyond the obvious effect of urban hierarchies (the most populous cities are also the major academic centers, specializations wich refer to local traditions and the result of networking made by the candidate teams.

  3. Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la ...

    Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la distribution du ... chimiques qui sont à l'origine d'une dégradation croissante de la qualité d'eau. ... Les valeurs d'indice de diversité de Shannon Weaver traduisent une grande ...

  4. Prevention of the Causes and Consequences of Criticality Accidents: Measures Adopted in France; Prevention des Causes et des Consequences d'un Accident de Criticite: Solutions Adoptees en France

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J. -M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-05-15

    It is important to guard against the risk of criticality accidents by seeking to prevent their occurrence through the elimination of their causes and also by taking steps to provide against their consequences. These two aspects are closely linked since the efforts made to elaborate preventive procedures are dictated by the importance of the repercussions which such accidents are liable to have in the human, economic and psychological spheres. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though small in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent them, and they constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating their consequences and developing suitable precautionary techniques. The authors give a detailed analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments in connection with the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operation, the characteristic accidents capable of serving as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident (location, design and lay-out of installations, accident detection dosimetry for exposed personnel) are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. Finally, the authors discuss the economic implications of adopting particular precautionary measures and of applying them uniformly, taking due account of the question of reliability. (author) [French] II est important de se proteger contre les risques d'accidents de criticite en tentant, d'une part, de prevenir les accidents eux-memes par l'elimination de leurs causes, d'autre part, de parer a leurs consequences. Ces deux aspects sont tres lies: l'effort portant sur la prevention des accidents decoule de l'importance de leurs consequences sur les plans humain, economique

  5. 237 Impacts socio-sanitaires et environnementaux de la gestion des ...

    SWEET

    pollution des eaux, érosion des berges des mayo et alluvionnement des drains, amènent à suggérer des ... D'après TUCCI [1], les principaux défis de la gestion des inondations sont liés à l'occupation des ... populations aux impacts des inondations de plaine est due, d'après TUCCI [1], au manque de connaissance.

  6. L’impact des privatisations sur la performance des entreprises françaises

    Michel Albouy; Hassan Obeid

    2007-01-01

    (VF)Les déficits budgétaires de nombreux pays, la faiblesse des performances financières des entreprises publiques et les développements récents de la recherche en finance incitent de nombreux États à céder leurs entreprises au secteur privé. Après un panorama du mouvement de privatisation dans le monde et particulièrement en France ainsi qu’un exposé des principaux courants théoriques qui confortent ce mouvement, cet article expose les résultats d’une étude empirique réalisée sur les privati...

  7. Chemical treatment of uranium ores in France; Le traitement chimique des minerais d'uranium en France

    Mouret, P; Sartorius, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The various processes of chemical treatmenturanium ores, from the oldest to the more recent, are exposed, considering the following conditions: economics, geography, techniques and safety. The interest of obtaining a final concentrate as uranyl nitrate is discussed. (author)Fren. [French] Les differents procedes de traitement chimique des minerais uraniferes sont exposes depuis les premiers jusqu'aux plus recents, en tenant compte des facteurs economiques, geographiques, techniques et de salubrite. L'interet d'obtenir un concentre final a l'etat de nitrate d'uranyle est discute. (auteur)

  8. Optimal use of the Gaz de France underground gas storage facilities; Utilisation optimale des stockages souterrains de Gaz de France

    Favret, F.; Rouyer, E.; Bayen, D.; Corgier, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the tools developed by Gaz de France to optimize the use of its whole set of underground gas storage facilities. After a short introduction about the context and the purposes, the methodology and the models are detailed. The operational results obtained during the last three years are presented, and some conclusions and perspectives are given. (authors)

  9. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  10. ATTRACTIVITE TERRITORIALE: L’IMPACT DE LA DIFFERENCE CULTURELLE. COMPARAISON ENTRE LES TERRITOIRES DE IASI (ROUMANIE ET DE GRENOBLE (FRANCE

    Alain SPALANZANI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à comprendre si la culture, plus particulièrement économique, a un impact sur la capacité d’attractivité des activités économiques d’un territoire. Les territoires comparés sont les métropoles ou régions urbaines de Iasi1 en Roumanie et de Grenoble en France. Ces territoires sont sensiblement de taille comparable : 840 000 habitants pour Iasi, 750 000 pour Grenoble. Après avoir recueilli les perceptions d’acteurs économiques, une hiérarchisation de plus de 71 critères considérés comme importants dans la localisation des activités économiques est établie pour chacune des deux régions. La comparaison de l’importance accordée aux critères montre à la fois une certaine convergence des perceptions mais aussi de réelles divergences, en particulier au niveau des critères financiers. La vision lowcost et de sous-traitance des yèchennï, liée à un positionnement de l’industrie roumaine sur les marchés de biens intermédiaires, n’est absolument pas partagée par les grenoblois qui semblent orientés vers des stratégies plus offensives, en direction des marchés finaux.

  11. Calibration of Radionuclides in France; Etalonnage des radioelements en France; Kalibrovka radioehlementov vo Frantsii; Normalizacion de los radioelementos en Francia

    Grinberg, B [Laboratoire de Mesures des Radioelements du Centre d' etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    The French laboratories for the measurement of the radioactivity: allocation of work, activities, equipment and staff; future prospects. Calibration of radionuclides, standard solutions and solid sources: methods of preparation, comparison with corresponding laboratories in other countries, supply statistics. (author) [French] Les laboratoires de mesures radioactives francais: repartition des taches, activite, equipement et personnels respectifs; perspectives d'avenir. Etalonnage des radioelements, solutions et sources solides etalons: techniques de preparation, intercomparaiso n avec les laboratoires correspondants de differents pays, statistiques des livraisons. (author) [Spanish] El autor describe los laboratorios franceses de mediciones radiactivas: distribucion de tareas, actividad, equipo y personal respectivos; perspectivas para el futuro. Tambien describe el calibrado de radioelementos, soluciones y fuentes patron solidas: tecnicas de preparacion, comparacion con los patrones preparados en los laboratorios correspondiente s de diferentes paises; la memoria termina con datos estadisticos sobre las entregas de radioelementos. (author) [Russian] Frantsuzskie laboratorii radioaktivny kh izmerenij: raspredelenie zadanij, deyatel'nost', oborudovanie i sootvetstvuyushchi j personal; perspektivy na budushchee. Kalibrovka sluzhashchikh ehtalonami radioehlementov, rastvorov i tverdykh istochnikov: metody prigotovleniya, sravnenie mezhdu sootvetstvuyushchim i laboratoriyami razlichnykh stran, statistika postavok. (author)

  12. Travail des Maghrébines en France : spécificités et freins

    Zeineb Touati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution traite de la situation professionnelle des Maghrébines immigrées en Normandie et des spécificités du travail et de l’évolution des carrières de ces femmes. Dans une première partie nous présentons les spécificités du travail des femmes immigrées et les conséquences du changement de pays qui représente pour certaines une opportunité et une source de difficultés pour d’autres. Nous mettons l’accent sur l’importance de facteurs tels que le niveau d’instruction, le diplôme, l’origine et le contexte dans lequel arrive et évolue la femme immigrée. Nous montrons également que la féminisation des flux migratoires maghrébins et l’entrée progressive des Maghrébines dans le marché du travail en France modifient progressivement les images et les représentations de la femme maghrébine immigrée véhiculées en France.The employment of North African women in France: specificities and brakes. The case of NormandyThis contribution deals with the employment situation of North African women immigrants in Normandy and their specific work and career development. In the first part, we present the specifics of women immigrant work of and the consequences of the migration which is an opportunity for some of them whereas it may be a source of difficulties for others. We focus on the importance of factors such as education, diploma, origin and the context in which arrives and evolves the immigrant woman. We also show that the feminization of migration from North Africa and the gradual entry of these women in the labor market in France are gradually changing images and representations conveyed on the North African immigrant women in France.El trabajo de las mujeres magrebies en Francia: las especificidades y las dificultades. El caso de la Haute NormandieSe exponen aquí la situación profesional de las mujeres magrebíes inmigrantes en Normandía, la especificidad laboral y la evolución laboral. En la primera

  13. LE SOLUTRÉEN ANCIEN EN ARDÈCHE (FRANCE: UNE RÉVISION CRITIQUE DES INDUSTRIES LITHIQUES

    Sophie Guegan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available S’inscrivant dans un travail de Doctorat sur les peuplements des deux rives de la vallée du Rhône au Maximum Glaciaire, cet article propose un état des connaissances sur la phase ancienne du Solutréen en Ardèche (rive droite du Rhône, donnant lieu à une révision critique des industries lithiques s’y rapportant. En effet, depuis les travaux de P.E.L. Smith et J. Combier, et plus récemment le travail d’A. Barbiero consacré aux pointes à face plance et pointes à cran d’une collection ancienne à la Baume d’Oullins (Gard-Ardèche, France, aucun réexamen global n’avait été entrepris. Trois gisements de référence pour cette phase ancienne, ont ainsi été sélectionnés: les grottes d’Oullins (Gard-Ardèche, France, de Chabot (Gard, France et de Granouly (Ardèche, France. Nous présentons ici les réslutats préliminaires à cette étude. En premier lieu, une approche typologique a été menée principalement autour de la pointe à face plane, objet emblématique de cette phase, permettant d’en préciser les principaux caractères. Dans un deuxième temps, une approche technologique a permis de confirmer l’homogénéité dans les choix techniques des Solutréens entre l’Ardèche et les régions du Sud-Ouest et du Bassin Parisien. Enfin, une étude des matières premières, a révélé pour l’heure des choix économiques étonnants pour le contexte paléo-climatique, avec des déplacements vers le nords et un franchissement du Rhône.In the frame of a doctoral dissertation on the Late Glacial Maximum occupations of both sides of the Rhône valley, this paper presents a state of the art and a critical reappraisal of the lithic assemblages from the early phases of the Solutrean in Ardeche (right bank of the Rhône river. Indeed, since the works of P.E.L. Smith and J. Combier, except the work of A. Barbiero, on the unifacial leaf-points and shouldered points from Baume d'Oullins, no complete study of these

  14. Évaluation des services rendus par les écosystèmes  en France

    Philippe Blancher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article rend compte de la méthode d’évaluation des services écosystémiques appliquée au territoire français dans le cadre d’une approche exploratoire. S’inscrivant dans le sillage du ‘‘Millennium Ecosystem Assessment’’ (MA lancé par l’ONU, l’application de la démarche du MA à un territoire donné a conduit à l’élaboration de nouveaux outils d’analyse et de mesure des interactions entre nature et activités humaines à plusieurs échelles territoriales, à travers une projection cartographique des écosystèmes sur l’ensemble du territoire, un recensement des services rendus par les écosystèmes en France et une méthodologie pour leur quantification.This article introduces a method for the assessment of ecosystem services on the French territory. Following the U.N.-initiated Millennium Ecosystem Assessment framework, the implementation of an ecosystem assessment on a specific territory led to the conception of new tools for the analysis and the measurement of interactions between nature and human activities at different territorial scales, through the mapping of ecosystems, an identification of ecosystem services on the French territory and a methodology for their quantification.

  15. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the works of an inter-departmental group and of sector-based and transverse groups which aimed at assessing the impacts of climate change. After a first contribution about the assessment methodology, the works of sector-based groups and transverse groups are reported. These groups are dealing with agriculture, forest, infrastructures and built environment, tourism, energy, health, water, natural risks (and insurance and adaptation to climatic change in metropolitan France), biodiversity and land. For each of them, challenges, assessment approaches, first results and perspectives are discussed

  16. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des ...

    Cette recherche menée dans le Complexe Zones Humides Mahavavy - Kinkony a pour but d'évaluer les impacts écologiques du changement des habitats naturels sur les espèces menacées de sa faune. Des outils tels que le SIG, la télédétection ainsi que Marxan ont été combinés avec les études bibliographiques et les ...

  17. Impact des eaux de réalimentation sur la qualité des eaux ...

    eaux du barrage, destinées à la réalimentation. Le modèle hydrodispersif établi permettra de suivre l'évolution du chimisme des eaux de réalimentation et leur impact sur les eaux souterraines de la nappe du massif dunaire de. Bouteldja dans la région de Bordj Ali Bey. 4.1 Détermination des paramètres hydrodispersifs. La.

  18. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  19. Modeling of pollution aerosols in Ile-de-France; Modelisation des aerosols de pollution en Ile-de-France

    Hodzic, A

    2005-10-15

    The modeling of aerosols is a major stake in the understanding of the emission processes and evolution of particulates in the atmosphere. However, the parameterizations used in today's aerosol models still comprise many uncertainties. This work has been motivated by the need of better identifying the weaknesses of aerosols modeling tools and by the necessity of having new validation methods for a 3D evaluation of models. The studies have been carried out using the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model, which allows to simulate the concentrations and physico-chemical characteristics of pollution aerosols at the European scale and in Ile-de-France region. The validation approach used is based on the complementarity of the measurements performed on the ground by monitoring networks with those acquired during the ESQUIF campaign (study and simulation of air quality in Ile-de-France), with lidar and photometric measurements and with satellite observations. The comparison between the observations and the simulations has permitted to identify and reduce the modeling errors, and to characterize the aerosol properties in the vicinity of an urban area. (J.S.)

  20. Télédétection et cartographie à petite échelle des paysages de la France de l’Ouest

    Vincent DUBREUIL

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Les images des satellites NOAAAVHRR sont utilisées dans le but d’établir une cartographie détaillée des paysages ruraux dans la France de l’Ouest. Douze images de 1985 à 1990 représentant l’indice de végétation NDVI ont été sélectionnées. Une analyse discriminante pas à pas permet de classer les pixels de l’image en fonction de 16 échantillons choisis comme représentatifs des types de paysages et des régions agricoles de l’Ouest. Les limites des classes ainsi obtenues sont fort comparables aux cartes communales thématiques d’utilisation du sol des atlas régionaux.

  1. Cartographie prévisionnelle des sols sensibles à la sécheresse en France: un outil d'information préventive

    Marcel TOULEMONT

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available La cartographie des sols sensibles à la sécheresse, établie à partir de l’analyse des dommages causés aux constructions par l’événement climatique 1989-1992, montre que les risques qui peuvent en résulter doivent être pris en compte sur une grande partie du territoire de la France métropolitaine urbanisé et urbanisable.

  2. Regulations concerning the radionuclides uses in France; Reglementation de l'utilisation des radioisotopes en France

    Vergne, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Bugnard, L. [Institut national d' Hygiene (France)

    1955-07-01

    The progress in the uses of radioisotopes has been conditioned by increasing the number of trained workers and researchers and developing theoretical teaching in universities since 1950 in France as well as developing a national control of the distribution and uses of radioisotopes. With the large diffusion and development of radioisotopes uses and applications, new rules and regulations came to control the importation, exportation, transport and utilization of radioisotopes. In the first part, it described the different French laws since 1934 and their successive modifications which ruled on the production, manipulation and utilization of radioisotopes. An inter-ministerial committee was created in 1952 to advise and inform of all the questions related to the preparation, importation, exportation, possession and distribution of radioisotopes. The transport regulations are in constant evolution and has got to meet with international recommendations. It distinguished three different type of transport: road, river and railway transport, postal transport and finally air transport. All the different transports have their specific packaging, maximum transportable quantity, maximum material intensity and labelling requirements. The regulations about customs duties are specified as well as the administrative formalities for non natural radioisotopes importation. Since 1950, diseases caused by irradiation to natural or artificial radioactive materials are recognised as professional diseases and a table of the actual regulations is presented. (M.P.)

  3. La diffusion spatiale des technologies de l'information géographique en France

    Stéphane Roche

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available La diffusion des technologies de l'information géographique sur le territoire français s'inscrit dans les modèles classiques «centre-périphérie» de diffusion des innovations technologiques. Pourtant, au-delà de ces grandes dynamiques nationales, la distribution spatiale des TIG reflète les caractéristiques institutionnelles, culturelles et spatiales spécifiques d'un secteur géomatique en plein développement.

  4. Irradiation of Fruit and Vegetables in France; Radioexposition des Fruits et Legumes en France; Obluchenie fruktov i ovoshchej vo Frantsii; La Irradiacion de Frutas y Verduras en Francia

    Vidal, P. [CONSERVATOME, Lyon, Perrache (Rhone) (France)

    1966-11-15

    the installations will depend on factors involving the commodity, its keeping time and its conditions of marketing. In general, for meeting germination problems, the irradiation facilities will be situated at the points of production or consumption, preferably the former. For fruits, the facilities will be sited at the point of production, preferably adjacent to packing and refrigeration plants. (author) [French] Avec ses climats varies et temperes et ses sols, la France reunit des conditions favorables a la production de fruits et de legumes. Dans certains cas, ces conditions permettent des recoltes plus etalees dans le temps. Par des efforts portant sur le choix des varietes, la specialisation, l'amelioration des techniques culturales, les productions fruitieres et legumieres se sont etendues et les rendements ont augmente. Les techniques permettant rallongement des durees de conservation et la conservation des qualites se developpent, principalement le froid. Dans certains cas, ces techniques sont insuffisantes et dans d'autres leur action est limitee. L'irradiation semble devoir apporter une nouvelle amelioration, principalement dans l'arret de la germination des tubercules, bulbes et rhizomes, dans la conservation de fruits et legumes conjointement avec le froid ou eventuellement en atmosphere controlee, et la desinsection de certains produits. Les travaux effectues dans differents pays et en France montrent l'interet de l'irradiation et ses possibilites d'utilisation pour des fruits et legumes francais, (fraises, peches, abricots, tomates, pommes de terre, aulx, oignons). L'introduction de l'irradiation amenera des changements dans la production et la distribution de fruits et legumes. La distribution s'effectuera dans de meilleures conditions et des points de vente plus eloignes pourront etre atteints. L'intervention de l'irradiation ne changera pas les operations de preparation des produits en vue de leur commercialisation. De nombreux facteurs variables

  5. Applications of prospecting geochemical techniques to the search for and to the study of uranium deposits in metropolitan France; Applications des techniques geochimiques de prospection a la recherche et a l'etude des gites uraniferes en France metropolitaine

    Grimbert, Arnold

    1957-07-01

    After having recalled facts which leaded the CEA to use new geochemical techniques for the prospecting of uranium deposits through sampling and analysis of soils and waters, the author describes the organisation and methods implemented for this prospecting activity: team composition for sampling and analysis, role of each engineer and technician in the prospecting stages (preliminary study, routine prospecting, result interpretation), sampling and analysis processes. He also reports campaigns of geochemical prospecting: study of the La Chapelle Largeau deposit (objectives, geological context, preliminary study, routine prospecting, study of geochemical anomalies), tactical research on Verneix indices (study of radioactivity anomaly discovered by radio-prospecting), strategical searches in a non prospected area in the South of Avallon. The author discusses the issues of efficiency and cost price of this geochemical prospecting technique in soils and in waters. Appendices present the equipment and operation modality for soil sampling, and for soil sample preparation, and principles, equipment and products for soil analysis and for water analysis [French] A la suite des resultats satisfaisants obtenus dans la recherche de methodes de dosage adaptees au cas de l'uranium, la Direction des Recherches Minieres du Commissariat a l'Energie atomique a decide, en decembre 1954, d'utiliser, conjointement avec les methodes classiques de prospection, les techniques geochimiques pour la recherche et l'etude des gites uraniferes. Ces applications pratiques ont ete confiees a une Section de Geochimie dont l'organisation, les moyens en personnel et en materiel, ainsi que les methodes de travail, font l'objet d'un expose detaille. Quelques exemples de prospection, en France metropolitaine, montrent la nature des problemes poses (etude d'un gisement connu, recherche tactique sur des indices, recherche strategique dans une region non prospectee), les methodes utilisees pour les

  6. Short term forecasting of petroleum product demand in France; Modelisation a court terme des consommations de produits petroliers en France

    Cadren, M

    1998-06-23

    The analysis of petroleum product demand became a privileged thrust of research following the modifications in terms of structure and level of the petroleum markets since eighties. The greatest importance to econometrics models of Energy demand, joint works about nonstationary data, explained the development of error-correction models and the co-integration. In this context, the short term econometrics modelling of petroleum product demand does not only focus on forecasts but also on the measure of the gain acquired from using error-correction techniques and co-integration. It`s filling to take the influence of technical improvement and environment pressures into account in econometrics modelling of petroleum products demand. The first part presents the evolution of Energy Demand in France and more particularly the petroleum product demand since 1986. The objective is to determine the main characteristics of each product, which will help us to analyse and validate the econometrics models. The second part focus on the recent developments in times series modelling. We study the problem of nonstationary data and expose different unit root tests. We examine the main approaches to univariate and multivariate modelling with nonstationary data and distinguish the forecasts of the latter`s. The third part is intended to applications; its objective is to illustrate the theoretic developments of the second part with a comparison between the performances of different approaches (approach Box and Jenkins, Johansen approach`s and structural approach). The models will be applied to the main French petroleum market. The observed asymmetrical demand behaviour is also considered. (author) 153 refs.

  7. L’impact de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises sur la politique de distribution des dividendes

    Naoel Mezgani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce papier est de tester l’incidence de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises non financières sur la politique de distribution des dividendes. En utilisant des données de panel des trente entreprises tunisiennes durant la période de 1999 à 2004, nous vérifions si en détenant le capital et la dette, la banque a la possibilité de contraindre la distribution des dividendes pour garantir le remboursement de ses fonds prêtés. Les résultats empiriques obtenus ne confirment pas l’impact significatif des banques actionnaires majoritaires et principaux créditeurs sur la distribution des dividendes dans les entreprises tunisiennes. Ces dernières soutiennent surtout la stabilité du niveau des dividendes payés d’une année à une autre.

  8. L'IMPACT DES DEPENSES D'INFRASTRUCTURES SUR LA ...

    Administrateur

    l'économétrie, dans l'analyse de l'impact des dépenses d'infras- tructures sur la .... montre que les politiques budgétaires de relance peuvent avoir un impact à long terme ...... Sciences Economiques et Sciences de Gestion Université d'Alger.

  9. Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la ...

    Mart.) and Panicum maximum (Jacq.). Water Resources and Industry, 16: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wri.2016.07.001. Priso RJ, Dibong SD, Tchinda-Metagne C,. Taffouo VD, Ndongo D, Amougou A. 2010. Impacts des eaux polluées sur la.

  10. Impacts des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des eaux sur la ...

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of the physico-chemical characteristics of water on the ..... Il est composé de 4 espèces ... Figure 4 : Plan factoriel F1 x F2 des variables physico-chimiques en fonction du phytoplancton.

  11. Pratiques agricoles et perceptions paysannes des impacts ...

    La dégradation des écosystèmes et d'une manière générale de l'environnement au Burkina Faso est liée aux ... L'étude a révélé que 8 types de rotations culturales sont pratiquées dans la zone. ..... OBEPAB (Organisation Béninoise pour la.

  12. La politique de tarification des Transports Publics Urbains en Île-de-France

    OUATTARA, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    À l'heure du débat environnemental et de l'émergence des modes alternatifs à l'usage de la voiture particulière (covoiturage, autopartage, vélo, marche, etc.), les transports collectifs urbains sont porteurs des orientations politiques en faveur de la mobilité durable. Facteurs de cohésion sociale et garants du droit au transport pour tous, ils constituent également une solution de taille face à la congestion du trafic urbain. Cela est rendu possible par la mise en place d'une politique de ta...

  13. Nonlinear Impact of Temperature on Mortality in France

    Zhang, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is posing unprecedented challenges to human welfare, yet there is much uncertainty about the cost of its impact. Accurate quantification of the social cost of carbon is crucial for designing effective climate policies that reduce emissions and mitigate the adverse impact of global warming, and human health is an important component of the calculation. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the relationship between temperature and mortality in the U.S., similar results using nationwide data have not been clearly established in other countries. Using random monthly variations in temperature for over a decade, this paper finds a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between monthly mortality rate and daily temperature in France between 1998 and 2012. Extremely hot days are associated with significantly higher mortality rates: One additional day with a mean temperature above 30°C, relative to a day in the 12°C to 15°C range, leads to 10 extra all-age, all-gender monthly deaths per 100,000. The effect of cold temperatures is milder: An extremely cold day with an average temperature from -9 °C to -6 °C increases all-age, all-gender mortality rate by about 1.2 per 100,000 each month. There is also notable heterogeneity in the observed nonlinear relationship across age groups and gender, in which males and the elderly are generally more susceptible to extreme temperatures than females and the young. This highlights that children and youth may be well protected through adaptive behaviors, such as spending more time indoors in temperature-controlled rooms and staying hydrated. Compared to studies done in the U.S., extremely hot days >30°C leads to considerably more deaths in France. Preliminary evidence suggests that there has been very limited adaptation despite two prominent heat waves in 2003 and 2006, although further analysis of electricity consumption and air conditioning usage is needed to ascertain the extent to

  14. Architecture naturelle et architecture symbolique au Néolithique. L’exemple des abris peints des gorges de la Nesque (Vaucluse, France

    Philippe HAMEAU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RÉSUMÉ: L’expression schématique rupestre, pariétale ou mobilière du Néolithique dans le sud de la France est à placer, essentiellement, aux IVe et IIIe millénaires av.J.C. Pourtant, certaines peintures pourraient être plus anciennes et le décor céramique est de style schématique dès le Néolithique ancien. On décrit ici un groupe de dix abris ornés dans un contexte de gorges: leur topographie, leurs peintures et éventuellement leur mobilier archéologique. La diversité des teintes utilisées et des cas de superpositions de traits nous font supposer plusieurs phases graphiques et une complémentarité des sites. Malgré leur apparente disparité, ces abris répondent à des critères précis qui déterminent leur choix par les Néolithiques, notamment la présence d’un ruissellement périodique. A ce titre, plusieurs concrétions résultant des écoulements d’eau sont rehaussées de colorant rouge. Deux abris sont manifestement des sites de réclusion: la condamnation du couloir du premier, le perchement du second, isolent automatiquement leurs usagers du reste de la communauté. En outre, leurs particularités topographiques et pariétales en font des sites propices à des rites de passage. Par comparaison, les grands porches seraient plutôt des lieux de rassemblement. Toutes ces hypothèses traduisent une volonté de considérer les singularités naturelles des lieux (gorges, abris, parois comme autant d’éléments symboliques participant à la constitution des sanctuaires au Néolithique.RESUMEN: La expresión esquemática rupestre, parietal o mobiliaria del Neolítico en el sur de Francia, se tiene que integrar, principalmente, en los IV y III milenios a.C. A pesar de todo, algunas pinturas podrían ser más antiguas y la decoración cerámica es de estilo esquemático desde el Neolítico antiguo. Se describe aquí un grupo de diez abrigos pintados en un contexto de gargantas: su topografía, sus pinturas y

  15. Contribution of Gaz de France offers to the environmental quality of buildings; Les offres de Gaz de France au service de la qualite environnementale des batiments

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting to present the contributions of Gaz de France offers in the improvement of the environmental quality of residential and tertiary buildings: environmental quality in France and in Europe, Gaz de France and the 'high environmental quality' (HQE) approach, experience feedback: combined solar-gas systems, examples of realizations. (J.S.)

  16. Les schémas de sélection ovins laitiers en France : utilisation et importance des techniques modernes de reproduction

    Astruc, J.M.; Lagriffoul, G.; Belloc, J.P.; Briois, M.; Cachenaut, J.B.; Horent, M.H.; Teinturier, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    La mise en oeuvre de programmes de sélection laitière, à l’échelle de toute une population ovine, suppose de développer un travail de sélection entre éleveurs, fondé sur l’organisation et la valorisation de liens génétiques entre troupeaux, essentiellement grâce à l’utilisation de l’IA. La situation en France est à cet égard révélatrice des différents niveaux d’organisation des schémas de sélection.

  17. La formation des enseignants intervenant en milieu carcéral en France

    Hugo Barini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'enseignement en milieu carcéral est un droit auquel tout détenu a accès. Parmi les enseignements proposés aux détenus, la formation en français langue étrangère (FLE. Dans cet environnement de travail particulier, l'enseignant doit faire face à certaines difficultés et contraintes. Pour intervenir dans cet environnement particulier, des formations sont proposées aux enseignants : formations initiales pour les enseignants titulaires de l’Education nationale, formation de terrain pour les enseignants bénévoles. Toutefois, bien que la discipline enseignée soit le FLE, les enseignants titulaires d’un Master FLE ne peuvent intervenir dans des structures carcérales. Il est alors nécessaire de s’interroger sur les formations reçues par ces différents profils d’enseignants dont les compétences doivent être relatives au contexte d’enseignement, au public détenu non-francophone, ainsi qu’à la discipline enseignée.

  18. An example of the use of the DELPHI method: future prospects of artificial heart techniques in France; Un exemple d'utilisation de la methode DELPHI: perspectives de developpement en France des techniques de coeur artificiel

    Derian, Jean-Claude [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Departement des Programmes, Section des Etudes Economiques Generales (France); Morize, Francoise [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (France); Vernejoul, Pierre de [Faculte de Medecine Necker - Enfants Malades (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (France); Vial, Renee [Direction de Protection et Surete Radiologiques (France)

    1971-07-01

    The artificial heart is still only a research project surrounded by numerous uncertainties which make it very difficult to estimate, at the moment, the possibilities for future development of this technique in France. A systematic analysis of the hazards which characterize this project has been undertaken in the following report: restricting these uncertainties has required a taking into account of opinions of specialists concerned with type of research or its upshot. We have achieved this by adapting an investigation technique which is still unusual in France, the DELPHI method. This adaptation has allowed the confrontation and statistical aggregation of the opinions given by a body of a hundred experts who were consulted through a program of sequential interrogations which studied in particular, the probable date of the research issue, the clinical cases which require the use of an artificial heart, as well as the probable future needs. After having taken into account the economic constraints, we can deduce from these results the probable amount of plutonium 238 needed in the hypothesis where isotopic generator would be retained for the energetics feeding of the artificial heart [French] Le coeur artificiel n'est encore actuellement qu'un projet de recherche auquel sont attachees de nombreuses incertitudes qui rendent difficile l'appreciation des possibilites de developpement futures de cette technique en France. Une analyse systematique des aleas qui caracterisent ce projet est entreprise dans l'etude ci-apres: circonscrire ces aleas necessite la prise en compte d'opinions emanant des specialistes concernes par cette recherche ou par son issue: c'est ce qui a ete realise en adaptant une methodologie non classique en France, la methode DELPHI. Cette adaptation a permis la confrontation et l'agregation statistique des opinions fournies par un college d'une centaine d'experts consultes par un programme d'interrogations sequentielles, envisageant en particulier les

  19. Les sources de protéines dans l’alimentation du bétail en France : la place des oléoprotéagineux

    Peyronnet Corinne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En France, les aliments concentrés totalisent 30 millions de tonnes de matières premières parmi lesquelles 64 % sont des céréales et 22 % des tourteaux d’oléagineux. Le déficit français en matières riches en protéines (dosant plus de 15 % de protéines qui était d’environ 70 % dans les années 1980 a baissé en dessous de 40 % successivement grâce au développement du pois dans les années 1990 puis du colza depuis les années 2000 avec des surfaces totales cultivées de 2,5 millions d’hectares environ. Le tourteau de soja reste le premier tourteau utilisé en France mais ses importations baissent, notamment depuis 2009, et il n’a représenté que 3,3 millions de tonnes sur la campagne 2012/2013. L’utilisation du tourteau de soja non OGM diminue également avec 0,6 million de tonnes en 2012 contre 1,2 en 2002. Les tourteaux de colza et tournesol ont quant à eux atteint respectivement 2,3 et 1,4 millions de tonnes en 2012/2013 parmi lesquels 700 000 tonnes de tourteau de tournesol High pro (à 36 % de protéines importées de la zone Mer noire et 600 000 tonnes de différentes qualités produites en France. Depuis 2013, des tourteaux de tournesol High pro sont également produits en France à Bassens. Les prix des MRP suivent le marché mondial du tourteau de soja mais la demande française pour des matières premières non OGM permet une meilleure valorisation des sources de protéines locales.

  20. Des normes sociales pour les déplacements de population causés par les grands barrages. France, XXe siècle

    Armelle Faure

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time and insights from a number of historical studies it is now possible to take a look back at the way rural populations in France were displaced for the construction of large dams during and after the Second World War. Today, international standards relating to the social implications of dam development projects are imposed on dam builders by both governments and financing institutions. However, in the absence of these international social standards, how did population displacements take place in the past? This paper provides a retrospective look in the light of the current "protection policies" developed by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Retrospective case studies are based on research conducted in the Alps by Virginie Bodon on Tignes and Serre-Ponçon for her doctoral thesis in history (1999 and on the book by D. Varaschin on Tignes. The author uses her own studies on the impact of the large dams of the Upper Dordogne, based on research conducted in departmental and municipal archives and on interviews with those who witnessed the implementation of displacement policies and with their children (1998-2005. The author draws on her experience as an anthropologist for the World Bank to analyse the ways in which these displacements were actually carried out. The forced displacements, euphemistically referred to as "involuntary resettlement" in discourses on development, took on increasing notoriety with the international energy crisis.  The dams gave rise to an international debate on their social and environmental impacts, a debate continued by the World Commission on Dams. Today, when financing has again become available for the construction of new dams throughout the world, it seems opportune to provide some insights into the social implications of large dam development projects based on the experience of France, a country that has been, in many respects, one of the most innovative in the implementation of

  1. Les correspondants de presse étrangère en France. Des modèles et des missions entre routines, bouleversements et paradoxes.

    Jérémie Nicey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution s’intéresse aux correspondants étrangers exerçant en France, assez peu étudiés. La réflexion proposée repose en grande partie sur une vingtaine d’entretiens avec les journalistes eux‑mêmes, travaillant à Paris pour différents pays et supports, et qu’ils soient sous contrat permanent ou à la pige (échantillon constitué en proportion de données officielles habituellement pas ou peu communiquées. Les transformations à l’oeuvre sont analysées sous le prisme de leurs profils divers et de leurs productions : les aspects scrutés vont de la sélection de l’information à la couverture de l’actualité de la France qu’ils donnent à voir à leurs concitoyens d’origine. Les correspondants de presse étrangère sont soumis comme la plupart des journalistes à de fortes pressions (économiques, temporelles, organisationnelles, etc. liées à l’émergence non seulement des outils numériques mais aussi de nouveaux types de concurrents (y compris non professionnels. Ils révèlent d’une part de profondes disparités dans leurs conditions de travail, marquées en premier lieu par la fermeture de nombreux bureaux à proprement parler, d’autre part un accroissement et un élargissement des tâches qui leur sont demandées, notamment par leurs supérieurs au siège. Cela génère, pour eux comme pour le chercheur, plusieurs interrogations sur leurs pratiques et sur leur identité. Va-t-on vers une disparition de la profession même de correspondant de presse étrangère, ou s’agit-il d’un changement de modèle, supposant pour les correspondants des missions redéfinies ? Et ces derniers doivent-ils l’apprécier comme une opportunité ou comme une menace ? Cet article se propose d’analyser, y compris à la lumière de principes historiques liés à la correspondance de presse, les évolutions récentes et les perspectives de la production d’information sur et depuis la France. Il examine les

  2. L'emancipation des Juifs en France. Collection L'évolucion de L'humanité

    Jaime Pinsky

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available FEUERWERKER, David. L'emancipation des Juifs en France. Collection L'évolucion de L'humanité. Paris: Albin Michel, 1976, 775 pp. (primeiro parágrafo do texto Afirmar que a série "A evolução da humanidade" tem dado, desde sua fundação, por Henri Berr, contribuição das mais expressivas para o estudo da História, é, um truísmo. As dezenas de títulos já publicados constituem-se em prova substantiva, eliminando a necessidade de qualquer adjetivação. A chamada História Judaica tem sido privilegiada na coleção. As obras de Lods e de Guignebert, notadamente Israel, das origens até meados do século VIII, do primeiro, já ultrapassaram os estreitos limites do mundo acadêmico, para adquirirem o status de leitura indispensável para qualquer interessado no tema.

  3. Grand Sarcoui volcano (Chaîne des Puys, Massif Central, France), a case study for monogenetic trachytic lava domes

    Miallier, D.; Pilleyre, T.; Boivin, P.; Labazuy, P.; Gailler, L.-S.; Rico, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Grand Sarcoui is a prominent trachytic volcano of the intraplate Quaternary volcanic field of Chaîne des Puys (Massif Central, France), which fulfills basic requirements for being qualified as monogenetic. Grand Sarcoui looks like a simple axisymmetric lava dome, but close observation reveals a complex and dissymmetric structure and composition. The construction of the dome, about 12.5 ka ago, combined both endogenous and exogenous growth which resulted in variable modes of emplacement and textures of the lava. One of its most interesting features is a large ( 0.29 106 m2) fan of deposits bearing hummocks and secondary hydro-eruption craters. Cross sections of these deposits demonstrate that they originated from a sector collapse accompanied by a blast-like event. The dome is covered by a thin layer of lapilli and ash, attributed to a delayed summit eruption which occurred about 10.6 ka ago, surprisingly late after its construction. So, this volcano has, at a reduced scale, features that are more usually observed in large composite volcanoes. However, some of these features differ slightly from those that have been documented to date, and they remain partly unexplained. This shows that monogenetic, well preserved, trachytic lava domes, are uncommon and poorly known, unlike rhyolitic, andesitic and dacitic domes.

  4. 152 Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à ...

    john mukalay

    Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à-vis de la salinité en culture de bananier. Michel Mazinga KWEY1, Séverin Kalala BANZE2 et John Banza MUKALAY2*. 1Laboratoire des cultures in vitro, Département de phytotechnie, Faculté des sciences agronomiques,. Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, ...

  5. Impacts économiques et sociaux de l'égalité des sexes dans l ...

    Impacts économiques et sociaux de l'égalité des sexes dans l'agriculture commerciale ... Partage des profits et contrôle des ressources ... Transforming Africa's agriculture sector is central to growth and poverty reduction on the continent.

  6. LA SITUATION DES ÉCREVISSES EN FRANCE RÉSULTATS DES ENQUÊTES NATIONALES RÉALISÉES ENTRE 1977 ET 2006 PAR LE CONSEIL SUPÉRIEUR DE LA PÊCHE

    COLLAS M.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis la fin du XIX° siècle, la distribution des écrevisses en France a connu de profonds bouleversements, et l’introduction d’écrevisses allochtones en provenance essentiellement du continent nord-américain, a irrémédiablement modifié le paysage astacologique français et européen. Les quatre enquêtes réalisées en France par le Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche depuis 1977, ont permis de suivre l’évolution des différentes espèces d’écrevisses recensées sur le territoire national, mettant à chaque fois en évidence la forte expansion des espèces exotiques et le recul des espèces natives. L’enquête de 2006 n’échappe pas à cette tendance et la situation de nos trois espèces d’écrevisses doit désormais être considérée comme alarmante. Deux de ces espèces se caractérisent par un statut de conservation proche de l’extinction (Austropotamobius torrentium et Astacus astacus alors que la troisième, Austropotamobius pallipes est « réfugiée » sur les secteurs apicaux des bassins versants, confinée sur des zones soumises aux premières manifestations du changement climatique et isolées par les espèces exotiques qui progressent de plus en plus vers l’amont. En effet, l’écrevisse du Pacifique (Pacifastacus leniusculus, mais aussi l’écrevisse rouge de Louisiane (Procamabrus clarkii, sont les espèces qui montrent la plus forte expansion géographique durant la période 2001-2006. Partout elles apparaissent comme des concurrents redoutables, plus agressifs, résistants aux pathologies, capables de coloniser des habitats variés…. Ces deux espèces en particulier étendent leur aire de répartition et colonisent chaque année de nouveaux départements, de nouveaux cours d’eau, éliminant par là même, les espèces autochtones. L’expansion des écrevisses introduites, l’arrivée récente en France d’une nouvelle espèce (Orconectes juvenilis et les modifications de la Loi autorisant dor

  7. A contribution from Gaz de France to the economic performance of industries; Contribution de Gaz de France a la perfomance economique des industriels

    Depail, J.C. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the policy of the French national gas utility, Gaz de France, towards industries, is to promote natural gas as a competitive fuel compared to fuels and electric power, with energy efficient solutions that are easy to implement and maintain: space heating, paint curing, surface cleaning, bath heating, vapour generation, waste treatment (especially for molding sand and volatile organic compounds, sludge drying). Gaz de France proposes also expertise schemes and audits

  8. The globalization of big French firms: the case of Electricite de France; L'internationalisation des grandes entreprises francaises: le cas d'Electricite de France

    Ailleret, F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-11-01

    A national monopoly created more than 50 years ago, Electricite de France has become so international that it is a major player in the world electricity market. In mid-1999, EdF had already invested about 4,5 billion euro in approximately 20 countries in Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. The electric utility is becoming even more involved in globalization, its objective being to make 30-35 % of sales outside France by 2005. (authors)

  9. [Present conceptions of the C.E.A. concerning] the development of fast neutron reactors in France; [Les conceptions actuelles du C.E.A. concernant] la filiere des reacteurs a neutrons rapides en France

    Vendryes, G; Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Pasquer, R [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    . (authors) [French] 1 - Situation des reacteurs a neutrons rapides dans le programme d'energie nucleaire francais. En developpant un programme base sur l'uranium naturel, la France se trouvera dotee d'un stock important de plutonium riche on isotopes superieurs. L'existence de ce plutonium et de l'uranium appauvri provenant des memes reacteurs a pour consequence logique leur emploi dans des reacteurs a neutrons rapides. Justifiee par cet interet a court terme, la mise au point de reacteurs a neutrons rapides repond par ailleurs a une necessite pour l'avenir. 2 - Enonce des caracteristiques d'une centrale a neutrons rapides de 1000 MW el. Nous indiquons les caracteristiques d'une future centrale a neutrons rapides chargee au plutonium et refroidie au sodium. Si incertaines qu'elles soient, elles constituent un guide necessaire a l'orientation de nos travaux. 3 - Etudes effectuees a ce jour: Nous donnons un apercu des etudes souvent tres preliminaires qui ont permis de retenir les caracteristiques citees plus haut. Les principaux domaines techniques abordes sont les suivants: - Neutronique (masses critiques, taux de regeneration, enrichissements, aplatissement du flux de neutrons, coefficients de reactivite, evolution de la reactivite en fonction de l'irradiation), - Dynamique, controle et surete, - Combustible, - Technologie (conception du bloc-pile, des circuits de sodium, des dispositifs pour la manutention des assemblages). Ces etudes techniques se completent de considerations economiques. Le choix de caracteristiques optimales est lie a l'existence de programmes de production d'electricite et, dans ces programmes, a celle des reacteurs a neutrons thermiques producteurs de plutonium. On montre comment il y a lieu de tenir compte de l'existence du plutonium dans ce contexte, et quels sont les mecanismes qui rattachent l'economie de ce plutonium au choix des parametres essentiels des reacteurs surgenerateurs. 4 - Reacteur prototype: On justifie l'interet d'une etape

  10. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    NEVEU A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  11. Instability of a highly vulnerable high alpine rock ridge: the lower Arête des Cosmiques (Mont Blanc massif, France)

    Ravanel, L.; Deline, P.; Lambiel, C.; Vincent, C.

    2012-04-01

    Glacier retreat and permafrost degradation are actually more and more thought to explain the increasing instability of rock slopes and rock ridges in high mountain environments. Hot summers with numerous rockfalls we experienced over the last two decades in the Alps have indeed contributed to test/strengthen the hypothesis of a strong correlation between rockfalls and global warming through these two cryospheric factors. Rockfalls from recently deglaciated and/or thawing areas may have very important economic and social implications for high mountain infrastructures and be a fatal hazard for mountaineers. At high mountain sites characterized by infrastructures that can be affected by rockfalls, the monitoring of rock slopes, permafrost and glaciers is thus an essential element for the sustainability of the infrastructure and for the knowledge/management of risks. Our study focuses on a particularly active area of the Mont Blanc massif (France), the lower Arête des Cosmiques, on which is located the very popular Refuge des Cosmiques (3613 m a.s.l.). Since 1998, when a rockfall threatened a part of the refuge and forced to major stabilizing works, observations allowed to identify 10 detachments (20 m3 to > 1000 m3), especially on the SE face of the ridge. Since 2009, this face is yearly surveyed by terrestrial laser scanning to obtain high-resolution 3D models. Their diachronic comparison gives precise measurements of the evolution of the rock slope. Eight rock detachments have thus been documented (0.7 m3 to 256.2 m3). Rock temperature measurements at the ridge and the close Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.), and observations of the evolution of the underlying Glacier du Géant have enable to better understand the origin of the strong dynamics of this highly vulnerable area: (i) rock temperature data suggest the presence of warm permafrost (i.e. close to 0°C) from the first meters to depth in the SE face, and cold permafrost in the NW face; (ii) as suggested by the

  12. Communication du Service juridique et du Département HR à l'attention des membres du personnel domiciliés en France

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Déclaration de revenus 2006 Les membres du personnel trouveront ci-après les informations nécessaires sur la manière de remplir la déclaration de revenus 2006, qui doit être retournée au plus tard le 31 mai 2007. Qui doit remplir la déclaration? Comment l'obtenir? Tous les membres du personnel1) domiciliés en France2), qu'ils soient ou non de nationalité française, doivent remplir la déclaration de revenus 2006 sur la base des présentes instructions et la renvoyer signée, au plus tard le 31 mai 2007, au centre des impôts de leur domicile. Les membres du personnel devraient recevoir la déclaration de revenus 2006 fin avril - début mai. Ceux qui ne la recevraient pas directement devront la retirer au centre des impôts, à la trésorerie ou à la mairie de leur domicile ou bien encore la télécharger sur le site internet du Ministère des Finances (www.finances.gouv.fr). Comment remplir la déclaration Les membres du personnel doivent remplir la DECLARATION PAPIER uniquement. Dé...

  13. L'érosion dans les environnements glaciaires : exemple du Glacier des Bossons (Massif du Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, France)

    Godon , Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this PhD memory aim at better define and quantify the present timeerosion processes in glacial and proglacial domain. The Glacier des Bossons, situated in theMont-Blanc massif (Haute-Savoie, France), is a good example of a natural and nonanthropizedsystem which allows us to study this topic. This glacier lies on two mainlithologies (the Mont-Blanc granite and the metamorphic bedrock) and this peculiarity is usedto determine the origin of the glacial sediments. The sedim...

  14. CONTROLE DU RISQUE ET EXPERTISE : France : la précaution entre expertise et débat public Le cas des plantes transgéniques

    Roy Alexis

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 1996, la commercialisation des premières plantes transgéniques s’est accompagnée d’un large débat en France (et en Europe. La controverse qui s’est ainsi développée a été le théâtre d’un processus d’appropriation par des acteurs hétérogènes de questions qui avaient été jusqu’alors essentiellement traitées par un cercle restreint d’intervenants réunis autour de quelques instances officielles de contrôle, dont principalement la Commission du génie biomoléculaire (CGB chargée de délivrer des avis auprès des instances exécutives concernant la dissémination dans l’environnement des organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM. Une partie des critiques émises a porté sur les évaluations qui ont conduit à autoriser ces mises sur le marché ainsi que sur le fonctionnement de la CGB. Le gouvernement français a tenté de traduire cette demande d’ouverture du processus de décision à travers l’invocation du principe de précaution. L’extension de l’espace des débats a ainsi contribué à replacer la question des risques liés aux plantes transgéniques dans une réflexion élargie aux modèles de développement agricole et à l’alimentation. La rupture ainsi amorcée avec un modèle linéaire de la décision offre l’opportunité d’explorer le rôle qu’y remplissent les experts et les évolutions que pourrait impulser l’application du principe de précaution. En effet, de plus en plus présentée comme un nouveau paradigme en termes de politique environnementale et sanitaire, la précaution impliquerait une modification des liens unissant l’expertise scientifique et la décision. Fondant l’intervention publique sur la prise en compte des indéterminations, on peut toutefois se demander dans quelle mesure l’instrumentalisation de ce principe est limitée par une culture scientifique du risque encore dominée par une appropriation linéaire et déterministe de l’incertitude ? Si la

  15. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study; Impacts du changement climatique sur le potentiel eolien en France: une etude de regionalisation

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  16. Climate change impact on the activities of Electricite de France

    Manoha, B.; Hendrickx, F.; Dupeyrat, A.; Bertier, Ch.; Parey, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water resource is of prime importance for a producer of electricity like Electricite de France. As a matter of fact, EDF manages about 75 % of the French surface waters through hydro electricity which represents about 13 % of its production. EDF also needs access to water for the cooling of its thermal power plants, especially nuclear power plants which represent between 75 and 80 % of its electric production. Climate change is then studied with much care in order to be able to predict its effects on the future water repartition in time and place. The paper presents the results of studies carried out on the French Loire and Rhone rivers, using different climate models, with the assumption of doubling CO 2 in the atmosphere (which could happen during the second half of the century). Future river temperatures and flows have been quantified, showing in particular an increase of river flows in winter, and a rather large decrease in summer. These results will have to be taken into account for the future management of the power plants (some experience has already been drawn after the very hot 2003 summer), especially during dry periods when scarce waters will have to be shared between the various users (drinking water, irrigation, tourism, industries and hydroelectricity). (authors)

  17. Report on the progress of work in France [Processing of Low-Grade Uranium Ores]; Rapport sur l'etat d'avancement des travaux en France

    Sugier, P [Direction des productions, CEA, Chatillon-sur-Bagneux (France)

    1967-06-15

    The uranium minerals dealt with in the mills in France come from districts belonging to the massive uraniferous Hercynian granitic essentially. Their uranium contents are relatively low, ranging mostly between 0,90 and 2%. the deposits occur as veins and stockworks or clusters.

  18. La renaissance du Jardin des Plantes de Montpellier. Passé, présent et avenir du plus ancien jardin botanique de France

    François Michaud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Le Jardin des Plantes de Montpellier est le plus ancien jardin botanique de France, l’un des rares à ne pas avoir été déplacé sous la pression urbaine et surtout à être resté universitaire depuis ses origines, il y a plus de quatre siècles. Sa reconnaissance patrimoniale au XXe siècle, au travers de ses classements au titre des Sites (1982 puis des Monuments Historiques (1992, a permis d’entamer un vaste programme de restauration qui vise, en ce début de 3ème millénaire, à lui redonner le rayonnement qu’il a connu en élevant la botanique, avant tout médicale, au rang de science à part entière. Il remplira également son rôle de médiateur vers le grand public en illustrant les rapports homme/plantes sur les thématiques désormais incontournables pour l’avenir de notre planète de la biodiversité et du développement durable.The Jardin des Plantes in Montpellier is the oldest botanical garden in France. It has remained a University property since its creation over four centuries ago and is one of the few gardens to have resisted the crush of urban development. In recognition of its importance, the Gardens’ classification as a protected nature preserve ("Site classé" - 1982 and among the French National Monuments (1992 paved the way for funding an expansive restoration effort. The third millenium will restore the Jardin des Plantes to its original glory, when it elevated botanics – initially mostly confined to medical purposes – to the rank of a science. This unique site will also return to its public service role, illustrating the relationship between man and plants and the now critical concerns of biodiversity and sustainability.

  19. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  20. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  1. Impacts of Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne on Two Nourished Beaches along the Southeast Florida Coast

    Benedet, L.; Campbell, T.; Finkl, C.W.; Stive, M.J.F.; Spadoni, R.

    2005-01-01

    Site inspections and beacli profile surveys of nourislied beaclies in the city of Boca Raton, and Town of Palm Beach, Florida show that the nourished beaches protected the shore from hurricane impacts in 2004. Striking the southeast coast of Florida within 20 days of each other. Hurricane Frances

  2. The economic impact of giving up nuclear power in France

    Carnot, N.; Gallon, St.

    2001-01-01

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite de France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value and would penalize its shareholders, the State. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas-price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially-amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (author)

  3. The economical impact of a nuclear renunciation in France

    Carnot, N.; Gallon, St.

    2001-11-01

    French nuclear plants will have to be shut down in the 2020's. Electricite De France (EDF) could replace them by either nuclear or gas-fired plants. Choosing the latter would lead to an increase in Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and to a rise of EDF's generation costs. In 2020, the price of electricity in Europe will be determined by a competitive market. Therefore, a rise of EDF's generation costs will mainly depress its operating profit (and slightly increase the market's price). Giving up nuclear power in 2020 would consequently lead to a fall of EDF's value for its shareholders. On a macro-economic scale, the shock on the production cost of electricity would lead to a 0,5 to 1,0 percentage point drop of GDP (depending on the hypotheses). Structural unemployment would rise by 0,3 to 0,6 percentage point. The model used to find these results does not take into account the risk of nuclear accidents nor the uncertainty on the costs of nuclear waste disposal. On the other hand, gas-price is assumed to be low, and the costs of gas-fired generation do not integrate the risk premium due to gas price volatility. In conclusion, the best choice on both micro and macro scales, consists in extending the life of current nuclear plants (if such an extension is authorised by safety regulators). These plants would be financially amortized, produce electricity at a very competitive cost and emit no GHG. Furthermore, extending the life of current nuclear plants will defer any irreversible commitment on their replacement. The necessary decision could therefore be taken later on, with more information on the cost of alternative generation technologies and their efficiency. (authors)

  4. Nuclear energy in France: assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-12-31

    As environmental matters become the focus of increasing concern, the implementation of major nuclear power programme has allowed France to enjoy the benefits of a comfortable position. Emissions of carbon dioxide per head in France are among the lowest in the industrialized world. On a worldwide level, Atomic Energy Commission forecasts have shown that the impact of the resumption of nuclear power programmes on the greenhouse effect would be limited. Nuclear power might have a useful role to play in the achievement of a more realistic reduction of these emissions.

  5. Nuclear energy in France: assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-01-01

    As environmental matters become the focus of increasing concern, the implementation of major nuclear power programme has allowed France to enjoy the benefits of a comfortable position. Emissions of carbon dioxide per head in France are among the lowest in the industrialized world. On a worldwide level, Atomic Energy Commission forecasts have shown that the impact of the resumption of nuclear power programmes on the greenhouse effect would be limited. Nuclear power might have a useful role to play in the achievement of a more realistic reduction of these emissions

  6. La forêt paysanne en France : état des lieux et perspectives d'évolution

    Normandin , D.

    1996-01-01

    International audience; Les récentes modifications des politiques agricoles ont suscité un regain d'intérêt pour les activités forestières des agriculteurs. Des recherches sont ainsi conduites pour développer et réorienter les pratiques sylvicoles des exploitants. L'analyse des évolutions passées de la forêt paysanne montre cependant que les surfaces boisées gérées par les agriculteurs se réduisent fortement. Elles occupent une place de moins en moins importante au sein de la forêt privée, ma...

  7. Fuel consumption of private cars in France 1988-2006; Consommations de carburants des voitures particulieres en France 1988-2006

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    The results of this study come from the exploitation of the 'TNSworldpanel Petrol' inquiry launched in April 1987. This panel follows the consumption of 3300 cars belonging to individuals living in France (company vehicles are excluded). This is the only operation of this scale ever carried out in France. The main results indicate: the continuation of the average consumption decay of individual cars (all kind of fuel considered); a new and significant progress of diesel-fueled vehicles: 57% of the cars purchased by households (50% in 2003, 33% in 1995); a new decay of the total distance covered by households: -1.1% in parallel to the rise of fuel prices. (J.S.)

  8. Cleansing of industrial sites: the Charbonnages de France example; Depollution des sites industriels: l'exemple de Charbonnages de France

    Lagarde, R.; Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R. [Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Bonin, H. [GRS Valtech, 78 - Carrieres sur Seine (France)

    2004-09-01

    Charbonnages de France, the French national coal board, has planned to stop its mining activities. Todays, its main goal concerns the remediation of its polluted mining and industrial sites. This article presents the cleansing techniques used at the Auby coking plant site for the removal of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the soil: protection of the aquifer, thermal desorption of the polluted earth, oxidation of the evaporated pollutants, valorization of the processed earth. (J.S.)

  9. An attempt to make an inventory of dust emissions in France; Tentative d`inventaire des emissions de poussieres en France

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The various dust emissions due to combustion and industrial processes, have been quantified; data and diagrams are presented for France from 1960 to 1995: the emission contributions from the residential and commercial sectors, industrial sector, power plants and road transportation are detailed and their evolutions are compared; emission charts are also presented, according to fuel type and dust granulometry. The importance of road transportation emissions is pointed out

  10. OGM Diffusion des OGM et impact pour les agriculteurs : quels sont les liens ?

    Lemarie Stéphane

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Les OGM actuellement sur le marché présentent des innovations sur des fonctions de protection des plantes. Selon les problèmes de protection des plantes, les gains des agriculteurs liés à l’adoption des OGM sont très variables. Cette hétérogénéité pose d’importants problèmes méthodologiques pour pouvoir estimer correctement la distribution des gains pour l’ensemble des agriculteurs. Une synthèse de plusieurs études américaines est réalisée ici et met bien en évidence la diversité des méthodes utilisées, chacune d’elles présentant ses avantages et ses limites. Globalement, si la diffusion des OGM est un fait indéniable, les études ne permettent pas de tirer des conclusions aussi nettes quant à l’impact des OGM pour tous les agriculteurs qui adoptent ces produits, et cela en particulier pour le soja. Cette absence de conclusion s’explique en grande partie par la difficulté à mesurer certains facteurs qui influencent le comportement d’adoption, comme par exemple la simplification de la conduite des cultures. En contrepartie, il faut noter que les études présentées ici ne prennent pas en compte un certain nombre d’effets indirects qui peuvent faire diminuer les gains des agriculteurs.

  11. The Sibling Size Impact on the Educational Achievement in France

    Adli, Rhonya; Louichi, Ahmed; Tamouh, Nadia

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of sibling size on children's education. The theoretical framework shows an opposite relationship between the number of children within family and their school performance. Empirical works diverge between those corroborating this theory and those leading to ambiguous results such a positive correlation or the absence of any…

  12. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des ...

    transformer radicalement les occupations du sol. Toutefois, le recul des .... également de cette protection (Roberge et Angelstam 2004). L'objectif est de ... distribution des espèces cibles a ensuite été cartographiée sur la couche d'unités de ...

  13. 127 Impact des rejets urbains et industriels sur la qualité des eaux ...

    PR BOKO

    scour of surfaces and underground. Keywords :aquifer, hydrochimy, rejections, pollution, El Kantara, Biskra, Algeria. 1. Introduction. La qualité des ..... A case study: Suquıa River Basin Au vue des résultats d'analyses hydrochimique, les concentrations en sulfates dépassent la norme (200-400mg/L). (Cordoba-. Argentina).

  14. Avoir un impact à grande échelle au moyen des services de ...

    Avoir un impact à grande échelle au moyen des services de vulgarisation reposant sur les TIC au Ghana (FCRSAI, phase II). En Afrique, les services de vulgarisation agricoles peuvent contribuer à développer les marchés et à renforcer la sécurité alimentaire des petits exploitants agricoles. La vulgarisation agricole se sert ...

  15. Uranium deposits in France and in French overseas territories; Les gisements d'uranium de la France metropolitaine et des territoires francais d'Outre-Mer

    Roubault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The discover of radium element by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898 activated the uranium ores prospecting in France and its overseas territories. Before 1945, rare and poor deposits were found with only one being operated in Madagascar and the production of nobiantalates from washing of pegmatitic eluvium. Since the setting up of the Research and Mines Department in the C.E.A. and the training of specialized exploration teams as well as the use of Geiger counters, the uranium ores prospecting has been largely developed in France. The mineralogical data resulting from studies during the pre-war period led to the discover of four main uranium ores content areas: La Crouzille deposit in Limousin characterized by large presence of pitchblende, the Bauzot deposit with massive presence of pitchblende as well, discover of mineralization traces in the Bois Noirs area where a rich uranium ore lodes were discovered afterwards and finally the madagascar deposit. Few other areas have been prospected and have got good evidences of uranium ores presence. The majority of French uranium deposits have got an 'hydrothermal' vein type with localized pitchblende or a secondary mineralization type. It described the different deposits by region and in chronological order of discover. The structural aspect and petrographic studies are discussed. The metallogenic study shows the presence of large mineralization in the French Hercynian massif. After ten years of uranium ores prospecting and mines work, it shows that France possesses numerous uranium deposits which can be qualified as large deposits and the minerals ores prospecting revealed that many deposits sites would be payable in the near future. (M.P.)

  16. The impact of nuclear power on jobs in France

    Boitier, B.; Lemiale, L.; Buba, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today nuclear industry represents 0.7% of the French GNP and employs 125.000 people directly. We have also to add jobs generated by subcontracting in the non nuclear sector, about 114.000. A major change in the energy mix out disfavor of nuclear power, would imply a loss of jobs in the nuclear industry, this loss may be compensated more or less by the jobs generated in the development of alternative energies, but the cost of electricity is an important parameter. If the change goes with an increase of power cost, the French industry will lose competitiveness and jobs will disappear at a scale far more important than in the nuclear sector alone. The article details the jobs in the nuclear industry and analyses the impact of employment of various scenarios: nuclear production at 70%, 50% and 20% of electricity. (A.C.)

  17. Les sources de l’histoire du patrimoine cultuel dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle au Centre national des archives de l’Église de France

    Bernard Barbiche

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fondé en 1973, installé à Issy-les-Moulineaux, le Centre national des archives de l'Église de France, service de la Conférence des évêques de France, est l'équivalent des Archives nationales pour l'État. Ses fonds datent majoritairement de la seconde moitié du XXe siècle, à quelques exceptions près. Dépôt central des archives de la Conférence épiscopale, le CNAEF reçoit ses archives et celles des comités qui en dépendent, mais aussi des dons divers (archives de mouvements ou de personnalités.Les documents touchant à l'histoire de l'art se trouvent plus particulièrement dans la section CO, répartis essentiellement dans les fonds du Comité national des constructions d'églises, le Comité national d'art sacré et le Centre national de pastorale liturgique. Ces fonds ne sont pas classés mais des répertoires sommaires sont consultables sur place, sachant que les délais de communication des documents varient entre 50 et 70 ans.The Centre national des archives de l’Eglise de France, the national archive centre for the French church, was founded in 1973 and is located today in the Paris suburb of Issy-les-Moulineaux. For the Catholic church in France, it is the equivalent of the national archives. With a few earlier exceptions, most of its holdings date from the second half of the 20th century. It is the central repository for the papers of the Episcopal Conference, and manages the papers of this institution and of the various committees attached to it. It also receives archives and papers by way of gifts from other organisations or personalities. The documents relating to art history are to be found mainly in the CO section, in particular in the papers of the Comité national des constructions d’églises (church building, the Comité national d’art sacré (sacred art and the Centre national de pastorale liturgique (pastoral liturgy. These holdings are not well ordered and certain documents cannot be divulged for 50 or

  18. Impact of Energy Production on Respiratory Outcomes: Evidence from the Flandres Refinery in France

    Lavaine, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of sulphur dioxide (SO_2) concentration on respiratory admissions in the north of France at municipal level from 2007 to 2011. The Flandres refinery closure in the north of France, in September 2009, is used as a natural experiment. First, this study shows that the halt in the refinery's operations, followed by its closure in 2010, reduces SO_2 concentration. We then use this exogenous shock to analyse the health impact of the high SO_2 concentration generated by energy production. Our estimates highlight that the reduction in SO_2 concentration has significantly reduced the severity of respiratory outcomes. Additionally, the refinery closure has had statistically significant effects on the revenue of municipalities in the area

  19. The development of fast reactors in France from March 1980 to March 1981; Le developpement des reacteurs a neutrons rapides en France de mars 1980 a mars 1981

    Vautrey, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEN de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1981-05-15

    This paper describes general features concerning development in the field of fast reactors in France from March 1980 to March 1981. It concentrates mainly on: Rapsodie, Phenix NPP, prototype reactor Super Phenix 1, future fast reactor NPPs and current research and development programs in the field. The present situation is as follows. Rapsodie has restarted operation but at reduced power in July 1980 because of the problems in the primary circuit which have not yet been solved. Phenic operates in a very satisfactory manner. Construction of Super Phenix is continuing normally. Research activities are performed sometimes for the needs of Super Phenix and sometimes for the needs of future fast rector projects like Super Phenix 2. International cooperation is being continued.

  20. Impacts des effluents liquides industriels sur l'environnement urbain ...

    industrialisation l'un des maillons essentiels du développement, après le succès de l'agriculture. Mais la mise en oeuvre de cette politique pose parfois des problèmes d'environnement à Abidjan. La présente étude a pour objectif principal ...

  1. L’impact des biocarburants sur l’effet de serre

    Poitrat Etienne

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Selon les statistiques de l’Observatoire de l’Énergie [1], la France a consommé 267 Mtep (tonnes équivalent pétrole d’énergie primaire en 2001, ou 269 Mtep avec correction climatique. Cette consommation comprend 145,6 Mtep sous forme d’énergie fossile (tableau 1. Les émissions corrigées du seul CO2 correspondant à l’énergie primaire consommée ont été entre août 2001 et juillet 2002, de 109 Mt de carbone par an [2]. Les énergies renouvelables (EnR totales utilisées en France sont d’environ 28 Mtep/an, dont 16,1 tep sont produits par les grands barrages hydro-électriques. Les autres EnR sont les bioénergies (11,9 Mtep/an et les énergies restantes, sont la géothermie, le solaire, l’éolien et la petite hydraulique [3]. En Europe, la France occupe la 5e place avec 11,5 % d’énergie renouvelable consommée après la Suède (26,7 %, l’Autriche (23,3 %, la Finlande (20,9 % et le Portugal (16,9 % [4]. D’autre part, la réserve mondiale prouvée des énergies fossiles représente au rythme actuel de consommation, qui est de 77 % de l’énergie totale consommée (tableau 2, environ 45 ans pour le pétrole, 60 ans pour le gaz et 220 à 250 ans pour le charbon. Afin de réduire les émissions de carbone fossile issues de la combustion des 77 % des énergies fossiles utilisées, il est nécessaire de réduire les consommations d’énergie par des économies et l’amélioration des rendements, de développer les énergies renouvelables et les technologies de séquestration du carbone. En France, les transports dépendent à plus de 95 % des hydrocarbures, non renouvelables, dont l’utilisation a une part déterminante (24 % dans l’émission des gaz à effet de serre. Le transport routier représente 81 % de la consommation énergétique du secteur. L’effet de serre se manifeste par un réchauffement de la température de l’air (+ 0,5 °C/100 ans et des océans (+ 0,3 °C/30 ans, avec une augmentation de la

  2. Le laboratoire au cœur de la reconstruction des sciences en France 1945-1965

    Jacq, François

    2011-01-01

    Le développement de la recherche collective apparaît généralement comme une marque des années de l’après Seconde Guerre mondiale. On en veut pour preuve la multiplication après-guerre de puissantes institutions de recherche qui semble attester l’émergence de formes collectives inédites. De même, la pratique des physiciens des hautes énergies de l’après-guerre qui consacre la production de publications scientifiques co-signées par plus d’une centaine de personnes, renvoie à l’archétype d’une r...

  3. Évolution et rôle de la cartographie dans la gestion des zones inondables en France

    Gérald GARRY

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Les Plans d’Exposition aux Risques (PER commencés en 1984 ont été à l’origine d’une véritable réflexion en matière de prévention des risques naturels, qui s’est caractérisée par la mise au point d’une méthodologie des études, notamment dans le domaine des inondations, et par l’élaboration de cartes dont les applications se sont progressivement étendues et complétées au regard de la planification, de l’information préventive et de la gestion de crise.

  4. L'arabe marocain en « sous-France » : Statuts sociolinguistique et culturel des personnes issues de l'immigration marocaine

    Abourahim Bouaissi Maha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available L’arabe marocain serait de moins en moins parlé dans les familles issues de l’immigration marocaine en France, et par là-même, la pratique du bilinguisme mêlant français et arabe marocain serait en péril. Afin de pouvoir confirmer ou infirmer une telle hypothèse, j’ai donc mené un travail d’enquête de terrain s’étalant sur 7 années auprès de deux familles afin de constituer mon travail de thèse. L’étude comparative de deux profils de familles distinctes était nécessaire. L’une, dans laquelle les parents avaient été scolarisés au Maroc et avaient donc emporté avec eux un minimum de bagages linguistiques leur permettant de pouvoir communiquer en français et en arabe marocain avec leurs enfants, la famille B. L’autre, dans laquelle les parents n’avaient pas été scolarisés et auraient donc été amenés à utiliser seulement l’arabe marocain au sein du foyer, la famille A. L’étude des parcours de migration, les statuts des langues en question, et les représentations linguistiques aideront donc, dans un premier temps, à mieux comprendre les comportements langagiers de chacun. Ceux-ci seront ensuite présentés et analysés afin de mettre en lumière les paramètres susceptibles d’intervenir sur la transmission de l’arabe marocain en France, seule garante de la pérennité du code switching maroco-français.

  5. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  6. Where are the radioactive wastes in France? 2006 geographic inventory of radioactive wastes; Ou sont les dechets radioactifs en France? Inventaire geographique 2006 des dechets radioactifs

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents, by region, the localization of existing radioactive wastes in France at the date of December 31, 2004. In addition to the geographic situation, this inventory is presented by site and by category of waste producer or owner. The collection of these data is based on the free declaration made by waste owners or producers. The gathered information has been reformatted and homogenized and is reported in a synthetic way in the form of tables and files. Thus, 899 sites have been indexed, among which 159 are presented in the form of a detailed file. For each region, a table details the registered sites by category of producer/owner and the location of the main ones is reported on a regional map. The registered waste producers are radionuclide users belonging to 4 specific domains: medical, research, industry and national defense. The corresponding wastes are in general modest both in quantity and activity. The sites polluted by radioactive substances are also mentioned, even if they are already decontaminated or not. (J.S.)

  7. La répartition géographique des poissons d'eau douce en France : qui est autochtone et qui ne l'est pas ?

    PERSAT H.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les bouleversements intervenus ces dernières décennies dans la composition de l'ichtyofaune d'eau douce française incitent, d'une part, à faire un bilan de la situation présente (cf. l'Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France et, d'autre part, à promouvoir une politique de gestion cohérente avec le principe de protection du patrimoine biologique naturel. Cette notion de patrimoine reste toutefois à définir. En effet, les changements actuels ne sont que les derniers d'une longue série, où l'homme est un acteur capital depuis plus longtemps qu'on ne le croit. De fait, beaucoup des espèces dites françaises n'ont probablement pas de valeur patrimoniale dans nombre de nos bassins fluviaux. Le présent article a pour ambition de décrire l'ampleur du problème et de solliciter la communauté scientifique, afin de rassembler les informations et développer les investigations selon un cadre géographique et historique précis.

  8. Impacts of climate change on wind energy resources in France: a regionalization study

    Najac, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we study the impact of climate change on surface winds in France and draw conclusions concerning wind energy resources. Because of their coarse spatial resolution, climate models cannot properly reproduce the spatial variability of surface winds. Thus, 2 down-scaling methods are developed in order to regionalize an ensemble of climate scenarios: a statistical method based on weather typing and a statistic-dynamical method that resorts to high resolution mesoscale modelling. By 2050, significant but relatively small changes are depicted with, in particular, a decrease of the wind speed in the southern and an increase in the northern regions of France. The use of other down-scaling methods enables us to study several uncertainty sources: it appears that most of the uncertainty is due to the climate models. (author)

  9. Impacts of climate change on the hydrological cycle over France and associated uncertainties

    Dayon, Gildas; Boé, Julien; Martin, Éric; Gailhard, Joël

    2018-05-01

    This study deals with the evolution of the hydrological cycle over France during the 21st century. A large multi-member, multi-scenario, and multi-model ensemble of climate projections is downscaled with a new statistical method to drive a physically-based hydrological model with recent improvements. For a business-as-usual scenario, annual precipitation changes generally remain small, except over southern France, where decreases close to 20% are projected. Annual streamflows roughly decrease by 10% (±20%) on the Seine, by 20% (±20%) on the Loire, by 20% (±15%) on the Rhone and by 40% (±15%) on the Garonne. Attenuation measures, as implied by the other scenarios analyzed, lead to less severe changes. However, even with a scenario generally compatible with a limitation of global warming to two degrees, some notable impacts may still occur, with for example a decrease in summer river flows close to 25% for the Garonne.

  10. Application of resistivity measurements to research on structural elements in the Nord-Limousin (France) uraniferous basin (1960); Application des mesures de resistivite a la recherche des elements structuraux dans le bassin uranifere du Nord-Limousin (France) (1960)

    Sarcia, J A; Bonnet, J; Combe, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors discuss the difficulties encountered in the exploration of a typical deposit in the Nord-Limousin, using the resistivity measurement method. In the zone in question the over-thrust was very variable and difficult to predict. The uraniferous deposits had two types of aspect, the passage from one to the other being often very sudden: long thin veins without gangue; short and thick lens-shape deposits which were strongly contaminated by clay towards their edges. After several unsatisfactory attempts, the device known as the 'rectangular map' was adopted and gave an acceptable structural representation rapidly and cheaply. For the placing of the probes however, methods are required which are more refined and sensitive. It is in any case useless to expect to obtain a satisfactory representation and a sufficient accuracy using a single technique; especially in the region under consideration. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent les difficultes rencontrees pour l'exploration, par la methode des mesures de resistivite, d'un gisement type du Nord-Limousin: il s'agissait d'une zone a recouvrement tres variable et difficilement previsible. Les occurences uraniferes y affectaient deux facies passant brutalement de l'un a l'autre: longs filonnets minces et sans gangue; lentilles courtes et puissantes avec alteration argileuses tres etendue aux epontes. Apres plusieurs essais peu satisfaisants, le dispositif dit 'carte des rectangles' a ete adopte pour obtenir rapidement et a bon compte un schema structural suffisant. Mais des methodes plus fines et plus sensibles sont necessaires pour guider l'implantation des sondages. Il est d'ailleurs vain d'esperer trouver a la fois la representativite d'ensemble et la precision, dans l'utilisation d'une seule technique, surtout dans la region envisagee. (auteur)

  11. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors; La gestion des dechets nucleaires a haute activite et a vie longue en France: enquete aupres des acteurs

    Le Dars, A

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Inventory of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France - sectorial series and extensive analysis; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France - serie sectorielles et analyses etendues

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The present report supplies an update of emissions into the atmosphere within the french metropolitan area in the frame of the CORALIE programme according to the 'SECTEN' format defined by CITEPA which raises to report emissions relating to usual economic entities such as industry residential/tertiary, agriculture, etc. Basically, results deal systematically with the period 1990 - 2001, but cover also more extended ranges of time, especially from 1980 for some substances to be considered in the frame of the protocols under the convention on the long range transboundary air pollution and from 1960 for some other substances traditionally inventoried by CITEPA for a long time. Data are presented for 28 different substances and various indicators such as those related to acidification or greenhouse effect. It is observed for most of substances that emissions have been drastically reduced over the ten or twenty last years. More especially for the period 1990 - 2000: The results are presented at the national level for each of the main sectors defined in the SECTEN format. A more detailed breakdown of each main sector is provided for 2000. Results are also given relating to different energy products and several analysis present additional highlights for NMVOCs, HFCs, PFCs and particular sources such as transports. The report contains indications regarding the targets committed by France in the frame of international conventions and directives from the European Union directives. These indications demonstrate that emission trends observed are generally encouraging. The table below summarizes total emissions over the period 1990 - 2001 for all substances mentioned above as well as indicators relating to the acidification and to the greenhouse effect. (author)

  13. Energy consumptions and information and communication technologies (ICT) in the tertiary sector in France; Consommations d'energie et technologies de l'information et des communications (TIC) dans le secteur tertiaire en France

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In France, investment expenses in information and communication technologies (ICT) reached 162 billions of French francs in 1999 with an average annual growth of 13.3% during the 1989-1999 era. In parallel, the end-use energy consumption reached 212 Mtep in 1999 with an average annual growth of 1.55% during the same period. The introduction and spreading of computer equipments and softwares in offices is one possible explanation to this evolution. This study uses the data available for the tertiary sector to model and quantify the impact of ICTs development on the electricity consumption in this sector and draws out some consumption forecasts according to different hypotheses. (J.S.)

  14. [Management of the cardiovascular disease risk during nilotinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia: 2015 recommendations from the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques].

    Rea, Delphine; Ame, Shanti; Charbonnier, Aude; Coiteux, Valérie; Cony-Makhoul, Pascale; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Etienne, Gabriel; Gardembas, Martine; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Legros, Laurence; Nicolini, Franck; Tulliez, Michel; Hermet, Eric; Huguet, Françoise; Johnson-Ansah, Hyacinthe; Lapusan, Simona; Quittet, Philippe; Rousselot, Philippe; Mahon, François-Xavier; Messas, Emmanuel

    2016-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein represent an outstanding progress in chronic myeloid leukemia and long-term progression-free survival has become a reality for a majority of patients. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may at best chronicize rather than cure the disease thus current recommendation is to pursue treatment indefinitely. As a consequence, high quality treatment and care must integrate optimal disease control and treatment tolerability. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have an overall favorable safety profile in clinical practice since most adverse events are mild to moderate in intensity. However, recent evidence has emerged that new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors may sometimes damage vital organs and if not adequately managed, morbidity and mortality may increase. The 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is licensed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and newly diagnosed chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia. Nilotinib represents an important therapeutic option but it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this article by the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques is to provide an overview of nilotinib efficacy and cardiovascular safety profile and to propose practical recommendations with the goal to minimize the risk and severity of cardiovascular events in nilotinib-treated patients. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. La revolution des savants

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  16. L’intégration scolaire des enfants handicapés en France: Etat du problème

    Tomkiewicz, Stanislaw

    1991-01-01

    Le principe de l’intégration scolaire des enfants handicapés, posé en 1975, a fait naître de grands espoirs et de grandes craintes surtout après 1982. J’ai examiné ici l’état de l’intégration en 1989, ses avantages et ses dangers, les résistances des différents groupes intéressés et les limites de la politique intégrative. RESUMO: O principio da integraçâo escolar das crianças com di ficuldades, colocada em 1975, fez aparecer grandes esperanças e grandes crenças, so...

  17. Lucie Tanguy, La sociologie du travail en France. Enquête sur le travail des sociologues, 1950-1990

    Salvatore Maugeri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage de L. Tanguy examine quarante ans d’histoire de la sociologie du travail, une des plus longues parmi les spécialités de la sociologie, et dont certains considèrent qu’elle a pu être la « matrice de la sociologie française d’après guerre ». Un tel statut justifie de revenir sur son passé, malgré peut-être le nombre appréciable d’ouvrages déjà disponibles. La nouveauté de l’ouvrage de Tanguy réside d’abord dans le fait qu’il ne s’agit pas de faire une histoire des idées, de la scienc...

  18. Diversité des communautés de mauvaises herbes des cultures annuelles de Côte-d'Or (France

    Dessaint F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of weed communities of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France. Weed flora of annual crops in Cote-d'Or, France, were characterized in three successive growing seasons by measuring species frequencies and abundance over 245 fields. A total of 210 species in 143 genera were recorded representing a total of 43 families with Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Brassicaceae, Lamiaceae and Caryophyllaceae predominating. More than half of the species occurred in less than 5/ of the sampled plots (fields x years and only 9 species (namely Galium aparine L., Polygonum aviculare L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Loeve, Alopecurus myosuroides Hudson, Stellaria media (L. Vill., Convolvulus arvensis L., Sinapis arvensis L., Veronica persica Poiret and Anagallis arvensis L. occurred in more than 50/ of the plots. The maximum plot density was greater than 20 plants per square metre for more than one third of the species. Meanwhile, the plots where the density exceeded 20 plants per square metre, were rare and represented, for the most abundant species (A. myosuroides, less than 16/ of the plots. The total number of weed species per plots varied from 4 to 65 with a median species number of 20. In most of the plots, the weed community was mainly composed of species having a small density (less than one plant per square metre and was dominated by only one or two species in half of the plots.

  19. Les impacts des énergies fossiles sur l'environnement

    Landrieu , Guy

    1994-01-01

    La satisfaction de leurs besoins en énergie est l'un des principaux facteurs de la transformation de leur environnement par les sociétés industrielles. Les combustibles carbonés fossiles, qui représentent environ 90% de la production commerciale d'énergie dans le monde, ont un rôle important dans ce processus de transformation. Une première donnée qui explique l'ampleur des impacts sur l'environnement liés aux combustibles fossiles est l'importance des flux de matières en circulation. On extr...

  20. Medical and biological utilization of radioelements in France; Utilisation des radioelements en france dans le domaine de la medecine et de la biologie

    Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The development of the research about stable and radioactive isotopes uses in biology and medicine started in France in the early years after the second World War. Close collaboration with United States led to the training of an hundred of French medical researchers in US research laboratories, twenty of whom were specifically trained about tracers uses and techniques. Since 1950, the C.N.R.S. and C.E.A. have collaborated to train French researchers to the isotopes methods, interpretation difficulties and precaution measures about radioisotopes manipulations. In the early fifties, the CEA started the radioisotopes production for medical and biology research and applications uses. The clinical uses of isotopes are presented in two main applications: diagnosis uses such as {sup 131}I for diagnosis or functional studies of thyroid gland and therapeutic treatments such as {sup 32}P for leukaemia and other cancer treatments. In a second part, the main studies subjects of basic and applied research are described: physiological and biological studies of the absorption, diffusion and distribution of different molecules as well as membrane permeability in biological systems for medicine and agronomy applications, studies of the incorporation of labelled compounds in biological and organic systems by exchange or synthesis ({sup 32}P is used for renewal studies of the osseous tissue), studies of the mechanism of biochemical reactions ({sup 14}C, {sup 15}N and {sup 35}S are the most used radionuclides) and endocrinology research, in particular, biochemical studies of the thyroid hormones. All these researches and applications encountered financial and delay in radioisotope production for which the CEA provided most of the labelled compounds at reasonable prices. The large development of isotopes applications in diagnosis, therapeutic as well as basic and applied research, leads to increase radionuclides demand and production delays. It discussed the different solutions to

  1. Influence of meteorological conditions on electricity consumption in France. Influence des conditions meteorologiques sur la consommation electrique francaise

    Chauvin, F; Javelle, J P; Calvayrac, A M

    1992-04-01

    Electric consumption is modeled by Electricite de France, in taking into account temperature and cloud cover in 6 selected sites. The aim of the study is to improve this model by a better climate representation and introduction of new parameters. The model is improved by taking into account climatic characteristics of each region and a simplification of the cloudiness factor facilitates the forecast. Furthermore no new parameter is required.

  2. Evolution de la surveillance des PM10 en France : épisodes de pollution par les particules au printemps 2007

    Aymoz , Gilles; Bessagnet , Bertrand; Rouil , Laurence; Le Bihan , Olivier

    2008-01-01

    National audience; Since the 1st January 2007, PM10 monitoring network in France has evolved, in order to account for volatile fraction of PM10. This evolution permitted the observation of high peaks of PM10 during spring 2007. Concentrations during these peaks would have been largely underestimated with measuring techniques used before 2007. A study, coupling chemical and modelling approach of the phenomenon has been launched by LCSQA (Laboratoire Central de Surveillance de la Qualité de l'A...

  3. Les Offices du cinéma scolaire et éducateur à l’épreuve des publics The Educational Cinema Offices and their publics in France between the two World Wars

    Pascal Laborderie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En France, dans l’entre-deux-guerres, les Offices du cinéma scolaire et éducateur constituèrent un réseau d’enseignement, d’éducation et de propagande par le cinéma. Comment évaluer les effets de ce dispositif ? Tout d’abord, nous considérons les dispositifs mis en œuvre par les Offices comme une réponse à la diversité des publics, enfants ou adultes, hommes ou femmes, des mondes ouvriers ou des classes intermédiaires, des espaces ruraux ou urbains, de métropole ou des colonies. Puis l’intérêt du cinéma en matière d’enseignement devant un public d’enfants est envisagé à partir des discours des enseignants. Enfin cet article aborde la représentation des enseignants concernant la propagande pour adultes. Des discours à la réalité, il est finalement proposé que cette propagande a surtout permis de faire travailler ensemble les animateurs des Offices au moment même où les divers mouvements du centre et de la gauche étaient divisés.In France, between the two World Wars, the Educational Cinema Offices built a network of teaching, education and propaganda using cinema. How can the effects of this network be assessed? First of all, we examine the plans of action implemented by the Educational Cinema Offices as an answer to the multiplicity of the audiences, children and adults, men or women, working and middle classes, from rural or urban places, from mainland France or colonies. Then the interest of cinema as a matter of teaching in front of children is considered from speeches of teachers. Finally, this article tackles the opinion of the teachers on the propaganda for adults. From speeches to reality, we suggest that this propaganda especially made the driving forces of the Offices work together when the various movements of the centre and of the left wings were divided.

  4. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food; Coproduits des biocarburants en France: perspectives et consequences en alimentation animale

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  5. Source, flux and balance of atmospheric deposition of metals at Ile-de-France; Source, flux et bilan des retombees atmospheriques de metaux en Ile de France

    Azimi, S

    2004-07-15

    The urban atmosphere is submitted to large inputs of anthropogenic contaminants arising from both stationary (power plants, industries, etc.) and mobile (road traffic) sources. These small particles may be transported over long distances and affect ecosystems. Significant dry and wet atmospheric deposition also occurs locally and contributes to the contamination of urban runoff. The aim of this study is to compare heavy metal and hydrocarbon atmospheric deposition fluxes to other input ways on agricultural and urban areas to assess their importance. Moreover, a source investigation has been done to identify the main origins of these pollutants. Before the quantification of pollutant fluxes, a comparison of several sampling procedures was performed. As a result, the sampling of total atmospheric deposition is not affected by the funnel material (Teflon and polyethylene) or by the sampling duration (7 and 28 days). However, the rinsing step of the funnel walls showed a higher relative importance during short sampling periods. The relative amount contained in these solutions reached 24 to 40 % of the total flux during weekly sampling periods and 8 to 18 % during monthly sampling periods, whatever the element considered. The temporal evolution of atmospheric deposition showed no seasonal influence on flux variations during the 2001-2002 period. Considering an 8-year period behaviour, between 1994 and 2002, a significant decrease of the deposition fluxes of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn occurred at the Creteil site which is placed in an industrialized area of the Paris suburb. The decreasing factor reached 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 for these elements respectively. At the Ile-de-France scale, the deposition flux levels on urban and semi-urban areas were of the same order of magnitude (?20 tonnes per year for Ba, Cu, Pb and Sr). Since semi-urban surface area is four times higher than urban ones, the important influence of anthropogenic activities on atmospheric deposition of urban areas is

  6. Xe CONGRES INTERNATIONAL SUR LE COLZA Développement et impacts des OGM

    Chevre Anne-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Le dernier congrès du Groupe consultatif international de recherches sur le colza s’est déroulé à Canberra (Australie du 26 septembre au 1er octobre 1999. Pour sa dixième édition, cette manifestation, quadriennale, a réuni plus de 600 participants originaires de 28 pays. La délégation australienne mise en part (35 % des participants, le Canada (15 % et l’Allemagne (14 % étaient les pays producteurs les mieux representés suivis de la Grande-Bretagne (6 %, de la France (6 % et de la Chine (5 %. Résumé en chiffre, le contenu scientifique de ces journées a été apporté par 550 présentations de résultats sous forme d’exposés (166 et de posters (384. Parmi les différents thèmes développés, le thème « amélioration des plantes et biotechnologies » a occupé en nombre d’interventions, à peu près la moitié du congrès (44 %. Les notes suivantes reviennent sur les aspects significatifs de ces présentations. Elles seront suivies dans une prochaine livraison des comptes rendus des thèmes « agronomie », « protection des cultures » et « nutrition ». (Les références au sein des articles renvoient aux textes du CDrom du colloque disponible auprès du Dr Rodney Mailer  : mailerr@agric.nsw.gov.au

  7. Impact de la gestion des ressources humaines sur la survie des ...

    A partir d'un indice composite, l'indice de gestion des ressources humaines ... (iv) la gestion de la performance, et (v) la formation et le développement du ... Même si à cause du type d'étude quasi-expérimentale réalisée (avant-après), nous ne ... GRH d'une organisation doit aussi devenir un objectif chiffré du management.

  8. Impact of urbanization and gardening practices on common butterfly communities in France.

    Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.

  9. Conserver la biodiversité intra-spécifique des arbres forestiers en France et en Europe

    COLLIN, Éric

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available À l'aide d'exemples issus de son expertise en matière d'ormes et de son expérience de Secrétaire de la commission «Ressources génétiques forestières», Éric Collin illustre les enjeux et méthodes de la conservation de la diversité génétique des arbres forestiers dans la perspective du changement climatique.

  10. Distribution géographique de la morille dans l’Est de la FranceImpact du GPS

    Seguy, Nathalie; Geoffroy, Dominique; Bert, Georges; Dangien, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Ce travail consiste à inventorier et préciser la distribution géographique des Morilles, champignon emblématique du Nord-Est de la France, comme peut l’être aussi la truffe de Bourgogne. A l’issu d’une étude bibliographique réalisée sur 100 ans, et à l’aide de relevés de terrain effectués par les membres de la Société Mycologique de la Côte-d’Or ou de la Société Lorraine de Mycologie ou par des mycologues confirmés, une cartographie est établie afin de présenter une répartition géographique c...

  11. The Cogemagazine reviews. The rehabilitation of mining sites in France; Les cahiers de Cogemagazine. Le reamenagement des sites miniers en France

    Loriot, O.; Bof, M.; Villeneuve, A

    1998-02-01

    The French uranium mines are progressively closing down. After a mining division has closed down, the main objectives of the Cogema group are: ensuring the long-term safety and healthiness of the site, reducing the residual impacts, preventing any abusive intrusion, reducing the surface of land submitted to right-of-way, encouraging the reconversion of the site, and succeeding in the integration of the site in the landscape in agreement with the local authorities. This brochure presents the strategy followed by Cogema for the rehabilitation of his sites: the French mining concessions and the uranium extraction and processing techniques, the storage of tailings and processing residues, the environment protection and the respect of regulation (environmental surveillance, working groups, administrative procedures and regulatory texts, impact studies...), the backfilling and safety of underground mines, the cost studies for the rehabilitation of open cast mines, the dismantling of factories, the confinement of residues and the revegetation, the continuous monitoring of the rehabilitated sites (water, atmosphere, food..). (J.S.)

  12. [Economic impact of lung cancer screening in France: A modeling study].

    Gendarme, S; Perrot, É; Reskot, F; Bhoowabul, V; Fourre, G; Souquet, P-J; Milleron, B; Couraud, S

    2017-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial found that, in a selected population with a high risk of lung cancer, an annual low-dose CT-scan decreased lung cancer mortality by 20% and overall mortality by 7% compared to annual chest X-Ray. In France, a work group stated that individual screening should be considered in this setting. However, the economic impact of an organized and generalized (to all eligible individuals) screening in France was never reported. This is a modeling study using French population demographic data and published data from randomized screening trials. We used the same selection criteria as NLST: 55-74-year-old smokers for at least 30 pack-years, current smoker or quit less than 15 years. We computed a second model including also 50-54-year-old individuals. Then, we used different participation rates: 65%, 45%, and 32%. According to the considered model, there would be 1,650,588 to 2,283,993 subjects eligible to screening in France. According to the model and participation rate, lung cancer screening would diagnose 3600 to 10,118 stages 1/2 lung cancer each year. There would be 5991 to 16,839 false-positives, of whom 1416 to 3981 would undergo unnecessary surgery. Screening policy would cost 105 to 215 € million per year. However, increasing the price of a cigarette pack by 0.05 to 0.10 € would fully cover the screening costs. Participation rate is a key point for screening impact. Screening could be easily funded by a small increase in cigarette prices. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermediate, low, and very low level waste management at ANDRA (agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) in France

    Senoo, Muneaki

    2005-01-01

    On 28th September in 2004, RANDEC invited Mr. Jean-Louis Tison from ANDRA as a lecturer of the special session of the 16th RANDEC Annual Symposium. An ANDRA-RANDEC technical meeting was held on the next day, where Mr. Vincent Carlier invited from ANDRA, too participated. Here, present status of intermediate, low, and very low level waste management in France is reviewed based on the information which were obtained from the special session of the 16th RANDEC Annual Symposium and the ANDRA-RANDEC technical meeting. In France, ANDRA is implementing radioactive waste management under the following policy; 'Intermediate, low, and very-low-level (ILVLL) waste is managed in order to establish as soon as possible a final disposal system, the temporary or long term storage option being considered only for the high-level waste (HLW) such as the vitrified fission products or particular materials such as some sealed sources for which no final disposal solution still exists.' The Agency is financed on the basis of the 'polluter-pays' principle and contracts its services directly with waste owners. (author)

  14. Les représentations mentales du mode de production des produits alimentaires (France Mental representations related to food production modes

    Marielle Salvador-Perignon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche se propose d’aborder le mode de production du produit alimentaire sous l’angle des représentations mentales en France. Dans le langage commun on entend souvent les termes « industriel » ou « artisanal » pour caractériser les produits alimentaires, sans que l’on sache vraiment ce que ces termes désignent. Le contexte actuel d’incertitude et de méconnaissance des systèmes de production chez les consommateurs nous permet d’émettre l’hypothèse de l’existence d’une représentation mentale du mode de production. Nous tentons de vérifier cette hypothèse par une étude qualitative à l’issue de laquelle les premières caractéristiques du produit alimentaire industriel ou artisanal sont précisées.This research approaches the food product through the mental representations concerning manufacturing processes. In the common language we often find such terms as “industrial” or “traditional” to qualify production methods and characterize food products, but do we know what these terms really mean? Uncertainties and misunderstandings regarding food production enable us to highlight the existence of consumers’ mental representations regarding manufacturing processes. Such representations have been studied by means of a qualitative study which enabled us to define the primary characteristics of industrial or traditional food products.

  15. La structure sociale de l’industrie des Biotechnologies en France: une étude des relations inter-organisationnelles au niveau inter-individuel.

    Piña-Stranger, Alvaro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various authors have shown the importance of collaborative relationships for inter-organizational performance, the mode of governance or the trajectory of biotechnology companies. Most of these works analyze the exclusive contractual agreements between companies and their main relationships among individuals. We show that this purely economic approach presents a major limitation: the nature of contractual relationships does not explore in detail how players cooperate. We propose to extend the study of these inter-organizational social relations, seen through the resource exchange in inter-individual. An empirical study on the leaders of the biotechnology industry in the area of human health in France has allowed us to map their relationships and resources they exchange them. Our results confirm the existence of a system of exchange dense and multiple. It presents a hierarchical distribution of various types of resources, where the centre is different from the periphery relations denser, more numerous and more reciprocal. However, comparative analysis of different networks reveals that the relationships of the board are highly centralized, while those of friendship following a more even distribution. We suggest that this phenomenon is part of a compensation mechanism to less central actors to maintain inter-organizational relationships. Finally, two standards of the cooperation process, revealed by the relational behaviour of actors, have been discovered. We suggest that they reflect in part the difficult process of adjustment that must cross a science project out of the realm of academic research and develop in a private structure: the biotech company.

  16. Environmental Impact of Munition and Propellant Disposal (Impact Environnemental de l’Elimination des Munitions et des Combustibles)

    2010-02-01

    the Future of Demil 3-29 3.4.2 Poster Session 3-32 3.4.2.1 The Situation in Lithuania: The Studies on the Explosive Contamination, 3-32 Their Toxic...Presentations and Documents Supporting Capability Assessments A-1 Annex B – Presentations, Paper/ Posters and Videos from the Sofia Meeting B-1 Annex C...sur l’environnement. La réunion a inclus des participants provenant de l’OTAN et des partenaires dont la Russie et la Géorgie. Les sessions étaient

  17. Gérer le hors-travail ? Pertinence et efficacité des pratiques d'harmonisation travail-hors-travail, aux États-Unis, au Royaume-Uni et en France

    Ollier-Malaterre , Ariane

    2007-01-01

    Gestion des Ressources Humaines; Employees have both work and nonwork-related responsibilities and aspirations. Therefore, employers implement Work-Life Practices (WLP), comprised of flexible working options, and support in the nonwork sphere (wellness, childcare, etc.). How relevant and effective are these practices? WLP are well spread in the US and the UK. Using France as a counter example, I build a multi-level model explaining why French employers adopt fewer WLP. The model draws on neo-...

  18. Indemnisation des dommages résultant de soins de santé. Phase V : impact budgétaire de la transposition du système français en Belgique

    Yerna, Benoît-Laurent; Maréchal, Xavier; Denuit, Michel; Closon, Jean-Pierre; Vinck, Imgard

    2009-01-01

    L’objectif de la présente étude consiste, d’une part, à décrire le système français d’indemnisation des victimes de dommages médicaux et, d’autre part, à calculer l’impact budgétaire de la transposition d’un tel système en Belgique. Les spécificités du système qui sera introduit en Belgique n’étant pas connues au moment de l’étude, le coût a été calculé sur la base des modalités du système en vigueur en France. Les statistiques françaises de fréquences des différents types de dommages (infect...

  19. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  20. Parcours d’un roman postcolonial francophone en France et en Allemagne : Le Cœur des enfants léopards, de Wilfried N’Sondé

    Myriam Louviot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 2007, Wilfried N’Sondé, Franco-congolais vivant à Berlin, publie en France son premier roman, Le Cœur des enfants léopards. Le livre rencontre un certain succès. Un an plus tard, la traduction allemande, Das Herz der Leopardenkinder semble faire une carrière comparable en Allemagne. On serait donc tenté de conclure qu’il n’y a pas tant de différence entre le lectorat français et le lectorat allemand. Un bon roman est un bon roman et il semble normal qu’il trouve son public des deux côtés du Rhin... Mais à y regarder de plus près, il apparaît que la réception du roman de Wilfried N’Sondé en France et en Allemagne suit des voies bien différentes. En France, les littératures postcoloniales sont essentiellement considérées à l’intérieur du cadre conceptuel de la francophonie et le roman de N’Sondé apparaît effectivement d’abord comme un roman francophone ; en Allemagne, il est plutôt rattaché à la littérature de la migration et est compris en fonction des traditions d’analyse qui s’y rattachent.2007 veröffentlicht der in Berlin lebende und aus Kongo stammende Franzose Wilfried N’Sondé, seinen ersten Roman, Le cœur des enfants léopards. Das Buch erfreut sich in Frankreich einer regen Aufmerksamkeit. Ein Jahr später scheint die deutsche Übersetzung, Das Herz der Leopardenkinder, am französischen Erfolg anzuknüpfen : ein guter Roman bleibt ein guter Roman und so scheint es nur normal dass, er auf beiden Seiten des Rheins sein Publikum findet. Dennoch wäre es falsch, daraus auf eine sehr ähnliche Leserschaft in den beiden Sprachräumen zu schließen. Bei genauerem Hinsehen zeigt sich, dass die Rezeption von Wilfried N’Sondés Roman in Frankreich und in Deutschland sehr unterschiedlich verläuft. Während der Roman in Frankreich im Kontext der postkolonialen Literatur in erster Linie als frankophones Werk rezipiert wird, konzentriert sich die deutsche Rezeption vornehmlich auf den

  1. Les méthodes de quantification économique des coûts sanitaires de la pollution atmosphérique : application à l’Ile-de-France

    Géniaux, Ghislain; Rabl, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Cet article passe en revue les méthodes de quantification économique des coûts sanitaires de la pollution atmosphérique. Ces méthodes sont appliquées à l’Ile-de-France, à partir de l’étude épidémiologique ERPURS sur les effets aiguës de la pollution sur la santé, et d’autres études internationales. La plus grande partie des coûts est imputable aux effets chroniques des particules sur la mortalité. This pape reviews the methods that can be used for evaluating the costs of health damages due...

  2. impacts des rejets industriels sur les eaux souterraines

    USER

    pollution et sont nombreuses, notamment les usines sidérurgiques, métalliques et pétrochimiques. Leurs rejets ont des effets néfastes sur les eaux de la région. Actuellement, les effluents industriels situés dans la région de Berrahal, contiennent d'importantes quantités de produits chimiques organiques et inorganiques et ...

  3. Les âges à la puberté des filles et des garçons en France. Mesures à partir d'une enquête sur la sexualité des adolescents

    É. De La Rochebrochard

    1999-01-01

    La Rochebrochard Élise de.- Age at puberty of boys and girls in France. Measures from a survey of the sexuality of adolescents Life tables of male and female puberty were constructed using the Analysis of Sexual Behaviour of Young People (ACSJ) survey conducted in France in 1994 on the 1975-1978 generations, at that time aged between 15 and 18. Puberty in girls is identified by the onset of menstruation, at a median age of 13.1. Using this indicator, a long-term decline in age at puberty has ...

  4. What will be the impacts of climate change on surface hydrology in France by 2070?

    Chauveau, Mathilde; Chazot, Sebastien; David, Julian; Norotte, Thomas; Perrin, Charles; Bourgin, Pierre-Yves; Sauquet, Eric; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Rouchy, Nathalie; Martin, Eric; Maugis, Pascal; De Lacaze, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Within the Explore 2070 project, an evaluation of the possible impacts of climate change on surface water between the 1961-1990 reference period and the 2046-2065 period was carried out in continental France and i n overseas departments on the basis of the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario, seven general circulation models an d two hydrological models (Isba-Modcou and GR4J). In continental France, results indicate: (1) a possible increase in ai r temperature between +1.4 deg. C and +3 deg. C; (2) an uncertain evolution of precipitation, most models however agreeing on a decreasing trend in summer precipitation; (3) a significant decrease (10% to 40%) of mean annual flows at the country scale, especially pronounced in the Seine-Normandie and Adour-Garonne districts; (4) a strong decrease in summer lo w flows in most basins; (5) more heterogeneous and less significant evolutions for floods. A special care was given to the quantification of the uncertainties linked to these results. They provide an indication of the significance of projected changes. The evolutions calculated in the overseas zones can be considered non-significant given the level of uncertainty linked to the hydro-climatic modelling chain. These results urge to implement adaptation strategies based on a better management of water resources, among others. (authors)

  5. Occurrence of an unknown Atlantic eruption in the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (Massif Central, France)

    Jouannic, G.; Walter-Simonnet, A. V.; Bossuet, G.; Cubizolle, H.; Boivin, P.; Devidal, J. L.; Oberlin, C.

    2014-08-01

    A volcanic ash layer, called MF1, was recently identified in Holocene sediments from the Gourgon and Molhiac peat bogs (Monts du Forez, French Massif Central). This ash layer consists of colorless shards with a heterogeneous trachytic to rhyolitic composition. The trace elements analyzed by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) attest to a local origin. Radiocarbon dating of peat samples taken within and below the ash layer indicates the best age at 6339 ± 61 cal yr BP, i.e. an age contemporaneous with the volcanic activity of Montchal, Montcineyre and Pavin volcanoes from the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field. These volcanoes are characterized by basaltic and trachytic products, thus the rhyolitic composition of MF1 tephra suggests that it is likely originated from an unknown eruption. These results again confirm the interest of studying the distal volcanic ash fallouts in order to establish or specify records of past eruptions of volcanic fields. Identification of this new tephra layer also provides an additional tephrochronological marker for Eastern French Massif Central.

  6. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  7. Health impacts of climate change in France. Which challenges for the InVS?

    2010-01-01

    Based on a literature survey, this report proposes a synthetic overview of the main health risks which might be induced by climate change in France. For each of them, it identifies the existing surveillance and alert systems, and proposes orientations for their adaptation. After a description of the climate and environment context, and a presentation of the adopted method of selection of health risks potentially impacted by climate change, the report gives an overview of these risks and of the associated surveillance systems. It discusses the evolution perspectives in terms of surveillance and alert tools, of relationship with research activities, of surveillance of health effects of actions which reduce greenhouse gas emissions, of interdisciplinary development, and of international cooperation

  8. Impact, en ce qui a trait à l'économie et à la santé, des politiques ...

    Cette recherche évaluera l'effet des politiques fiscales et législatives sur l'état nutritionnel des Sud-Africains et recommandera d'importantes modifications aux politiques. La plus récente étude nationale sur la charge de morbidité (2000) a mesuré l'impact des MNT à la lumière de divers indicateurs tels que le coût financier, ...

  9. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in Ile-de-France: Local contribution and Long range transport; Caracteisation des aeosols atmospheiques en Ile-de-France: contribution locale et transport a longues distances

    Cuesta, J.E

    2006-06-15

    Atmospheric aerosols interact directly in a great number of processes related to climate change and public health, modifying the energy budget and partly determining the quality of the air we breathe. In my PhD, I chose to study the perturbation, if not the aggravation, of the living conditions in Ile-de-France associated to aerosol transport episodes in the free troposphere. This situation is rather frequent and still badly known. To achieve my study, I developed the observation platform 'TReSS' Transportable Remote Sensing Station, whose instruments were developed at the Laboratoire de Meteorology Dynamique by the LiMAG team. 'TReSS' consists of a new high-performance 'Mini-Lidar' and of two standard radiometers: a sun photometer and a thermal infrared radiometer. The principle of my experimental approach is the synergy of the vertical Lidar profiles and the particle size distributions over the column, obtained by the 'Almucantar' inversion of sun photometer data. The new 'Lidar and Almucantar' method characterizes the vertical distribution by layer and the optical micro-physical properties of the local and transported aerosols. Firstly, I undertook the characterization of the Paris aerosol, mainly of anthropogenic origin. Their radiative properties were analyzed in the daily and yearly scales. Then, I conducted a statistical multi-year study of transport episodes and a two-week study case, representative of a succession of desert dust intrusion in Ile-de-France. My PhD work concludes by a study on the impact of biomass burning aerosols during the heat wave on August 2003. I study the impact of the transported aerosols into the local radiative budget and the possible consequences on the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer. (author)

  10. Bilan des introductions récentes d'amphibiens et de reptiles dans les milieux aquatiques continentaux de France métropolitaine

    HAFFNER P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En France métropolitaine, on dénombre actuellement 36 amphibiens et 33 reptiles se reproduisant régulièrement. A deux exceptions près, les amphibiens de la faune française sont aquatiques. En revanche, seules quatre espèces de reptiles (2 tortues et 2 serpents fréquentent très régulièrement ou exclusivement les milieux aquatiques. Les introductions en milieux aquatiques effectuées depuis le début du siècle ne concernent qu'une vingtaine d'espèces d'amphibiens ou de reptiles. Le discoglosse peint (Discoglossus pictus et la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana sont les deux seules espèces étrangères dont l'introduction a conduit à une naturalisation. La tortue de «Floride» (Trachemys scripta elegans pourrait bien suivre prochainement la même voie. Certaines espèces françaises ont, par contre, été introduites avec succès en métropole, hors de leurs aires d'indigénat. Les causes connues de ces introductions sont liées à des opérations à but économique (commerce, à caractère socioculturel (loisirs ou à fondement scientifique (expériences. Ces opérations n'ont cependant généralement pas pour but l'introduction volontaire d'une espèce dans le milieu naturel, celle-ci résultant plutôt de négligences. Certaines introductions involontaires ont pu aussi avoir pour origine un transport passif (par exemple, par voie maritime. Des conséquences négatives de ces introductions sont suspectées, mais ne sont généralement pas démontrées. Elles peuvent s'inscrire dans les catégories suivantes : compétition avec une espèce autochtone, prédation excessive sur une ou plusieurs espèces autochtones, pollution génétique, introduction de maladies ou de parasites.

  11. Impact of the 1998 Football World Cup on Suicide Rates in France: Results from the National Death Registry

    Encrenaz, Gaelle; Contrand, Benjamin; Leffondre, Karen; Queinec, Raphaelle; Aouba, Albertine; Jougla, Eric; Miras, Alain; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in 1998 had a short-term impact on the number of suicides in France. Exhaustive individual daily data on suicides from 1979 to 2006 were obtained from the French epidemiological center on the medical causes of death (CepiDC-INSERM;…

  12. Bâle 3 : Quels impacts sur le financement des pays émergents ?

    Figuet, Jean-Marc; Humblot, Thomas; Lahet, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    La persistance de crises bancaires démontre l'incapacité des établissements de crédit à s'autoréguler. De ce fait, le Comité de Bâle étend largement le périmètre de la nouvelle règlementation prudentielle. Sur la base de la littérature sur les déterminants des flux de capitaux transfrontières et d'un GMM système, cet article analyse l'impact potentiel de l'accord Bâle 3 sur les flux de capitaux bancaires provenant des banques de 16 pays industrialisés à destination d'un panel de 30 pays émerg...

  13. Outbreaks of health care-associated influenza-like illness in France: Impact of electronic notification.

    Munier-Marion, Elodie; Bénet, Thomas; Dananché, Cédric; Soing-Altach, Sophan; Maugat, Sylvie; Vaux, Sophie; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Mandatory notification of health care-associated (HA) infections, including influenza-like illness (ILI) outbreaks, has been implemented in France since 2001. In 2012, the system moved to online electronic notification of HA infections (e-SIN). The objectives of this study are to describe ILI outbreak notifications to Santé publique France (SPF), the French national public health agency, and to evaluate the impact of notification dematerialization. All notifications of HA ILI outbreaks between July 2001 and June 2015 were included. Notifications before and after e-SIN implementation were compared regarding notification delay and information exhaustiveness. Overall, 506 HA ILI outbreaks were reported, accounting for 7,861 patients and health care professionals. Median delay between occurrence of the first case and notification was, respectively, 32 and 13 days before and after e-SIN utilization (P < .001). Information exhaustiveness was improved by electronic notification regarding HA status (8.5% of missing data before and 2.3% after e-SIN, P = .003), hypotheses of cause (25.4% of missing data before vs 8.0% after e-SIN, P < .001), and level of event control (23.7% of missing data before vs 7.5% after e-SIN, P < .001). HA influenza notifications, including HA ILI or influenza, to health authorities are essential to guide decisional instances and health care practices. Electronic notifications have improved the timeliness and quality of information transmitted. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conference on landscape impacts of wind energy and local acceptance: France-Germany crossed views

    Bouscatel, Jerome; Olagne, Regis; Derkenne, Chantal; Galiano, Mila; Mayer, Joerg; Ratzbor, Guenter; Laborgne, Pia; Nadai, Alain; Ratouis, Marie-Odile; Schoebel-Rutschmann, Soeren; Petit, Jean-Francois; Guennewig, Dieter; Portales, David

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the landscape impacts of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 100 participants exchanged views on the environmental impact of wind farms and the opinion of residents. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French people and wind energy (Mila Galiano); 2 - Wind energy acceptance in Germany: an essential factor for the wind industry development (Joerg Mayer); 3 - Taking into account landscapes and residents in the development of wind farms: a France-Germany comparison (Pia Laborgne, Alain Nadai); 3 - Wind energy development supervision thanks to territorial planning in Germany (Guenter Ratzbor); 4 - Landscape challenges in wind energy development: point of view and role of a state decentralised department (Marie-Odile Ratouis); 5 - Park or landscape - Wind turbines as elements of the cultural landscape (Soeren Schoebel-Rutschmann); 6 - How should a developer approach the 'landscape' aspect when foreseeing a wind energy project installation (Jean-Francois Petit); 7 - More consensual wind energy projects along highways, railways and overhead power lines? (Dieter Guennewig); 8 - The 'wings top': un example of participatory and citizen's project (David Portales)

  15. Study synthesis: which place for the methanation of wastes in Ile de France; Synthese de l'etude: quelle place pour la methanisation des dechets en Ile de France

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In order to complete the studies realized on the methanation topic, a growing channel of bio-wastes treatment in Europe, the Arene and Ordif decided to realize this document of information, for deciders, on the evaluation of the household, industrial and agricultural wastes valorization by the methane. It presents the methanation principle, the situation in Europe and France, the Ile de France installation, the possible development and capacities in Ile de France and the perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  16. Prise en charge des femmes enceintes infectées par le VIH en France à l’ère des multithérapies : des recommandations aux pratiques

    Jasseron , Carine

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this Ph.D thesis is to describe the care received by HIV-infected pregnant women in France in the era of multitherapy, to assess how actual practices differ from recommendations, to identify factors related to non optimal care for prevention of mother-to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and to improve recommendations for some minority situations that have not been well evaluated.Work for this thesis was done using data from the French perinatal cohort ANRS-EPF, the only nationa...

  17. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.

  18. Características das ilhas de calor em cidades de porte médio: exemplos de Presidente Prudente (Brasil e Rennes (França Caractéristiques des îlots de chaleur urbains dans des villes de taille moyenne: exemples de Presidente Prudente (Brésil et Rennes (France

    Hervé Quenol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar e comparar as características térmicas do clima urbano em duas cidades de médio porte: Rennes (França e Presidente Prudente (Brasil, por meio de registros da temperatura do ar (pontos fixos e medidas itinerantes e dados térmicos de superfície obtidos pelo tratamento de imagens do satélite Landsat 7. Verificou-se o aumento das temperaturas, ligeiramente maiores em Rennes, do que em Presidente Prudente e a geração de ilhas de calor urbanas (ICU, decorrentes do processo de urbanização nas duas cidades.Cet article a pour objectif d’étudier les caractéristiques du climat dans deux villes moyennes (Rennes en France et Presidente Prudente au Brésil à partir de trois types de mesures de températures : des mesures réalisées dans des stations fixes, des mesures itinérantes et des données de températures de surface obtenues à partir d’images du satellite Landsat 7. On montre que l’augmentation des températures est légèrement plus importante à Rennes qu’à Presidente Prudente ainsi que le développement d’îlots de chaleur urbains (ICU résultant de l’extension de la tache urbaine des deux agglomérations.This paper aims to analyze and compare thermal characteristics of urban climate of two middle size cities: Rennes (France and Presidente Prudente (Brazil, by registering air temperature  (network pointes and mobile transect and surface data obtained by using Landsat7 satellite thermal images. Results shows that temperature grows faster in Rennes than Presidente Prudente and urban heat island generation (UHI by different cities urbanization processes.

  19. L'impact des TIC mobiles sur les activités des professionnels en entreprise

    Besseyre Des Horts , Charles-Henri; Isaac , Henri

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that ICT have modified organizational structures and processes duringthe last decade, notably with the general usage of laptop computers and mobile phones. Anumber of research works have pointed out the deep transformation of work situationsallowed by these technologies with the development of more autonomy and responsibility.However, in the case of mobile technologies, the impact of these technologies onprofessionals' work situations appears to be far more paradoxical...

  20. La cartographie des interfaces habitat-forêt : un outil de diagnostic territorial dans la prévention du risque d’incendie de forêt dans le Sud de la France

    LONG-FOURNEL, Marlène

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans un contexte de pression urbaine et de déprise agricole, les interfaces habitat-forêt se multiplient en France méditerranéenne et deviennent une véritable préoccupation pour la gestion des territoires et du risque d'incendie de forêt. Dans le département des Bouches-du-Rhône, les chercheurs d'Irstea ont utilisé la méthodologie de cartographie diachronique pour y mesurer le développement spatio-temporel de ces espaces afin d'aider les décideurs à cibler les priorités d'actions de prévention.

  1. La cartographie des interfaces habitat-forêt : un outil de diagnostic territorial dans la prévention du risque d’incendie de forêt dans le Sud de la France

    LONG-FOURNEL, Marlène ; MORGE, Denis ; BOUILLON, Christophe ; JAPPIOT, Marielle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans un contexte de pression urbaine et de déprise agricole, les interfaces habitat-forêt se multiplient en France méditerranéenne et deviennent une véritable préoccupation pour la gestion des territoires et du risque d'incendie de forêt. Dans le département des Bouches-du-Rhône, les chercheurs d'Irstea ont utilisé la méthodologie de cartographie diachronique pour y mesurer le développement spatio-temporel de ces espaces afin d'aider les décideurs à cibler les priorités d'actions de prévention.

  2. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes

    Florent Vieux

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., “starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20” in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools (“observed series”, several scenarios (1600 series per scenario of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal. In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4–14 were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  3. Negative impacts of climate change on cereal yields: statistical evidence from France

    Gammans, Matthew; Mérel, Pierre; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel

    2017-05-01

    In several world regions, climate change is predicted to negatively affect crop productivity. The recent statistical yield literature emphasizes the importance of flexibly accounting for the distribution of growing-season temperature to better represent the effects of warming on crop yields. We estimate a flexible statistical yield model using a long panel from France to investigate the impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on wheat and barley yields. Winter varieties appear sensitive to extreme cold after planting. All yields respond negatively to an increase in spring-summer temperatures and are a decreasing function of precipitation about historical precipitation levels. Crop yields are predicted to be negatively affected by climate change under a wide range of climate models and emissions scenarios. Under warming scenario RCP8.5 and holding growing areas and technology constant, our model ensemble predicts a 21.0% decline in winter wheat yield, a 17.3% decline in winter barley yield, and a 33.6% decline in spring barley yield by the end of the century. Uncertainty from climate projections dominates uncertainty from the statistical model. Finally, our model predicts that continuing technology trends would counterbalance most of the effects of climate change.

  4. Nutritional Quality of School Meals in France: Impact of Guidelines and the Role of Protein Dishes.

    Vieux, Florent; Dubois, Christophe; Duchêne, Christelle; Darmon, Nicole

    2018-02-13

    In France, school meals must comply with 15 frequency criteria (FC) expressed as nutritional requirements (e.g., "starters containing more than 15% fat served no more than four times out of 20") in a series of 20 consecutive meals. The objective was to assess, for the first time, the nutritional impact of complying with French school food FC. Based on 40 series of meals actually served in primary schools ("observed series"), several scenarios (1600 series per scenario) of compliance or non-compliance with FC were simulated, and nutritional quality was assessed via the mean adequacy ratio (MAR/2000 kcal). In the observed series, only 9.7 FC on average (range 4-14) were fulfilled. In the simulated series: (i) MAR was positively associated with FC compliance level, with the highest MAR obtained with complete compliance; (ii) MAR decreased when meat or fish-based dishes were replaced by dishes without meat or fish; and (iii) removing the protein dish without replacement led to the lowest MAR. This study demonstrates that French school food guidelines ensure good nutritional quality of food services. It also shows that generalizing the service of meals without meat or fish would deteriorate overall nutritional quality, highlighting the need to define the composition of vegetarian dishes and their frequency of service to children.

  5. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobylsk accident in France. Epidemiological surveillance plan, state of knowledge, risks evaluation and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France. Dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Verger, P.; Cherie-Challine, L

    2000-12-15

    This report jointly written by IPSN and InVS, reviews the sanitary consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, which occurred in 1986. The first point is dedicated to a short presentation of the knowledge relative to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the high contaminated countries and to the risk factors of the thyroid cancer. Secondly, this report describes the main systems of epidemiological surveillance of health implemented in France in 1986 and in 1999, as well as the data of the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer observed in France since 1975. In addition, this report presents an analysis of the risk of thyroid cancer related to radioactive contamination in France, for young people of less than 15 years of age who where living in 1986 in the highest contaminated areas of France (Eastern territories). For this purpose, the theoretical number of thyroid cancers in excess is evaluated for this population, on the basis of different available risk model. Finally starting from the results of risk assessment, there is a discussion about the relevance and the feasibility of different epidemiological methods in view of answering the questions related to the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident. In conclusion, this report recommends to reinforce the surveillance of thyroid cancer in France. (author)

  6. Policies to contend with climate change : positive impacts on employment in Europe and France

    Gaudin, T.; Bouchereau, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the evolution of our society and economy was discussed. Studies have shown that the fight against climate change could result in the creation of many jobs. This article proposed several strategies to undertake, with particular reference to investment in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy. It promoted the frugal use of energy resources, notably fossil fuels, which are becoming scare. It also argued that investment in energy conservation and renewable energy sources is no long a luxury, but a necessity. It provided examples of how these investments are guided by profitability. For example, an investment to insulate a house in 1998 will be completely recuperated by 2005 due to savings in energy costs, after which time energy savings will continue. In addition to environmental protection and energy conservation, another benefit associated with the fight against climate change is job creation in areas such as insulating houses or the production of biofuels. By nature, renewable energy is local and decentralized. As such, it offers the opportunity for local jobs at or near the site of consumption. Examples of direct employment were depicted. In the transportation sector, half the amount of energy is needed to move in mass transit compared to individual cars, while creating twice the employment. Although the initial investment in mass transit is costly, the advantages are far from limited to energy conservation and employment. They include security, and improved health of people in cities which results in lower social costs. In France, the insulation of old buildings constructed before the introduction of new laws on thermal standards also generated employment. It is expected that 20,000 to 30,000 perennial jobs in agriculture and industrial manufacturing will been created in France by 2010 for the biofuel industry alone. Energy conservation will result in a drop in traditional energy consumption, this being the first goal

  7. The impact of economic complexity on carbon emissions: evidence from France.

    Can, Muhlis; Gozgor, Giray

    2017-07-01

    This paper reanalyzes the determinants of the CO 2 emissions in France. For this purpose, it considers the unit root test with two structural breaks and a dynamic ordinary least squares estimation. The paper also considers the effects of the energy consumption and the economic complexity on CO 2 emissions. First, it is observed that the EKC hypothesis is valid in France. Second, the positive effect of the energy consumption on CO 2 emissions is obtained. Third, it is observed that a higher economic complexity suppresses the level of CO 2 emissions in the long run. The findings imply noteworthy environmental policy implications to decrease the level of CO 2 emissions in France.

  8. Canadian climate impacts program. Programme Canadien des incidences climatologiques

    1987-01-01

    In recognition of the impact of climate and climatic fluctuations on society, a Canadian Climate Program was established in 1978 to integrate the efforts of various federal and provincial agencies, as well as the universities and private sector, in the field of climatology. One of the program's main components since 1984 has been research to assess and identify the potential social and economic impacts of climate warming expected under a doubled carbon dioxide scenario. These and other studies over the last several years have clearly shown that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations have the potential for profound impacts on Canada's physical environment. However, they also show that there is considerable uncertainty associated with the magnitude of the expected climate warming and with understanding the relationships between climate, the biophysical environment, and socioeconomic systems. This report summarizes the program and specific studies including those on the impact of climate change on navigation and power generation, agriculture, tourism and recreation, and the marine environment.

  9. Incidences des extremes pluviometriques au Benin Impact of ...

    . These data were extracted from the file of ASECNA-Cotonou. In addition, surveys have been conducted to understand the impacts of these extreme rainfalls. The data and information collected was processed using descriptive statistics.

  10. Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions fourfold in France by 2050. Introduction to the debate; La division par 4 des emissions de dioxyde de carbone en France d'ici 2050. Introduction au debat

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In light of the aforementioned IPCC report, and in order to limit the impacts of climate change on planet Earth, we conclude that it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to less than 450 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Given the historic responsibility of the first industrial nations, and so that meeting this target does not ruin the development prospects of Southern hemisphere countries, the twofold reduction target means that industrialized countries must aim for a fourfold reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. As the French Prime Minister declared on 19 February 2003 at the opening of IPCC 20. plenary session in Paris, France has set itself on this course. Bearing in mind the nature of the phenomenon, only those policies that are resolutely long-term will be of relevance here. Implementing them assumes that, in order to inform possible choices, different energy consumption scenarios for 2050 in each of the major economic sectors emitting GHGs will have been clearly analysed. Such is the aim of this study conducted by the French Inter-ministerial Task Force on Climate Change (MIES). The study emphasises that it is absolutely imperative to pursue efforts undertaken in order to reach maximum energy efficiency in all sectors, to significantly reduce oil consumption in the transport sector and to rapidly increase energy production from renewable. Lastly, the study stresses the complementary role that technological progress can play. (A.L.B.)

  11. Reducing CO{sub 2} emissions fourfold in France by 2050. Introduction to the debate; La division par 4 des emissions de dioxyde de carbone en France d'ici 2050. Introduction au debat

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In light of the aforementioned IPCC report, and in order to limit the impacts of climate change on planet Earth, we conclude that it is necessary to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere to less than 450 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Given the historic responsibility of the first industrial nations, and so that meeting this target does not ruin the development prospects of Southern hemisphere countries, the twofold reduction target means that industrialized countries must aim for a fourfold reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. As the French Prime Minister declared on 19 February 2003 at the opening of IPCC 20. plenary session in Paris, France has set itself on this course. Bearing in mind the nature of the phenomenon, only those policies that are resolutely long-term will be of relevance here. Implementing them assumes that, in order to inform possible choices, different energy consumption scenarios for 2050 in each of the major economic sectors emitting GHGs will have been clearly analysed. Such is the aim of this study conducted by the French Inter-ministerial Task Force on Climate Change (MIES). The study emphasises that it is absolutely imperative to pursue efforts undertaken in order to reach maximum energy efficiency in all sectors, to significantly reduce oil consumption in the transport sector and to rapidly increase energy production from renewable. Lastly, the study stresses the complementary role that technological progress can play. (A.L.B.)

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Diatoms from la Chaine des Lacs Urban Watershed, Nord-Pas France, in Relation to Water Quality

    Noble, P. J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Verleyen, E.; Prygiel, J.; Ivanovsky, A.; Lesven, L.; Billon, G.

    2016-12-01

    Diatom analysis was conducted on lake sediments in la Chaîne des Lacs (CDL), a shallow eutrophic urban park and storm control system in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, to address both the present day water quality, and the evolution of this urban system over its 40 year history. The main lake, Lac du Héron (LDH), received recent attention because of water quality problems, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and invasion by the macrophyte Elodea in 2012. A total of 17 sites were collected in CDL, 11 of which were in LDH, to document spatial variability, and a 26cm long core addresses historical changes. The bulk of the diatom assemblage in LDH can be classified as both eutrophic and moderately metal tolerant, using modern national diatom indices developed and used by the French regional water agencies. Surface sediment samples within LDH show large spatial variations in %Cocconeis placentula whose habitat is epiphytic growth on Elodea. Other variation is reflected in the phytoplankton composition both spatially, and interannually. Aulacoseira muzzanensis and Cyclostephanos dubius showed greater abundance in the open water habitats in LDH, whereas sites in CDL outside of LDH had greater Cyclotella meneghiniana. Temporally, Stephanodicsus (largely S. hantzschii), the dominant diatom in early spring, were present in greater abundances in the 2016 surface sediment samples than in any of the 2015 samples. One possible explanation is that the 2016 samples, taken March 30th, preferentially preserved the early spring Stephanodiscus bloom, in contrast to the 2015 samples, which were taken in January. The sediment core provides an historical record, where the uppermost 4cm plot with the bulk of the LDH surface samples and contain abundant Cocconeis, 4 -14cm is phytoplankton-rich, largely Cyclostephanos dubius and Aulacoseira muzzanensis, and represents a less weed-choked environment prior to the 2012 Elodea invasion. The base of the core is dominated by Amphora and

  13. De l’exilé héroïque à l’illégitimité du retornado. Les retours des familles de réfugiés chiliens en France

    Jedlicki, Fanny

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exil et le retour chilien sont des processus migratoires familiaux douloureux. Les places occupées par les réfugiés dans la société française et par les retornados dans la société chilienne révèlent des éléments propres aux contextes politiques de chacune d’entre elles, l’une dans ses rapports avec les migrants, les demandeurs d’asile particulièrement, l’autre avec son passé récent. Ainsi les catégorisations identitaires des exilés en France, puis des retornados au Chili, sont fortement contrastées, positives pour les premiers, négatives pour les seconds. C’est à l’analyse des éléments sous-tendant ces catégorisations ainsi que de leurs effets sur les insertions et réinsertions des exilés et des retornados chiliens, que sera consacré cet article, présentant un certain nombre des spécificités de ces expériences migratoires.

    Tanto el exilio como el retorno de chilenos han sido procesos migratorios familiares dolorosos. La situación de los chilenos, como refugiados en la sociedad francesa y como retornados en la sociedad chilena, revela elementos característicos de los contextos políticos de esas dos sociedades: en el primer caso, su relación con los inmigrantes, especialmente los refugiados, y en el segundo su vínculo con su pasado reciente. Por tanto, las categorizaciones identitarias de este colectivo, cuando estaban en Francia y luego como retornados a Chile, se muestran en franca contradicción, positivas las primeras, negativas las segundas. Este artículo analiza los elementos subyacentes en estas categorizaciones, así como sus efectos sobre la integración y re-integración de los chilenos como exiliados y como retornados. Se presentan, además, algunos ejemplos característicos de esas experiencias migratorias.

  14. Impact of IFRS on the quality of financial information in the United Kingdom and France: Evidence from a new perspective

    Perafán Peña, Héctor Fabio; Benavides Franco, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of the mandatory adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on the quality of the financial information available on listed companies in the UK and France. Design/methodology: This research uses panel regressions to analyze the relationship between the idiosyncratic risk of stock returns and the opacity of financial reports, before and after the mandatory adoption of IFRS. Opacity calculations include different proxies of ...

  15. Impact environnemental d'une désulfuration poussée des gazoles Environmental Impact of Gaz Oil Desulfurization

    Armengol C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En une dizaine d'années, le diesel a connu un développement spectaculaire sur les marchés automobile français et européen et pourrait atteindre, en 1995, la moitié des immatriculations de véhicules particuliers en France et le quart en Europe de l'Ouest. Cette situation n'est évidemment pas sans poser de problèmes. Problèmes environnementaux puisque le moteur diesel est une source plus importante d'émissions d'oxydes d'azote et de particules que le convertisseur essence, mais également au niveau de l'industrie du raffinage qui, en France, n'est plus en mesure de satisfaire la demande en gazole. De plus, à compter du 1er octobre 1996, la teneur en soufre du gazole routier ne devra pas excéder 0,05 %, conformément aux nouvelles spécifications européennes. Cette perspective de production de carburants fortement désulfurés va affecter directement l'équilibre en hydrogène de la raffinerie et donc les autoconsommations et les émissions de CO2. L'objectif de cette étude est de mesurer l'impact sur l'environnement d'une réduction de la teneur en soufre des gazoles de 0,3 à 0,05 %. Le bilan est réalisé sur l'ensemble de la filière énergétique, depuis l'extraction du pétrole jusqu'à la combustion du carburant dans le moteur. Les gains et les pertes en termes de pollution locale ou globale sont évalués suivant la nature de l'hydrogène utilisé (oxydation partielle de résidus sous vide ou de charbon, reformage à la vapeur de gaz naturel ou de naphta électrolyse et la nature de la charge à traiter (gazole straight run ou light cycle oil lors de l'hydrodésulfuration. Over the past decade, diesel had made large advances in the French and European automobile markets. In 1995, diesel could account for half of all private vehicle registrations in France, and a quarter in Western Europe. This situation inevitably raises a number of problems : environmental problems, because the diesel engine emits more nitrogen oxides and

  16. Main results obtained in France in the development of the gaseous diffusion process for uranium isotope separation; Principaux resultats obtenus en France dans les etudes sur la separation des isotopes de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse

    Frejacques, C; Bilous, O; Dixmier, J; Massignon, D; Plurien, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The main problems which occur in the study of uranium isotope separation by the gaseous diffusion process, concern the development of the porous barrier, the corrosive nature of uranium hexafluoride and also the chemical engineering problems related to process design and the choice of best plant and stage characteristics. Porous barriers may be obtained by chemical attack of non porous media or by agglomeration of very fine powders. Examples of these two types of barriers are given. A whole set of measurement techniques were developed for barrier structure studies, to provide control and guidance of barrier production methods. Uranium hexafluoride reactivity and corrosive properties are the source of many difficult technological problems. A high degree of plant leak tightness must be achieved. This necessity creates a special problem in compressor bearing design. Barrier lifetime is affected by the corrosive properties of the gas, which may lead to a change of barrier structure with time. Barrier hexafluoride permeability measurements have helped to make a systematic study of this point. Finally an example of a plant flowsheet, showing stage types and arrangements and based on a minimisation of enriched product costs is also given as an illustration of some of the chemical engineering problems present. (author) [French] Les principaux problemes qui se sont poses dans l'etude de la separation des isotopes de l'uranium par diffusion gazeuse, sont ceux relatifs a l'obtention de barrieres poreuses, ceux lies a l'utilisation de l'hexafluorure d'uranium, enfin les problemes de genie chimique relatifs au procede et a l'agencement optimum des etages et des cascades entre elles. On peut obtenir des barrieres poreuses soit par attaque de membranes pleines, soit par agglomeration de poudres de petites dimensions. Des exemples de ces deux types de barrieres seront donnes. L'etude des proprietes de texture des barrieres obtenues, necessaire pour orienter les recherches de

  17. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    the western district eroded by deflation. The eastern platières that have a more continuous sand cover are support much less wet zones and only very few sites with protected plant species. Therefore, aeolian landscape evolution still triggers development and distribution of peculiar ecological sites. It suits to continue and to deepen the cartographic studies and the inventories to highlight these very particular landscapes of the Fontainebleau Massif and to protect them. Indeed, with 17 millions visitors per year, the problems are now mainly of managing natural areas, let them accessible, while protecting them. In the future, with forecasted climatic changes, a main concern will be how to preserve the biodiversity, knowing that the foresters manage generally the forest with a 150 years plan. Education and awareness campaign of the public and of the local actors of the sustainable development are essential, they require the knowledge of these fragile environments inherited from the past. References Barillon d'Amoncourt P., 1664-1665. Réformation générale de la forest de Bière et des autres bois dépendants de la maîtrise des Eaux et Forets du Baillage de Melun établie à Fontainebleau. Archives Départementales de Seine et Marne, France. Liron M.N., Thiry M., 2005, Peaty micro-zones on the sandstone ridges of the Fontainebleau Massif (France): hydrology and vegetation biodiversity. in : Ch. Ries & Y. Krippel (eds.), Sandstone landscapes in Europe. Past, Present and Future. Proceedings of the 2nd Intern. Conference on Sandstone Landscapes, Vianden (Luxembourg), 25-28 may 2005, Ferrantia, Luxembourg, 44, p. 215-220. Testut A., Hermeline M., Rey G., 1998. Lettres de la Forêt. Fontainebleau, abcédaire photographique. Textuel Ed., Paris, 223 p. Thiry M., Liron M.N., 2007, Fontainebleau Sandstones (France). In : Härtel H., Cílek V., Herben T., Jackson A. and Williams R. (eds.): Sandstone Landscapes.- Academia, Praha, p. 359-361.

  18. The coal. Its place in the world, the specifical problems of the european countries and more particularly the France; Le charbon. Sa place dans le monde, les problemes specifiques des pays d'Europe et tout particulierement de la France

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In a first part, the work group presents the available resources and studies the coal world market evolution. Then in a second time it discusses the european situation, and especially the french and german situation. The last part is devoted to the reconversion of the mines in France, the problems with the example of the coal basin of north of France. (A.L.B.)

  19. Impact of boat generated waves over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)

    Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human impact on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated waves are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of boat generated waves on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels waves. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli wave (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m

  20. Impact des Propriétés Mécaniques, Géométriques et thermiques des ...

    AKA Boko

    Avecε , la déformation, α le coefficient de dilatation thermique, T. ∆ l'écart de température, E, I et A le module d'élasticité, le moment quadratique de la section des éléments substrats et la section des éléments. L'équilibre des moments dans la structure renforcée donne l'équation 13: (). () () ()[. ]a. T. tyyxNxMxM. xM. +. +. +. +.

  1. Celiac disease diagnosis: impact of guidelines on medical prescription in France.

    Pham, Bach Nga; Musset, Lucile; Chyderiotis, Georges; Olsson, Nils Olivier; Fabien, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune disease affecting patients of any age, who may present a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Different guidelines for the diagnosis and management of celiac disease have been recently published. The aim of this study was to determine whether the recommendations issued in these guidelines have been adopted by physicians in France when celiac disease was suspected. A total of 5521 physicians were asked to fill in a detailed questionnaire on diagnosing celiac disease to evaluate their medical practice, as to the type of symptoms leading to the suspicion of celiac disease, the prescription of duodenal biopsy or serological tests, the type of serological tests (anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-endomysium, anti-gliadin and anti-reticulin antibodies, total immunoglobulin A measurement) prescribed to diagnose celiac disease. The analysis of the responses of 256 general practitioners (GPs), 221 gastroenterologists and 227 pediatricians showed that the protean clinical presentations of celiac disease might be better recognized by gastroenterologists and pediatricians than by GPs. Gastroenterologists asked for duodenal biopsy much more often than GPs and pediatricians when celiac disease was suspected. Serological testing and knowledge of critical markers, prescribed to diagnose celiac disease, differed among GPs, gastroenterologists and pediatricians. Analysis of medical prescriptions showed that the recommendations for celiac disease diagnosis are not necessarily followed by physicians, emphasizing the fact that the impact of national or international guidelines on medical behavior should be evaluated. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  3. Impact des néo-facteurs de pollution sur la qualité des eaux de la ...

    Les résultats obtenus montrent une pollution importante par les éléments majeurs des Eléments Traces Métalliques (ETM) et des nutriments. Les méthodes utilisées convergent toutes pour confirmer la pollution naturelle caractérisée par les liens existant entre les éléments majeurs et une pollution anthropiques par les ETM ...

  4. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  5. A instrução pública na França revolucionária: considerações a partir do Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François Lacroix - The public instruction in revolutionary France: some remarks accord

    Antonio Vicente Marafioti Garnica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o livro Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François Lacroix, publicado originalmente na França em 1805, enfatizando sua primeira parte, na qual o autor discute a instrução pública e, particularmente, as escolas centrais da França revolucionária.Palavras-chave: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, instrução pública, Essais sur l'enseigne-ment en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, iluminismo, França. The public instruction in revolutionary France: some remarks according to Lacroix’s Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulierAbstractThe article discusses the book Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, by Sylvestre-François Lacroix, originally published in France in 1805. The first part of the book, in which the author discusses public education, and particularly the central schools of revolutionary France, is emphasized.Key-words: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, public instruction, Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, enlightenment, France. Instrucción pública en Francia revolucionaria: consideraciones a la vista del libro Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François LacroixResumenEl artículo aborda el libro Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier de Sylvestre-François Lacroix, publicado originalmente en Francia, en 1805, haciendo hincapié en su primera parte, en la que el autor habla de la instrucción pública y en particular de las escuelas centrales en Francia en el período revolucionario.Palabras-clave: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, instrucción pública, Essais sur l'enseigne-ment en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier

  6. Some economic aspects of natural uranium graphite gas reactor types. Present status and trends of costs in France; Quelques aspects economiques de la filiere uranium naturel - Graphite - gaz. Etat actuel et tendance des couts en France

    Gaussens, J; Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    reduction in investment costs can be obtained without relying on fuel enrichment, and that this development is accompanied moreover by improvements in the operational safety of the reactor. The economic aspects of the main technical problems entailed by these developments are discussed: loading and unloading machines, blowers etc... (authors) [French] Dans une premiere partie, on situe l'interet economique de l'utilisation de l'uranium naturel comme combustible. Cet interet reside a la fois dans le nombre limite et la simplicite relative des operations de mise en forme des elements combustibles, dans le faible cout du produit fini par kwh et dans les immobilisations modestes en capital qu'implique ce cycle par rapport ou cycle de l'uranium enrichi. Tous ces elements permettent de reduire le caractere aleatoire des evaluations des couts, particulierement marque dans le cas de l'uranium enrichi, en raison de la complexite de son cycle et des incertitudes concernant le prix du plutonium. Enfin, la diversite des sources d'approvisionnement en concentre d'uranium naturel opposee au quasi monopole actuel de la separation isotopique, et le faible cout du stockage de ce concentre, offrent des garanties en matiere de securite d'approvisionnement et d'independance economique et politique appreciables par rapport a l'uranium enrichi. En ce qui concerne l'ensemble des capitaux immobilises, on montre que si le cout des centrales au graphite-gaz est plus eleve que celui des centrales eau legere pour certaines gammes de puissance, ce resultat est fortement nuance des que l'on fait intervenir dans un souci d'independance nationale le cout de l'equipement de production des combustibles de l'une et l'autre filiere. Enfin, le cout marginal de la puissance du reacteur au graphite est faible, ses limitations technologiques ont considerablement recule (grace en particulier a l'utilisation du beton precontraint). On sait que la tendance actuelle est a l'accroissement de la puissance unitaire des

  7. Approche comparée de quelques évolutions de la gestion du risque en France à travers l’organisation des agences

    Hubert Philippe

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available L’organisation nationale en matière d’évaluation et de gestion des risques est en cours de modifications depuis quelques années. Organisée par une loi en 1998, la création d’agences pour la sécurité sanitaire des aliments, des produits de santé et de l’environnement a marqué une étape. D’autres domaines sont en cours de réorganisation comme la sûreté nucléaire et la radioprotection. La mise en oeuvre de la directive SEVESO II peut aussi influer sur la gestion des installations industrielles classées dites « SEVESO ». Des « événements » comme la crise de la vache folle ou celle du sang contaminé ont joué un rôle dans les évolutions, mais l’émergence de nouveaux principes de gestion des risques au sein de la communauté internationale a aussi influé fortement sur les choix faits et les discussions. Le travail présenté ici est un travail préliminaire, qui visait à identifier les grandes lignes des réponses apportées dans les différents domaines à des questions comme celles du rôle des différentes institutions en matière d’évaluation et de gestion. L’approche comparative suivie ici est trop globale pour que tous les éléments de chaque système réglementaire soit décrit et certains aspects sont simplifiés. En revanche, ce type de comparaison met en lumière des contrastes notables quant aux solutions trouvées pour articuler le travail d’évaluation des risques et les prises de décision relevant des autorités.

  8. Impact des TIC sur la motivation et la réussite des étudiants Enquête à l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi au Bénin

    Serge Armel Attenoukon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude tente d’explorer, dans un contexte de forts taux d’échec des apprenants des facultés classiques à l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi (Bénin, les perceptions des étudiants et des enseignants quant à l’impact des TIC tant sur la motivation que sur la réussite des apprenants. L’étude est tout particulièrement importante dans notre contexte où les TIC sont de plus en plus utilisées en pédagogie universitaire et où les étudiants y recourent dans leur pratique plus que les formateurs dans la leur. Au total, 171 questionnaires ont été remplis par les étudiants et les enseignants; 11 apprenants et 6 enseignants ont passé des entrevues semi-dirigées. Des analyses statistiques et qualitatives de ces données révèlent que les étudiants et les enseignants soulignent, dans leur majorité, le potentiel motivationnel des TIC, notamment de l’ordinateur et d’Internet, pour l’apprentissage. Elles ont cependant montré une position plus mitigée entre les étudiants et les enseignants en ce qui concerne l’effet positif des TIC pour la réussite des études.

  9. And what if France banned nuclear energy: what would be the economic impact?

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the different consequences of a supposed ban of nuclear energy in France. Natural gas burnt in combined-cycle plants would be the best surrogate to nuclear energy. This would imply a deterioration of the foreign trade balance (30 milliard F.Francs of purchase of foreign gas each year) and a dramatic increase in the emission of greenhouse effect gases (+ 40.10 6 tons). The rise of electricity costs might trigger a general rise of the cost of the work and then a higher unemployment rate. The global effect to the French economy could be similar to that of a major worldwide oil crisis. (A.C.)

  10. Une activité politique féminine conservatrice avant le droit de suffrage en France et en Italie. Sociohistoire de la politisation des femmes catholiques au sein de la Ligue patriotique des Françaises (1902-1933 et de l’Unione fra le donne cattoliche d’Italia (1909-1919.

    Magali Della Sudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche historique qui croise les apports des études de genre, de la science politique et de la sociologie religieuse met en lumière la façon singulière dont les militantes d’action féminine catholique sont venues à la politique en France et en Italie durant les premières décennies du XXe siècle. Deux associations catholiques féminines de masse ont fait l’objet de cette analyse comparée : la Ligue patriotique des Françaises active de 1902 à 1933 et l’Unione fra le donne cattoliche d’I...

  11. Impact des politiques fiscales visant à améliorer la nutrition en ...

    améliorer la nutrition en Afrique du Sud. Prévention des maladies non transmissibles. (PMNT). PROFIL DE PROJET. Le programme Prévention des maladies non transmis- sibles (PMNT) soutient la production de nouvelles connaissances en vue d'inspirer des politiques et des pro- grammes peu coûteux mais susceptibles ...

  12. Impact des glucocorticoïdes plasmatiques sur la maturation et le fonctionnement de l'inhibition spinale GABAergique

    Zell, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone (CORT) in rats are synthetized following stress and HPA axis activation and are part of organisms response to homeostasis perturbations. Furthermore, GC can also alter pain perception. Les glucocorticoides (GC) sont des hormones stéroïdes synthétisées par les glandes surrénales suite à l’activation de l’axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire- surrénalien (ou axe HPA pour hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal). Leur sécrétion pulsatile est sous le contrôle de l’ho...

  13. Impacts of the Grenelle de l'Environnement: must France reduce its greenhouse gas emissions of 30% by 2020?

    2010-05-01

    Within the international context (Copenhagen agreement), this text analyses efforts made by France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and compares them to those of other countries, notably the United States. Using the NEMESIS model, it also analyses the possible consequences of the present crisis for energy demand and CO 2 emissions. It proposes an assessment of additional efforts to be made to go from 20% to 30% of reduction of these emissions. It tries to assess impacts of investments foreseen by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' on activity, GNP, employment, and competitiveness

  14. Modeling the impact of oyster culture on a mudflat food web in Marennes-Oleron Bay (France)

    Leguerrier, D; Niquil, Nathalie; Petiau, A; Bodoy, Alain

    2004-01-01

    We used a carbon-based food web model to investigate the effects of oyster cultivation on the ecosystem of an intertidal mudflat. A previously published food web model of a mudflat in Marennes-Oleron Bay, France, was updated with revised parameters, and a realistic surface area and density of existing oyster cultures on the mudflat. We developed 2 hypothetical scenarios to estimate the impact of oyster cultivation on the food web structure of the ecosystem: one with no oysters, the other with...

  15. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  16. Climate change adaptation impact cost assessment in France. Second phase report. September 2009

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, this report presents the context and challenges of works dealing with climate change adaptation assessment: observations and perspectives of climate change, concepts and definitions of adaptation to climate change, adaptation within national, European and international context, objectives and organisation of the France's inter-departmental Group. It describes the chosen methodology: hypothesis, methodological tools (climate model), bibliographical tool, and heat wave counting methodology. It discusses the present results, outlines the encountered difficulties and discusses the perspectives for future work

  17. La Numérisation des Thèses en France: Pour une Meilleure Valorisation de la Recherche Scientifique Française

    Christine Okret

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Tels qu’ils existent actuellement, les procédés institutionnels de valorisation des thèses soutenues dans les universités et grands établissements français reposent sur deux circuits concomitants. En premier lieu les thèses soutenues sont déposées sous forme papier dans la bibliothèque de leur université de soutenance, où elles peuvent être consultées sur place, et prêtées par le biais du réseau de prêt entre bibliothèques. En second lieu, un exemplaire papier est transmis aux ateliers nationaux de reproduction des thèses chargés du microfichage des textes et de la diffusion systématique de ces microfiches auprès de toutes les bibliothèques universitaires. Ces deux formes de diffusion non commerciale présentent en regard des exigences des chercheurs trois inconvénients majeurs: la diffusion des thèses est géographiquement restreinte, puisque limitée aux bibliothèques universitaires; le support microfiche est jugé peu convivial; le prêt entre établissements est parfois trop lent ou onéreux, ce qui peut décourager les utilisateurs qui désirent consulter sur papier les thèses non conservées dans leur bibliothèque universitaire.

  18. Modeled dietary impact of industry-wide food and beverage reformulations in the United States and France.

    Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Mathias, Kevin Clark; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Vieux, Florent; Masset, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Background: Food reformulation has been identified as a strategy to improve nutritional intakes; however, little is known about the potential impact of industry-wide reformulations. Objective: The aim of the study was to model the dietary impact of food and beverage reformulation following the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) standards for children, adolescents, and adults in the United States and France. Design: Dietary intakes of individuals aged ≥4 y were retrieved from nationally representative surveys: the US NHANES 2011-2012 ( n = 7456) and the French Individual and National Survey on Food Consumption ( n = 3330). The composition of all foods and beverages consumed were compared with the NNPS standards for energy, total and saturated fats, sodium, added sugars, protein, fiber, and calcium. Two scenarios were modeled. In the first, the nutrient content of foods and beverages was adjusted to the NNPS standards if they were not met. In the second, products not meeting the standards were replaced by the most nutritionally similar alternative meeting the standards from the same category. Dietary intakes were assessed against local nutrient recommendations, and analyses were stratified by body mass index and socioeconomic status. Results: Scenarios 1 and 2 showed reductions in US adults' mean daily energy (-88 and -225 kcal, respectively), saturated fats (-4.2, -6.9 g), sodium (-406, -324 mg), and added sugars (-29.4, -35.8 g). Similar trends were observed for US youth and in France. The effects on fiber and calcium were limited. In the United States, the social gradient of added sugars intake was attenuated in both scenarios compared with the baseline values. Conclusions: Potential industry-wide reformulation of the food supply could lead to higher compliance with recommendations in both the United States and France, and across all socioeconomic groups. NNPS standards seemed to be especially effective for nutrients consumed in excess. © 2017 American

  19. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention; Convention sur la surete nucleaire. Deuxieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre par la France des obligations de la Convention

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  20. The agro-ecologie of the soils: Concept, wine application, example of France / L'agro-écologie des terroirs : concept, application viticole, exemple de la France

    Rochard Joël

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agro-ecology is a way of practicing agriculture by as well as possible using the operation and the resources of nature while preserving its capacitances of renewal. This approach mainly aims at reconciling agricultural development, environmental protection and biodiversity. In France, following a report coordinated by Mr. Guillou, this approach was encouraged at the end of 2012 by the Ministry for Agriculture, the Agroecology and the Forest with for objective reconciling economic and social environmental performances. For the viticulture, the challenges relate mainly to the reduction of the use of the plant health products. Within this framework, beyond the tweaking of the application of the plant health products, the vineyards must develop agro-ecological structures favorable to the biodiversity and valorization of the landscapes, support of eco-winetourism. They are made up, essentially, of the hedges, thickets, trees isolated and aligned, managed tapes buffers, low walls, benches. This topic was the object of a European program BIODIVINE (www.biodivine.eu associated with operations of demonstration in various vineyards in France, Spain and in Portugal. The communication aims to define the concept of agro-ecology and to formalize to leave the experiment France the application to the vine terroirs.

  1. La formation continue des enseignants aux TICE. Impact sur les contextes locaux

    Villemonteix , Francois

    2004-01-01

    La formation continue des enseignants du premier degré dans le domaine des TICE a pour ambition de participer à l'émergence de nouvelles postures professionnelles intégrant l'ordinateur en présence des élèves. Comment les dispositifs actuels de formation participent-t-ils à l'accomplissement de cette tâche, compte tenu de la variété des contextes personnels et professionnels des publics enseignants ? Cette contribution apporte des éléments de réflexion sur le rôle joué par l'action de formati...

  2. Remplacer l’Etat ? Promotion et réseaux des Partenariats Public-Privé en France Replacing the State, or promoting public-private partnerships and networks in France ¿Sustituir al Estado ? Promoción y redes de colaboraciones entre los sectores público y privado en Francia

    Élise Penalva-Icher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis sa création en 2004, le Contrat de partenariat a été promu comme une innovation managériale majeure dans la gestion de l’interface entre secteur public et privé, qui plus est encouragé par les pouvoirs publics car il représenterait la forme idéal-typique des Partenariats Public-Privé (PPP, eux-mêmes généralement présentés comme des outils pour améliorer l’efficacité économique des projets publics. Cette nouvelle forme de contrat appelée « Contrat de partenariat », passée entre personne publique et secteur privé, tisse des relations de très long terme (jusqu’à trente ans entre personne publique et différents types d’acteurs privés pour la construction, l’entretien, la maintenance, mais également le financement de bâtiments publics. Dans cet article, nous interrogeons la portée de ces contrats de partenariat. Plus qu’une innovation technique, ils prônent une nouvelle mise en relation des secteurs privé et public. À travers la description des réseaux du milieu des PPP en France, nous examinons l’encastrement relationnel des affaires qui participe à ce nouveau mode de mise en relation des secteurs public et privé et nous en analysons les structures. Le projet des PPP semble surtout revêtir une portée institutionnelle car les nouvelles structures relationnelles liées aux contrats de partenariat aboutissent à laisser une place centrale à la banque.Ever since it was introduced in France in 2004, the “Partnership Contract” has been promoted as a very innovative way of managing the interface between public and private sectors. Encouraged by government because it was supposed to represent an ideal-type, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP are generally designed as tools aimed at improving the economic efficiency of public projects. This new kind of contract, called the “Partnership Contract” is signed between different private sector actors and the state authority. It enables long

  3. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge: French inventory and state of the art; La methanisation des boues d'epuration urbaines. Etat des lieux en France et etat de l'art

    Reverdy, A.L.; Dieude-Fauvel, E.; Baudez, J.C. [Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l' environnement et l' agriculture - Irstea, Centre de Clermont-Ferrand, Unite de recherches TSCF, Les Palaquins, 03150 Montoldre (France); Ferstler, V. [MEEDDM - DEB, Grande Arche, Paroi Sud, 92055 La Defense Cedex (France)

    2012-07-01

    Following the Kyoto Protocol and the 'Grenelle de l'environnement', France committed itself to develop renewable energies. Methanization is a process which falls within this objective. Anaerobic digestion of organic material generates biogas made of methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O). In 2009, electricity generation from biogas represented only 0, 93% of the renewable electricity production in France. An inventory of facilities and a state of the art of the methanization of sewage sludge on wastewater treatment plants with the inhabitant equivalent of more than 30.000 were realized. They were done with bibliography and surveys. In France, 68 installations of sewage sludge methanization were counted. The primary technology used is a mix reactor in which sewage sludge, heated at deg. C 37, are introduced. Biogas is mainly valued to warm those sludges. Electrical valorization is poor, especially on old installations. Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is generally accepted by managers, mainly because of its capacity to reduce sewage sludge quantity and odors. Methanization as listed in France is quite basic. It is performed with digestion series modification, with pretreatments or with co-digestion. Given the quantity of sewage sludge which could be digested, France could increase renewable energies via biogas. However this technology is perfectible in many units because biogas is burned in flares. (authors)

  4. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author)

  5. L'exemple d'un décor religieux dans le nord de la France : Bruno Chérier (1817-1880 et Notre-Dame-des-Anges de Tourcoing

    Catherine Guillot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ami et modèle du sculpteur Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Bruno Chérier (1817 Valenciennes, 1880 Paris se consacre à partir de la fin des années 1850 jusqu'à sa mort au décor religieux dans le nord de la France. Devenu en 1852 professeur aux écoles académiques de Tourcoing, il répond aux commandes les plus variées dans le domaine de l'art religieux. Ainsi, sa participation au décor de l'église Notre-Dame-des-Anges de Tourcoing est exemplaire de la diversité de ses contributions : chemin de croix, cartons de vitraux, peintures ornementales illusionnistes. Cette église constitue en outre dans le Nord un des rares témoignages conservé presque intégralement de l'art religieux dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La collaboration de Chérier à ce chantier témoigne d'un statut de l'artiste sous le Second Empire, éloigné de l'image romantique du créateur libre dont est redevable le mythe constitué autour de la figure de Carpeaux.Les auteurs préparent une étude globale de l'œuvre de Bruno Chérier et de son rôle auprès de Carpeaux.

  6. Impact of water overstock on groundwater quality of the Bassee plain area (France)

    Gourcy, L.; Pettenati, M.; Baran, N.; Durand, P. Y.

    2009-04-01

    The project, inspired by the structural flood plain management measures of the Rhine River, consists in the temporal removal of a maximum amount of water from the Seine River in order to leave priority to the water from the River Yonne. Yonne River and the Seine are presenting their maximum water flow usually at a same time. The space located between Bray-sur-Seine and Montereau-Fault-Yonne corresponding to the La Bassée plain (agricultural area of 23 km2) is well adapted to this project of temporary and artificial flood. The objective of the project financed by the Institution Interdépartementale des barrages Réservoirs du Bassin de la Seine (IIBRBS), the BRGM, the Seine-Normandie Water Agency, the European Communauty through the Interreg IIIB SAND project is the evaluation, at a local scale, of the impact on groundwater quality of the temporal Seine water storage. Indeed, the water over storage i) changes hydraulic conditions and therefore modify water and pollutants transfers through the unsaturated and saturated zones and ii) bring at soil surface a water (Seine River) potentially containing contaminants that may move to groundwater and consequently changed physico-chemicals conditions (redox) of groundwater. The estimation of the vulnerability of groundwater to changes and loads needs hydraulic and geochemical modelling of transfer through the unsaturated zone as well as the study of pollutants fate in static conditions. Retention properties of some metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn) in soils and materials of the unsaturated zone by chemical processes were performed determining adsorption coefficient (Kd) by laboratory experiments. These experiments are showing that nickel mobility is lower in the argillous layers than in the sandy part of the unsaturated zone. Ni mobility is controlled by iron hydroxides and precipitation of other secondary minerals. Its complexation on organic ligands increases its mobility in soils. Copper concentration is influenced by CaCO3

  7. Entre fermeture et perméabilité, analyse des contrôles d’accès des résidences sécurisées en France From closure to permeability: analysis of acces control  in french gated communities

    Gérald Billard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Le déploiement d’un arsenal sécuritaire (grille, portail, digicode, caméra, etc. est devenu depuis quelques années en France un élément central de nombreux produits mis sur le marché par les promoteurs immobiliers. Des travaux collectifs réalisés par Billard, Madoré (dir., Chevalier, Raulin, Taburet et Vuaillat – dans le cadre d’un contrat de recherche financé par l’Institut National des Hautes Études de Sécurité (2008 – montrent à la fois la diffusion nationale de ces offres immobilières sécurisées et leur banalisation dans certaines régions (Ile de France, Couloir rhodanien, Midi-Pyrénées, Côte d’Azur. Dans ces conditions, il apparaît légitime de s’interroger sur la fragmentation urbaine induite par la multiplication des enclaves fermées. Entre production de frontières imperméables, barrières symboliques ou partielles, et pragmatisme des résidents, le gradient de fermeture oscille d’une opération résidentielle à l’autre, complexifiant indéniablement la vision d’un espace urbain de plus en plus carcéral.    For several years, the display of a security arsenal (gate, fence, digicode, video-camera has become the central criterion for many new real estate operations. A collective study conducted by Billard, Madoré (dir., Chevalier, Raulin, Taburet and Vuaillat – financed by the Institut National des Hautes Etudes de Sécurité (2008 – shows the national spread of this kind of secured real estate products as well as their standardization in some french regions (Paris metropolitan area, Rhône Valley,  Midi-Pyrénées, French Riveria…. Regarding this situation, it would be appropriate to focus our attention on the urban fragmentation induced by this large implementation of gated communities. Due to the production of impassable frontiers, symbolic or partial gates and the pragmatism of the inhabitants, the degree of enclosure differs from one real estate offer to another, making

  8. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  9. Raisons de l'impact majeur des inondations provoquées par les ...

    30 avr. 2012 ... Les inondations de juillet 2010 dans le bassin de l'Indus sont l'une des ... comprend l'un des systèmes d'irrigation de surface les plus importants du monde. ... de revenus, différents actifs et accès à des services (logement sûr, ...

  10. Where, when, how: the place of radioactive wastes in France. Andra, 1998 activity report; Ou, quand, comment: la place des dechets radioactifs en France. Andra, rapport d'activite 1998

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The 1998 activity report of the French national agency of radioactive wastes (Andra) presents successively: the role and missions of the Andra (history, status of radioactive wastes in France, surface storage and know-how, underground research laboratories, site selection and public information); the aspects of safety (inventory, identification and labelling of wastes, environmental policy, public relation, safety rules and reports, information storage); the scientific programs (collaborations, financing, site studies, rock mechanics and reversibility of storage, design of storage facilities, services); financial report. (J.S.)

  11. France 2001. Third national communication under the UN framework convention on climate change; France 2001. Troisieme communication nationale a la convention cadre des nations unies sur les changements climatiques

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In line with obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, France, like all the signatories of the convention, is required periodically to provide a National Communication following a plan established by the Conference of Parties to the Convention. This document provides information on national actions related to climate change. It also aims to help our country respect its commitments and encourage the release of information so as to enable an examination and in-depth evaluation of the implementation of the commitments made under the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the 1998 European agreement on burden-sharing within the European Union. (author)

  12. Impact écotoxicologique de mélanges de pesticides sur des fonctions microbiennes des sols : apport d’une prise en compte écologique dans l’évaluation des risques

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Rouard, Nadine; Cheviron, Nathalie; Grondin, Virginie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    L’utilisation de pesticides permet d’assurer la qualité de la production végétale mais elle contribue à la contamination des sols et des eaux et produit des effets sur des organismes noncibles. L’évaluation des risques requièrent actuellement une meilleure prise en compte des effets des pesticides sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Or, les démarches et indicateurs classiques manquent de représentativité écologique. La fonction microbienne de biodégradation des pesticides est essentielle c...

  13. Amount and activity of fission products which will be obtainable in France in the immediate future taking into account the development of atomic energy; Quantite et activite des produits de fission abtenus en France dans les annees a venir compte tenu du developpement de l'energie atomique

    Guirlet, J; Lavie, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    By using the Wigner and Way formula, the activity of the complex mixture of fission products produced in a pile may be estimated theoretically in advance. This study was carried out on the basis of forecasts, in the case of France for the production of electricity of atomic origin up to the year 1975. The uranium was assumed to be in the pile during periods of three months and six months. It is also possible to find the activity of a particular fission product and to give its decay rate. The element chosen is strontium for a three months' activation period. Each set of curves gives at any moment the total activity accumulated, and the characteristic activity of the fission products corresponding to a given half-life. (author) [French] En utilisant la formule de Wigner et Way, il est possible de prevoir theoriquement l'activite du melange complexe de produits de fission provenant d'une pile. L'etude a ete faite en tenant compte de previsions, en ce qui concerne la France, de la production d'electricite d'origine atomique jusqu'en 1975. On a suppose des temps de sejour en pile de l'uranium de trois mois et de six mois. Il est possible egalement de trouver l'activite d'un produit de fission particulier, et de donner sa decroissance. Le corps choisi est le strontium pour un temps d'activation de trois mois. Chaque ensemble de courbes donne a tout instant l'activite totale accumulee, et l'activite propre des produits de fission correspondant a une periode donnee. (auteur)

  14. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  15. Dynamics of competitive strategies in de-regulated industries: the case of the electricity industry in France; Dynamique des strategies concurrentielles dans un contexte de liberalisation: le cas de l'industrie electrique en France

    Cateura, O

    2007-11-15

    This research work is focused on the competitive dynamics approach and rivalry studies between competitors. It develops theses recent perspectives and particularly multi-market competition (also called multipoint competition) in de-regulated industries (network utilities). Indeed, competitive behaviours in liberalized industries are still badly-known. To conduct this research, we decided to analyze a selection of companies (EDF, Electrabel, Endesa, Enel, Gaz de France, Poweo, Direct Energie..) settled on the French electricity market presently in the course of liberalization (1996 - 2006). This qualitative research, through longitudinal case studies, has been developed thanks to a CIFRE agreement (between the French Ministry of Research and the firm Electrabel France) including action research and participant observation. Using multidimensional strategic sequences, we identified two periods, the first one characterized by a confrontation movement and a second one by mutual forbearance. We argue that after learning the rules of a newly liberalized market (confrontation, diversification, internationalization), competitors rapidly and collectively shift there positions towards a focused European strategy based on the gas-electricity convergence. The development of multi-market competition has conducted to mutual forbearance, which was particularly profitable to the major participants. Integrated strategy (market and non-market) appears as an important driver for legitimizing theses behaviours. (author)

  16. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4?13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (?tude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006?2007) data

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Design Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4?8 years, 9?13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverage...

  17. The Impact of Groupement des Cartes Bancaires on Competition Law Enforcement

    Piero Fattori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Groupement des Cartes bancaires represents a key judgment for competition enforcement, as it provides helpful clarification on the notion of “restriction by object” and on the judicial standard of review of Commission decisions. As of the first aspect, the ruling limited the restrictions by object to those which by their very nature and on the basis of the experience reveal a sufficient degree of harm to competition. On the standard required to the Court in reviewing competition decisions, the ECJ underlines the necessity of carrying out a full review, specifying that the presence of economic issues should not dispense the Court with an in-depth review of the law and the facts. The principles expressed in the judgment could have a great impact also at national level, where it could provide useful guidance both to Italian competition authority and to the Administrative Courts.

  18. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... activities. France’s political tradition of centralisation, its non-academic civil service education, and separation of academia and administration create an environment in which think tanks are underfunded and walk a fine line between an over-controlling administration and a suspicious academia. Some French...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  19. Exploration touristique des rivières de France, entre description et mythification (1904-1924 Tourist exploration of French rivers, between description and mythologizing (1904-1924

    Eric Levet-Labry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Les récits de croisière constituent une littérature qui révèle le développement du tourisme nautique. La redécouverte des rivières françaises, effectuée par des citadins aisés, relève de mythes qui vont fonder l’action de ces touristes : le retour à la nature et la personnification des éléments. Il s’agit de mettre en avant l’exploit de ces citadins, qui sortent des villes, et sont confrontés à la nature et au monde rural. La confrontation entre un monde idéalisé et un territoire transparaît dans les récits. Les aménagements des rivières constituent la partie visible du rapport du citadin à la nature. L’espace à explorer doit être aménagé pour permettre au citadin de pratiquer une activité proche de l’élément naturel. Mais cet espace ne doit pas prendre les traits de la ville qu’il vient de quitter.Travel stories constitute a literature that reveals the development of nautical tourism. The rediscovery of French rivers, carried out by well-off city dwellers, is based on myths about the return to nature and the personification of the elements. It’s a matter of highlighting the feat of these townsmen, who leave the cities and face nature and rural life. The confrontation between an idealized world and a territory shows through the stories. The development of the rivers constitutes the visible part of the relationship between the city dwellers and nature. The space to explore must allow the city dwellers to go in for an activity closely related to nature. But this space should not take the features of the city he has just left.

  20. Populisme et démocratie semi-directe : la dénaturation des procédés référendaires en France et aux Etats-Unis

    Christophe Premat

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Si le populisme se caractérise par l’incarnation d’un ensemble de frustrations à l’égard du système représentatif, il est primordial de s’interroger sur le lien entre une déception à l’égard des institutions et les instruments de démocratie semi-directe. En nous appuyant sur une comparaison entre la France et les Etats-Unis pour analyser d´une part comment le référendum et l’initiative populaire ont modifié la donne dans certains Etats américains et d’autre part comment en France les référendums nationaux ont connu la suspicion « plébiscitaire » à plusieurs reprises, nous souhaiterions comprendre si par nature la démocratie semi-directe n’est que le ressentiment engendré par la lenteur du travail de représentation ou si elle est le complément essentiel à la transformation du régime représentatif.Si la frustración contra el sistema representativo es expresada por el populismo, es crucial interrogarse por el acoplamiento entre una decepción relacionada con las instituciones y los instrumentos semidirectos de la democracia. Al comparar Francia con Estados Unidos con el objetivo de analizar por una parte, cómo las iniciativas populares y los referendums influenciaron la legislación de algunos estados americanos y por otra, cómo los referéndums nacionales en Francia fueron reducidos a plebiscitos, intentamos descifrar si la naturaleza de la democracia semidirecta es el resultado de un resentimiento contra la lentitud del trabajo representativo o si concluye la transformación del gobierno representativo.If the feelings of frustration against the representative system are expressed by populism, it is crucial to question the link between a disappointment vis-à-vis the institutions and the semi-direct democracy instruments. By comparing France and United States in order to analyze on the one hand how popular initiatives and referenda influenced the legislation of some American States and on the other

  1. The energy issue in drinking water facilities. Assessment for the reduction of energy consumption and for the use of renewable energy within the Syndicat des eaux d'lle-de-France

    Lang, A.; Guery, B.; Ferrari, J.P.; HABART, M.

    2013-01-01

    The energy challenges for the Syndicat des eaux d'Ile-de-France (Sedif), the biggest drinking water utility in France, are particularly significant, since its facilities for the production and distribution of drinking water, in particular the pumping station, consume the electrical equivalent of a town of 25,000 inhabitants (ca. 200 GWh per year). This consumption generates 15,700 tonnes in CO 2 equivalent annually. Furthermore, the Sedif area has numerous sites with a strong potential for the production of renewable energy: 21 photovoltaic, 4 wind, 15 geothermal and 10 close to a heating network. In order to meet these challenges, the Sedif wishes to integrate into its energy policy, the EU targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, to increase energy efficiency by 20% and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% of its overall consumption between now and 2020. In order to do this, the public utility has set these targets for the one part, within the scope of its project ownership and for the other part, within that of the operations delegated to Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC. The energy consumption of 20 sites, which are undergoing renovation work between 2011 and 2015, will be better controlled, through the installation of high-efficiency motors or transformers and the replacement of thermal ozone destructors. Five pilot projects to produce or use renewable energy have been undertaken since 2010: the implementation of photovoltaic installations for power production on the main units' roofs, the installation of photovoltaic panels on the tanks at Chatillon and on the new tank at Villejuif, the erection of a wind turbine on the new tank at Palaiseau, and the replacement of the heating systems in the production plant at Choisy-le-Roi. The remaining improvement levers are those that Sedif is imposing on its delegates, Veolia Eau d'Ile-de-France SNC, within the framework of a new 12-year contract [from 1 January 2011). (authors)

  2. Foules, espaces publics urbains et apprentissage de la co-présence chez les adolescents des quartiers populaires d’Ile de France Crowds, urban public spaces and learning co-presence: the Case of the Adolescents residing in the popular districts of the Ile-de-France

    Nicolas Oppenchaim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur le rapport qu’entretiennent les adolescents à la foule urbaine et sur la manière dont ils apprennent à y trouver une place. Pour ce faire nous procéderons en trois temps. Nous exposerons tout d’abord en quoi, s’appuyant sur les travaux de R. Park et G. Tarde, Isaac Joseph fait du passage de la foule au public une des caractéristiques majeures des sociétés contemporaines. Ce passage concerne à la fois l’espace métaphorique des mobilisations collectives, mais également l’espace urbain : le propre des villes contemporaines n’est pas les grands rassemblements de foule dominés par les émotions, mais les espaces publics, lieux de co-présence organisés autour de l’inattention civile. Ces espaces offrent ainsi des possibilités de rencontre tout en garantissant un droit à l’intimité.Cependant nous montrerons dans un second temps que cette perception apaisée des grands rassemblements dans la ville ne va pas de soi, notamment à l’adolescence. Il est donc nécessaire d’introduire la problématique de l’apprentissage dans les réflexions sur les espaces publics urbains. Ainsi, une partie des adolescents des quartiers populaires d’Ile de France ont une perception de ces lieux de co-présence très proche de celle développée dans les discours du 18ème et 19ème siècle sur la peur des foules urbaines. Plus largement, les adolescents de quartiers populaires se différencient dans leurs discours par quatre grandes positions idéal-typiques vis-à-vis des foules urbaines : « foule source d’animation potentielle », « foule indifférente », « foule menaçante », ou « foule espace public ». Nous verrons alors dans un troisième temps que ce rapport différencié des adolescents à la foule est à mettre en relation avec le lien entretenu avec le quartier de résidence et les modalités d’apprentissage de la mobilité.This article aims at further documenting the relationship of

  3. L’IMPACT DE L’APPLICATION DES REFORMES BALE III SUR L’INDUSTRIE BANCAIRE ROUMAINE

    Maria Halep

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le début du XXIème a connu un essor remarquable des marchés financiers, de l’innovation et des processus de déréglementation. L’inflation faible, la liquidité abondante, la confiance dans les marchés efficaces et autorégulateurs ont conduit à une perception généralisée de risque faible, incitant les acteurs à une prise accrue de risque. Face aux crises qui s’enchaînent depuis maintenant cinq ans, des mesures de ré-réglementation du système ont été proposées, communément appelées Reformes de Bâle.L’article analyse l’évolution des recommandations de Bâle en lien avec l’évolution économique et des marchés financiers et évalue l’impact de ces dernières sur le secteur bancaire roumain.

  4. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  5. Cogeneration and CO2 emissions. Impact of the low power decentralized cogeneration development on the CO2 emissions in France

    2004-01-01

    Facing the economic growth leading the increase of the energy demand, the new european organization of the electric Industry and the development of the renewable energies sources, the cogeneration is developing in France. The aim of this study is the impacts of these cogeneration technologies on the raw materials consumption and on the environment. In a first part the energy profile of the buildings, agriculture and Industry sectors are evaluated. Each sector is divided in sectoral parts of specific thermal and electrical needs. In a second part scenario, established in the study, present significant developments of decentralized technologies of simultaneous production of heat and electric power in the range of few kW to 1 MW. (A.L.B.)

  6. Petrology and geochemistry of primary magmas trapped in melt inclusions in scoria of Beaunit Maar (Chaîne des Puys, Massif Central, France)

    Jannot, S.; Schiano, P.; Boivin, P.; Clocchiatti, R.; Chazot, G.

    2003-04-01

    The Massif Central area, characterized by a typical intraplate alkaline serie, is the largest magmatic province of the West-European Rift system. Although it has been the subject of several studies, the nature of Massif Central sources is still a matter of debate and many hypotheses are proposed, including deep-rooted continental hotspot, metasomatised spinel lherzolites and an asthenospheric flow linked to the lithospheric root of the Alpine chain. The Chaîne des Puys is the last magmatic province of the French Massif Central and is composed of hundred young well-preserved volcanoes. The present work aims to supply information on the nature and the origin of the source chemistry of alkaline serie from the Chaîne des Puys, by characterizing the trace and major element composition of minute melts preserved as quenched glass inclusions inside olivines phenocrysts in scoria from the Beaunit Maar. Heating stage experiments performed at ambient pressure on partially crystallised primary melt inclusions suggest CO_2 oversaturation of the trapped melt, and an entrapment temperature around 1200^oC±10^oC. Daughter minerals analyses point to a Ti-and Ca-rich basaltic paragenesis, in good agreement with that of erupted basalts from the Chaîne des Puys. Major element compositions show that melts trapped in inclusions evolve by limited fractional crystallization. Inclusions trapped in the more primitive olivine phenocrysts (Fo85) have alkali-basalt compositions that fall on the primitive end of the compositional trend define by the lavas of the Chaîne des Puys. Their major element chemistry rules out the hypothesis of a mantle source in the spinel stability field and requires a garnet-bearing mantle source. Analyzed for trace-element composition by LA-ICP-MS, they display homogeneous, enriched patterns, similar to those characterizing oceanic island and continental basalts. They have high concentration of LILE and LREE/HREE ratios. Such trace-element feature are typical of

  7. Idéal démocratique et idéal environnemental : analyse comparée des pouvoirs territoriaux en France et au Mexique

    Mollard, Eric

    2009-01-01

    De nombreux programmes et réformes de protection environnementale sont voués à l’échec. Dans les pays en voie de développement, la situation est critique car programmes et réformes sont systématiquement détournés de leur objectif initial. Les formes de démocratie sont-elles en cause ? A travers une comparaison des processus qui freinent ou bloquent l’application de la volonté générale, nous discutons les conditions démocratiques propre à l’action environnementale. Nous sommes alors conduits à...

  8. Days of dismantling activities of installations and rehabilitation of contaminated sites in France; Demantelement des installations et rehabilitation de sites contamines

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The objective of these days, organized by the section environment of the French society of radiation protection, is to present a panorama of the activities of nuclear installations dismantling and contaminated sites rehabilitation in France, by leaning in the same time on practical cases and by stating the French rule and the national and international recommendations on the subject. These days have also for object to approach the stakes associated with the sectors of waste management and the materials generated by these activities and in a more general way, the stakes to come for the different actors of the dismantling and the rehabilitation. (N.C.)

  9. Le voyage au service d’une peinture de la France et des Français : Maxime Du Camp en Hollande

    Rozanne Versendaal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the travelogue En Hollande (1859, written by the French author and photographer Maxime Du Camp. This travel document deals with a two weeks journey that Du Camp made in Holland in the winter of 1857. The article particularly examines the way Du Camp has painted the picture of France and the French people, while travelling through different regions of the Netherlands. The article presents in detail some cultural, religious and political aspects of the French identity and culture Du Camp reflects upon in his text.

  10. Nuclear energy in France : Assessing its impacts on the economy and the environment

    Charmant, A.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J-G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that an environmental assessment of the French nuclear industry is meaningless without an economic assessment, such as is provided here, using the Micro-Melodie macro-economic model. Nuclear power has led to cheap electricity, and price stability resulting from increasing energy self-sufficiency (from 22% in 1973 to 47% in 1989). Moreover, nuclear exports have had a significant favourable effect on France's balance of payments. The only feasible alternative to nuclear is coal, with all its disadvantages. The most spectacular effect of the nuclear program has been the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 at the time of the conference. Although forecasts have shown that a resumption of nuclear programs would cause world-wide annual carbon dioxide emissions to be reduced by only 4% by the year 2020, nevertheless, nuclear has a part to play in environmental amelioration, particularly in the developed countries, which use most of the world's energy production. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 13 figs

  11. determinants de l'adoption et impact des varietes ameliorees sur la ...

    ACSS

    C'est ainsi que la recherche a créé des nouvelles variétés ... La recherche en économie de la production agricole a montré que les taux d'adoption et les facteurs influençant la décision des agriculteurs d'adopter une technologie agricole varient fortement entre ..... des agriculteurs sur l'innovation sont fortement liées aux ...

  12. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  13. Impact of the Heat Transfer on the Performance Calculations of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Influence des transferts thermiques sur le calcul des performances des compresseurs de suralimentation

    Chesse P.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually, turbochargers used within internal combustion engine simulation software are modelled in an adiabatic manner. However, during our experimental tests we found that this is not necessarily the case. The direct use of the manufacturer’s map is not possible anymore. A simple method which considers the heat transfers is proposed. It is based on experimental tests made on hot air supplied turbocharger test bench. The difference with the adiabatic model is considerable mainly for low compressor power. This corresponds to internal combustion engine low loads. En général, les turbocompresseurs pris en compte dans les logiciels de simulation moteur sont modélisés de façon adiabatique. Cependant, les tests expérimentaux effectués au laboratoire montrent que ce n’est pas toujours le cas. L’utilisation directe des champs de fonctionnement fournis par les constructeurs de turbomachines n’est alors plus possible. Une évaluation quantitative de ces transferts, basée sur des tests réalisés sur un banc d’essais turbo à air chaud, est présentée. Puis ils sont pris en compte afin de calculer les caractéristiques réelles de fonctionnement d’un compresseur. La différence avec le modèle adiabatique apparaît très importante pour les faibles puissances compresseur. Ceci correspond aux faibles charges moteur.

  14. Composition and significance of the Katian (Upper Ordovician conodont fauna of the Vaux Limestone (‘Calcaire des Vaux’ in Normandy, France

    Annalisa Ferretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of new conodont collections from the Vaux Limestone exposed at its classical locality at Saint-Hilaire-la-Gérard in the Sées syncline, the conodont fauna of which was previously described in a preliminary way by Weyant et al. (1977, Un épisode calcaire ashgillien dans l’est du Massif armoricain; incidence sur l’âge des dépôts glacio-marins fini-ordoviciens. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 284, Série D, 1147–1149, has provided significant new information about Late Ordovician conodonts from Normandy. A more precise age of this formation has been established based on an unexpectedly abundant conodont fauna of low diversity. Representatives of Amorphognathus, Hamarodus, Sagittodontina, Scabbardella and Eocarniodus are present and the fauna is referable to the middle Katian–lower Hirnantian A. ordovicicus Zone. Our study, the first illustrating Ordovician conodonts from Normandy, shows that the fauna is closely similar to middle Katian faunas from other parts of continental Europe and represents the Sagittodontina robusta–Scabbardella altipes biofacies of the Mediterranean Province.

  15. Rubbish tips rehabilitation. Degradation mechanisms and impacts; Rehabilitation des decharges. Mecanismes de degradation et impacts

    Chassagnac, Th. [CSZ AZUR, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2005-06-01

    Waste storage activity really started in the beginning of the industrial era when the consumption of goods has led to a production of wastes higher than the environment assimilation capacity. The waste storage and disposal activity has led to environmental impacts and risks which need to be evaluated and, if needed, processed. Waste storage remains the most common way of wastes elimination because of its simpleness and low cost. However, the closing down of sites is today strictly controlled by the law and the rehabilitation problems concerns mainly the ancient sites. The waste storage domain is at the crossroads of multiple scientific domains like: hydrogeology, rudology, biology, hydraulics and hydrology, water and gases processing, ecology, health sciences and risk assessments, and thus requires a multi-disciplinary approach. This article deals with the rehabilitation of rubbish tips and presents: 1 - the typology and regulatory evolution of waste storage centers; 2 - the main pollutants, their mechanisms and way of impact on the environment: typology of pollutants (origin and nature; mobility influencing factors; risk, hazard, exposure and impact notions); impacts on air (origin and mechanism of biogas generation, biogas composition, mass status of biogas production, risks linked with biogas); impact on waters (leachates; hydric status; impact on groundwaters; impact on surface waters; impact on soils and natural ecosystems; other harmful effects: aesthetics, noise, vermin; stability). (J.S.)

  16. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths.

  17. Water and beverage consumption among children aged 4-13 years in France: analyses of INCA 2 (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007) data.

    Vieux, Florent; Maillot, Matthieu; Constant, Florence; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    To examine the consumption of plain water among children in France and compare total water intakes with guidelines issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Nationally representative data were used to assess food, beverage and water consumption by sex, age group (4-8 years, 9-13 years), income-to-poverty ratio, eating occasion and location. Beverages were classified into nine groups: water (tap or bottled), milk, 100 % fruit juice, sodas, fruit drinks, hot beverages, sports drinks and flavoured waters. Total water volume in relation to energy intake (litres/kcal) was also examined. INCA 2 study (Étude Individuelle Nationale des Consommations Alimentaires 2006-2007). French children (n 835) aged 4-13 years. Total water intakes were accounted for by plain water (34 %), beverages (26 %) and food moisture (40 %). Plain water could be tap (18 %) or bottled (16 %). Older children drank more plain water than did younger children and boys drank more plain water than did girls. No socio-economic gradient for plain water consumption was observed. About 90 % of children did not meet the EFSA water intake recommendations. The daily water shortfall ranged from 367 to 594 ml/d. Water-to-energy ratio was 0·75-0·77 litres/1000 kcal (4184 kJ). Children drank milk at breakfast and plain water during lunch and dinner. Caloric beverages provided 10 % of dietary energy; consumption patterns varied by eating location. Total water intakes among young children in France were below EFSA-recommended levels. Analyses of beverage consumption patterns by eating occasion and location can help identify ways to increase water consumption among children.

  18. Quelques remarques sur le projet d’une Histoire sociale des langues de France et les problèmes qui se sont posés lors de son élaboration

    Kremnitz Georg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les conditions de la genèse du projet – les voies nouvelles que la liste Cerquiglini a ouvertes pour la sociolinguistique – et le collectif de chercheurs qui s’en occupe. Les motivations du collectif : rééquilibrer les relations entre production et réception linguistiques, donc un problème de la pratique de la recherche depuis la linguistique et comparative ; dénationaliser les histoires de la communication, donc rediscuter les idéologies implicites de la recherche ; repenser les différences entre histoire de la langue et grammaire historique. Les choix que le collectif a effectués : il a fallu privilégier les périodes moderne et contemporaine sans négliger les antécédents. Tout en partant de la liste Cerquiglini il a fallu la dépasser à certains points. Il était surtout important d’intégrer dans cette présentation également des langues qui ne figurent pas dans la liste tout en ayant joué un rôle considérable dans le passé, parfois en ce moment. Le but de l’effort est une présentation générale de l’histoire de la communication en France. Ceci permet également de prévoir certaines évolutions de la communication, en France comme ailleurs.

  19. Literatures of Medieval France

    Zink, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Dear Mr Administrator,Dear colleagues, Deep forests, enchanted castles, monsters, damsels in distress, stout-hearted heroes and boundless love. The literature of the Middle Ages has everything it takes to appeal to the imagination of children and teenagers. However, can it do more than that? And does it even still have this appeal? Anatole France claims that, to the loves of Abeille des Clarides and Georges de Blanchelande and to the magnanimity of the King of the Dwarves, his pretty little n...

  20. Dams: impacts on the species diversity; Impacts des reservoirs sur la biodiversite

    Oliveira, Domingos de [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Sciences Biologiques, Inst. de Sciences de l`Environnement

    1996-12-31

    Always you change one ecosystem, you have impacts on the species diversity. The work try to show some impacts of dams for hydroelectric power generation. First of all the author analyses the impacts on the habitats and ecosystems. He considers the problems on a variety of species, since plants and animals that living on the border of the river until the fishes, birds, invertebrates and the mammals. The example of 3 dams, La Grande, Opinaca and Caniapiseau, on Quebec, Canada, are used to give support to the work 14 refs., 1 tab.

  1. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  2. Climatic change impacts, adaptation and associated costs in France. Intermediate report. June 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report aims at promoting the awareness of sector-based and land challenges of climate change in terms of impacts. It gives a wide overview of the present knowledge on sector-based vulnerabilities, and allows the identification of some paths for the alleviation of these vulnerabilities. After a discussion of objectives and context, of methodological choices (data, modalities to take impacts and adaptation into account, impact assessment approach) thematic woks are reported. They are dealing with health (population vulnerability to climate change with the example of 2006 heat wave), agriculture, forest and water, energy, tourism, natural risks and insurance, territories. For each of these topics, the reports discusses vulnerability aspects, the present knowledge about the impact of climate change, and identifies the core problems as well as studies which remain to be performed

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  4. Nicole Dufournaud, Rôles et pouvoirs des femmes au XVIe siècle dans la France de l'Ouest

    Nicole Dufournaud

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les années 1970, Joan Kelly posait la question : « Les femmes ont-elles connu une Renaissance ? ». L'historienne américaine y répondait par la négative. Revenir sur cette question, c'est chercher à comprendre l'évolution du statut des femmes. Grâce à une étude localisée sur un espace géographique relativement homogène, nous montrons en quoi les femmes ont compté dans la dynamique sociale et économique de la Renaissance et en quoi elles y ont gagné et perdu.La thèse se découpe en six chap...

  5. Elections régionales 2004 : jeux d'échelles entre local, régional et national. L'enseignement des cartes de France par canton

    Michel Bussi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les élections de mars 2004 relèvent-elles principalement d'un enjeu national ou d'un enjeu régional ? Selon le modèle de "l'élection intermédiaire" de Jean-Luc Parodi, elles dépendraient avant tout d'un enjeu national. Mais depuis l'élaboration de ce modèle, les régions ont gagné en puissance et le débat sur la régionalisation gagné en consistance. Les échelles nationales et régionales ne sont pas les seules à l’oeuvre. Les cartes de ce dossier mettent également en évidence l'importance des e...

  6. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  7. Data base of climatic change simulations for the impact studies. Final report; Base de donnees des simulations de changement climatique a l'usage des etudes d'impact. Rapport final

    Polcher, J.; Leboucher, V.; Planton, S.; Valcke, S

    2003-12-15

    Data used for the study of the climatic change impact on the environment and the society come from climate models and are affected by uncertainties. It is necessary to quantify the resulting errors in the models. The data base provides a comparison of simulations of climatic change in France. The final report presents the project methodology. Three projects using the distributed simulations are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France: hydrological analyses, inundation mapping and impact estimations

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bourgin, François; Lebouc, Laurent; Le Bihan, Guillaume; Gaume, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The October 2015 flash-floods in south eastern France caused more than twenty fatalities, high damages and large economic losses in high density urban areas of the Mediterranean coast, including the cities of Mandelieu-La Napoule, Cannes and Antibes. Following a post event survey and preliminary analyses conducted within the framework of the Hymex project, we set up an entire simulation chain at the regional scale to better understand this outstanding event. Rainfall-runoff simulations, inundation mapping and a first estimation of the impacts are conducted following the approach developed and successfully applied for two large flash-flood events in two different French regions (Gard in 2002 and Var in 2010) by Le Bihan (2016). A distributed rainfall-runoff model applied at high resolution for the whole area - including numerous small ungauged basins - is used to feed a semi-automatic hydraulic approach (Cartino method) applied along the river network - including small tributaries. Estimation of the impacts is then performed based on the delineation of the flooded areas and geographic databases identifying buildings and population at risk.

  9. Impact of a Computer System and the Encoding Staff Organization on the Encoding Stays and on Health Institution Financial Production in France.

    Sarazin, Marianne; El Merini, Amine; Staccini, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In France, medicalization of information systems program (PMSI) is an essential tool for the management planning and funding of health. The performance of encoding data inherent to hospital stays has become a major challenge for health institutions. Some studies have highlighted the impact of organizations set up on encoding quality and financial production. The aim of this study is to evaluate a computerized information system and new staff organization impact for treatment of the encoded information.

  10. OGM : vers une évaluation des impacts agri-environnementaux

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available En 1998, les pouvoirs publics français prononçaient un moratoire de deux ans concernant les autorisations de mise sur le marché des variétés de colza génétiquement modifiées. Cette décision donnait suite aux conclusions de la conférence des citoyens des 20 et 21 juin 1998 à l’Assemblée nationale et aux recommandations de l’Office parlementaire des choix scientifiques et technologiques, fondées sur « les incertitudes liées à la diffusion de transgène dans l’environnement à partir de plantes comme le colza, présentant des risques de croisements avec d’autres espèces ».

  11. NUTRITION Les bases de la politique nutritionnelle de santé publique en France : le constat et les recommandations du HCSP

    Hercberg Serge

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La mise en place d’une politique nutritionnelle apparaît comme une grande priorité de santé publique en France, comme dans l’ensemble de l’Europe. Outre les immenses enjeux humains, sociaux et économiques, les relations entre l’alimentation et la santé ont comme particularité : de concerner l’ensemble de la population; de reposer sur des connaissances scientifiques bien documentées; de concerner des facteurs de risque (ou de protection bien identifiés sur lesquels il est possible d’intervenir; d’avoir un impact important sur l’incidence des grandes maladies chroniques; d’impliquer, autour du consommateur, de multiples acteurs du champ de la nutrition; et d’avoir des références en termes de faisabilité. Pour toutes ces raisons, il apparaît aujourd’hui indispensable de faire, en France, de la promotion de la nutrition et de l’activité physique, un grand « programme national nutrition-santé », impliquant l’ensemble des acteurs concernés et disposant des moyens à la hauteur de ses ambitions. C’est la conclusion du groupe de travail ayant rédigé le rapport « Pour une politique nutritionnelle de santé publique en France : enjeux et propositions », sous l’égide du HCSP.

  12. Bhérer Laurence, Collin Jean-Pierre, Kerrouche Éric, Palard Jacques, Dir., Jeux d’échelle et transformation de l’État : le gouvernement des territoires au Qué­bec et en France

    Fabienne Leloup

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’ouvrage s’est élaboré en prolongement d’un colloque international tenu à Bor­deaux en 2004, intitulé “Les transformations territoriales au Québec et en France”. D’emblée il est précisé que les articles rassemblés ont comme point commun de traiter des effets induits sur les configurations sociales, économiques et institutionnelles des recompositions territoriales, en d’autres mots le changement d’échelle du politique, en se basant sur des expériences récemment vécues au Québec et en France. ...

  13. Mémoire du travail et des expositions professionnelles aux cancérogènes Work account and occupational exposures to carcinogens. Survey in Seine-Saint-Denis (France) Memoria del trabajo y de las exposiciones profesionales a agentes cancerígenos. Encuesta en Seine-Saint-Denis (Francia)

    Annie Thébaud-Mony; Béatrice Leconte

    2010-01-01

    Selon les estimations officielles, en 2000 environ 32 millions de travailleurs européens (de l’Europe des 15) étaient exposés à des cancérogènes. Depuis 2002, considérant la maladie comme « événement-sentinelle » pour la connaissance des activités de travail exposant aux cancérogènes, le Groupement d’intérêt scientifique sur les cancers d’origine professionnelle (GISCOP93) mène une enquête permanente auprès de patients atteints de cancer en Seine Saint Denis (France). S’appuyant sur les récit...

  14. Les terrains jurassiques du sondage de Couy (Cher, France. Leur analyse séquentielle détaillée à partir de la description des carottes et des courbes diagraphiques Jurassic Formations in the Couy Borehole (Cher Department, France. Their Detailed Sequential Analysis from the Core Sample Descriptions and Well-Logging Curves

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le forage de Couy-Sancerre (Programme Géologie profonde de la France avait pour objectif d'atteindre l'Anomalie magnétique du Bassin Parisien. La série sédimentaire entièrement carottée, complétée par un jeu complet de diagraphies modernes (micro-résistivité, sonique, gamma-ray, densité, neutron, PEF, pendagemétrie, est le plus souvent compréhensive, mais présente parfois des condensations. L'analyse séquentielle du forage de Couy a permis de mettre en évidence 17 séquences dans le Jurassique inférieur et une partie du Jurassique moyen. Dans le Jurassique inférieur, les 11 séquences caractérisées (la dernière passant dans le Jurassique moyen sont très semblables à celles proposées par Haq et ai. (1988 . Pour le Jurassique moyen, les 8 séquences reconnues sont assez délicates à corréler avec celles proposées par Haq et al. (1988 , aussi bien que par Rioult et al. (1991 en Normandie ou par Gonnin et al. (1993 en Poitou. Le forage de Couy, par ses données lithostratigraphiques et biostratigraphiques, ainsi que par ses enregistrements diagraphiques bien calés, constitue un sondage de référence pour la stratigraphie du Bassin Parisien. The Couy-Sancerre borehole (Deep Geology Program of France had the target of reaching the Paris Basin magnetic anomaly. It was located in the eastern part of the Biturige subblock, more precisely between the Armorican Block and the Burgondy Block, on the edge of the Loire Trough, on the site of the Mesozoic Marly Trough. It was located on a small intermediate horst (Fig. 1. The sedimentary series has been entirely cored, and this has been completed by a complete set of modern well logs (microresistivity, sonic, gamma ray, formation density, compensated neutron, photoelectric effect, dipmetering. This series is often comprehensive, but sometimes shows condensations. Petrographic and mineralogic studies (Delavenna et al. , 1989; Mélières, 1991 and the determining of numerous ammonites

  15. Impact de la qualité de l'audit externe sur la liquidité des titres des entreprises tunisiennes cotées

    Faten Hakim Ghorbel

    2008-01-01

    Cette recherche a pour objectif d'étudier l'impact de la qualité d'audit externe sur la liquidité. Nous appréhendons la qualité d'audit dans le cadre de notre étude par "la qualité de l'auditeur", et notamment de son indépendance et de ses compétences. Après avoir contrôlé l'effet d'autres variables censées, d'après la théorie, influencer la liquidité, les tests effectués ont permis de dégager une relation positive entre l'appartenance des auditeurs à un réseau international (Big 4), la spéci...

  16. Des « hommes de plumes » parmi les « hommes d’épée » : sociabilités journalistiques et reportages de guerre en France entre 1866 et 1877.

    Véronique Juneau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Si les premières correspondances de guerre apparaissent dans la presse française sous le Second Empire, celles-ci résultent pour une grande part d’initiatives atypiques. Aucune expertise, aucun savoir-faire spécifiques à la pratique et à l’écriture du reportage de guerre ne sont encore acquis. Alors qu’en Angleterre, le métier émerge avec la guerre de Crimée et qu’aux États-Unis, il s’impose avec la Guerre de Sécession. En France, la pratique tarde davantage à se revendiquer comme telle. Il faut attendre les années 1880 pour que la démarche de « l’envoyé spécial », parti à la rencontre de l’actualité de guerre, engendre une activité d’écriture distincte des autres catégories du journal. Or, ces premiers essais, même encadrés et surveillés par le régime, constituent bel et bien le germe d’une nouvelle pratique journalistique. Et s’il est vrai qu’en France, le reportage de guerre résistera jusqu’au tournant du vingtième siècle à se constituer en profession autonome, lorsqu’on y regarde de près, on constate néanmoins que certains enjeux liés à l’exercice d’observation directe sur le terrain accompagnent l’émergence de liens d’entraide relevant d’une condition partagée, et mettent en lumière les traits spécifiques d’une fonction commune. Ce contexte d’action génère des connivences et engendre des solidarités qui laissent leurs marques au sein même des reportages. Cet article propose donc d’examiner ces sociabilités discursives, comprises en tant qu’expression progressive d’une expérience de groupe, et plus spécifiquement en tant que mode de construction d’un « ethos collectif », vu comme un préalable dans une trajectoire vers un statut social. Au sein de ces reportages de guerre publiés entre 1866 et 1877 apparaissent des modalités de régulation des rapports d’entraide, qui, en tant que forces de cohésion sont à mettre en lien avec l

  17. Taxation in France / Letter from the French “Direction générale des finances publiques” / New form

    Staff Association and GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Under this title, the CERN Management published, in the last issue of the Bulletin (52-4/2017, on 18 January 2017), a notice to active and retired members of personnel who have received a letter with a form from the French tax authorities. This notice was provided without prior concertation with the representatives of the personnel and the pensioners. A good example of a missed opportunity in our opinion: there was certainly a better way to defend the interests of the Organization and its personnel, both active and retired! Here is our position on this matter. This form shall be used to update the civil information that the French tax authorities have on taxpayers. This update is not obligatory, but it is likely in your best interest that your civil status and contact information are up to date in their database. Still, it is up to you to decide whether or not you want to return this form. Even if the letter cites the introduction of a direct income tax deduction from revenue in France as of 2018, we consider...

  18. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France.

    Girard, C; Robin, E; Rocchia, R; Froget, L; Feist, R

    1997-08-01

    In order to detect whether the end-Frasnian worldwide biotic crisis is related to an extraterrestrial impact, the global stratotype section of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary and auxiliary sections within the stratotype area have been examined for impact indicators: iridium. Ni-rich spinel bearing spherules and glassy microtektites. This area is particularly well suited to the search for discrete events because it exhibits biostratigraphically continuous sections of sedimentologically homogenous off-shore deposits. Different environmental settings on oxygenated deep-water seamounts, such as the stratotype section at Coumiac, and in oxygen-depleted depressions (La Serre section) are available. The latter is investigated in more detail because it is the least condensed across the boundary, which is determined by the first occurrence of the typical morphotype of Palmatolepis triangularis, the indicator of the first Famennian conodont biozone. Samples from the biostratigraphically defined boundary and adjacent levels failed to provide significantly high Ir values and no Ni-rich spinel or microtektite has been recovered. This is in contradiction with the results of earlier investigations carried out by H. Geldsetzer on the same section. In contrast, the values of Ir concentrations that we measured are always very low or not detectable. The small overabundances observed in some samples, which are about two orders of magnitude lower than what is currently observed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, are probably due to the accumulation of the normal flux of cosmic dust during periods of relatively low depositional rates or to a terrestrial origin. At present, we have no evidence that an extraterrestrial impact occurred at the F-F transition.

  19. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    De Cock, Erwin; Sapoval, Marc; Julia, Pierre; Lissovoy, Greg de; Lopes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of €6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  20. A Budget Impact Model for Paclitaxel-eluting Stent in Femoropopliteal Disease in France

    De Cock, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.decock@unitedbiosource.com [United BioSource Corporation, Peri- and Post-Approval Services (Spain); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: Marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology (France); Julia, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.julia@egp.aphp.fr [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Universite Rene Descartes, Cardiovascular Surgery Department (France); Lissovoy, Greg de, E-mail: gdelisso@jhsph.edu [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management (United States); Lopes, Sandra, E-mail: Sandra.Lopes@CookMedical.com [Cook Medical, Health Economics and Reimbursement (Denmark)

    2013-04-15

    The Zilver PTX drug-eluting stent (Cook Ireland Ltd., Limerick, Ireland) represents an advance in endovascular treatments for atherosclerotic superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease. Clinical data demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to bare-metal stents (BMS). This analysis assessed the likely impact on the French public health care budget of introducing reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent. A model was developed in Microsoft Excel to estimate the impact of a progressive transition from BMS to Zilver PTX over a 5-year horizon. The number of patients undergoing SFA stenting was estimated on the basis of hospital episode data. The analysis from the payer perspective used French reimbursement tariffs. Target lesion revascularization (TLR) after primary stent placement was the primary outcome. TLR rates were based on 2-year data from the Zilver PTX single-arm study (6 and 9 %) and BMS rates reported in the literature (average 16 and 22 %) and extrapolated to 5 years. Net budget impact was expressed as the difference in total costs (primary stenting and reinterventions) for a scenario where BMS is progressively replaced by Zilver PTX compared to a scenario of BMS only. The model estimated a net cumulative 5-year budget reduction of Euro-Sign 6,807,202 for a projected population of 82,316 patients (21,361 receiving Zilver PTX). Base case results were confirmed in sensitivity analyses. Adoption of Zilver PTX could lead to important savings for the French public health care payer. Despite higher initial reimbursement for the Zilver PTX stent, fewer expected SFA reinterventions after the primary stenting procedure result in net savings.

  1. Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Impact of Crunchy Wednesdays on Happy Meal Fruit Orders: Analysis of Sales Data in France, 2009-2013.

    Drewnowski, Adam; Michels, Serge; Leroy, Diane

    2017-03-01

    Beginning in September, 2010, all McDonald's restaurants in France offered free fruit with every Happy Meal sold on the first Wednesday of the month. Sales data were used to determine the impact of free fruit promotion on the proportion of regular Happy Meal fruit desserts sold. Trend analyses examined the proportion of fruit desserts for 2009-2013. Analyses also compared fruit orders on Crunchy Wednesdays with other weekdays. Happy Meal fruit desserts rose from 14.5% in 2010 to 18.0% in 2011 and to 19.4% in 2013 (P < .001). More Happy Meal fruit desserts were ordered on Crunchy Wednesdays compared with other weekdays (P < .001). Orders of cherry tomato sides and water as a beverage on Crunchy Wednesdays were unaffected. Based on sales transactions data across multiple years, this study provides evidence of the long-term effectiveness of menu promotions aimed at increasing children's consumption of vegetables and fruit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Work schedules of home care workers for the elderly in France: fragmented work, deteriorating quality of care, detrimental health impact.

    Doniol-Shaw, Ghislaine; Lada, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Like most Western countries, France is faced with rapid changes in how social welfare and care regimes are being organized. Home care for the elderly has been closely affected by such trends. This study will analyse the consequences of such developments on work schedules and working conditions of female home care workers. We carried out 55 biographical interviews with experienced female home care workers employed by six associations as well as 13 interviews with representatives of those associations. The findings reveal an increase in time pressure linked to a reduction in care time per care recipient as well as the fragmentation of care work. These conditions negatively affect the provision of quality care as well as care workers' physical and mental well-being and blur the distinction between workers' professional and home lives. The negative impacts observed call for a change in perspective in relation to how home care work for fragile, elderly people is organized. Our research bears out the necessity of drawing on the experience of the most highly-qualified care workers and entrusting them with the autonomy needed to manage the care time allotted to each care recipient.

  4. Conflict of interest in Health Technology Assessment decisions: case law in France and impact on reimbursement decisions.

    Frybourg, Sandrine; Remuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The slow reaction of French authorities to the so-called Mediator® saga in 2009 in France led to investigations that questioned the way conflicts of interest are reported. France implemented the Loi Bertrand ('Bertrand Law') in May 2013, known as the 'French Sunshine Act', with the aim of specifying the scope of disclosure obligations. This policy research reviewed the Loi Bertrand and reported case law from the French Council of State (COS) related to conflicts of interest in French Health technology assessment (HTA) opinion. The Loi Bertrand requires the publication of most of the agreements concluded between health-care professionals and companies and covers a vast range of health products. Commercial sales agreements of goods and services concluded between manufacturers and health-care professionals are a strong exception to this disclosure obligation. Six cases examined by the COS were analyzed, most of them related to the publication of guidelines or the removal of products from the list of reimbursed drugs and devices. These cases have been reviewed, as well as the impact of the ruling on reimbursement decisions. Four cases led to suspension or invalidation of decisions based on the Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) recommendations due to conflicts of interest. In the two other cases, the HAS provided post hoc declarations of interest when required by the COS, and the COS considered the conflicts of interest as irrelevant for the decision. It appears that the COS based its decisions on two main criteria: the acknowledgement of negative conflicts of interest (a link with competitors) and the absence of declarations of conflicts of interest, which have to be presented when required by legal authorities irrespective of when they were completed (even posterior to the HAS opinion). However, the number of cases that have been decided against the HAS remains very limited with respect to the volume of assessments performed yearly. The strengthening of the regulation

  5. On the competitiveness of electric driving in France: Impact of driving patterns

    Le Duigou, A.; Amalric, Y.; Guan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental issues in the transport sector are numerous and CO 2 capture is not even plausible for vehicles at the moment. This report describes a number of different emergent power train technologies (ICE, BEV, PHEV, FCEV) before providing an inter-comparison of these technologies within a technical and economic context. The economical benefits are discussed in terms of the 'Difference of Total Cost of Ownership' (DTCO) and take: electric driving distances, energy (fuel, electricity, hydrogen) prices, batteries and fuel cells costs. To simulate electric driving distances, the model uses several functional parameters such as the battery range and the 'range anxiety' based on the assumption of one recharge per day. The potential electric driving distances are evaluated according to the segmentation statistics of daily trips. The results show the yearly mileages, as well as the range and cost of batteries and fuel cells, together with their relative impact on the DTCO and on the competitiveness of electric vehicles. The price of electric vehicles remains high with strong dependency on the battery's capacity, but the benefits in terms of fuel cost savings can be considerable. The price of electricity is currently noticeably lower than petroleum-based fuels, which balances the high costs of the batteries. 50% or more of LDV yearly mileages can be electric-driven, even for limited battery ranges (ca.under 50 km). There are stakes for the battery costs (competitiveness under euros-215/kWh) and lifetimes, while the low battery ranges (100 km in our case) provide the best margins. As regards FCEVs, the hydrogen target price at the pump should be achievable (less than euros-6.5/kg) with reasonable gasoline prices (Euros-1.7/liter at the pump) and fuel cell costs (euros-20/kW). CO 2 taxes and ICE efficiency gains will lead to opposite impacts of the H 2 target prices at the pump. (authors)

  6. Mortality in nuclear workers of the French electricity company: period 1968-2003; Cohorte des travailleurs du nucleaire a Electricite de France: mortalite des agents statutaires sur la periode 1968-2003

    Rogel, A.; Joly, K.; Metz-Flamant, C.; Laurent, O.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Epidemiologie, DRPH/SRBE/LEPID, 92 - Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Hubert, D.; Garcier, Y. [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2009-08-15

    Background We conducted a mortality study on a cohort of French nuclear workers employed at Electricite de France (EDF). A first cancer mortality analysis had covered the period 1968-1994. This paper presents results from a mortality analysis including nine additional years of follow-up to cover workers employed from 1968 to 2003. Methods The cohort includes 22 393 workers, 97% of whom are males. Employment data were updated using the EDF personnel file. Vital status was ascertained using the French National Registry of Population, and further completed using EDF personnel and pension files. Causes of death were obtained from the National registry of causes of death. Standardised Mortality Ratios (S.M.R.) were computed using national rates as references. Variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s were studied according to demographic and occupational characteristics. Results At the study end point (31/12/2003), 74% of workers are still in active employment. Only 0.3% of workers are lost to follow-up. The median duration of follow-up is 20 years. Causes are ascertained for 96% of deaths. The total number of deaths is 874, 307 of which are cancer deaths. S.M.R.s for all causes and cancers show a significant deficit compared to the French national mortality. No significant excess was observed for any of the cancer sites studied. Non-significant excesses are observed for pancreatic, pleural, kidney and brain cancer. Significant variations of all causes S.M.R.s according to age at study entry and attained age are observed. Significant variations of all causes and all cancers S.M.R.s according to diploma at employment are observed, with a reduced S.M.R. for a higher level of diploma. Conclusion There is a significant deficit of mortality compared to the general population, reflecting a strong Healthy Worker Effect. Although nine years of follow-up were added, this cohort is made up of young workers, most of whom are still in active service. Regular updating of the

  7. Degré d'impact des aménagements hydrauliques sur le ...

    La variation se fait en fonction des conditions écologiques et des mauvaises conditions de gestion de la terre par l'homme. C'est pourquoi la lutte ... De nombreux chercheurs se sont penchés pour traiter ce problème ; que ce soit dans l'aspect de quantification que dans celui de la lutte anti-érosive. Nous avons tenté ...

  8. Characterization and modeling of natural tracers' transfers through the argillites of Tournemire (France); Caracterisation et modelisation des transferts de traceurs naturels dans les argilites de Tournemire

    Patriarche, D

    2001-09-13

    The French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) is investigating the argillaceous formation of Tournemire (France) as a methodological underground laboratory for conducting research on the feasibility of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste in argilites. Because of the very low water content and hydraulic conductivity of the argilites, the migration through this media should be very low. The fluid flow regime and transport have been studied using natural tracers from the interstitial water. The deuterium and chloride of interstitial water have been chosen for their conservative behavior. After the development of a protocol for the chloride extraction from the water, and tests on the vacuum distillation method for the water extraction from the rock, systematic data acquisition has been performed on the argillaceous sequence of the massif and near the fracture areas. Both chloride and deuterium profiles suggest that transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale. But the profiles show an enrichment in delta D and delta {sup 18}O of the interstitial solution in the area of one meter adjacent to a fracture compared to pore water of samples located at further distance. Therefore, these observations are suggesting that a second process could generate specific transfers, at the vicinity of faults. The hypothesis of the molecular diffusion as a dominant process for transport was successfully tested using a transport model, over periods of several tenth of millions years, taking into account geodynamical features of the region (such as tectonic and induced faults), and assuming that some variations of the tracer concentrations at the system boundaries occurred during the major climate-change periods. Even if tracers' transfers are mainly diffusive at the massif scale, they are or should have been affected by a second process causing heterogeneity of concentrations at the vicinity of faults. This process involves either, intrusion of salted

  9. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  10. Strategy and development means of the energy efficiency and renewable energies sources in France; Strategie et moyens de developpement de l'efficacite energetique et des sources d'energies renouvelables en France

    Cochet, Y.

    2000-09-01

    In the framework of the renewable energies development policy and the energy mastership wanted by the Government, a document has been asked by the Prime Minister. It evaluates the development prospects at long and medium dated, of the main chains of renewable energies production taking into account the national developable deposits size, the technologies assessment, the environmental impacts and the competition facing the traditional energies. It evaluates the measures leading to an increasing efficiency. Measures concerning the regulations, the budget, and the fiscality are also discussed. From these analysis, a national strategy for actions in favor the renewable energies, are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.

  12. Environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants of EDF in France; La surveillance de l'environnement autour des centres nucleaires de production d'electricite d'EDF en France

    Chretien, V.; Hemidy, P.Y. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-06-15

    As part of the regulatory environmental monitoring around its nuclear power plants, EDF carries out every year more than 40.000 measurements. In addition EDF performs more precise radioecological surveys on all its sites. This monitoring shows the minor incidence of EDF's nuclear power plants on the environment and a general decrease of gamma emitters radionuclides in the environment. These results confirm the efforts lead by EDF to minimise its impacts on the environment, linked to an efficient waste management and demonstrate the good operating standards of its plants. On a qualitative viewpoint, significant efforts on both metrology and organization have lead to improved measurements capabilities, in order to achieve NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard compliance. More recently, a similar approach has been implemented with sampling methods. While today the level achieved in the number and quality of measurement complies with the objectives of the monitoring of the impact of the nuclear power plants on the environment, the results of this monitoring should be presented to the public with more pedagogy to give an adequate answer to their expectations. The new questions that will undoubtedly be raised by the recent availability of this information on the Internet should reinforce this dialogue and should also be the opportunity to improve the quality of our communication. (author)

  13. Impact de la mise en places des comités d'audit dans les banques tunisiennes

    Sonda Marrakchi Chtourou; Sana Ben Hassine

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Dans le cadre de la présente étude, nous proposons d'investiguer l'impact de la création du comité d'audit sur certains éléments du système de gouvernance des banques tunisiennes. Plus particulièrement, ces éléments concernent le fonctionnement du conseil d'administration, la qualité de l'information financière produite, l'indépendance de l'auditeur interne, la qualité du contrôle interne ainsi que l'étendue des travaux d'audit externe planifiés. A cet effet, l'étude d...

  14. Impacts du bruit sur la santé, présentation du projet DEBATS (Discussion sur les Effets du Bruit des Aéronefs Touchant la Santé).

    EVRARD, Anne-Sophie; KHATI, Inès; LAUMON, Bernard; CHAMPELOVIER, Patricia; LAMBERT, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    L’exposition au bruit des avions pourrait avoir des conséquences importantes pour la santé. Toutefois, celles-ci sont actuellement insuffisamment évaluées, tout du moins en France. La DGS en collaboration avec l’Acnusa a donc sollicité l’Ifsttar pour mettre en place un programme de recherche épidémiologique appelé DEBATS. L'objectif est de mieux connaître et mieux quantifier les effets du bruit des avions sur la santé en adoptant une approche globale caractérisant les relati...

  15. [User Associations and Multiple Sclerosis: Impact of Neoliberalism in France on the trajectory of life].

    Colinet, Séverine

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disease that induces limitation of bodily performance. It has a major impact on the work and social life of affected persons because the patient's disability, often in the absence of visible symptoms, is o source of incomprehension in a society marked by the neoliberal dogma of performance. Patient associations often provide support for patients in their trajectory. The aim of this research was to identify how the principles of neoliberalism manifest themselves in the discourse of multiple sclerosis subjects, to understand the effects of neoliberal integration, and to clarify the role played by the association involvement in the trajectories of life. This qualitative study was based on 30 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with patients, as well as 23 observations of patient group meetings and focus groups. Ten people met in interviews also kept a mini-diary, in order to record their daily involvement in a patient association. Data were analysed thematically, initially independently then by cross-linked AtlasTi software. The association constitutes two forms, practical and ideological, an illustration of the resistance to neoliberalism, particularly in the form of individual and collective responsibilities. However, to a certain extent, it also recreates performance spaces. From a practical point of view, this research re-affirms the need to create collective activities to accompany people with chronic illness.

  16. La demande de bois-énergie à Ouagadougou : esquisse d’évaluation de l’impact physique et des échecs des politiques de prix

    Boukary Ouedraogo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à évaluer non seulement la demande de bois-énergie de la ville de Ouagadougou, l’impact de cette demande sur le patrimoine forestier de l’aire d’approvisionnement de cette ville, mais aussi l’esquisse d’une évaluation des échecs des politiques de prix du bois-énergie. Les méthodes d’évaluation de la consommation de cette source d’énergie sont passées en revue au regard des conditions d’offre de la ressource et des données existantes sur la demande de cette ressource. Les données sur les inventaires forestiers de l’aire d’approvisionnement de Ouagadougou en bois-énergie, ainsi que des enquêtes sur les ménages et les artisans ont permis d’estimer la consommation de Ouagadougou en bois-énergie et son impact sur l’épuisement des ressources forestières du pays.This paper aims at evaluating not only the wood-energy demand of Ouagadougou, the physic impact of this city wood energy consumption on the forest of its provisioning area, together with the causes of wood-energy price policy failures. The evaluation’s methods of wood energy consumption are reviewed in comparison with the resource supply conditions and the availability on data of wood resource demand. The data on the forest inventories of the wood-energy provisioning surface of Ouagadougou, as well as investigations into the households and the craftsmen allows estimating the consumption of Ouagadougou in wood-energy and its impact on the forest resources’ depletion. some complementary analysis have been done on the main causes of wood energy price policy failures.

  17. Les impacts humains des changements organisationnels autour des TIC Human impacts of organizational changes based on ITC Impactos humanos de los cambios organizacionales en torno a los TIC

    Robert Picard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La taille des systèmes mis en place dans les grandes organisations, leur caractère exogène par rapport aux pratiques de l’entreprise (progiciels de gestion intégrés, posent des défis relativement nouveaux, difficiles à relever pour les acteurs. En effet, les métiers des informaticiens comme ceux des utilisateurs en sont le plus souvent profondément affectés.Les informaticiens doivent réviser leur mode d’action, révision qui s’accompagne d’une moindre autonomie, d’exigences de coopération plus élevées, et d’une multidisciplinarité à laquelle ils n’ont pas nécessairement été préparés.Les professionnels utilisateurs peuvent perdre des repères professionnels historiques, changement accompagné d’une révision des pratiques, de la modification des structures et de l’environnement de travail. Ils doivent parfois acquérir de nouvelles qualifications, de façon coûteuse, et certains peuvent perdre leur travail.Ces problématiques seront illustrées par deux situations concrètes très récentes, observées dans un grand groupe de service, pour chacune des populations.Many organizational changes are related to (or initiated by the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT tools.The size of the systems implemented in large organizations, their external nature vis-à-vis the company’s practices (Enterprise Resource Planning are rather new challenges, which are difficult for the actors to tackle. In fact, the jobs of data processing people as well as of professional users are often the most affected.Data processing people must revise their way of doing things, a change that is accompanied by a loss of autonomy and greater demands for cooperation and multidisciplinarity that they are not necessarily prepared for.Professional users may lose some historical guidelines, a change that is accompanied by a review of their practices, organizational changes, and changes in the work environment. They

  18. ÉVOLUTION DE LA RÉPARTITION DES ÉCREVISSES EN FRANCE MÉTROPOLITAINE SELON LES ENQUÊTES NATIONALES MENÉES PAR LE CONSEIL SUPÉRIEUR DE LA PÊCHE DE 1977 À 2001

    CHANGEUX T.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Selon les enquêtes nationales menées par le Conseil supérieur de la pêche depuis 1977 en France métropolitaine, la répartition des espèces d’écrevisses montre que les espèces autochtones (Austropotamobius pallipes, Astacus astacus, Austropotamobius torrentium sont soit rares, soit en forte régression, alors que les espèces introduites (Orconectes limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus progressent. L’interdiction de transport vivant des espèces introduites, à l’exception d’A. leptodactylus, n’a pas enrayé le phénomène avec une accélération particulière de la progression de P. leniusculus ces cinq dernières années, certainement responsable de la recrudescence des cas de peste (Aphanomyces astaci. Les autres mesures favorisant les espèces autochtones, comme la limitation des prélèvements par pêche et les programmes de réintroduction, n’inversent pas la tendance. Il semble donc nécessaire de développer une politique de conservation centrée sur la préservation de l’habitat et le respect de certaines règles de prophylaxie à déterminer. Cela ne peut s’envisager que sur des bassins versants de petite surface facilement contrôlables s’il existe un fort engagement des autorités locales. Les 55 arrêtés de biotope, et surtout les 154 sites Natura 2000 avec leurs plans de gestion associés, apparaissent comme des voies prometteuses pour mettre en œuvre ce type d’actions en France. Le cas de l’île Corse, récemment colonisée par O. limosus, mériterait des mesures réglementaires particulières pour éviter que P. leniusculus et P. clarkii, ne la suivent dans l’avenir.

  19. Risques et impacts environnementaux des retenues d’altitude pour la production de neige de culture dans un contexte de changement climatique

    Stéphanie Gaucherand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les retenues d’altitude sont des ouvrages hydrauliques implantés dans les stations de loisirs de montagne et destinés à créer une réserve d’eau, dédiée principalement à la production de neige de culture. Leur implantation en altitude en fait indubitablement des retenues spécifiques, subissant et induisant des risques et des impacts sur leur environnement anthropique et écologique. Le Cemagref a engagé un projet de recherche sur la sûreté des retenues d’altitude. Le présent article est issu de ces travaux et vise à établir un état des lieux des risques liés aux retenues d’altitude et de leurs impacts sur l’environnement. Il replace le développement des retenues d’altitude dans leurs contextes sociétal, social et environnemental. Il développe ensuite les risques et impacts des retenues d’altitude, en focalisant son analyse sur les différents risques et aléas spécifiques auxquels sont exposés les ouvrages, et sur les différents impacts environnementaux liés à la réalisation et la gestion des retenues.Mountain reservoirs are hydraulic structures implanted in recreational mountain resorts designed to provide a water reserve mainly used for the production of artificial snow. Their implantation in high-altitude zones makes them highly specific reservoirs subjected to and inducing risks and impacts on their human and ecological environment. Based on in-depth bibliographic and field research, Cemagref has launched a study on mountain reservoirs. The present article aims to establish the current state of the risks related to mountain reservoirs and their impacts on the environment, placing the development of mountain reservoirs in their societal, social, and environmental contexts. It will then develop mountain reservoir risks and impacts, focusing on the specific risks and uncertainties to which these structures are exposed, and the different environmental impacts related to the construction and management of

  20. Cementation and blackening of Holocene sands by peat-derived humates: A case study from the Great Dune of Pilat, Landes des Gascogne, Southwestern France

    Suchý, V.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Zeman, Antonín; Trejtnarová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, JUL (2013), s. 19-32 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-18482S Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68378297 Keywords : humate * peat * cementation * aeolian sand Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2013

  1. Hybrid imaging, PET-CT and SPECT-CT: What impact on nuclear medicine education and practice in France?

    Mundler, O.

    2009-01-01

    To define the policy of our specialty with a consensus opinion, a questionnaire entitled 'hybrid imaging' was sent to practicing nuclear medicine specialist physicians in France to obtain their opinion on the impact of this recent method in training and in the practice of nuclear medicine and on the relations between nuclear medicine specialists and other medical imaging specialists. This questionnaire, written by the office of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine (F.S.N.M.) and molecular imaging, was divided into four parts: Profile and experience in hybrid imaging, Relations with radiologists, Practice of CT scans with hybrid equipment, and the Future of the specialty and of training in nuclear medicine. The response rate was 60%, i.e. 374 completed questionnaires. Overall, the responses were uniform, whatever the respondent's experience, type and place of practice. Regular participation in hybrid imaging practice was the reply provided by the majority of respondents. In terms of relations with radiologists, such contacts existed in over 85% of cases and are considered as being of high quality in over 90% of cases. The vast majority of practitioners believe that hybrid imaging will become the standard. Opinions on the diagnostic use of CT scans are divided, as well as their interpretation by a radiologist, a nuclear medicine specialist or by both. In the opinion of the vast majority, hybrid equipment systems should be managed by nuclear medicine specialists. With regard to the future, nuclear medicine should remain an independent specialty with enhanced training in morphological imaging and a residency training program whose length should be increased to 5 years. (author)

  2. Status of clean vehicle technologies and impact of the accompanying public policies; Etat des filieres de vehicules propres et impact des politiques publiques d'accompagnement

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The French inter-ministry committee for clean vehicles (CIVP) published in 1999 a report about the status of development of the different clean vehicle technologies (electric-powered, LPG-fueled, natural gas fueled, hybrid, fuel cells) and accompanied by recommendations for public policies. A re-evaluation of these technologies was planned by the end of 2002 and is the purpose of this document. The first part makes a status of the actions carried out by the public authorities since the previous CIVP report. The second part presents the present day situation of the LPG, natural gas and electric technologies. It describes also the recent advances in the classical technologies (gasoline and diesel engines) and includes a part about battery technologies and about the use of bio-fuels. The status of each technology is presented both for France and for foreign countries and with its perspectives of evolution. (J.S.)

  3. L’impact des facteurs économiques sur l’intention entrepreneuriale

    Amari Farouk

    2014-03-01

    Nous avons cherché à apporter des éléments de réponse à la question de savoir comment ces facteurs peuvent-ils influencer l’intention de l’entrepreneur de créer son propre projet. Nous avons ciblé le milieu universitaire à travers une enquête auprès d’un échantillon d’étudiants de l’Institut Supérieur d’Administration des Affaires de Sfax (Tunisie.

  4. Le Phénomène Wolf-Rayet au Sein des Etoiles chaudes de Populations I et II: Histoire des Vents stellaires et Impact sur la Structure nébulaire circumstellaire

    Grosdidier, Yves

    2000-12-01

    Les spectres des étoiles Wolf-Rayet pop. I (WR) présentent de larges raies en émission dues à des vents stellaires chauds en expansion rapide (vitesse terminale de l'ordre de 1000 km/s). Le modèle standard des étoiles WR reproduit qualitativement le profil général et l'intensité des raies observées. Mais la spectroscopie intensive à moyenne résolution de ces étoiles révèle l'existence de variations stochastiques dans les raies (sous-pics mobiles en accélération échelles de temps: environ 10-100 min.). Ces variations ne sont pas comprises dans le cadre du modèle standard et suggèrent une fragmentation intrinsèque des vents. Cette thèse de doctorat présente une étude de la variabilité des raies spectrales en émission des étoiles WR pop. II; la question de l'impact d'un vent WR fragmenté sur le milieu circumstellaire est aussi étudiée: 1) à partir du suivi spectroscopique intensif des raies CIIIl5696 et CIVl5801/12, nous analysons quantitativement (via le calcul des Spectres de Variance Temporelle) les vents issus de 5 étoiles centrales de nébuleuses planétaires (NP) galactiques présentant le phénomène WR; 2) nous étudions l'impact de la fragmentation des vents issus de deux étoiles WR pop. I sur le milieu circumstellaire via: i) l'imagerie IR (NICMOS2/HST) de WR 137, et ii) l'imagerie H-alpha (WFPC2/HST) et l'interférométrie Fabry-Perot H-alpha (SIS-CFHT) de la nébuleuse M 1-67 (étoile centrale: WR 124). Les principaux résultats sont les suivants: VENTS WR POP. II: (1) Nous démontrons la variabilité spectroscopique intrinsèque des vents issus des noyaux de NP HD 826 ([WC 8]), BD +30 3639 ([WC 9]) et LSS 3169 ([WC 9]), observés durant respectivement 22, 15 et 1 nuits, et rapportons des indications de variabilité pour les noyaux [WC 9] HD 167362 et He 2-142. Les variabilités de HD 826 et BD +30 3639 apparaissent parfois plus soutenues (``bursts'' qui se maintiennent durant plusieurs nuits); (2) La cinématique des sous

  5. Les conditions du développement des banques d’actifs naturels en FranceAnalyse du régime institutionnel de la première Réserve d’Actifs Naturels française What conditions to enlarge habitat banks in France ?Institutional regime analysis of the first French habitat bank

    Fanny Chabran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les marchés d’actifs naturels sont encore rares en Europe, mais les premières expériences permettent de s’interroger sur le dispositif mis en place au regard de l’objectif de conservation des milieux naturels. Nous avons analysé la première expérience française de banque d’actifs naturels, mise en place dans le cadre des dispositifs de compensation des impacts écologiques des aménagements. Ce projet repose sur d’importants travaux de réhabilitation écologique pour faire retourner un verger intensif vers une végétation herbacée méditerranéenne. Les résultats en écologie de la restauration sont encourageants. En revanche, ils sont encore à évaluer dans les champs politiques ou économiques. Une analyse du régime institutionnel régissant les usages du site montre que l’action mercantile entreprise, tout autant que l’incomplétude du dispositif public de régulation, ne confèrent pas d’assurances définitives quant à la pérennité du dispositif de conservation environnementale du site.Habitat banks are not numerous in Europe but the first experiments allow wondering about the device in relation to the conservation purpose. We analyzed the first French experience of habitat banking introduced in the mitigation regulatory framework. This project is based on important ecological rehabilitation of an intensive orchard to Mediterranean herbaceous vegetation. Results in ecological restoration are good ; however, they are still assessing in the political and economic fields. An analysis of the institutional regime of site uses shows that the mercantile action as well as the public device incompleteness does not provide insurance about the site’s conservation sustainability.

  6. La France et le Concile Vatican II [RESEÑA

    Casas, S. (Santiago)

    2014-01-01

    Reseña de Bernard Barbiche-Christian Sorrel (eds.), La France et le Concile Vatican II Direction des Archives. Ministère des Affaire étrangères (Diplomatie et Histoire), P.I.E. Peter Lang, Bruxelles 2013, XI+258 pp.

  7. Prises de participation des grandes compagnies aériennes dans de petites compagnies en Europe: impacts sur la géographie des réseaux

    Frédéric Dobruszkes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La libéralisation du transport aérien européen a accru la tendance des grandes compagnies à prendre des parts dans des compagnies de taille plus modeste tout en diversifiant les motivations. Dans ce contexte, les réseaux aériens des secondes évoluent en fonction des intérêts des premières et sous la contrainte de la rentabilité financière. Les conséquences sur la géographie des réseaux aériens sont variables: tandis que les grandes compagnies concentrent leur offre sur un nombre réduit de hubs, les lignes plus secondaires ou de niche tendent à demeurer l’objet de filiales spécifiques, ou sont laissées à d’autres compagnies (en particulier de type low-cost ou sont supprimées au profit d’une concentration de l’offre ailleurs.

  8. Quelques conséquences de l'introduction de deux espèces de macrophytes, Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les écosystèmes aquatiques continentaux : exemple de la plaine d'Alsace et des Vosges du Nord (Nord-Est de la France

    THIEBAUT G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available L'introduction au XIXème et XXème siècle, de deux espèces d'élodées Elodea canadensis Michaux et Elodea nuttallii St. John, dans les cours d'eau du nord-est de la France, a induit des modifications dans la composition floristique et le fonctionnement des écosystèmes aquatiques. L'analyse comparative de la distribution géographique de ces deux hydrophytes dans les eaux calcaires (plaine d'Alsace et acides (Vosges du Nord a permis de préciser leur écologie. Après des phases successives d'expansion des deux espèces, celles-ci se sont intégrées dans les phytocénoses aquatiques. L'introduction dans les écosystèmes aquatiques d'Elodea canadensis et d'E. nuttallii a induit des phénomènes de compétition interspécifique, en faveur essentiellement d'Elodea nuttallii. Cette dernière apparaît comme l'espèce la plus compétitive dans les cours d'eau eutrophes de la plaine d'Alsace (aptitude à accumuler le phosphore, sensibilité moindre à l'azote ammoniacal. Les élodées peuvent réaliser une épuration biologique, mais provoquent, lors de leur décomposition, une eutrophisation secondaire des eaux en absence de faucardage.

  9. LES PROLIFÉRATIONS VÉGÉTALES AQUATIQUES EN FRANCE : CARACTÈRES BIOLOGIQUES ET ÉCOLOGIQUES DES PRINCIPALES ESPÈCES ET MILIEUX PROPICES. I. BILAN D’UNE SYNTHÈSE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE.

    PELTRE M. C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available La gestion des milieux aquatiques touchés par des proliférations végétales rencontre de nombreuses difficultés liées à l’appréciation des déséquilibres induits. Parmi celles-ci figure l’évaluation de l’intensité des phénomènes, tant à l’échelle spatiale que temporelle, et celle des nuisances qui réduisent la satisfaction des usages. Un inventaire des principaux groupes de végétaux concernés, considérés comme des « espèces à risque de prolifération » a été dressé après examen de divers constats recensés sur le territoire français. Ce sont notamment des macro-algues, des cyanobactéries, des phanérogames hydrophytes autochtones comme Ranunculus sp., Potamogeton sp., Myriophyllum sp., Ceratophyllum sp., Lemna sp., et des hydrophytes introduits comme Elodea sp., Lagarosiphon sp., Ludwigia sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, certains hélophytes et deux espèces rivulaires exotiques (Fallopia japonica et Impatiens glandulifera. Leurs potentialités importantes de développement et de propagation s’expliquent par leurs stratégies biologiques, dont certaines adaptations morphologiques et physiologiques et divers moyens de multiplication végétative. Les milieux propices aux proliférations présentent des conditions environnementales particulières : fort éclairement souvent lié à une faible profondeur et à un échauffement des eaux, conditions hydrologiques stables, minéralisation moyenne à forte, niveau trophique souvent élevé. La conjonction de ces deux composantes (espèce à risque et milieu propice, crée ainsi les conditions d’une prolifération et définit des situations à risque minimal ou maximal. Ces connaissances concourent à une meilleure définition des situations de risque de prolifération et peuvent fournir des informations utiles quant aux conditions et aux limites d’application des techniques de gestion et de contrôle de ces phénomènes.

  10. Considerations on the studies carried at I.R.S.N. for the estimation of Chernobylsk accident consequences in France; Reflexions sur les etudes menees a l'IRSN pour l'estimation des consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    The present document that limits the consideration to the action of one stakeholder, I.R.S.N., answers very partly to the public questioning on the Chernobylsk crisis management in France. The documents allow nevertheless to emphasize: a gap between the society expectations and the public information possibilities of I.R.S.N. that in the eighties was in the Cea in charge of research and expertise and not in charge of radiation monitoring in environment; an effort of this Institute since the tenth anniversary of the disaster to begin a dialogue with the civil society especially by answering, from a succession of studies and works on the field, to the questioning on the impact of the disaster in France. It can be understood, at the reading of questions and answers received by the public organism of research and expertise that there is a link between this judgement by the public opinion of the part played by the Institute in the crisis management and the evolutions that have been decided by the Public Authorities relative to the status and the place of I.P.S.N. (Institute of nuclear protection and safety) and O.P.R.I. (Organism of protection against ionizing radiation) in the system of nuclear control (first self government then independence). (N.C.)

  11. Tables of energies consumption in France

    1999-08-01

    This short paper presents the evolution of the energy consumption by sector (industry, domestic, tertiary industry, transports, agriculture and all sectors together), since 1973. It gives an abstract of a more complete book: tableaux des consommations d'energie en France; edition 1999. (A.L.B.)

  12. Didactical Engineering in France; An Insider's and an Outsider's View on Its Foundations, Its Practice and Its Impact

    Margolinas, Claire; Drijvers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The notion of didactical engineering has influenced and characterized contemporary research in mathematics education in France to an important extent. In this paper, we address the following from an insider's and an outsider's perspective: (1) the way this notion is theoretically grounded, (2) the kinds of design research practices it has led to…

  13. Potential impact of global warming on the range of Spruce, Fir, Beech and sessile Oak in France

    Piedallu, Christian; Perez, Vincent; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Lebourgeois, Francois; Bertrand, Romain

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies all over the world that forecast the impact of global warming on vegetation but there is little information currently available to assess its consequences on French forests. The authors studied the range of four common species - spruce, fir, beech and sessile oak - so as to determine their ecology as accurately as possible and assess their sensitivity to global warming. Their range over the period from 1961-1990 was modelled and mapped for the whole of France using ecological variables that characterize climate, water supply, and soil nutrition. The models constructed predict effects from temperature, the water resource, water-logging and the trophic level of soils that are consistent with empirical knowledge about these species. Changes in the probabilities of presence during the 21. century investigated by simulating the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadCM3 climate model. Changes in climate as predicted by this model would lead to a decrease of the probabilities of presence for all four species initially in the first part of the 21. century at the outer limits of their ranges and then a very significant drop in most plains and medium altitude upland areas, even according to the most optimistic forecasts under scenario B2. The reduction in the forest surface areas that are favourable to the species investigated for the period 2070-2100 is estimated, depending on the scenario, to be between 92% and 99% for spruce, 80% and 93% for beech, 63% and 83% for fir and 43% and 83% for sessile oak. These forecasted changes are very significant in comparison with the current conditions that are favourable to the presence of these species for which edaphic variables act as a local filter within the overall climate envelope. The authors conclude by underscoring the value of these tools for identifying and mapping the most vulnerable areas so as to be in a position to track the behaviour of these species in these areas and determine the appropriate

  14. Impact de la dynamique de peuplement sur la distribution des glossines et des trypanosomoses dans la boucle du Mouhoun (Burkina Faso*

    Rouamba J.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Au Burkina-Faso, la boucle du Mouhoun constitue un foyer historique des trypanosomoses humaines africaines (THA et animales africaines (TAA, transmises par les glossines. Aujourd’hui, la THA semble avoir disparu de cette région après quelques soubresauts dans les années 1970, tandis que la TAA continue de sévir. Afin de mieux comprendre ces évolutions divergentes, nous avons mené une étude géographique basée sur l’analyse de photographies aériennes entre 1952 et 2007, ainsi que d’enquêtes de terrain sur les aspects médicaux, entomologiques et vétérinaires des trypanosomoses. Il apparaît que le paysage de cette région a connu en l’espace d’un siècle des modifications intenses, notamment du fait de l’augmentation des densités de population et des surfaces cultivées, qui n’ont pas été sans conséquences sur le nombre et la distribution des mouches tsé-tsé. Associée à la lutte médicale qui avait permis la stérilisation du réservoir humain de trypanosomes dans les années 1940, cette dégradation paysagère, accompagnée du développement des aménagements hydrauliques et d’évolutions des modalités de migration des hommes et des animaux, semble pouvoir expliquer ces disparités THA/TAA. La mise en évidence de ces facteurs, et leur prise en compte lors d’études ultérieures menées dans d’autres régions, devrait permettre de délimiter des zones d’intervention prioritaires contre les trypanosomoses et leurs vecteurs dans un contexte de lutte internationale contre ces pathologies.

  15. Quelques noddees sur l’ecologie de la vedetation des dunes et sur la fonction de l’enraciment dans l’edification de dunes a la Cote Mediterraneenne de la France. II

    Boterenbrood, A.J.; Donsellaar-Ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.; Donselaar, van J.

    1956-01-01

    Une évaluation des plantes d’après leur pouvoir édificateur de dunes doit être précédée d’une description de leur structure a côté de l’étendue et de la densité des organes aériens il faut considérer d’importance capitale et décisive la structure des organes souterrains, tel que KÜHNHOLTZLORDAT

  16. Hydrocarbons in mother rock in France. Initial report and complementary report (further to the law of the 13 July 2011 creating the national commission for orientation, follow-up and assessment of techniques of exploration and exploitation of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons); Les hydrocarbures de roche-mere en France. Rapport initial et Rapport complementaire (suite a la loi du 13 juillet 2011 creant la Commission nationale d'orientation, de suivi et d'evaluation des techniques d'exploration et d'exploitation des hydrocarbures liquides et gazeux)

    Leteurtrois, Jean-Pierre; Durville, Jean-Louis; Pillet, Didier; Gazeau, Jean-Claude; Bellec, Gilles; Catoire, Serge

    2012-02-15

    These reports aimed at studying the opportunities of development of mother-rock hydrocarbons as well as the associated economic opportunities and geopolitical challenges, exploitation techniques (efficiency, capacity of the French industry, impacts, costs, perspectives), their social and environmental challenges (notably with respect to such a development in France), and legal, regulatory and tax framework. These issues are addressed in the first report whereas the complementary report gives an overview of the evolution of the energy context, of hydrocarbon resources and technologies, of the main actors in the world, and of experiments in France

  17. Outreach in southern France

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    France's Europort South community lives cheek by jowl with the chemical industry, with major complexes at For, Berre, and Lavera. Xavier Segond, technical adviser at the regional chemical industry association, Le Syndicat General des Industries Chimiques Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Corse (SGIC), says a good relationship has grown over a period of 20 years. Segond describes Arco Chimie as an effective driving force for the Responsible Care effort in the region - partly because its US parent introduced the program on a worldwide basis in 1989, ahead of national industry association Union des Industries Chimiques (UIC; Paris). Arco's F2-billion ($373 million)/year Fos-sur-Mer site makes it a significant player. But in 1986 the company was a complete newcomer. We came to Fos as a US company, we had no Paris headquarters or French president, explains Dominique Lequeux, director/human resources. The community viewed the company with a mixture of curiosity and enthusiasm as a potential employer - about 330 people now work at the site. The day before the officials propylene oxide plant opening, we invited in local people, says Lequeux. That formed a good basis for its Responsible Care community outreach program. Now, schools, professional groups, and political groups make 20-25 plant visits each year

  18. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France; Recommandations pour la mise en place d'un dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique nationale des cancers thyroidiens

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  19. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France; Recommandations pour la mise en place d'un dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique nationale des cancers thyroidiens

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  20. Impacts économiques et sociaux des changements climatiques sur l ...

    Le projet étudiera l'attribution de l'eau dans les divers secteurs productifs des trois bassins et estimera la demande d'eau pour l'agriculture, l'industrie et la consommation domestique. La recherche identifiera les groupes vulnérables touchés par le stress hydrique engendré par les changements climatiques. On fera appel à ...

  1. GERIHCO "Gestion des Risques et Histoire des Coulées Boueuses" - Risk Management and History of Muddy Floods / An interdisciplinary approach to understand the muddy floods risk (Alsace - France)

    Heitz, C.; Rozan, A.; Auzet, A.; Koller, R.; Wintz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The interdisciplinary research program GERIHCO started in 2005 with a pool of a dozen researchers from disciplines as different as economy, sociology, geography, agronomy, … interested in the study of the risk of muddy floods in the Alsatian region. The main issues studied are related to: (1) The study of the physical processes of muddy floods and the agronomic measures that can decrease the hazard show that the cultural practices without ploughing have positive effects on runoff and erosion. But there are some known consequences of these practices on agronomic issues such as: biological activity in the soil and sanitary situation in the fields (weeds and parasites, for instance). We assess the level of pesticides employment under such cultural practices. Is it more/less important and does it impact the environment more than in conventional systems? Two indicators are used: I-PHY (INDIGO software®) and TFI, Treatment Frequency Index. (2) The economic analyses of the adoption of reduced tillage aims to carry out an economic analysis of the reduced tillage implementation for Alsatian crops farms, by using technical and economic indicators derived from SYSTERRE®. The main results show that reduced tillage - maintains yield levels, reduces working time and gasoil consumptions, maintains a direct margin compared to ploughing system. (3) The sociological analysis of the farmers' behaviors deals with the understanding of their behaviors face to soil erosion and environmental issues. The sociological study focuses on the farmers points of view, which are the very last stakeholders in the risk management decision system. Surveys and individual interviews have been conducted in 3 villages, frequently concerned by muddy floods. (4) The study of the perception of protective measures and the modelling their efficiency highlight that several measures can be taken to decrease the risk: agronomic measures, policy measures, economic measures,...A dialogue between all

  2. Governance restructuring in the cut flower trade in France and its impacts on the producers in developing countries

    Pedroza Filho, Manoel Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine how retailers play a powerful role in shaping the governance in cut flower trade in France. Global Value Chain analysis has been used to explain why a distribution system originally based on spot markets has been replaced by tightly integrated supply chains. It allowed an exploration of the consequences of these changes on the structure of the value chain and the inclusion and exclusion of different agents in the chain. Fieldwork were carried out betwe...

  3. Information report on the behalf of the foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on France security, nuclear disarmament and non proliferation; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le desarmement, la non-proliferation nucleaires et la securite de la France

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first gives an overview of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation twenty years after the end of Cold War: evolution and status of Russia's and United States' nuclear weapon arsenals, France's and United Kingdom's trend to reduce their nuclear armament, reinforcement of China's nuclear armament, effects and limitations of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It notices that the new international context gave birth to some expectations and may lead to a lower nuclear pressure, notably with the influence of START negotiations between Russia and the United States, provided that the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is ratified by more countries, and that negotiations promote a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. The report also outlines the importance of the promotion of better controlled peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It discusses the relationship between maintaining the world nuclear order and the reduction of international and regional tensions, and the importance of struggle against all forms of proliferation. It analyses the French nuclear posture in terms of security requirements, and in front of the zero nuclear option, in a context of ballistic missile proliferation, and in relationship with the issue of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe

  4. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Hubert, A

    2005-09-15

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  5. La prévalence des helminthoses bovines a-t-elle été modifiée par la canicule de l’été 2003 dans le sud-ouest de la France ?

    Thomas C.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available La comparaison des résultats de 1 917 examens coproscopiques de bovins du midi toulousain montre qu’entre 2002 et 2003, la prévalence et le nombre moyen d’oeufs de grande douve, de paramphistomes, de petite douve et de strongles gastro-intestinaux ont significativement diminué. En revanche, dès l’année suivante, les niveaux parasitaires ont été restaurés. La discussion envisage les différents facteurs qui, à plus ou moins long terme, pourraient aboutir à une évolution durable de l’épidémiologie des helminthoses. Il s’agit d’une adaptation des souches de vers, d’une modification de l’écologie des hôtes intermédiaires et enfin d’un déplacement des hôtes ou des réservoirs. En bilan, un accident climatique comme celui de 2003 ne doit pas aboutir à un relâchement des mesures de lutte contre le parasitisme mais à leur adaptation en étudiant un nouveau calendrier des interventions.

  6. Report of visiting Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The activities carried out by identification mission to the Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) of Paris-Sud University are related. The mission is part of the project of Study on Plasma wave and Plasma turbulence which is part of international agreement between CAPES and COFECUB in France. (M.C.K.)

  7. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace

    Villeneuve, Eric

    Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA 0012. Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc. Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Pour les angles d'attaque etudies avec les revetements, soient -6° et 0°, la balance a une reproductibilite de +/-2,06% a 360 000 de nombre de Reynolds. Pour valider la sensibilite, des essais a -6° et 0° d'angle d'attaque et des nombres de Reynolds de 360 000 et 500 000 ont ete faits avec des papiers sables. Les resultats de ces essais ont permis de, tracer des courbes de tendances du coefficient de trainee du NACA 0012 en fonction de la rugosite de surface et d'etablir la valeur de la sensibilite de la balance a +/-8 mu m. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Cependant, les rugosites equivalentes de surfaces different entre -6° et 0°. Les essais avec le Staclean et le Hirec donnent des coefficients de trainee equivalent a ceux avec l'aluminium, alors que le Wearlon, le Nusil et le Phasebreak donnent une augmentation du coefficient de trainee de 13%, 17% et 25% respectivement par rapport a l'aluminium. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l

  8. Evaluation of the impact and the releases of operating nuclear facilities; Evaluation de l'impact et des rejets des installations nucleaires en fonctionnement normal

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The monitoring of nuclear installations releases, the associated impacts evaluation and the radiation monitoring of the environment are of an increase interest since the last ten years. Theses two days, organized by the environment section of the SFRP (French Society of Radiation Protection), aim to discuss the following topics: the development of the methods to improve radioactive elements and toxic substances releases in the environment; the structure of the environment control and the objectives of this control; the association of the local actors to the releases monitoring and to the environment control; the perspectives of evolution in matter of nuclear facilities releases management. (A.L.B.)

  9. Impact of drilling activities in warm sea: recolonization capacities of seabed; Impact des activites de forage en mer chaude: capacites de recolonisation des fonds marins

    Dalmazzone, Ch.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Lamoureaux, S.; Dutrieux, E.; Durieu, J. [CreOcean, 34 - Montpellier (France); Camps, R. [Total, 64 - Pau (France); Galgani, F. [Ifremer, 34 - Sete (France)

    2004-07-01

    Due to large constraints in environmental regulations, discharge of drill cuttings at sea has to be controlled. It is therefore necessary to get basic information in order to select environment friendly drilling fluids. The present study was intended to assess the impact of cuttings, the capacity of regeneration of the ecosystem and the processes of recolonization of sea-beds. In a first phase, standardized (OSPAR) and experimental toxicity tests, aerobic and anaerobic degradation measurements and lixiviation tests were performed on various types of muds and cuttings (containing diesel oil, two different paraffinic oils, and glycol) in laboratory conditions. In a second phase, the most suitable measurements were taken within the framework of an in situ experiment at a discharge site in Congo (Africa). Cuttings discharge began in November 1993 and ended in April 1999. Together with this survey, a complete analysis of benthos was per formed eight years after the beginning of cuttings discharge. The preliminary results demonstrated: - the zone of extension of the toxicity inducing benthos modifications was less than a few hundred meters around the discharge site; - original fauna was replaced by a more specific fauna. In the more general context of the environmental constraints in the oil industry, our work demonstrated the containment of the impacted zones, the absence of significant risks of modification of the adjacent ecosystems and the possible application to other discharge sites. (authors)

  10. La réception en droit français des institutions familiales de droit musulman : vertus et faiblesses d’un compromis The Reception of Islamic Family Law in France: The Strengths and Weaknesses of a Compromise

    Laurence Brunet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Le propos de cette étude est de tenter de dégager le degré d’accueil du droit français à l’égard de pratiques et de normes musulmanes stigmatisées dans la société française. Le sort en France de quatre institutions familiales est ici envisagé : le mariage polygamique, la répudiation, l’interdiction de l’établissement forcé de la filiation hors mariage, l’interdiction de l’adoption. Le problème se pose devant les tribunaux français lorsqu’il s’agit de faire reconnaître en France une situation constituée à l’étranger. Ainsi du mariage polygamique, célébré dans un pays musulman, d’un homme qui ensuite a vécu et est décédé en France, ou encore de la répudiation prononcée au Maroc ou en Algérie d’une femme musulmane qui vit en France. La question est similaire lorsqu’il s’agit de faire établir la filiation d’un enfant qui, en vertu des règles de son statut de droit musulman, ne peut faire établir sa paternité hors mariage en justice ou être adopté par un individu français. Au stade de la réception de ces institutions musulmanes en France, c’est la question de leur conformité à l’ordre public international français qui est déterminante. En effet le mécanisme de l’ordre public international français fixe le seuil à partir duquel l’institution étrangère est rejetée.La position des juges est marquée par le souci de n’écarter l’application des règles étrangères qu’aux situations qui ont des liens étroits avec le territoire français. Cette conception « proximiste » de l’ordre public milite en faveur d’une approche relativiste des divergences entre les systèmes juridiques. Le compromis ainsi atteint présente l’avantage de la modération mais il peut aussi aboutir à un traitement discriminatoire de certains enfants laissés sans filiation. L’enfant abandonné dans un pays musulman et recueilli par un couple français ne peut en effet b

  11. Tidal energy in France

    Lemperiere, F.

    2010-01-01

    The author first discusses the potential theoretical production of tidal energy in the world and more particularly in France, and compares this potential production with that of hydroelectric energy. He discusses the existence of potentially interesting sites in France in terms of sizing and exploitation modes. He describes the main associated works for turbines and sea walls, impacts on the environment, on the economy and on employment. He discusses the production possibilities and their cost, and the issue of energy storage. He indicates sites which could be built before 2025: Saint-Brieuc, Portbail-Coutainville or Granville, Mers or Cayeux, Penly or Saint-Valery en Caux. For each of this site, the author describes the project implantation, gives an gross assessment of the construction cost, and therefore of the kWh cost

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV-1 transmission in France (1999-2014) and impact of targeted prevention strategies.

    Chaillon, Antoine; Essat, Asma; Frange, Pierre; Smith, Davey M; Delaugerre, Constance; Barin, Francis; Ghosn, Jade; Pialoux, Gilles; Robineau, Olivier; Rouzioux, Christine; Goujard, Cécile; Meyer, Laurence; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-21

    Characterizing HIV-1 transmission networks can be important in understanding the evolutionary patterns and geospatial spread of the epidemic. We reconstructed the broad molecular epidemiology of HIV from individuals with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) enrolled in France in the ANRS PRIMO C06 cohort over 15 years. Sociodemographic, geographic, clinical, biological and pol sequence data from 1356 patients were collected between 1999 and 2014. Network analysis was performed to infer genetic relationships, i.e. clusters of transmission, between HIV-1 sequences. Bayesian coalescent-based methods were used to examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of identified clusters from different regions in France. We also evaluated the use of network information to target prevention efforts. Participants were mostly Caucasian (85.9%) and men (86.7%) who reported sex with men (MSM, 71.4%). Overall, 387 individuals (28.5%) were involved in clusters: 156 patients (11.5%) in 78 dyads and 231 participants (17%) in 42 larger clusters (median size: 4, range 3-41). Compared to individuals with single PHI (n = 969), those in clusters were more frequently men (95.9 vs 83%, p turnaround time for sample processing, targeting prevention efforts based on phylogenetic monitoring may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions but would require near real time targeted interventions on the identified index cases and their partners.

  13. The Impact of Patient Education on Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) and Diabetes Attitude Scale (DAS-3) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    ATAK, Nazlı; KÖSE, Kenan; GÜRKAN, Tanju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to assess the impact of a brief, patient-centered education program on perceived self-efficacy and attitudes towards diabetes of patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed and conducted to assess the impact of education using the DES (Diabetes Empowerment Scale) and DAS-3 (Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire-3), which were administered using a pre- and post-test design. A patient-centered education program was d...

  14. Les nouvelles formes de la communication autour des projets urbains : modalités, impacts, enjeux pour un débat participatif

    Hélène Bailleul

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous observons les évolutions que l’usage des nouvelles technologies implique dans la communication autour des projets urbains. Notre analyse des nouvelles modalités qu’Internet a pu importer dans la participation des habitants aux projets urbains (partie 1 nous pousse à observer, plus spécifiquement, les modifications qui ont trait, dans ce contexte, à la nature et au statut de l’information sur l’espace. La démocratisation des techniques de représentation de l’espace par ordinateur (3D, simulation entraîne le recours quasi systématique à des images virtuelles du projet, d’une grande qualité (partie 2, mais dont on ne connaît que très peu les impacts sur la perception et la réception que les habitants font du projet (partie 3.In this article, we observe the evolutions involved by the use of new technology in the communication around urban projects. Our analysis of the new modalities, Internet was able to import in the participation of inhabitants in urban projects (chapter 1 urges us to examine, more specifically, the modifications concerning the nature and the status of the information about space. The democratization of computer-based spatial representation’s tools (3D, simulation entails more and more systematic recourse to virtual images of the project, with high definition (chapter 2. But, nowadays, we still know little about their impacts on the perception and the reception, the inhabitants make of the project (chapter 3.

  15. Impacts de la déficience maternelle modérée en fer sur le développement des fonctions auditives et le métabolisme des acides gras et eicosanoïdes de la progéniture

    Jougleux, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Tableau d'honneur de la Faculté des études supérieures et postdorales, 2014-2015 Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer les impacts de la l’anémie ferriprive (AF) modérée durant la gestation et la lactation, sur les fonctions neurophysiologiques des voies auditives, ainsi que sur les fonctions métaboliques de la progéniture du cochon d’Inde (Cavia porcellus). Elle s’articule selon 2 volets d’études distincts (protocoles 1 et 2), basés tant sur la composition en fer des diètes, que sur l...

  16. PREMIÈRE CARACTÉRISATION MORPHOLOGIQUE, BIOLOGIQUE ET GÉNÉTIQUE DES POPULATIONS DE GRANDE ALOSE (ALOSA ALOSA ET D’ALOSE FEINTE (ALOSA FALLAX SPP. DE LA CHARENTE (FRANCE.

    VÉRON V.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les deux espèces d’aloses atlantiques (Alosa alosa et A. fallax colonisent la Charente mais leurs populations n’ont jamais été décrites à la différence de celles des grands fleuves français voisins. Les propriétés physiques du bassin sont présentées en terme de qualité de l’eau, d’habitats et d’obstacles à la migration. Les grandes aloses colonisent la Charente jusqu’en amont d’Angoulême (171 km lorsque les conditions hydrauliques des mois d’avril et mai effacent les 21 barrages situés en aval. Des frayères actives ont été localisées sur cette portion du fleuve. Les aloses feintes sont bloquées plus en aval par le barrage de Crouin (102 km, aval de Cognac et une seule frayère active a été repérée. L’abondance de ces deux stocks d’alose ne peut pas être estimée car les seules données disponibles, faute de dispositifs de contrôle des migrations, proviennent des captures faites par pêche professionnelle et à la ligne. La caractérisation morphologique et génétique des deux espèces a été faite à partir de comptages méristiques, de mesures morphométriques et de prélèvements (écaille, tissus et sang réalisés en 1997 et 1998. Le nombre total moyen de branchiospines du premier arc branchial gauche chez les grandes aloses est de 125 contre 42 chez les feintes. Quelle que soit l’espèce et à âge égal, les femelles ont une taille moyenne supérieure à celle des mâles. Les femelles de grande alose sont âgées en moyenne de 5 ans et les mâles de 4 ans, aucun des poissons échantillonnés ne présentant de marques de reproduction antérieure. Les femelles et les mâles d’alose feinte sont âgés en moyenne de 3 ans, 12,5 % des femelles se sont déjà reproduites une fois et 3,5 % deux fois. Chez les mâles, 40 % se sont déjà reproduits une fois. La plage temporelle de reproduction a été déterminée par suivi de terrain et enquête. Celle des grandes aloses se situe entre la premi

  17. L'impact des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques posés par la nouvelle conjoncture dans l'exploration et la production du pétrole Impact of Scientific Developments on the Solving of Technical Problems Raised by the New Economic Situation in Oil Exploration and Production

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les circonstances difficiles que traverse l'exploration et la production du pétrole, le savoir-faire technologique, associé à la maîtrise des coûts, seront pour l'industrie pétrolière et parapétrolière des atouts essentiels. On envisage ici l'impact prévisible des développements scientifiques sur la résolution des problèmes techniques dans l'exploration et la production. Les principales disciplines scientifiques concernées (géologie, géophysique, géochimie, mécanique des roches et des sols, mécanique des fluides, physicochimie des interfaces ainsi que trois techniques de base (modélisation, systèmes experts, matériaux nouveaux sont examinées dans ce sens. En particulier,la modélisation numérique voit son importance croître de manière spectaculaire : elle couvre désormais des domaines nouveaux, comme les Sciences de la Terre, et continue à s'enrichir de développements importants, même dans les secteurs où on l'utilise depuis 20 ans comme la production. Ces évolutions s'accompagneront nécessairement d'ajustements dans la formation des hommes et le fonctionnement des organisations; en particulier un espace nouveau pourrait se dégager pour de petites entreprises de conseil et de service plus riches en matière grise qu'en investissements lourds. In the difficult circumstances now confronting oil exploration and production, technical know-how combined with cost control will be essential assets for the petroleum and petroleum equipment and service industries. This article considers the foreseeable impact of scientific developments on the solving of technical problems in exploration and production. The principal scientific disciplines involved (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, rock and soil mechanics, fluid mechanics, interface physicochemistry as well as three basic techniques (modeling, expert systems, new materials are examined within this context. In particular, numerical modeling is increasing in

  18. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Pétillon, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  19. Operation disturbance by wind turbines of fixed radars from civil aviation, national defense, Meteo-France, and maritime and fluvial harbors and navigation (PNM); Perturbations par les aerogenerateurs du fonctionnement des radars fixes de l'Aviation civile, de la Defense nationale, de Meteo-France et des ports et navigation maritime et fluviale (PNM)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Wind turbines and the movement of their blades can have penalizing effects on the processing of radars data. These disturbances can have a strong impact on the air, maritime and fluvial safety, on the protection of the territory and on the prevention of natural hazards. Reports made by the national agency of frequencies (ANFR) have established recommendations for the definition of protection areas (5 km) and coordination areas (5 to 30 km) which have to be taken into consideration prior to any project of wind turbine. (J.S.)

  20. « Ni bas-bleu, ni pot-au-feu » : la conception de « la » femme selon Augusta Moll-Weiss (France, tournant des XIXe-XXe siècles

    Sandrine Roll

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse les idées et l’œuvre de la directrice de l’École des mères, Augusta Moll-Weiss. Dans le contexte du tournant des XIXe-XXe siècles où l’éloge de la ménagère est un thème récurrent des discours moralisateurs émanant des ouvriers ou des bourgeois, Augusta Moll-Weiss met en place un projet de cours ménagers. Son œuvre offre une approche singulière de ce que des activités reconnues comme typiquement féminines peuvent offrir aux femmes. Loin de former uniquement des « fées du logis », les cours professés à l’École des mères donnent aussi aux élèves la possibilité de se préparer à une carrière professionnelle. Augusta Moll-Weiss imagine alors pléthore de débouchés qui placent les activités « du souci des autres » dans la sphère du travail social. Son engagement en faveur de l’enseignement ménager s’accompagne d’une réflexion sur de nouveaux modèles domestiques susceptibles d’accompagner l’entrée des femmes sur le marché du travail. La rationalisation et le partage sexué des tâches domestiques ainsi que la question du temps partiel sont au cœur de son projet. Aux marges de la philanthropie et du féminisme, Augusta Moll-Weiss s’engage donc dans une stratégie de reconnaissance du rôle des femmes dans l’espace civique. Après avoir présenté l’œuvre scolaire de cette femme, cet article s’intéresse à sa vision de la « Ménagère nouvelle » et à son approche du féminisme.This article explores the ideas and works of the Augusta Moll-Weiss, head of the École des mères. The latter started housewifery lessons at the turn of the 19th century at a moment when public discourse among both working and upper-class reformers sang the praises of the housewife. Her work offered a new approach to these typically feminine activities. Far from training only “angels of the home”, the lessons given at the Mothers’ School also offered students the possibility of

  1. Forecasting the Quantity and Activity of Fission Products in France in Future Years in the Light of Atomic Energy Development; Quantite et Activite des Produits de Fission Obtenus en France dans les Annees a Venir Compte Tenu du Developpement de l'Energie Atomique; 041a 041e 041b 0414 ; Cantidad y Actividad de los Productos de Fision que se Obtendran en Francia en los Anos Venideros, Habida Cuenta del Desarrollo de la Energia Atomica

    Guirlet, J.; Lavie, J. M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    With the aid of Wigner and Way's formula it is possible to predict theoretically the activity of the complex mixture of fission products originating in a reactor. Account is taken in the study of prospective nuclear power production in France up to 1975. It is assumed that the uranium stays in the reactor for periods of three and of six months. It is also possible to determine the activity of a given fission product and to calculate its decay time. The substance selected was strontium for an activation period of three months. Each group of curves shows total activity at any moment and the activity of particular fission products over a given period. (author) [French] En utilisant la formule de Wigner et Way, il est possible de prevoir theoriquement l'activite du melange complexe de produits de fission provenant d'une pile. L'etude a ete faite en tenant compte de previsions en ce qui concerne en France la production d'electricite d'origine atomique jusqu'en 1975. On a suppose des temps de sejour en pile de l'uranium de trois mois et de six mois. Il est possible egalement de trouver l'activite d'un produit de fission particulier, et de donner sa decroissance. Le corps choisi est le strontium pour un temps d'activation de trois mois. Chaque ensemble de courbes donne a tout instant l'activite totale, et l'activite propre des produits de fission correspondant a une periode donnee. (author) [Spanish] Empleando la formula de Wigner y Way se puede calcular teoricamente la actividad de la mezcla compleja de productos de fision procedentes de una pila. Para esta memoria se han tenido en cuenta las previsiones de produccion de electricidad nucleoelectrica en Francia hasta 1975. Los autores suponen que el uranio permanece tres o seis meses en la pila y han conseguido determinar la actividad de un producto de fision determinado, asi como su periodo de desintegracion. Han escogido el estroncio, con un tiempo de activacion de 3 meses. Cada conjunto de curvas da la actividad total

  2. La maison des mathématiques

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  3. The coal. Its place in the world, the specifical problems of the european countries and more particularly the France; Le charbon. Sa place dans le monde, les problemes specifiques des pays d'Europe et tout particulierement de la France

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In a first part, the work group presents the available resources and studies the coal world market evolution. Then in a second time it discusses the european situation, and especially the french and german situation. The last part is devoted to the reconversion of the mines in France, the problems with the example of the coal basin of north of France. (A.L.B.)

  4. Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des ...

    En considérant l'effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d'autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l'impact de ces derniers sur ...

  5. Gender as a prognostic factor and its impact on the incidence of multiple sclerosis in Lorraine, France.

    Debouverie, M

    2009-11-15

    We sought to identify (a) the change of incidence rates among gender from 1990 to 2002 from the LORSEP (Lorraine Multiple Sclerosis) population-based cohort, and (b) the role of gender as a predictive demographic factor of disability during the initial course of the disease among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The incidence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lorraine, France, have significantly increased in women, but not in men, from 1990 to 2002 but this increase in incidence of MS was not related to a better ascertainment of patients with mild disability. A total of 2871 MS patients were analyzed. For relapsing-remitting (RR) patients, a multivariate analysis showed that a shorter time to the assignment of an EDSS score of 3 and 4 was associated with the late onset MS, incomplete recovery from the first relapse and a high number of relapses during the first 5 years after the MS onset. Median times were not influenced by gender or by time between the first two relapses. The data were very different for the time between the assignment of scores of 4 and 6, since the median times were not influenced by any of the predicting variables.

  6. Budget impact analysis of heparin-bonded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts (Propaten) against standard polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for below-the-knee bypass in patients with critical limb ischaemia in France

    Vergnaud, Simon; Riche, Valéry-Pierre; Tessier, Philippe; Mauduit, Nicolas; Kaladji, Adrien; Gouëffic, Yann

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the budget impact of progressive replacement of standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts by heparin-bound PTFE (Propaten) for below-the-knee (BTK) bypass in patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Design From a review of the scientific literature, we calculated a theoretical BTK primary patency for Propaten grafts. Using the French hospital expenditure database (PMSI), we retrospectively estimated a rehospitalisation rate for standard PTFE grafts. From these data, a model was created to assess the budget impact of a progressive replacement from standard PTFE grafts to Propaten grafts over a 5-year horizon. We performed an univariate sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness of our results. Setting French National Health Insurance (FNHI) perspective. Participant Patients with CLI. Main outcome measures Budget impact analysis. Results Data extraction from the PMSI revealed that 656 patients were treated with PTFE grafts in 2011 in French public hospitals for a BTK bypass. Assuming a 2-year survival rate of 76.8%, observed reinterventions rate for standard PTFE grafts at 24 months from the PMSI was 35.1%. The mean rehospitalisation cost was €10 689. The budget impact analysis based on these data found a net cumulative 5-year payer budget reduction of €112 420 in favour of Propaten, under the assumption of a 75.6% primary patency for Propaten grafts for a projected population of 3215 patients of which 801 received a Propaten graft. Conclusions Our budget impact analysis showed a positive impact on the national health insurance budget of the replacement of standard PTFE grafts by Propaten grafts for BTK bypass in patients with CLI in France. This supports the enactment of a reimbursement policy by the FNHI. PMID:29490953

  7. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  8. Quelques noddees sur l’ecologie de la vedetation des dunes et sur la fonction de l’enraciment dans l’edification de dunes a la Cote Mediterraneenne de la France. I

    Boterenbrood, A.J.; Donsellaar-Ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.; Donselaar, van J.

    1956-01-01

    Dans la végétation des dunes du Languedoc J. BRAUN-BLANQUET (1952) distingue trois associations, à savoir; 1) l’Agropyretum mediterraneum parmi et sur les premières dunes basses; 2) l’Ammophiletum arundinaceae sur les dunes plus hautes; et 3) le Crucianelletum maritimae dans les dépressions et en

  9. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Laurent, Olivier [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); University of California, Irvine, Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Irvine, CA (United States); Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, IRSN, PRP-HOM, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay aux Roses (France); Richardson, David B. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline [Inserm, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Environmental Epidemiology of Cancer Team, Villejuif (France); Paris-Sud University, UMRS 1018, Villejuif (France); Ielsch, Geraldine [French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Assessment Unit for Risks Related to Natural Radioactivity, IRSN, PRP-DGE, SEDRAN, BRN, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2013-05-15

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  10. Potential impacts of radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays on childhood leukemia in France: a quantitative risk assessment

    Laurent, Olivier; Ancelet, Sophie; Laurier, Dominique; Richardson, David B.; Hemon, Denis; Demoury, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline; Ielsch, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies and quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have suggested that natural background radiation may be a cause of childhood leukemia. The present work uses a QRA approach to predict the excess risk of childhood leukemia in France related to three components of natural radiation: radon, cosmic rays and terrestrial gamma rays, using excess relative and absolute risk models proposed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Both models were developed from the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Previous risk assessments were extended by considering uncertainties in radiation-related leukemia risk model parameters as part of this process, within a Bayesian framework. Estimated red bone marrow doses cumulated during childhood by the average French child due to radon, terrestrial gamma and cosmic rays are 4.4, 7.5 and 4.3 mSv, respectively. The excess fractions of cases (expressed as percentages) associated with these sources of natural radiation are 20 % [95 % credible interval (CI) 0-68 %] and 4 % (95 % CI 0-11 %) under the excess relative and excess absolute risk models, respectively. The large CIs, as well as the different point estimates obtained under these two models, highlight the uncertainties in predictions of radiation-related childhood leukemia risks. These results are only valid provided that models developed from the LSS can be transferred to the population of French children and to chronic natural radiation exposures, and must be considered in view of the currently limited knowledge concerning other potential risk factors for childhood leukemia. Last, they emphasize the need for further epidemiological investigations of the effects of natural radiation on childhood leukemia to reduce uncertainties and help refine radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  11. Early screening for type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes mellitus in France: hardly any impact of the 2010 guidelines.

    Goueslard, K; Cottenet, J; Mariet, A-S; Sagot, P; Petit, J-M; Quantin, C

    2017-07-01

    Women who had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the years following pregnancy. Most follow-up screening studies have been conducted in limited geographical areas leading to large variability in the results. The aim of our investigation was to measure how the publication of guidelines affected early screening for T2DM after a pregnancy with GDM during the period 2007-2013, in France. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a representative sample of 1/97th of the French population using data from the "National Health Insurance Inter-Regime Information System," which collects individual hospital and non-hospital data for healthcare consumption. The sample included 49,080 women who gave birth in 2007-2013. In the following 3 months, only 18.49% of women with GDM had an oral glucose tolerance test or a blood glucose test in 2007. This rate had not significantly increased in 2013 (p = 0.18). The proportion of women with GDM who had the recommended glycemic follow-up at 3 months (20.30 vs. 21.58%, p = 0.19) and 6 months (32.48 vs. 37.16%, p = 0.08) was not significantly different before the guidelines (2008-2009) and after the guidelines (2012-2013). At 12 months, the difference was significant (46.77 vs. 54.05%, p = 0.009). Postpartum screening has improved only slightly since the guidelines and remains largely insufficient, with less than 25% of women with GDM screened in the first 3 months. In the first year after delivery, less than 60% of women were screened for T2DM.

  12. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  13. Comparison of the Tritium permeated from ITER Blanket in normal operation and its short range impact of HT over France, Swiss or Spain

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we assumes the hydrogen isotopes permeation from a liquid metal ITER breeder blanket (assuming normal operation and a LM as DCLL or HCLL blanket) as one of the possible sources of a leak and tritium release,mainly but not only. The paper presents a short range low impact of HT gas activity over France, Swiss or Spain from same cases in 2014 and 2015 releases from ITER. The permeation of hydrogen isotopes is an important experimental issue to take into account into the development of a Tritium Breeder Module for ITER [1]. Tritium cannot be confined -without an uncertainty of 5% in the flux permeation- and therefore HT can be detected (e.g. by ionization chamber) as permeates though the structure of RAFM steel towards the coolant [1]. HT from Pb15.7Li and permeated in Eurofer97 can contaminate the other parts of the system and may be delivered though the normal-vent detritiation system (NVDS). Real time forecast of transport of tritium in air from the fusion reactor towards off-site far downwind though extended tritium clouds into the low levels of the atmosphere is calculated for the short range (up to 24 hours) by the coupling of 2 models the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) [2] model and the FLEXPART lagrangian dispersion model [3] verified with NORMTRI simulation [4] and implemented in many different cases and scenarios [5, 6, 7]. As a function of daily weather conditions the release will affect just France or already can be delivered towards Swiss when cyclonic circulation, or towards the Iberian Peninsula or Balearic Islands (Spain) when high produce anticyclonic circulation of the air over the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  14. Preliminary manual of the wind farms impacts study; Manuel preliminaire de l'etude d'impact des parcs eoliens

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This document aims to present and propose tools and methods allowing the improve the environmental quality of the future wind farms projects. After a presentation of general notions on the wind farms and the economy of the wind energy, it presents the regulation and the procedures concerning the environmental impact. It proposes then the main possible effects and the impacts study themes. (A.L.B.)

  15. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France

    Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...

  16. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    Jacob, Céline, E-mail: celine.jacob@cefe.cnrs.fr [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France); Pioch, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.pioch@gmail.com [CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS - Université de Montpellier - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier - EPHE - Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier, Route de Mende 34 199 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Thorin, Sébastien, E-mail: thorin@creocean.fr [CREOCEAN, Les Belvédères, Bâtiment B, 128, Avenue de Fès, 34080 Montpellier (France)

    2016-09-15

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  17. The effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in environmental impact studies on marine ecosystems: A case study in France

    Jacob, Céline; Pioch, Sylvain; Thorin, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    While the development of maritime economic activity is increasingly encouraged, the consideration of its impacts constitutes a real challenge. The limitations of the implementation of the mitigation hierarchy have been widely discussed in scientific literature, yet data on marine biodiversity offset practices remains scarce. In this study, we investigated the use of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) as suitable instruments to achieve the No Net Loss objective. Drawing on a French approach developed for the initial assessment of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, we examined the pressures and impacts related to various marine development projects and the effectiveness of the mitigation hierarchy in limiting these. An analysis of 55 recent French environmental impact studies showed that only 7% of the proposed measures had the aim of offsetting predicted degradation of sites of remarkable biodiversity. This can be partly explained by the lack of a clear definition of ‘significant impact’, which varies greatly depending on what is impacted, in turn allowing socio-economic activities to benefit more easily from offset. Furthermore, offsetting does not always constitute the final step of the mitigation hierarchy, highlighting the need to reinforce avoidance and reduction steps. Although we acknowledge the role of EIA in mitigating the negative impacts of development projects, synergies with other European marine environmental policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Maritime Spatial Planning directive (MSP) should be developed in order to improve current practices. - Highlights: • Avoidance measures were not well represented in the Environmental Impact Assessments studied. • Few significant residual impacts and measures to offset these were described. • Common biodiversity did not benefit from offset measures. • The equivalency of proposed marine offsets is questionable.

  18. Original Paper Analyses électrochimiques des eaux de pluie ...

    être aussi une source de maladies, car il véhicule d'innombrables substances chimiques telles que les ions ..... des ajouts dosés confirme l'absence des ions iodures dans les eaux de pluie, car aucun pic correspondant à ..... of car, truck, bus and subway wash station discharges to stormwater pollution (Toulouse, France).

  19. 75 caracteristiques et evolution des operations de fusions

    Elles apparaissent enfin comme un moyen à la disposition des entreprises de grande taille afin de se développer en acquérant des PME. Mots clés : Fusions & Acquisitions, Tunisie, Industrie, Commerce. Classification JEL : L26, G34. *. Chercheur associé au CEPN, Université Paris 13, PRES Sorbonne Paris-Cité,. France.

  20. 55 Degré d'impact des aménagements hydrauliques sur le ...

    AKA BOKO

    Hydraulics installations impact degree on streaming and solid transport : case of micro-basins in the top Isser, Algeria. Erosion is a whole of variable processes in time and space. The variation is done according to the ecological conditions and of the bad conditions of management of the ground by the man. This is why the ...

  1. 97 Épandage des margines sur les sols agricoles : impacts ...

    AKA BOKO

    Spreading of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soils: environmental microbiological impacts. It has been shown that the olive mill effluents (OME), which are a waste water of olive oil extraction process, constitutes an alternative among the solutions proposed. Thus provided that this operation should be realized by a ...

  2. Impact of pozzolanic binder addition on stabilization of polluted dredged sediments on its potential reuse as a new material resource for road construction in Basse Normandie, France

    Silitonga, E.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the increase of the amount of marine dredged sediments (MDS) and the cost of managing the disposal site is very high, a reutilization of dredged sediment is urgently needed in France. The primary goal of this research is to find a domain for reuse of MDS materials as a new material regarding the environmental issues, and other requirement needed. In this study, the MDS was used as replacement material in road construction. Hence, various tests need to be realized to identify if MDS could achieve the requirement needed in this domain. The secondary objective is to enhance the geotechnical characteristic and to reduce the pollution content of the MDS, by incorporating binders and sediments, and revealed the geotechnical characteristic. The geotechnical test result shows that the stabilization by hydraulics binders improve the geotechnical characteristic and could fulfil the requirement needed. The present of Fly Ash and Silica Fume in this study is aimed to reduce the pollution level, especially the heavy metal content. After the geotechnical study in laboratory results shows as expected then the study to identify the chemical characteristic was realized. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts, leaching test was performed. The Leaching test result shows that with 7% of Silica Fume and 10% of Fly Ash capable to fulfil the criteria needed, hence, the use of MDS is consider safe in term of geotechnical and environmental impact, as a new material in road construction

  3. Deliberation of the commission of electricity regulation relative to the definition of the modalities of allocation, for the year 2002, of the transfrontier transit capacities between France and Italy; Deliberation de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite relative a la definition des modalites d'attribution pour l'annee 2002 des capacites de transit transfrontalier entre la France et l'Italie

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This regulatory text from the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) defines the annual and secondary allocation of electricity transit capacity between France and Italy. Transit capacity allocations are jointly implemented by the French and Italian public network management authorities (RTE and GRTN, respectively). (J.S.)

  4. Perceptions locales de la manifestation des changements ...

    SARAH

    . PRPR. ERMA. DC. UD cluster 1 cluster 2. Pauvres. Riches et moyens. Figure 4. Positionnement des classes d'impacts socio-économiques des changements climatiques dans un système d'axes de l'analyse factorielle des ...

  5. Assimilation des débits dans le modèle hydrologique du système AIGA

    Demargne, J.; Javelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    / Cette étude a été réalisée pour le SCHAPI (Service Central d'Hydrométéorologie et d'Appui à la Prévision des Inondations) et l'Irstea pour tester l'impact d'une assimilation des observations de débit sur les performances du système d'avertissement aux crues rapides AIGA. En collaboration avec l'IRSTEA, le SCHAPI développe actuellement un service d'avertissement automatisé valable sur l'ensemble de la France, qui sera complété par un service expertisé d'avertissement sur des bassins dits pri...

  6. Future health impact assessment of air pollution at the global, European and Ile-de-France scales: the Air Pollution Climate Health Impact Assessment (A-C HIA) project

    Likhvar, Victoria; Hauglustaine, Didier; Kinney, Patrick; Colette, Augustin; Valari, Myrto; Markakis, Konstandinos; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Ozone and fine particles are current risk factors for premature death all over the globe. In coming decades, substantial improvements in public health may be achieved by reducing air pollution. The overall objective of the A-C HIA project (2011-2014) was to apply state of the art climate, air quality, and health modelling tools to assess future health impacts of O 3 and PM2.5 under different scenarios of emissions for the period 2030-2050. A-C HIA created an interdisciplinary team to study the impacts of climate change on health through air quality changes, and to establish longer-term collaborations between communities. This question has been explored at three spatial scales: global, regional (Europe), and urban (ile-de-France). We f ind that 1.5 millions of cardio-vascular deaths could be delayed each year in 2030 compared to 2010. In Europe, air-pollution-related mortality should decrease in 2030 compared to 2010. At the finer scale (ile-de-France) we found that the respiratory mortality should increase over the highly populated area of Paris. In the coming years, substantial benefits to public health could be achieved through coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and improving air quality. (authors)

  7. Impact loads on the pressure vessel top; Beanspruchung des Reaktordruckbehaelter-Deckelbereiches

    Krieg, R.; Malmberg, T.; Messemer, G.

    1995-08-01

    A steam explosion can cause core melt to be bounced against the internal side of the RPV top. The bouncing velocity up to which the top can withstand the impact is to be determined. Plausible assumptions about a core melt mass of 80000 kg result in a tolerable maximum bouncing velocity of about 200 m/s. Reliable estimates are expected from the BERDA experiments simulating a pessimistic course of events on a 1:10 scale. (orig.)

  8. LA CHUTE DES PRIX DE PETROLE : QUELS IMPACTS POUR L’ECONOMIE TUNISIENNE ?

    Dhaoui, Elwardi

    2015-01-01

    Oil prices have fallen by about half since September 2014. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided not to reduce production. The euro zone, China, Japan and Russia recorded slower rates of economic growth than expected. All combine to keep a sharp decline of oil prices which can be persistent. This new situation has profoundly changed the economic environment of the country. The impact will vary depending on the countries if they are exporters or importers of oil. For...

  9. Impacts de l'Enherbement du Vignoble Alsacien sur le Transfert des Nitrates.

    TOURNEBIZE , Julien

    2001-01-01

    Encadrante: Caroline GREGOIRE; The water quality of the Alsacian aquifer degrades principally because of nitrates. This pollution originates partly from the vineyard situated in the Piemont area of the Vosges massif which is a preferential zone of aquifer recharge. The main objective of the Enherbement du Vignoble Alsacien (EVA) project is to quantify the impact of an agri-environmental technique : to put grass in one out of two vine inter rows. The methodology of this work is based on the as...

  10. Integrative modelling approaches for analysis of impact of multifunctional agriculture: a review for France, Germany and The Netherlands

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Zander, P.; Josien, E.; Groot, J.C.J.; Meyer, B.C.; Knierim, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews integrative modelling approaches which were developed to analyze the impact of multifunctional agriculture, or which may be used as such. The approaches are integrative in combining multiple goals of agriculture, and confronting these with current or potential performance of

  11. Organic Matter in the Early Toarcian Shales, Paris Basin, France: a Response to Environmental Changes La matière organique dans les argiles du Toarcien inférieur du bassin de Paris, France : un enregistrement des changements d'environnement

    Hollander D. J.

    2006-11-01

    éogéographique dans lequel s'est fait le dépôt des black shales du Toarcien inférieur en Europe du Nord semble relativement bien établi - des bassins individualisés à l'intérieur des mers épicontinentales adjacentes à la marge de la Téthys -, l'environnement de dépôt à l'origine de l'accumulation de ces black shales reste controversé et a fait l'objet de nombreux modèles. La présente étude, menée sur une carotte prélevée dans les Schistes Carton du Bassin de Paris, apporte sa contribution à la détermination de leur environnement de dépôt, en intégrant les aspects géochimiques, pétrologiques, isotopiques et moléculaires. Tout au long de la section de 16 m étudiée, qui couvre la zone à falciferum et la zone à bifrons pro parte, et dont la matière organique est encore au stade immature (Tmax autour de 430, les caractéristiques moléculaires et pétrographiques restent remarquablement uniformes : les chromatogrammes des hydrocarbures saturés sont dominés par des n-alcanes de C15 à C18, présentent une quantité significative d'isoprénoïdes, un rapport Pr/Ph systématiquement supérieur à 1 et une contribution importante d'hydrocarbures polycycliques (hopanes, stéranes et méthylstéranes. Les argiles sont laminées, sans traces de bioturbation; des framboïdes de pyrite sont présents dans toute la série; seule variation, les concrétions dolomitiques et calcitiques riches en Mg et les horizons carbonatés plus abondants dans la partie inférieure de la série. La matière organique figurée, de composition quasiment constante, est formée essentiellement d'algues avec une contribution mineure en débris de plantes terrestres. Tous ces résultats attestent de l'origine marine de la matière organique (algaire et bactérienne, la matière organique d'origine terrestre n'intervenant que de manière secondaire. Ils impliquent par ailleurs, que l'environnement à l'interface eau/sédiments est resté anoxique et calme durant le dépôt de la s

  12. Model France. Efficiently achieving climate protection targets. Nuclear power phase-out scenario adapted in favour of climate protection; Vorbild Frankreich. Klimaschutzziele effizient erreichen. Ausstiegszenario Kernkraft zugunsten des Klimaschutzes angepasst

    Leidinger, Tobias [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    In Germany - after an abrupt, legally controversial and in some cases unconstitutional phase-out of nuclear power (''at any price'') - the next phase-out of is now being negotiated among new coalition partners. In France, on the other hand, energy and climate protection seem to be in the clear sense of the word: the French nuclear phase-out scenario is clearly being ''stretched out'' in order to achieve the promised climate protection targets. Reason seems to have the upper hand in France: instead of ''black-and-white scenarios'', one prefers to stick to what is in reality feasible and achievable. In reality, the expansion of renewable energies, the regulation of the transport sector and electricity production from nuclear energy are not opposites, but complement each other in the interests of affordable energy and effective climate protection.

  13. L'impact de Quizlet sur la dynamique motivationnelle des élèves lors de l'apprentissage du vocabulaire allemand

    André, Joanne; Berrio, Lucas; Pellet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Pour ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'effet que pouvait avoir les TIC sur la motivation des élèves. Nous nous sommes penchés sur la plate-forme web Quizlet qui propose différents outils pour réviser un contenu préalablement défini par l'enseignant. Ainsi, nous avons dirigé notre recherche sur l'impact de Quizlet sur la dynamique motivationnelle des élèves dans le cadre de l'apprentissage du vocabulaire allemand. Nous comparons cette méthode d'apprentissage avec les méthodes dites t...

  14. L'émergence du photovoltaïque en France à la lumière des tarifs d'achat: exploration d'une technologie modulaire entre politiques et marchés

    Cointe , Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the recent evolutions of photovoltaics in France, and in particular the rise of grid-connected photovoltaics as it was triggered by support policies set up in the 2000s. The chosen actor-network theory approach leads to a material and relational descrption of French photovoltaics as modular technologies whose development was driven by political prices in the shape of feed-in tariffs for PV-generated electricity. From this perspective, the intertwinement of technological e...

  15. Business model et positionnements voulus des nouveaux concepts de proximité en France : une grille d'analyse appliquée à la branche proximité de Casino

    Capo , Claire; CHANUT , Odile

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In France, new brands of proximity stores make up for the decrease of growth of GMS and meet an increased demand for convenience and services in city centers. They are based on a "generic business model": a high cost structure, an offer composed mainly of Private Brands and of many services and a franchise system. However, each brand of retail store has a specific desirable characterized by different types of proximity. This desirable positioning is analyzed through as...

  16. Comments on the A. Aurengo document entitled 'the 2003 I.R.S.N. model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France' - 18 december 2005; Commentaires sur le document d'A. Aurengo intitule 'Le modele IRSN 2003 des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France' - 18 decembre 2005

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The present document brings the principal comments of I.R.S.N. on the analysis note of the 18. december 2005 treating the 2003 I.R.S.N. model on the Chernobylsk accident fallout in France, transmitted by Mister A. Aurengo. (N.C.)

  17. Reduction of the greenhouse effect by geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2} in basic rocks: bibliographic synthesis and possibilities in France. Final report; Reduction de l'effet de serre par sequestration geologique minerale in-situ de CO{sub 2} au sein de roches basiques: synthese bibliographique et revue des potentialites en France. Rapport final

    Marechal, J.C.; Lachassagne, P

    2004-07-01

    The report constitutes a first bibliographic study defining the environments the most adapted to the geological mineral in-situ sequestration of CO{sub 2}. For each environment the lithology and the rocks permeability and porosity are analyzed. Thus the possible rocks and deposits in France are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Labeyrie, J; Chateau, L [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France); and others

    2001-07-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  19. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  20. Outils numériques nomades : les effets sur l’attention des étudiants

    Nicolas Guichon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La recherche sur le numérique en éducation est parvenue à une étape où peut être dressé un portrait plus nuancé des usages des outils numériques en contexte d’apprentissage. S’inscrivant dans une perspective sociocritique (Selwyn, 2007, cet article vise à apprécier les effets éventuellement négatifs résultant de l’utilisation des outils numériques nomades pendant le face-à-face didactique. Une enquête par questionnaire a été conduite auprès d’un échantillon d’étudiants internationaux (n=227 poursuivant leurs études dans un Centre de Langues en France. Cette recherche a permis d’examiner leurs habitudes de connexion en mettant au jour la fréquence et la motivation d’utilisation d’outils numériques pendant et hors le face-à-face avec leurs enseignants. Elle a également donné l’occasion de saisir l’impact ressenti de l’utilisation des outils numériques en classe par les participants sur leur attention. Les résultats de cette recherche permettent, in fine, d’examiner de quelle façon le contrat didactique est questionné par l’usage des outils numériques nomades.

  1. Energy in France

    Benard, M.

    1992-01-01

    Geography and clear political leadership have combined to put France in the forefront of both nuclear and hydro-electric generation and energy efficiency so that about 90% of France's electricity is generated by non-fossil fuels. This article explains how and why France has developed its energy mix. (Author)

  2. Impact of multiple sclerosis on employment and use of job-retention strategies: The situation in France in 2015.

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Kwiatkowski, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick; Roux, Bastien; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Leroyer, Ariane

    2016-06-13

    The main objective of this survey of persons with multiple sclerosis was to describe their employment situation. Secondary objectives were to ascertain when and how multiple sclerosis symptoms first impact employment per se and what strategies persons with multiple sclerosis use to cope with their employment problems. A retrospective survey was conducted to collect data from persons with multiple sclerosis aged 18 years and over, using a computer-assisted web tool. A total of 941 respondents were working at the time of multiple sclerosis diagnosis or had worked subsequently. Median time since diagnosis was 10 years. Multiple sclerosis had an impact on employment for 74.3% of respondents. The overall employment rate at the time of the survey was 68.1%; 27.2% had discontinued their occupational activity for a multiple sclerosis-related reason. Median time from diagnosis to multiple sclerosis-related cessation of occupational activity was 24.0 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-26.3 years). Respondents were poorly aware of available tools designed to assist them in retaining employment. This study highlights the importance of early intervention by the occupational medicine physician in order to favour job retention and use of available tools by all workers with MS and not only those with a recognized status as a disabled worker.

  3. Désaménagement du territoire: l'énergie en France

    Roger Brunet

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La France a connu des époques d’assez large diffusion des ressources énergétiques. La tendance récente est à la reconcentration sur les axes déjà les plus lourdement chargés du territoire national, au risque des accidents de transport, et de nouveaux déséquilibres.

  4. Des racines et des ailes

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  5. Focus – La co-digestion anaérobie des boues d’épuration et de déchets organiques d’origine périurbaine

    BÉLINE, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En France, et ce principalement pour des raisons économiques, la méthanisation des boues d’épuration est encore peu appliquée dans les stations de petite et moyenne capacité. Pour améliorer le bilan économique de la digestion anaérobie des boues d’épuration dans ce type de station, il est possible de compléter les alimentations du digesteur par d’autres substrats organiques à plus fort potentiel énergétique et déjà présents sur le territoire. Quels sont les impacts de tels procédés et comment optimiser leur intégration dans la filière de traitement des eaux ?

  6. Impact of socio-economic position on health and quality of care in adults with Type 2 diabetes in France: the Entred 2007 study.

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Fagot-Campagna, A; Detournay, B; Bihan, H; Eschwege, E; Gautier, A; Druet, C

    2015-11-01

    To describe the association between socio-economic position, health status and quality of diabetes care in people with Type 2 diabetes in France, where people may receive full healthcare coverage for chronic disease. Data from a national cross-sectional survey performed in people pharmacologically treated for diabetes were used. They combined data from medical claims, hospital discharge, questionnaires for patients (n = 3894 with Type 2 diabetes) and their physicians (n = 2485). Socio-economic position was assessed using educational level (low, intermediate, high) and ability to make ends meet (financial difficulties vs. financially comfortable). People with diabetes reporting financial difficulties were more likely to be smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6) and obese (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.6) and to have poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c > 64 mmol/mol (8%); adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8), than those who were financially comfortable. They were more likely to have their diabetes diagnosed because of complications (adjusted odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0). They were also more likely to have coronary and podiatric complications (adjusted odds ratios 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and 1.7; 95% CI 1.4-2.2, respectively). They benefited more often from full coverage (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), visited general practitioners more often (ratio of estimated marginal means 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.2) but specialists less often (adjusted odds ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.8 for a visit to private ophthalmologist). They also felt less well informed about their condition. Despite frequent access to full healthcare coverage, socio-economic position has an impact on the diagnosis of diabetes, health status and quality of diabetes care in France. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  7. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  8. Urbanization impact on sulfur content of groundwater revealed by the study of urban speleothem-like deposits: Case study in Paris, France.

    Pons-Branchu, E; Roy-Barman, M; Jean-Soro, L; Guillerme, A; Branchu, P; Fernandez, M; Dumont, E; Douville, E; Michelot, J L; Phillips, A M

    2017-02-01

    Speleothem-like deposits that develop underground in urban areas are an archive of the environmental impact of anthropic activities that has been little studied so far. In this paper, the sulfate content in shallow groundwater from northern Paris (France) is compared with the sulfur content in two 300-year-old urban carbonate deposits that grew in a historical underground aqueduct. The present-day waters of the aqueduct have very high sulfur and calcium contents, suggesting pollution from gypsum dissolution. However, geological gypsum levels are located below the water table. Sulfur content was measured by micro-X-ray fluorescence in these very S-rich carbonate deposits (0.5 to 1% of S). A twofold S increase during the second half of the 1800s was found in both samples. These dates correspond to two major periods of urbanization above the site. We discus three possible S sources: anthropic sources (industries, fertilizers…), volcanic eruptions and input within the water through gypsum brought for urbanization above the studied site (backfill with quarry waste) since the middle of the 19th century. For the younger second half of the studied section, S input from gypsum brought during urbanization was confirmed by the study of isotopic sulfur composition (δ 34 S=+15.2‰ at the top). For the oldest part, several sulfur peaks could be related to early industrial activity in Paris, that caused high local air pollution, as reported in historical archives but also to historical gypsum extraction. This study provides information on the origin and timing of the very high SO 4 2- levels measured nowadays within the shallow groundwater, thus demonstrating the interest in using carbonate deposits in urban areas as a proxy for the history of urbanization or human activities and their impact on water bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental and human impact on the sedimentary dynamic in the Rhone Delta subaquatic canyons (France-Switzerland)

    Arantegui, A.; Corella, J. P.; Loizeau, J. L.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Girardclos, S.

    2012-04-01

    Deltas are very sensitive environments and highly vulnerable to variations in water discharge and the amount of suspended sediment load provided by the delta-forming currents. Human activities in the watershed, such as building of dams and irrigation ditches, or river bed deviations, may affect the discharge regime and sediment input, thus affecting delta growth. Underwater currents create deeply incised canyons cutting into the delta lobes. Understanding the sedimentary processes in these subaquatic canyons is crucial to reconstruct the fluvial evolution and human impact on deltaic environments and to carry out a geological risk assessment related to mass movements, which may affect underwater structures and civil infractructure. Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry on the Rhone Delta in Lake Geneva (Sastre et al. 2010) revealed the complexity of the underwater morphology formed by active and inactive canyons first described by Forel (1892). In order to unravel the sedimentary processes and sedimentary evolution in these canyons, 27 sediment cores were retrieved in the distal part of each canyon and in the canyon floor/levee complex of the active canyon. Geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical and radiometric dating techniques were applied to analyse these cores. Preliminary data show that only the canyon originating at the current river mouth is active nowadays, while the others remain inactive since engineering works in the watershed occurred, confirming Sastre et al. (2010). However, alternating hemipelagic and turbiditic deposits on the easternmost canyons, evidence underflow processes during the last decades as well. Two canyons, which are located close to the Rhone river mouth, correspond to particularly interesting deeply incised crevasse channels formed when the underwater current broke through the outer bend of a meander in the proximal northern levee. In these canyons, turbidites occur in the sediment record indicating ongoing

  10. Impact of wind turbines on bats : literature review; Impacts des eoliennes sur les chauves-souris : revue de litterature

    Cote, F.

    2006-09-15

    As wind power development intensifies around the world, concerns are being raised regarding the impact on birds and chiroptera. Studies have been conducted to explore the possible causes of bat morality associated with wind power development in Quebec and to determine possible mitigation strategies. It is expected that wind energy development will increase in the province from 100 MW in 2003 to more than 3,500 MW by 2013. The regions that have high potential for wind energy development in Quebec include the Appalachian corridor, the Lower North Shore, the Magdelaine Islands, Anticosti Island, the Gaspe Peninsula and northern Quebec. The migration patterns of bats have been examined through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. Possible causes for bat mortality by wind turbines include seasonal migration routes, light, food and ultrasonic attraction. It was concluded that it is imperative to understand the causes of bat mortality in order to develop possible mitigation measures. 40 refs.

  11. Prevalence, correlates, and impact of coronary calcification on adverse events following PCI with newer-generation DES: Findings from a large multiethnic registry.

    Copeland-Halperin, Robert S; Baber, Usman; Aquino, Melissa; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Roy, Swathi; Hasan, Choudhury; Barman, Nitin; Kovacic, Jason C; Moreno, Pedro; Krishnan, Prakash; Sweeny, Joseph M; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2018-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, predictors, and clinical impact of target lesion calcification in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with newer generation drug-eluting stents (DES) and devices. Coronary calcification is independently associated with adverse outcomes following PCI. While newer DES and contemporary devices are considered safer and more efficacious, their influence on outcomes following PCI of heavily calcified lesions is unknown. We performed a retrospective analysis of a large, multiethnic cohort of patients undergoing PCI with new generation DES at an academic center between 2009 and 2013. Coronary calcification was qualitatively assessed as none/mild, moderate, or severe. Independent demographic, clinical, and anatomic predictors of moderate/severe calcification were identified using logistic regression. Associations between coronary calcification and 1-year MACE (death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization) were examined using Cox modeling. Compared to patients with none/mild (n = 10,180; 82.0%), those with moderate (n = 1,271; 10.0%) or severe (n = 994; 8.0%) calcification were older, more often Caucasian, had more complex target lesions, and worse renal function. The strongest demographic, clinical, and anatomic correlates of moderate/severe calcification were age, Caucasian race, renal dysfunction, lesion length, and left main location. Unadjusted MACE rates among those with none/mild, moderate, and severe calcification were 8.3, 14.6, and 17.8%, respectively (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for MACE associated with moderate or severe coronary calcification was 1.63. Target lesion calcification remains independently associated with adverse outcomes in patients treated with newer generation DES and modern devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meeting of October 20, 2005 of the working group about the division by 4 of greenhouse gas emissions of France at the 2050 prospects, named 'factor 4'; Reunion du 20 octobre 2005 du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France, a l'horizon 2050, dit 'facteur 4'

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers 4 presentations given at this meeting of the 'Factor 4' working group: the first presentation (C. Parent) presents the 2050 prospective of transports demand and the transport offer variables (world context, specific European actions, French context and taxation, impact of the different scenarios on road traffic, energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions). The second presentation (P. Aussourd) treats of the energy approaches of the transport prospective for 2050 (definition of 4 scenarios, global consequences in terms of fiscal income, energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, lessons gained, possibility of an incremental scenario with chargeable hybrid vehicles, use of short crises for a long-term action in the change of life styles). The third presentation (R. Lavergne) deals with the energy prospective for the energy demand in France at the 2050 prospects (definition of a reference scenario, sectoral analysis, main hypotheses, critical points). The last presentation (H. Prevot) explains how it is possible for France to divide by 2 or 3 the CO{sub 2} emissions with keeping the same energy consumption as for the year 2000 (optimum combination of energy sources, use of biomass and solar space heating, power generation by nuclear energy, coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration and wind energy, evolution of fuel prices, role of the public action and of the government, convincing the decision makers). (J.S.)

  13. Effet de l'activité des insectes pollinisateurs sur la pollinisation et le rendement du tournesol de consommation

    Fougeroux André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La pollinisation entomophile du tournesol est souvent mentionnée comme un facteur contribuant au rendement et à la qualité de cette culture. Alors que les rendements stagnent depuis une trentaine d'années en France, l'amélioration de la pollinisation des tournesols de consommation constitue une piste pour les relancer en conditions agricoles. Notre étude visait à évaluer l'impact d'un front d'insectes pollinisateurs (colonies d'abeilles domestiques installées dans une bande fleurie disposée sur une bordure de parcelles agricoles longue de plus de 550 m de long. Cet impact a été mesuré à différentes distances de ce front d'insectes pollinisateurs sur la fréquentation des capitules par les insectes floricoles, la charge en pollen des stigmates, le rendement et la teneur en huile des graines. Nous avons bien observé un gradient négatif d'activité des abeilles domestiques en fonction de l'éloignement au front de colonies et aussi une diminution du rendement et de la teneur en huile chez le tournesol. Nous présentons la méthodologie originale utilisée ainsi que les premiers résultats obtenus.

  14. Impact de la qualité de l'audit externe sur la liquidité des titres des entreprises tunisiennes cotées : Investigation théorique et évidence empirique

    Hakim Ghorbel , Faten

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Cette recherche a pour objectif d'étudier l'impact de la qualité d'audit externe sur la liquidité. Nous appréhendons la qualité d'audit dans le cadre de notre étude par "la qualité de l'auditeur", et notamment de son indépendance et de ses compétences. Après avoir contrôlé l'effet d'autres variables censées, d'après la théorie, influencer la liquidité, les tests effectués ont permis de dégager une relation positive entre l'appartenance des auditeurs à un réseau interna...

  15. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  16. Fundamental study of ionization and dissociation processes caused by electron impact in aromatic molecules; application of the quasi-equilibrium theory to phenanthrene and to methylphenanthrenes; Etudes fondamentales des processus d'ionisation et de dissociation des molecules aromatiques par impact electronique et application de la theorie du quasi-equilibre au phenanthrene et aux methyl-phenanthrenes

    Nounou, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    behaviour under ionizing radiations of the studied compounds. (author) [French] La theorie du quasi-equilibre n'a ete appliquee jusqu'a present qu'a la seule famille des hydrocarbures aliphatiques en chaine droite. Nous avons donc essaye de l'etendre au phenanthrene et au methyl-phenantrene, c'est-a-dire, d'une part a des molecules aromatiques et d'autre part a des molecules ayant un tres grand nombre de degres de liberte. Dans une premiere partie nous avons tente d'interpreter de facon methodique les processus d'ionisation et de dissociation des molecules phenanthreniques. Cette premiere etude experimentale du comportement des composes sous impact electronique, et son interpretation, nous ont fourni de precieux renseignements sur de profonds changements de structure des ions moleculaires et fragmentaires, voire d'excitation des molecules etudiees. L'etude approfondie des pics metastables a ensuite confirme les processus de dissociation precedents, tout en precisant certaines grandeurs thermodynamiques relatives aux reactions de decomposition. Etudes des processus d'ionisation, puis de dissociation, et enfin des pics metastables, constituent les trois temps d'une methode generale d'interpretation de la fragmentation en spectrometrie de masse. Pour donner a cette methode son assise theorique nous avons ete amenes a elaborer les diagrammes moleculaires de chacun des composes etudies, montrant ainsi l'aide efficace que peut presenter la Mecanique Quantique pour l'etude des etats excites et ionises. Dans une seconde partie, nous avons calcule les spectres de masse du phenanthrene et des methyl-phenanthrenes a partir des expressions des constantes de reaction donnees par ROSENSTOCK. Pour ce faire, nous avons propose de nouvelles methodes de calcul des facteurs de frequence, tant pour les molecules aliphatiques que les aromatiques. Si le bon accord generalement observe entre le calcul et l'experience ne peut etre attribue a coup sur a l'exactitude de la theorie, il n'en demontre

  17. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  18. Impacts from electric railway operation on the power supply system characteristic; Einfluss des elektrischen Bahnbetriebs auf das Tagesbelastungsdiagramm der Energieversorgung

    Bogdanov, C. [Militaerhochschule fuer Verkehr ``Todor Kableshkov``, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    Some characteristic figures are derived from daily load diagrams of electric railways, analized and compared with those of public power supply load diagram, especially with regard to sharing in base - medium - peak load and in day - night times, and optimizations are proposed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Tagesbelastungsdiagramme elektrischer Bahnen werden einige Kennziffern gebildet, analysiert und mit denen des Tagesbelastungsdiagramms der Landesenergieversorgung verglichen, insbesondere hinsichtlich der Verteilung des Bahnenergiebedarfs auf Grund-, Mittel- und Spitzenlast sowie auf die verschiedenen Tages- und Nachtzeitzonen. Daraus werden Optimierungsvorschlaege abgeleitet. (orig.)

  19. Mémoire du travail et des expositions professionnelles aux cancérogènes Work account and occupational exposures to carcinogens. Survey in Seine-Saint-Denis (France Memoria del trabajo y de las exposiciones profesionales a agentes cancerígenos. Encuesta en Seine-Saint-Denis (Francia

    Annie Thébaud-Mony

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Selon les estimations officielles, en 2000 environ 32 millions de travailleurs européens (de l’Europe des 15 étaient exposés à des cancérogènes. Depuis 2002, considérant la maladie comme « événement-sentinelle » pour la connaissance des activités de travail exposant aux cancérogènes, le Groupement d’intérêt scientifique sur les cancers d’origine professionnelle (GISCOP93 mène une enquête permanente auprès de patients atteints de cancer en Seine Saint Denis (France. S’appuyant sur les récits recueillis auprès des patients et sur l’expertise des spécialistes en matière d’exposition, une démarche d’analyse et de classement des activités exposées a été réalisée pour l’élaboration d’un répertoire des activités de travail en présence de produits/procédés cancérogènes. L’objectif de cet article est de mettre en perspective cette nouvelle base de données par rapport à quelques sources d’information concernant l’exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, déjà disponibles en ligne, en montrant l’apport d’une méthode de recueil d’information fondée sur l’expérience et la parole des travailleurs.According to official estimates, in the year 2000, approximately 32 million European workers (in Europe 15 were exposed to carcinogens. Since 2002, considering the disease as a "sentinel-event" for understanding the work activities that expose workers to carcinogens, the GISCOP93 research group has been carrying out an ongoing survey on patients with cancer in Seine-Saint-Denis (France. Based on the patients’ narratives and on the expertise of exposure hazard specialists, an analysis and classification of the exposed working activities was carried out to build a new database of work activities in the presence of carcinogenic products/processes. The aim of this article is to present this database in relation to some other sources of information on occupational exposure to carcinogens

  20. Potentialités écologiques des carrières de quartzite après exploitation : l'exemple de la carrière de Cheffois (Vendée, France

    François Bétard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans les carrières de roches massives abandonnées après l'exploitation, l'aridité du sol et le caractère oligotrophe du milieu, conjugués à la présence de parois rocheuses et de plans d'eau au niveau des excavations les plus profondes, sont des éléments favorables à l'expression d'une biodiversité renouvelée et originale. Un inventaire écologique mené sur la carrière de quartzite de Cheffois, située dans le sud du Massif Armoricain, a révélé la richesse biologique de ce type de milieu semi-naturel. Les résultats de l'inventaire ont conduit à distinguer six types d'habitats néoformés correspondant à d'anciens secteurs d'exploitation : (1 un plan d'eau de fosse, (2 une zone de carreau humide, (3 une zone de carreau sec, (4 des fronts de taille d'expositions variées, (5 des remblais boisés, et (6 une galerie souterraine. Ces six types de milieux sont eux-mêmes subdivisés en une mosaïque de petits habitats, favorisant au final une grande biodiversité avec le développement de nombreuses espèces végétales et animales, dont certaines à forte valeur patrimoniale. Replacé dans le contexte du Bas-Bocage vendéen, l'apport écologique de la carrière de quartzite est évalué et confronté aux pertes en biodiversité engendrées par l'ouverture de la carrière. Avec les autres carrières de quartzite situées sur les sites rocheux des environs, elles constituent, ensemble, un réseau de carrières partiellement inondées pouvant contribuer à la création d'un véritable corridor écologique, dans une matrice bocagère actuellement en perte de biodiversité.In abandoned quarries of massive rocks, the aridity and oligotrophic character of soils, combined with the presence of rock walls and water bodies in the deeper excavations, are favourable to the expression of a renewed, original biodiversity. An ecological survey carried out on the quartzite quarry of Cheffois, located in the southern Armorican Massif, revealed the

  1. Insight of the distribution and general characters of uranium deposits in the world (except France); Apercu sur la repartition et les caracteres generaux des gisements d'uranium dans le monde (sauf l'Union francaise)

    Gangloff, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It gives a large insight of uranium deposits and general characters of uranium deposits on the planet (except France). It gives a review of the mineralized area of the main uranium producers country with a geographic and geologic recall. Moreover, it brings together all the important prospecting results from countries which have presented a report at the international conference on the pacific uses of atomic energy in geneva (8-20 august 1955). All these countries are cited except France. It described not only the payable deposits as each deposit brings interesting indications for future prospecting and might also become payable in the future. It started with the geological survey of USA and Canada and the geographic description of their different uranium deposit sites as both country present the largest uranium resources. In the same way, geographic and geological surveys of South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, India, Brazil, Argentina, Rhodesia, Mozambia, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, Portugal, Yugoslavia, Italy, Austria and Switzerland are described. (M.P.)

  2. Insight of the distribution and general characters of uranium deposits in the world (except France); Apercu sur la repartition et les caracteres generaux des gisements d'uranium dans le monde (sauf l'Union francaise)

    Gangloff, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    It gives a large insight of uranium deposits and general characters of uranium deposits on the planet (except France). It gives a review of the mineralized area of the main uranium producers country with a geographic and geologic recall. Moreover, it brings together all the important prospecting results from countries which have presented a report at the international conference on the pacific uses of atomic energy in geneva (8-20 august 1955). All these countries are cited except France. It described not only the payable deposits as each deposit brings interesting indications for future prospecting and might also become payable in the future. It started with the geological survey of USA and Canada and the geographic description of their different uranium deposit sites as both country present the largest uranium resources. In the same way, geographic and geological surveys of South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, India, Brazil, Argentina, Rhodesia, Mozambia, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, Portugal, Yugoslavia, Italy, Austria and Switzerland are described. (M.P.)

  3. Mastery of the sea uses in the outlook of sustainable development in France and in its overseas territories; Maitrise des usages de la mer dans l'optique du developpement durable en metropole et outre-mer

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    France disposes of the second widest maritime zone in the world which represents numerous halieutic, energetic and mineral resources. However, the knowledge about these resources remains in general insufficient to allow its responsible exploitation in the respect of ecosystems biodiversity, or to allow an economically profitable exploitation because the existing technologies remain emerging. Moreover, most of the ocean exploitation is localized in the coastal area (up to few tens of km from the coast). This fragile area is threatened by an increasing number of activities which superadd to the traditional ones (fishing, navigation, tourism). Thus, the sustainable management of these coastal areas is an important challenge that France has to take up. This document stresses on the need for a better knowledge of the marine environment (situation of the halieutic resources, study of oceanic circulation, physiology of species, inventory of sea bottom and underground resources, mapping of accessible energy resources, evolution of climates, drift of pollutions, study of renewable sea energies (wind, heat, wave, tide, currents)) and for an integrated management of the coastal areas (recommendations, mapping, development of wind power systems, exploitation of marine granulates, aquaculture). (J.S.)

  4. Impact d'un module de formation à l'arbitrage sur l'implicaiton des bénévoles dans le volley-ball

    Van Hoye, Martin; Roulin, Céline; Cloes, Marc

    2014-01-01

    En raison du manque de bénévoles dans les clubs de volley-ball, les clubs doivent trouver des solutions. Dans cette étude, nous avons proposé un module de formation à l'arbitrage afin d'impliquer des parents, des amis et des joueurs d'autres équipes dans la gestion de matches.

  5. Impact des matériaux biosourcés sur le climat intérieur : Un outil de calcul flexible à l'échelle de la pièce

    Dubois, Samuel; Lebeau, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    L'impact de l'utilisation de matériaux d'origine végétale sur le climat intérieur, et donc sur le confort des occupants ainsi que la performance énergétique du bâtiment, n'est établi que partiellement. Ces produits présentent des propriétés hygroscopiques et capillaires causant des phénomènes spécifiques liés aux changements de phase dynamiques au sein de la matrice poreuse. Les modèles mathématiques utilisés pour étudier leur comportement hygrothermique de manière détaillée sont souvent des ...

  6. Meeting of November 10, 2005 of the working group about the division by 4 of greenhouse gas emissions of France at the 2050 prospects, named 'factor 4'; Reunion du 10 novembre 2005 du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France, a l'horizon 2050, dit 'facteur 4'

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers 3 presentations given at this meeting of the 'factor 4' working group: the first presentation (P. Radanne) defines the bases of the problem of abatement of greenhouse gases emissions (economic growth, energy consumption in France, CO{sub 2} emissions, sectoral analysis of solutions (residential, industry, transports), development of renewable energy sources, economical mechanisms). The second presentation (T. Salomon) gives the vision of the Negawatt association of what should be an efficient energy policy: better consuming thanks to energy savings and to a better energy efficiency, and development of renewable energy sources. An illustration of an efficient urban energy and environmental policy is given with the example of Freiburg-um-Brisgau city (Germany). The third presentation (J. Sivardiere) analyses the positive impact of modal transfers in the transportation sector (change of habits) and the need for strong incentives (taxes) to reach this goal. (J.S.)

  7. Impact des changements climatiques sur l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffara sud-est tunisien

    Houcine Jeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue la vulnérabilité de l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera sud-est tunisien aux changements climatiques en utilisant la méthode Ricardienne. Cette méthode consiste à exprimer les revenus nets agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques et socio-économiques. Ces modèles ricardiens ont été testés sur la base des données d’une enquête réalisée dans le cadre de projet de développement dans la plaine Jeffera pour la compagne agricole 2002-2003.  Ces modèles ont permis d’exprimer d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base de scenario A2 résultat de la projection faite par le modèle HadCM3 à l’échelle nationale et régionale de la Tunisie.Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu agricole et le climat est non linéaire. De même, les effets négatifs de certaines options d’adaptation ont montré que  l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera est une agriculture paysanne basée sur le travail familial qui nécessite aujourd’hui un capital financier important et une marge de modernisation afin d’améliorer l’activité agricole dans les années futures. Tandis que les effets positifs de certaines autres options peuvent être servir comme des points de réflexion dans l’élaboration des stratégies d’adaptation aux changements climatiques comme l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies d’irrigation et l’intégration de l’activité de l’élevage dans l’exploitation agricole.

  8. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  9. DGT as a useful monitoring tool for radionuclides and trace metals in environments impacted by uranium mining: Case study of the Sagnes wetland in France.

    Leermakers, Martine; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Drozdzak, Jagoda; Gao, Yue; Nos, Jérémy; Descostes, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT) technique was used to analyse U, (226)Ra and other trace metals in stream water and soil porewater in a wetland in France impacted by uranium mining. High resolution profiles of metals in soil porewater obtained by DGT could be measured for the first time up to a depth of 75 cm by the construction of a novel DGT holder. In stream water, the DGT technique was compared to speciation carried out by filtration (0.45 μm) and ultrafiltration (UF) (500 kDa/100 kDa/10 kDa) and DGT porewater profiles were compared with piezometer data obtained in a parallel study. An increase in the trace concentrations of dissolved (0.45 μm) and particulate U, (226)Ra, and elements such as Al, Fe, Mn and Ba was observed in the stream water as it passes through the bog as a results of mobilization from the wetland. The porewater results indicate DGT labile metals species to be present in porewater and mobilization of uranium and other elements linked to the presence of enriched clays. In stream water, colloids and particles govern the behavior of U, Al and Fe, whereas Mn, Ba and Ra are essentially transported as truly dissolved metal species with DGT labile concentrations accounting for 100% of the dissolved fraction. The combined approaches of DGT and UF allow us to obtain a better understanding on the biogeochemical processes involved in the retention and mobility of U and (226)Ra in the wetland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Working group results on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France, at 2050, called factor four; Les travaux du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France, a l'horizon 2050, dit facteur 4

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This working group aims to evaluate and propose different ways to divide by four the greenhouse gases emissions at 2050 in France. This objective was decided by the Government and fixed in the Climate Plan and in the Program law of 13 July 2005. In this framework, this meeting presents studies of the working group, concerning the following topics: buildings and greenhouse gases, a scenario for the UE25 realized by Greenpeace, the agriculture and the forests facing the climate, the biomass the nature the agriculture and the silviculture facing the climate. (A.L.B.)

  11. Evaluation de l'impact des activités anthropiques sur les organismes aquatiques dulçaquicoles. Méthodes et modèles pour la mesure de l'impact des rejets chimiques

    Garric, J.

    2008-01-01

    / Avant toute chose, je crois nécessaire de replacer le contexte de mes activités de chercheur à la fois au sein de l'organisme où j'ai réalisé ma carrière, mais également dans le cadre du domaine où j'ai travaillé, l'écotoxicologie. Après une formation en Sciences et Techniques de l'Eau à la faculté des Science de Montpellier (USTL) dans laquelle étaient étroitement associées des formations en chimie et en biologie, j'ai obtenu en 1980 un doctorat en Ecotoxicologie et Chimie de l'Environneme...

  12. The Spirit of France

    Greene, Jr, Philip

    1994-01-01

    .... Demonstrating unyielding perseverance to elevate France to a position of respect in the world arena, de Gaulle aggressively pursued national interest objectives to restore French national identity...

  13. EVALUATION DE L’IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL : Evaluation des impacts du flux de transgènes de tolérance à différents herbicides à large spectre

    Astoin Marie-Florence

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte est tiré du rapport « Introduction de variétés génétiquement modifiées de colza tolérantes à différents herbicides : évaluation des impacts agro-environnementaux et propositions de scénarios de gestion » établi par le Cetiom dans le cadre du moratoire sur les variétés génétiquement modifiées de colza. Les auteurs se réservent la possibilité d’ici publication définitive du rapport d’apporter des modifications à ce texte.

  14. Projet REFIOM : Rôle de l'Ecologie familiale dans la réduction des Impacts des Ordures Ménagères

    Gombert-Courvoisier , Sandrine; Causse , Elsa; Ribeyre , Francis; Felonneau , Marie-Line; Carimentrand , Aurélie

    2013-01-01

    The sustainable development guidelines show clearly the need to consider the whole life cycle of goods and services to progress significantly towards a prevention of waste and a reduction of their ecological impacts. In this context, household consumption is an important mean to address the waste problem and the role of local authorities is essential to take into account. The aim of the REFIOM project is to make proposals to curb household consumption in order to reduce waste fluxes and assoc...

  15. Nuclear energy education and training in France

    2010-01-01

    In its continuing use of nuclear power, France faces numerous challenges, including the operation and maintenance of its existing array of reactors, waste management, the decommissioning of obsolete reactors, and research and development for future nuclear systems. All of these efforts must recognize and conform to international requirements. These activities mean that all participants in the French nuclear industry must continually update their approaches and skills, with respect to both domestic and worldwide nuclear power development. This requirement calls for the hiring and training of thousands of scientists and engineers each year in France and its partner or customer countries. Over the next ten years, domestic and international nuclear power activities in France will call for the recruitment of about 13,000 engineers with Master of Science or Ph.D. degrees, and 10,000 science technicians and operators with Bachelor of Science degrees. The chief employers will be EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez, national agencies such as the Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs (ANDRA), sub-contractors, and R and D agencies such as the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), and the technical safety organization, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). France has made a commitment to support countries that are ready to create the human, institutional, and technical conditions required to establish a civilian nuclear energy programme that meets all the requirements of safety, security, non-proliferation and environmental protection for present and future generations. These efforts are conducted through the France International Nuclear Agency (AFNI). In response to the need for competence-building in nuclear energy production, France now offers training opportunities in both French and English education programmes. Partnerships created by French nuclear energy participants and by AFNI can provide dedicated programmes

  16. Radioecological impact of Saharan dusts fallout. Case study of a major event on the 21. of february 2004 in south part of France

    Masson, O.; Pourcelot, L.; Gurriaran, R.; Paulat, P.

    2005-01-01

    Lithometeors, Sirocco or more commonly 'red mud' are all in fact related to a single phenomenon which affects France every year: the wind transport and deposit of desert particles from the Sahara. On the 21. of February 2004, the southern part of France is swept by a weather event of wind transport of Saharan particles. The recordings of atmospheric dust contamination and the deposit of dust, which results from it, make an episode of exceptional width. In a few hours, the thickness of the deposit exceeds 1 mm (up to 4 mm in Corsica) with a maximum density of surface charge of 50 g.m -2 (50 tons per km 2 ). The loads of the PM 10 type particles in the air, recorded by associations of monitoring of the quality of the air, indicate concentrations multiplied to the maximum by 10 and an influence on the ground of the plume ranging between 300 000 and 350 000 km 2 . To the end, 2 million tons are deposited on a portion of the territory located at the south of a line from Nantes to Besancon. This event also had a significant radio-ecological impact, leading to significant 137 Cs, (239+240) Pu, 241 Am, activity levels of 38 Bq. kg -1 sec, 1 Bq. kg -1 sec and 0,46 Bq. kg -1 sec, respectively. Quality of air monitoring organisations recorded 10-fold increases in the concentration of charged PM 10 2 type particles within the cloud; ground coverage stretched over a 300 000 km 2 surface area. Across this whole area, the artificial radioactivity deposits are estimated to 37.10 10 Bq. In term of flow of deposit, this episode represents, with him only, i.e. in a few hours, a 137 Cs deposition equivalent to that recorded on average in a cumulated time of one year. Data from this study show that these weather-climatic episodes generate today, environmental samples which on average, present the highest levels and flux of artificial radioactivities, more than those in the sediments of the Rhone river deposited by flood events, for example. Changes in artificial radionuclide activity

  17. Information Meeting on credit on landed property in France

    Messonier; Petit

    1972-01-01

    Accession à la propriété- Mons.Comte représente ce groupe de travail au sein du comité des affaires sociales et présente les invités: Mons.Messonier, directeur départemental pour l'Ain et le Jura du Crédit Foncier Français Mons.Frelon, directeur au Crédit Foncier à Annecy Mon.Petit, directeur régional du Comptoir des Entrepreneurs à Lyon Ces 3 personnes nous communiquent des informations importantes et nouvelles dispositions. Ils parlent du regime actuel des prix et prêts à la construction en France

  18. Impact du comportement vibratoire et acoustique des joints de portes et de vitrages sur le bruit d'origine aérodynamique

    Oliver , Clara; Jézéquel , Louis; Besset , Sébastien; VAN HERPE , François; Abbadi , Zouhir

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Dans la modélisation des joints de portes et de vitrages pour la prédiction du bruit aérodynamique il est nécessaire de sortir du domaine classique du calcul vibro-acoustique linéaire, en raison du caractère fortement non-linéaire des joints. La déformation lors de la fermeture des portes ou vitres provoque des modifications des raideurs statique et dynamique, de l'amortissement et de la transparence acoustique des joints. Ensuite les efforts aérodynamiques modifient c...

  19. Les composés organiques volatils réduction des émissions de COV dans l'industrie

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage propose des solutions techniques et une méthodologie pour réduire les émissions de composés organiques volatils (COV) dans l’atmosphère. Il permet : • de connaître l’impact des COV sur l’environnement et sur la santé, ainsi que les réglementations applicables en France et en Europe ; • de choisir les solutions d’amélioration disponibles (prévention, réduction à la source par secteur industriel, technologies de traitement et méthodes de mesure) ; • d’obtenir les clés pour mett re en place une démarche de réduction des émissions de COV (les étapes et les accompagnements possibles) ; • d’observer des exemples réussis d’investissement dans l’industrie. Cet ouvrage est un outil de travail indispensable pour les entreprises concernées par cett e problématique. Il donne les éléments essentiels pour aborder sereinement une démarche de réduction des émissions de COV. Points forts : • Des données rassemblées par un réseau d’experts spécialisés dans...

  20. impact des variations paléoclimatiques sur la sédimentation carbonatée au Valanginien

    Gréselle , Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The detailed study of depositional geometries and facies of sedimentary successions from the Jura platform to the Vocontian trough (SE France) shows that the Valanginian (Cretaceous) global carbonate crisis is recorded as a multistep process. The development of ice caps at high latitudes led to sea-level fluctuations of several tens of meters. Global cooling associated with an increase of nutrient input linked to moister climate as well as decreasing sea-level then led to diminishing carbonat...

  1. The France energy situation

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  2. DE LA RECONNAISSANCE À LA MISE EN FORME RITUELLE DES UNIONS DE MÊME SEXE EN FRANCE. ENQUÊTE AUPRÈS DE CATHOLIQUES GAYS ET LESBIENNES

    Céline Béraud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2012 y 2013, los debates en torno al derecho al matrimonio y a la adopción para parejas del mismo sexo han estado revestidos de una importante controversia en Francia, controversia mucho más intensa que en España siete años antes en relación al mismo tema. Entre los opositores a la ley, los católicos aparecen como actores clave. A pesar de los discursos no confesionales, la condena tradicional de la homosexualidad por parte del magisterio católico se ha visto reforzada: las prácticas homosexuales son calificadas de “desórdenes intrínsecos” y condenadas por no respetar “el orden de la naturaleza”. La movilización ha constituido un reto para los católicos gays y lesbianas altamente integrados en la Iglesia; grupo sobre el que he realizado una investigación sociológica cualitativa. La investigación muestra que ellos y ellas consiguen, no obstante, hacer cohabitar estas dos dimensiones de su identidad obteniendo, incluso, un acompañamiento a través de una ritualización de su unión por parte de un cura.

  3. Vacuum welding of metals; Soudage des metaux sous vide

    Stohr, J A; Briola, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This new welding process has been developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in France. The edges of the work-pieces are melted by the impact of an electron beam produced by an electron gun. Welding is carried out in a vacuum of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -8} mm of mercury. The welding machine consists, diagrammatically, of: a) a metal enclosure in which a vacuum is produced; b) a cathode for electron emission, a high-voltage generator for accelerating these electrons, a focusing device; c) a mechanical device for moving (rotating) the work-piece. Advantages of the process: 1) possible welding of highly oxidizable metals (e.g. zirconium); 2) fabrication of high-vacuum-sealed metal containers; 3) production of very deeply penetrated welds. Therefore, this new process is particularly advantageous for atomic power applications, the fabrication of electron tubes and, more generally, for all industries in which very special metals are used. (author) [French] Ce procede de soudage a ete recemment mis au point au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique en France (CEA). Il consiste a utiliser, pour fondre les levres des pieces a souder, l'impact d'un faisceau d'electrons produit par un canon a electrons. Le soudage s'effectue sous un vide de 10{sup -4} a 10{sup -8} mm de mercure. La machine a souder se compose schematiquement: a) d'une enceinte metallique ou l'on fait le vide; b) d'une cathode emettant des electrons, d'un generateur H.T. permettant d'accelerer ces electrons d'un dispositif de focalisation; c) d'un dispositif mecanique permettant le deplacement (rotation) de la piece a souder. Avantages de ce procede: 1) possibilite de souder les metaux tres oxydables (exemple: zirconium); 2) realisation de 'containers' metalliques fermes sous vide pousse; 3) obtention de profondeurs de soudures considerables. Ce nouveau procede est donc particulierement interessant pour l ' energie atomique, la fabrication des tubes electroniques et, en general, toutes les industries

  4. France at CERN

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  5. Report of the working group on achieving a fourfold reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in France by 2050; Rapport du groupe de travail division par 4 des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France a l'horizon 2050

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Achieving a fourfold reduction of in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 is the ambitious and voluntary objective for France that addresses a combination of many different aspects (technical, technological, economic, social) against a backdrop of important issues and choices for public policy-makers. This document is the bilingual version of the factor 4 group report. It discusses the Factor 4 objectives, the different proposed scenario and the main lessons learned, the strategies to support the Factor 4 objectives (fostering changes in behavior and defining the role of public policies), the Factor 4 objective in international and european contexts (experience aboard, strategic behavior, constraints and opportunities, particularly in europe) and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  6. Report of the working group on achieving a fourfold reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in France by 2050; Rapport du groupe de travail division par 4 des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France a l'horizon 2050

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Achieving a fourfold reduction of in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 is the ambitious and voluntary objective for France that addresses a combination of many different aspects (technical, technological, economic, social) against a backdrop of important issues and choices for public policy-makers. This document is the bilingual version of the factor 4 group report. It discusses the Factor 4 objectives, the different proposed scenario and the main lessons learned, the strategies to support the Factor 4 objectives (fostering changes in behavior and defining the role of public policies), the Factor 4 objective in international and european contexts (experience aboard, strategic behavior, constraints and opportunities, particularly in europe) and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report

    2003-01-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  8. Cost analysis of adverse events associated with non-small cell lung cancer management in France

    Chouaid C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Christos Chouaid,1 Delphine Loirat,2 Emilie Clay,3 Aurélie Millier,3 Chloé Godard,4 Amira Fannan,4 Laurie Lévy-Bachelot,4 Eric Angevin5 1Chest Department, Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal Créteil, Créteil, France; 2Institut Curie, Paris, France; 3Creativ-Ceutical, Paris, France; 4MSD France, Courbevoie, France; 5Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France Background: Adverse events (AEs related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.Objective: To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Methods: Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information. Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Results: Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event

  9. Assessment of Public Health and Economic Impact of Intranasal Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccination of Children in France Using a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    Gerlier, L; Lamotte, M; Grenèche, S; Lenne, X; Carrat, F; Weil-Olivier, C; Damm, O; Schwehm, M; Eichner, M

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the epidemiological and economic impact of extending the French influenza vaccination programme from at-risk/elderly (≥65 years) only to healthy children (2-17 years). A deterministic, age-structured, dynamic transmission model was used to simulate the transmission of influenza in the French population, using the current vaccination coverage with trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in at-risk/elderly individuals (current strategy) or gradually extending the vaccination to healthy children (aged 2-17 years) with intranasal, quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (QLAIV) from current uptake up to 50% (evaluated strategy). Epidemiological, medical resource use and cost data were taken from international literature and country-specific information. The model was calibrated to the observed numbers of influenza-like illness visits/year. The 10-year number of symptomatic cases of confirmed influenza and direct medical costs ('all-payer') were calculated for the 0-17- (direct and indirect effects) and ≥18-year-old (indirect effect). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated for the total population, using a 4% discount rate/year. Assuming 2.3 million visits/year and 1960 deaths/year, the model calibration yielded an all-year average basic reproduction number (R 0 ) of 1.27. In the population aged 0-17 years, QLAIV prevented 865,000 influenza cases/year (58.4%), preventing 10-year direct medical expenses of €374 million. In those aged ≥18 years with unchanged TIV coverage, 1.2 million cases/year were averted (27.6%) via indirect effects (additionally prevented expenses, €457 million). On average, 613 influenza-related deaths were averted annually overall. The ICER was €18,001/life-year gained. The evaluated strategy had a 98% probability of being cost-effective at a €31,000/life-year gained threshold. The model demonstrated strong direct and indirect benefits of protecting healthy children against influenza with

  10. Impôts en France : réunion publique le mercredi 19 mars 2014

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Impôts en France : réunion publique le mercredi 19 mars 2014 Une réunion publique aura lieu le mercredi 19 mars de 13h à 15h dans l’amphithéâtre principal (500/1-001). Au cours de cette réunion, MM. Jean-Louis Brandolin et Gérard Polizzi, respectivement responsable et responsable-adjoint du Service des impôts des particuliers et des entreprises de Bellegarde, Centre des finances publiques, apporteront leur expertise au sujet de l’imposition des membres du personnel du CERN domiciliés en France. Seront à l’ordre du jour les questions de principe que se posent apparemment de nombreux membres du personnel : par exemple, la définition du domicile fiscal, le contenu de la déclaration de revenus (mention des revenus CERN et déclaration des autres revenus de sources française ou étrangère), la déclaration des comptes bancaires à l’étranger, l’assujettissement (dans certaines conditions) à la CSG-CRDS. Cette réunion publique portera UNIQUEMENT sur des questions de principe ...

  11. Accident response in France

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  12. Faults architecture and growth in clay-limestone alternation. Examples in the S-E Basin alternations (France) and numerical modeling; Architecture et croissance des failles dans les alternances argilo-calcaires. Exemples dans les alternances du Bassin du Sud-Est (France) et modelisation numerique

    Roche, Vincent

    2011-10-28

    The following work has been carried out in the framework of the studies conducted by IRSN in support of its safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme of high and intermediate level, long-lived radioactive waste. Such a disposal is planned to be hosted by the Callovian-Oxfordian indurate clay formation between two limestone formations in eastern Paris basin, France. Hypothetical faults may cross-cut this layered section, decreasing the clay containment ability by creating preferential pathways for radioactive solute towards limestones. This study aims at characterising the fault architecture and the normal fault growth in clay/limestone layered sections. Structural analysis and displacement profiles have been carried out in normal faults crossing several decimetres to metre thick sedimentary alternations in the South-Eastern Basin (France) and petrophysical properties have been determined for each layer. The studied faults are simple fault planes or complex fault zones showing are significantly controlled by the layering. The analysis of the fault characteristics and the results obtained on numerical models enlighten several processes such as fault nucleation, fault restriction, and fault growth through layered section. Some studied faults nucleated in the limestone layers, without using pre-existing fractures such as joints, and according to our numerical analysis, a strong stiffness, a low strength contrast between the limestone and the clay layer, and/or s a greater thickness of the clay layer are conditions which favour nucleation of faults in limestone. The range of mechanical properties leading to the fault nucleation in one layer type or another was investigated using a 3D modelling approach. After its nucleation, the fault propagates within a homogeneous medium with a constant displacement gradient until its vertical propagation is stopped by a restrictor. The evidenced restrictors are limestone-clay interfaces or faults in clays, sub

  13. Reading American Fat in France : Obesity and Food Culture

    Laura Knowlton – Le Roux

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the least flattering images that America is now associated with in France and in other European countries is a ballooning stomach. Pictures of overweight American children and adults are regularly used in French TV news, shows and in the print media. Every campaign against obesity in the land of gourmandise cites the latest statistics on the overweight population in the United States. “Obésité: la France sur la voie des Etats-Unis,” warned Le Monde in the headline of its two-page sprea...

  14. Reading American Fat in France : Obesity and Food Culture

    Roux, Laura Knowlton – Le

    2007-01-01

    One of the least flattering images that America is now associated with in France and in other European countries is a ballooning stomach. Pictures of overweight American children and adults are regularly used in French TV news, shows and in the print media. Every campaign against obesity in the land of gourmandise cites the latest statistics on the overweight population in the United States. “Obésité: la France sur la voie des Etats-Unis,” warned Le Monde in the headline of its two-page sprea...

  15. France's seismic zoning

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  16. France without nuclear power

    Barre, B.; Charmant, A.; Devezeaux, J.G.; Ladoux, N.; Vielle, M.

    1995-01-01

    As environmental issues (particularly questions associated with the greenhouse effect) become a matter of increasing current concern, the French nuclear power programme can, in retrospect, be seen to have had a highly positive impact upon emissions of atmospheric pollutants. The most spectacular effect of this programme was the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from 530 million tonnes per annum in 1973 to 387 million tonnes per annum today. Obviously, this result cannot be considered in isolation from the economic consequences of the nuclear power programme, which have been highly significant.The most obvious consequence of nuclear power has been the production of cheap electricity, while a further consequence has been the stability of electricity prices resulting from the increasing self-sufficiency of France in energy supplies (from 22% in 1973 to 49.% in 1992). Moreover, French nuclear industry exports. In 1993, 61.7 TW·h from nuclear production were exported, which contributed F.Fr. 14.2 billion to the credit side of the balance of payment. For the same year, Framatome exports are assessed at about F.Fr. 2 billion, corresponding to manufacturing and erection of heavy components, and maintenance services. Cogema, the French nuclear fuel operator, sold nuclear materials and services for F.Fr. 9.3 billion. Thus, nuclear activities contributed more than F.Fr. 25 billion to the balance of payment. Therefore, a numerical assessment of the macroeconomic impact of the nuclear power programme is essential for any accurate evaluation of the environmental consequences of that programme. For this assessment, which is presented in the paper, the Micro-Melodie macroeconomic and energy supply model developed by the Commissariat a l'energie atomique has been used. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Chemical and isotopic tracing of underground water in relation with leaching of mine spoils, Nord-Pas-de-Calais Coal Basin (France); Tracage chimique et isotopique des eaux souterraines en relation avec les eaux de lixiviation de terrils, bassin minier du Nord-Pas-de-Calais (France)

    Denimal, S.; Tribovillard, N.; Meilliez, F. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geodynamique, UMR 8577, 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Barbecot, F.; Dever, L. [Paris-11 Univ., Lab. d' Hydrologie et de Geochimie Isotopique, UMR 8616, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Coal mining activity in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France) has generated many mine spoils. The oxidation of the pyrite content of such coal shales and their leaching can be a source of sulfate pollution for the underlying chalk aquifer, i.e. the main drinking water resource of the region. Two sites of study have been retained: one in the free water table zone and the other in the confined water table zone. Samples from both mine spoils have been analyzed with respect to their carbon and sulfur content and a superficial leaching of these elements has been evidenced. Water has been sampled in piezometers and boreholes close to the mine spoils and also along natural flux lines. The use of sulfur isotopes as markers of the different sulfate sources has confirmed the spoils source but has permitted to identify another source in the second site which is the Tertiary gypsum-bearing Ostricourt sands. This study has shown also that in the confined water table zone, part of the exported sulfates is reduced. This bacterial reduction of sulfates is due to a joint leaching of both carbon and sulfur in the mine spoils. A self-purification phenomenon occurs when the chalk aquifer is confined beneath the Cenozoic cover. (J.S.)

  18. Lixiviation du potassium sous culture de pomme de terre irriguée en sol sableux : impact des engrais azotés

    Chaouechi, Ameni

    2014-01-01

    Au Québec, la pomme de terre est cultivée sur des sols sableux favorisant les pertes par lixiviation de l’azote et du potassium. Selon le principe de réactions d’échanges cationiques, on a supposé que les doses et les sources d'azote puissent avoir un impact sur la lixiviation du potassium. Ainsi, une expérience a été menée, pendant trois années, dans un champ de pomme. Le dispositif expérimental est un bloc complet aléatoire de quatre répétitions constitué de 10 traitements qui sont un facto...

  19. Évaluer l'impact des stéréotypes dans les supports multimédia Evaluating the impact of stereotypes in multimedia tools

    Joëlle Aden

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La navigation sur Internet offre aux enseignants de langues vivantes un kaléidoscope de supports authentiques variés, qui reflète des points de vues multi perspectivistes sur les réalités socioculturelles des groupes qui utilisent la langue apprise. La navigation est probablement un des usages du multimédia les plus développés dans l'enseignement de masse en langues. Il suffit, pour s'en convaincre, de parcourir les méthodes éditées ces cinq dernières années pour voir que l'outil multimédia est surtout sollicité pour faire des recherches sur des thèmes étudiés en classe et de nombreux travaux ont mis en avant le potentiel de cet outil. Dans les classes, l'idée selon laquelle il est indispensable de laisser les élèves naviguer sans guidage dans l'hypertexte a très vite cédé la place à la nécessité de réduire l'accès aux ressources Internet à l'intérieur de cadres contraints, en général à partir de sites présélectionnés à cet effet en vue de réaliser des tâches dans la langue d'étude. Aujourd'hui, dans la formation en langue des enseignants, deux types de dispositifs Tice (technologies de l'information et de la communication pour l'éducation occupent la première place : les cyberenquêtes (webquests et les échanges par courrier électronique, mais à nouveau, les limites des cyberenquêtes sont perceptibles, elles recréent des contraintes formelles dans lesquelles on force les repérages. Dans cet article, nous nous intéresserons à un dispositif[1] intégrant des activités plus libres de navigation et de choix de supports vidéo que nous avons réintégré dans une démarche culturelle en classe. Nous considérerons la façon dont la variété de ces supports, libres et contraints, influe sur la construction des repères identitaires des élèves. Nous étudierons ce phénomène en lien avec les mécanismes cognitifs et socio discursifs que les apprenants mettent en œuvre lorsqu'ils sont exposés

  20. France at CERN

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  1. Case study - France

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture concerns the training of the personnel of the PWR 900 MW twin units nuclear power station which is located in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China. The following points are covered: General organization of the training; preparation and recruitment of personnel trained in France; training and qualification of the personnel trained in France; complementary training in PRC for the above personnel; training of additional personnel in PRC; attended retraining. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear safety in France

    Queniart, D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper outlines the organizational and technical aspects of nuclear safety in France. From the organization point of view, the roles of the operator, of the safety authority and of the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety are developed. From the technical viewpoint, the evolution of safety since the beginning of the French nuclear programme, the roles of deterministic and probabilistic methods and the severe accident policy (prevention and mitigation, venting containment) in France are explained

  3. Utilisation des données d’insémination artificielle afin d’identifier l’impact d’un évènement abortif dans les élevages de bovins laitiers

    Bronner , A.; Morignat, E.; Madouasse, Aurélien; Gasqui, Patrick; Gay, E.; Calavas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Le présent article a pour objectif de discuter de la faisabilité et de l’intérêt que représenterait le suivi d’un indicateur indirect de survenue des avortements élaboré à partir des données d’insémination artificielle, le taux d’avortements précoces, afin d’identifier l’impact d’un évènement abortif, de manière rétrospective ou prospective. Deux études sont présentées pour illustrer le propos, ayant eu pour objet d’estimer, par l’analyse des variations du taux d’avortements précoces, l’impac...

  4. The Use of Prestressed Concrete Vessels in the French Power Reactor Programme; Les caissons en beton precontraint dans le programme francais des reacteurs de puissance; Korpusy iz predvaritel'no napryazhennogo betona vo frantsuzskoj programme ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov; Empleo de recipientes de presion de hormigon pretensado en el programa frances de reactores de potencia

    Conte, F. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Marcoule (France); Dambrine, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gaussot, D. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France)

    1963-10-15

    de la pression de service et de toutes manieres, une augmentation notable des dimensions, ce qui permet d'envisager des solutions du type integre. (author) [Spanish] G3 de Marcoule y en el reactor EDF3, en construccion en Chinon. Los reactores se encuentran en servicio desde 1959 y 1960, respectivamente; el Comissariat a l'energie atomique indica los problemas que ha planteado la construccion de los recipientes de presion y las observaciones efectuadas durante el funcionamiento de los reactores, que ponen de manifiesto la gran seguridad de los mencionados recipientes. La construccion del recipiente de presion del reactor EDF3, que comenzo en Chinon en el segundo semestre de 1961, prosigue actualmente y quedara terminada a fines de 1963. L'Electricite de France expone los motivos de la eleccion de este tipo de recipiente, los resultados de los calculos y de los ensayos efectuados con maquetas, asi como los problemas planteados por sir construccion. Se han llevado a cabo varios estudios sobre las perspectivas del empleo del hormigon pretensado en los reactores. Al parecer, este material permite obtener un aumento de la presion de trabajo y de todas maneras, un incremento notable de las dimensiones, lo que a su vez permite tomar en consideracion soluciones de tipo integrado. (author) [Russian] Izlagaetsya vopros o primenenii predvaritel'no napryazhennogo betona dlya reaktorov G.2 i G.3 v Markule i dlya stroyashchegosya v Shinone reaktora EDF.3. Reaktory dostigli mosnosti sootvetstvenno v 1959 i 1960 godakh; KAEH otmechaet problemy, kotorye voznikli v protsesse stroitel'stva korpusa reaktora, i izlagaet filosofiyu nablyudenij, kotorye prodemonstrirovali vysokuyu bezopasnost' ehtikh ustanovok. K stroitel'stvu korpusa reaktora EDF.3 v SHinone pristupili vo vtoroj polovine 1961 goda; stroitel'stvo budet zaversheno k kontsu 1963 goda. ''Ehlektrisite de Frans'' ob{sup y}asnyaet prichiny vybora takogo korpusa, privodit rezul'taty raschetov i provedennykh na makete ispytanij, a

  5. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in France. Sectoral series and extended analyses - SECTEN Format, April 2011; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques et de gaz a effet de serre en France. Series sectorielles et analyses etendues - Format SECTEN, avril 2011

    Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Serveau, Laetitia; Allemand, Nadine; Jeannot, Coralie; Andre, Jean-Marc; Joya, Romain; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Martinet, Yann; Druart, Ariane; Mathias, Etienne; Gavel, Antoine; Nicco, Laetitia; Gueguen, Celine; Prouteau, Emilie; Jabot, Julien; Tuddenham, Mark; Jacquier, Guillaume; Vincent, Julien

    2011-04-15

    This report supplies an update of emissions into the atmosphere in mainland France under the SNIEPA in accordance with the 'SECTEN' format defined by CITEPA. This report aims to reconstitute emissions broken down in accordance with the traditional economic sectors such as industry, residential/tertiary sector, agriculture, etc. (cf. Annex 2 for the corresponding links between SECTEN sectors and sub-sectors, and the SNAP nomenclature). Unless otherwise indicated, the results cover the period 1990-2010 (estimations for 2010 are preliminary), but also go back further in time: to 1980 for certain substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. For other substances traditionally monitored by CITEPA for many years, the results go back to 1960 (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO). Data are presented for 28 different substances in total and various indicators such as those concerning acidification or the greenhouse effect. The report shows that for most substances, emissions have been drastically reduced over the last 10 or 20 years, especially during the period 1990-2009: Very sharp decrease (over 40%) SO{sub 2}, NMVOCs, CO, SF{sub 6}, PFCs in CO{sub 2} equivalent, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, dioxins and furans, PAHs, HCB, PCBs, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 1.0}, Sharp decrease (between 20 and 40%) NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, Se, TSP, PM{sub 10} and acid equivalent index, Considerable decrease (between 5 and 20%) NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4} without LULUCF, CO{sub 2} without LULUCF, Cu and the global warming potential index without LULUCF, Stabilisation (between -5 and +5%) No substance, Very sharp increase (over 40%) HFCs in CO{sub 2} equivalent. For more than 2/3 of substances, emission levels in 2009 were the lowest since records began (1960 to 1990 depending on the substances). For the most part of atmospheric pollutants (except the greenhouse gases), the preliminary estimations for year 2010 look

  6. Natural CO{sub 2} migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO{sub 2} storage in sedimentary formations; Contribution a la connaissance des migrations de CO{sub 2} naturel dans le Bassin du Sud-Est de la France: enseignements pour le stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs sedimentaires

    Rubert, Y.

    2009-03-15

    Study of natural CO{sub 2} analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO{sub 2} storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO{sub 2} migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO{sub 2}-leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO{sub 2}-enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO{sub 2} did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO{sub 2} leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

  7. Assessment by regional modelling of the impact of monopile foundations on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport: case of Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) wind farm

    Rivier, Aurélie; Bennis, Anne-Claire; Pinon, Grégory; Magar, Vanesa; Gross, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Offshore monopile foundations of wind turbines modify hydrodynamics and sediment transport at local scale and also at regional scale. The aim of this work is to assess these changes and to parametrize them in a regional model. These modifications were previously evaluated using the regional circulation model MARS3D (Lazure and Dumas, 2008) in tests-cases (Rivier et al., 2014) using two approaches: in the first approach, monopiles are explicitly modelled in the mesh as dry cells and in the second approach a sub-grid parametrization which considers the drag force exerted by a monopile on the flow is used. The sub-grid parametrization is improved close to the bed in this paper by adding a drag force term in the momentum equations, source terms in the turbulence model and by increasing the bed shear stress at monopile location. Changes in hydrodynamics regime, especially near-bed, affect sediment transport regime and modifications due to monopiles on sediment dynamics is also investigated using the MARS3D sediment transport module (Le Hir et al., 2011) which solves the advection-diffusion equations. Test-cases are run using hydrodynamical conditions and sediment grain sizes typical from the area located off Courseulles-sur-Mer (Normandy, France) where an offshore wind farm is planned to be built. Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and bed thickness changes due to the monopile simulated by both approaches are compared to each other and to experimental measurements made in a flume at the University of Caen or to published data (e.g. Roulund et al., 2005; Dargahi,1989). Then the model is applied in a real configuration on an area including the future offshore wind farm of Courseulles-sur-Mer. Four monopiles are represented in the model using both approaches and modifications of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport are assessed along a tidal cycle. Currents increase at the side edge of the monopile and decrease in front of and downstream the monopile. Turbulent kinetic

  8. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference between prescriptions at discharge in terms of potential prescription omissions. Acute geriatric hospitalization in France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. The French wind fleet and its impacts on avifauna. Study of mortality follow-ups performed in France from 1997 to 2015. June 2017 - Updated in September 2017 - LPO France

    Marx, Geoffroy

    2017-06-01

    The present French policy for energy transition comprises a contribution to the struggle against climate change and to the protection of the environment, notably based on a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through a decrease of energy consumption (notably fossil energies) and a development of renewable energies, notably ground-based and offshore wind energy. But wind turbines have a potential impact on biodiversity, particularly habitats and flying vertebrates. As the number of wind turbines is to strongly increase, this report proposes a study of bird mortality directly due to collisions with wind turbines, and recommendations for a better environmental integration of ground-based wind farms. Illustrated by figures and tables, the report first proposes a presentation of the French wind turbine fleet (evolution, farm size, machine size, comparison with other countries, distribution on the French territory and within areas of special protection or ZPS). It describes various follow-up studies and data, and outlines their weaknesses and limitations. It reports an analysis of found carcasses, of impacted species, and of species exhibiting no mortality. It proposes an assessment of bird mortality, and discusses impact factors (machine size, distribution in time of carcass discoveries, habitat type, vicinity of ZPS)

  10. Winter climatic comparison between France and New Zealand : effects of frost damage on populations of Leptospermum scoparium JR et G Forst grown at three locations in France

    Harris, W.; Decourtye, L.

    1991-01-01

    L’utilisation en France des cultivars ornementaux de Leptospermum scoparium, Myrtacée originaire de Nouvelle-Zélande, est limitée par leur sensibilité au froid. Dans son pays d’origine, l’aire de répartition de l’espèce s’étend sur 14 degrés de latitude et va des régions côtières à des altitudes pouvant atteindre 1 400 m. Les cultivars ornementaux actuels proviennent de plantes collectées à des latitudes faibles et en altitude basse. Des populations de semis, représentatives de l’ensembl...

  11. L’irrigation diminue-t-elle en France ? Premiers enseignements du recensement agricole de 2010

    LOUBIER, Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Le recensement agricole constitue un outil essentiel à la connaissance du monde agricole et au pilotage de l’action publique. À partir d'une analyse des données et des résultats concernant l'irrigation, les auteurs nous présentent la situation actuelle en France et les principales évolutions depuis dix ans.

  12. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  13. Salinity levels as a factor of phyto planktonic structure and diversity remediation in a lagoon impact by human activities. (Bolmon Lagoon, Mediterranean Coast, France)

    Fayolle, S.; Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Ollivier, A.; Maasri, A.; Franquet, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (south-eastern France) is located in the coastal hinterland of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the salty Berre pond and in the other hand receives fresh waters from the La Cadiere River. This hyper-shallow lagoon has been classified in the early 70's as β mixo-mesohaline. Bolmon lagoon is important for human activities (tourism, fishing) and for the preservation of the diversity of marine and birds species. In the last decades, the intensive urbanisation of its drainage basin induced a high eutrophication of its waters and, as a consequence, drastic modifications in the biodiversity and in the functioning os this ecosystem. (Author)

  14. The technological, economical and social impacts of a Paomia photovoltaic plant in Corsiga, France; Impacto tecno-economico-social de uma instalacao fotovoltaica, Paomia (Corsega), Franca

    Souza Moreira, J.G. de [Univ. de Corse (France). Lab. d` Helioenergetique; Peri, G [CNRS, (France). Lab. d` Helioenergetique

    1991-12-31

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by European Common Market aids. The `Paomia` photovoltaic plant (44 Kw) is the French project. This plant originally unadapted to users needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Costumers prefer at last the use of conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Technical-economic-social impact of a photovoltaic installation - Paomia (Corsica) - France. Impacto tecno-economico-social de uma instalacao fotovoltaica - Paomia (Corsega) - Franca

    Moreira, J.G. de; Peri, G

    1990-01-01

    The solar photovoltaic policy is taken into account in the great international market. Applying this high-technology, France encourages its industrial potentialities due to its former colonies closed market. This policy is enforced by CEE aids. The Paomia photovoltaic plant - 44 K W p - is the french CEE project. It is the principal European photovoltaic R and D programme. This plant originally unadapted to users' needs is now under used: on one side, because of its operational cost and on the other side, because of the arrival of the grid in this utilization area. Customers prefer at last the use of the conventional electricity for convenience sake. (author).

  16. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge; La France, l'Allemagne et l'enjeu nucleaire

    Turkish, F

    2004-11-15

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Charbonnages de France. 2003 environment report; Charbonnages de France. Rapport environnement 2003

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This annual report presents the Group ''charbonnages de France'' activities in 2003. It concerns the remediation actions, the environmental indicators, the environmental impacts of the sites activities and remediation, the management of the environmental impacts, the mine safety and the production sites management. (A.L.B.)

  18. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l'industrie atomique etrangere notamment dans te cadre de l'Euratom et d

  19. L’autorégulation conjointe de la cognition et des émotions : quel impact sur les apprentissages ?

    Bastien Wagener

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Les apprentissages consistent à résoudre des problèmes et à acquérir de nouvelles connaissances et compétences par le biais d’un ensemble de processus relevant de l’autorégulation. Deux aspects principaux rentrent en ligne de compte lorsque l’on cherche à améliorer la résolution de problèmes : la dimension émotionnelle et la métacognition. Les émotions, en tant que réactions organisées et utiles à une situation donnée, peuvent être tour à tour un atout ou un handicap lorsqu’il s’agit d’apprendre. Par ailleurs, la métacognition est constituée d’un ensemble de processus et de savoirs qui s’articulent autour de la prise de conscience et de la régulation de son propre fonctionnement, qu’il soit cognitif ou émotionnel. Grâce aux pratiques de l’attention (PA, issues de traditions permettant un travail sur la conscience et la régulation psychologique et physiologique, il est possible d’agir conjointement sur les cognitions et les émotions. Plusieurs travaux ont montré les nombreux bénéfices que présentent de telles approches et nous constatons également que les effets positifs sur l’autorégulation commencent à être de plus en plus étayés. Nous proposons donc de nouvelles approches holistiques permettant un travail global sur l’autorégulation qui prendraient en compte le traitement métacognitif des sphères cognitive et émotionnelle au bénéfice des apprenants. Simultaneous self-regulation of cognition and emotions and its consequences on learning Abstract: The learning process relies on problem-solving activities and the acquisition of knowledge and skills through self-regulation. Emotions and metacognitions are some of the key aspects that allow the improvement of problem-solving. The emotional dimension consists of structured and useful reactions in regard to a specific situation. Emotions can either be an asset or a disadvantage when one is involved in a learning situation. As for

  20. LHC France 2013: French Meeting on High Energy Physics at the LHC

    2013-01-01

    Cette 1ère édition des rencontres françaises sur la physique des hautes énergies au Large Hadron Collider réunira près de 300 physiciens membres des laboratoires IN2P3-CNRS et IRFU-CEA, participants aux collaborations Atlas, CMS, LHCb et Alice. La rencontre LHC France, aura lieu à une période particulièrement cruciale pour la discipline, les derniers résultats des expériences LHC, basés sur toutes les données collectées en 2011 et 2012 y seront présentés et discutés. Elle sera l'occasion de faire le point et le bilan des avancées des diverses thématiques de recherche: boson de Higgs, les interactions électrofaibles, le quark top, la Supersymétrie, les saveurs lourdes, la violation de CP et le Plasma de Quarks et de Gluons. Elle sera aussi l'occasion de discuter des plans d'amélioration des détecteurs en vue des futures phases de fonctionnement du LHC ainsi que les perspectives pour la physique. Cette rencontre se veut un moment d'échange privilégié pour la communauté française des ...

  1. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  2. Améliorer les conditions de vie des jeunes et des femmes en ...

    Améliorer les conditions de vie des jeunes et des femmes en développant la petite entreprise : mesure de l'impact. Durant les années 2000, la croissance économique et l'augmentation des investissements sociaux ont réduit la pauvreté et offert aux populations de l'Amérique latine de multiples débouchés sur le marché du ...

  3. La production mondiale des vins

    Pierre GALET

    1970-06-01

    On sait peu de choses précises sur l'origine de la culture de la vigne en Gaule. Il est probable qu'il existait des lambrusques sauvages dans les forêts et les sous-bois dont les habitants récoltaient les raisins pour les consommer à l'état frais et peut-être en tiraient-ils aussi une boisson fermentée comme ils le faisaient pour l'orge ou pour le miel (hydromel. Il est vraisemblable aussi que les navigateurs phocéens, venus commercer sur les rivages de la Méditerranée, apportèrent du vin aux gaulois, leur apprirent à tailler la vigne et finalement, en établissant des comptoirs, amenèrent des boutures de vignes de leur propre pays. On sait que les gaulois apprécièrent très vite le vin et ce fut une des raisons de leurs invasion de la Toscane pour y consommer sur place cette « boisson magique ». Plus tard avec l'occupation romaine la culture de la vigne s'étendit dans toute la province narbonnaise, dans la vallée du Rhône jusqu'aux portes de Lyon, puis en Aquitaine. A leur tour les romains se mirent à apprécier les vins gaulois, de qualité supérieure à ceux récoltés en Italie sur les Hautains. A l'aide de la navigation fluviale sur le Rhône les vins gagnèrent Rome, ainsi que ceux embarqués dans les petits ports du rivage méditerranéen. Puis au cours des siècles et grâce notamment aux religieux catholiques la vigne se répandit dans toutes les provinces. A la veille de la Révolution, en 1788, on estimait la superficie cultivée à 1.567.000 hectares, produisant 27 millions d'hectolitres. Au cours du XIXe siècle, les plantations augmentèrent en raison des facilités de transport que permettait l'établissement des lignes de chemin de fer. Le ravitaillement des grandes villes fut assuré par la création d'un important vignoble dans le Midi. En 1875, la superficie cultivée dépassait 2,4 millions d'hectares et la France produisit 83,8 millions d'hectolitres, record absolu qui ne fut jamais plus atteint depuis. La crise phyllox

  4. La territorialisation des politiques environnementales

    Amédée Mollard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le point de départ de cet article est la grande variabilité de la pollution nitrique diffuse de l’eau due à l’agriculture. Celle-ci dépend en particulier du climat, des types de sol et des systèmes de production agricole. Nos recherches réalisées de façon interdisciplinaire à partir de deux sites différents en France, montrent que cette hétérogénéité spatio-temporelle conditionne les pratiques agricoles mises en œuvre pour réduire la pollution au niveau de la norme admise. De ce fait, les pratiques les plus « coût-efficaces » diffèrent d’un territoire à l’autre, en fonction des caractéristiques locales. Ces résultats mettent donc en évidence une efficacité potentielle d’une territorialisation des politiques publiques. En théorie, de telles politiques sont considérées comme optimales par les économistes, car elles incitent les agents à moduler leurs efforts en fonction de la sensibilité du milieu. Mais, selon les études empiriques, cet avantage serait annulé par un coût élevé de mise en œuvre, de contrôle et de surveillance. Pour maintenir leur avantage sur des politiques uniformes, les politiques territorialisées devraient être mises en œuvre à un niveau spatial optimal. Un tel niveau devrait au minimum atteindre un compromis entre l’économie réalisée grâce à une modulation adaptée aux conditions locales et les sur-coûts dus à la décentralisation des solutions mises en œuvre. Cet article analyse la pertinence d’une prise en compte de ces spécificités par des politiques territorialisées. L’efficacité d’une régulation différenciée de la pollution nitrique est étudiée ici en évaluant l’importance de la variabilité spatiale des paramètres physiques et des coûts de la territorialisation.The paper starts with the wide variability of nonpoint water nitrogenous pollution generated by agriculture. This variability depends especially on climate, soil types and farming

  5. Contamination des produits agricoles et de la nappe phréatique par ...

    Au Senegal, les enquetes menees dans la zone agricole des Niayes ont revele une mauvaise gestion des pesticides de la part des producteurs peu soucieux de leur impact sur lfenvironnement et la qualite des productions. Lfanalyse chromatographique apres extraction et purification a montre la presence de residus de ...

  6. Energy in France

    Lucas, N.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: purpose and context (includes information about France's energy supplies, use and responsible organizations); evolution of relationships among institutions; review of prevailing preoccupations of sectors (separate headings for oil, gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and unconventional energy sources: under the nuclear heading information is given about the organization of the nuclear industry in France, mining, enrichment, reprocessing, reactor construction); nature and operation of government control; energy in the plans; formulation of policy; opposition to the nuclear policy. (U.K.)

  7. La Franc-maçonnerie, entre cité céleste et cité terrestre : divisions et équilibrages internes au sujet du théisme, de la religion et des questions sociétales

    Céline Bryon-Portet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La bonne santé de la Franc-maçonnerie française, qui n’a pas vu ses effectifs chuter contrairement à ceux des Etats-Unis par exemple, semble attester de la satisfaction qu’apporte de nos jours à des hommes en quête de sens ce modèle d’un espace qui se veut public au sens habermassien (en ce sens qu’il débat de questions politico-sociétales en se servant d’un usage éclairé de la raison tout en étant privatif (puisqu’il est à huis-clos et réservé à quelques rares initiés, et qui propose une réflexion autour des problématiques spirituelles et terrestres, religieuses et sociopolitiques. Elle constitue une spiritualité tout à la fois religieuse dans son esprit et laïque dans sa forme, une sorte de troisième voie1. Un sociologue comme Michel Maffesoli voit même dans cet attrait pour une « raison sensible » et une « transcendance immanente »2 – qui manifestent une véritable « coincidentia oppositorum » et dont nous avons montré qu’elle était une finalité de l’ordre maçonnique –, la marque de la postmodernité. Si ces intuitions sont justes, alors il est fort probable la Franc-maçonnerie a encore un bel avenir devant elle.This text studies the paradoxical position of Freemasonry, which tries to conciliate spiritual quest and socio-political engagement. First, the author shows that Freemasonry contains some religious aspects because it cultivates the sacred through an initiation and ritual practices, even if it can’t be considered as a religion: in fact, it is non-dogmatic, and many obediences refuse to evocate God during their ceremonies and the question of belief in a Superior Being is source of disputes between the lodges. After that, the author points the fact that freemasons who belong to the liberal branch of Freemasonry want to participate to the evolution of the laws in profane society and to defend the principles of secularism, according to the Masonic objective, consisting in

  8. Le vernis des apparences

    Grazia Nicosia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Le but de cet article est de comprendre l’incidence sémiotique du nettoyage d’un tableau ainsi que la résultante cognitive induite sur l’observateur. Cette étude confronte l’analyse des phénomènes visuels engendrés par le jaunissement du vernis et son retrait, à des entretiens réalisés à dessein. Le retrait d’un vernis jauni change considérablement l’image. L’heure, le climat, la saison et l’activité même des personnages s’en trouvent ainsi modifié. La patine peut être perçue, soit comme un obstacle à l’exploration, soit pour ceux qui l’apprécient, comme le medium d’une relation plus intime entre l’œuvre et l’observateur.The purpose of this article is to understand the semiotic impact of the cleaning of a painting and the cognitive effects induced on the observer. This study analyses conjointly the visual phenomenon generated by yellowing varnish and its removal and controlled interviews of observers.The removal of yellowing varnish modifies considerably the perception of the picture. Daytime, climate, season and characters activities are modified. The patina may be perceived either as an obstacle to the painting exploration, or, for those who appreciate it, as a medium for a closer relationship between the painting and the observer.

  9. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    AISA

    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : cgbemavo@yahoo.fr. 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  10. La titrisation en France : évolutions récentes.

    BIROUK, O.; DARVES, F.

    2013-01-01

    La titrisation connaît un développement mesuré en France. Avec un total de bilan de 215 milliards d’euros à mi-2013, elle se place au cinquième rang de la zone euro. Elle détient principalement des crédits sur des résidents français et a facilité l’accès des banques au refinancement de l’Eurosystème.

  11. Impact des changements climatiques sur les écosystèmes alpins : comment les mettre en évidence et les prévoir ?

    Nigel G. Yoccoz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les écosystèmes alpins vont être grandement influencés par les changements climatiques à venir, mais d’autres facteurs, tels que l’utilisation des terres ou les espèces invasives, pourront aussi jouer un rôle important. Le climat peut influencer les écosystèmes à différents niveaux, et nous en décrivons certains, en mettant l’accent sur les méthodes utilisées et les données disponibles. Le climat peut d’abord modifier la phénologie des espèces, comme la date de floraison des plantes ou la date d’éclosion des insectes. Il peut ensuite affecter directement la démographie des espèces (survie, reproduction, dispersion et donc à terme leur répartition. Il peut enfin agir sur les interactions entre espèces – le couvert neigeux par exemple modifie le succès de certains prédateurs. Une caractéristique des écosystèmes alpins est la présence d’un manteau neigeux important et pourtant l’influence de la neige reste relativement mal connue, en particulier pour des raisons logistiques. Même si nous avons fait des progrès importants dans le développement de modèles prédictifs, surtout pour ce qui est de la répartition des plantes alpines, il reste à mettre en place des réseaux d’observations et d’expériences permettant de mieux tenir compte de la variabilité des écosystèmes alpins et des interactions avec le climat.Alpine ecosystems will be greatly impacted by climatic change, but other factors, such as land use and invasive species, are likely to play an important role too. Climate can influence ecosystems at several levels. We describe some of them, stressing methodological approaches and available data. Climate can modify species phenology, such as flowering date of plants and hatching date in insects. It can also change directly population demography (survival, reproduction, dispersal, and therefore species distribution. Finally it can effect interactions among species –snow cover for example

  12. Electricite de France`s ALARA policy

    Stricker, L. [EDF - DEPT, Paris la Defense (France); Rollin, P. [EDF Radioprotection Committee, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, Electricite de France - EDF decided to improve the degree to which radiological protection is incorporated in overall management of the utility and set itself the objective of ensuring the same level of protection for workers from contractors as for those from EDF. This decision was taken in a context marked by a deterioration in exposure figures for French plants and by the new recommendations issued by the ICRP. This document describes the policy adopted by EDF at both corporate and plant level to meet these objectives, by: (1) setting up management systems which were responsive but not cumbersome; (2) a broad policy of motivation; (3) the development and use of suitable tools. The document then describes some quite positive results of EDF`s ALARA policy, giving concrete examples and analyzing the changes in global indicators.

  13. De l'aide à la responsabilisation:L'espace social de l'éducation financière en France

    Lazarus, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    L’éducation financière des populations est un thème émergent des politiques publiques internationales, présentée par ses promoteurs comme une forme de protection des citoyens face à la libéralisation des marchés financiers pour promouvoir une plus grande prise en charge individuelle des risques sociaux. L’objet de cet article est d’observer son développement spécifique en France et sa forte imbrication avec les transformations du travail social. Dans un premier temps nous décrivons l’espace s...

  14. France - energy situation 1986

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of France is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  15. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  16. The action of France

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy in France

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  18. France energy situation

    1991-01-01

    The monthly (May 1991) energy situation analysis in France is presented: the energy consumption rise is lowered and especially, oil imports have fallen from -3.1 pc; natural gas imports and domestic electric power production have risen. The energy import dependence rate have very slightly risen, around 50 pc. Diagrams for 1989, 1990, 1991 are presented [fr

  19. Integration of the nuclear energy among the production facilities of energy in France; Integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en france

    Ailleret, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Taranger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)

  20. Influence de l'occupation des terres sur la dynamique des ...

    L'objectif de la présente étude est d'évaluer l'impact de mise en culture, des pâturages, des jachères et l'influence des villages sur la dynamique des communautés végétales de la commune de ..... mais il n'y a que peu de recrutement. Au-delà de cinq ans, taille et phytovolume diminuent, témoignant du vieillissement de la ...

  1. 16 septembre 2015 - Signature du livre d'or par S. Exc. Mme Laurin, Ambassadeur de France auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des organisations internationales en Suisse avec le Directeur général du CERN R. Heuer, et de la Directrice générale élue 2016-2020 F. Gianotti.

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Son Excellence Madame Elisabeth Laurin Ambassadeur Représentant permanent de la République française auprès de l’Office des Nations Unies et des organisations internationales en Suisse République française. Sont également présents: E. Göniger Voss, S. Péron, O. Martin, F. Bordry, A-S. Catherin, F. Eder.

  2. Report realized on behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission, of Defense and Armed Forces on the law project allowing the additional protocol ratification to the agreement between France, European Community of the atomic energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees sur le projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In a first part the author presents the International Atomic Energy Agency and its missions in the nuclear non proliferation policy especially in the agreements with the states of the TNP (Treaty of Nuclear non Proliferation). the today position of France is then analyzed towards the IAEA and the novations added by the additional protocol. (A.L.B.)

  3. Smelting crucibles to reduce copper minerals in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France

    Rovira, Salvador

    2002-06-01

    érique et en France méridionale. Mise en évidence en Espagne à la fin des années quatre-vingts, l´utilisation de céramiques banales comme récipient de la métallurgie du cuivre préhistorique a été désormais repérée en France. Dans cet article, les auteurs proposent une synthèse de l'état des connaissances concernant l'utilisation de cette technique en Espagne, son cadre géographique et chronologique, ses principales caractéristiques minéralogiques et métallurgiques. Elles permettent de montrer V efficacité et la simplicité des moyens mis enjeu dans la réalisation de cette métallurgie précoce. En France, les données restent en contrepartie modestes, et n’ont fait que rarement encore l´objet d'analyses de laboratoire ad hoc. Néanmoins, la recension des documents archéologiques suggère qu’une recherche spécifique, éclairée par les résultats exposés dans cet article, devrait permettre en France, comme ce fût le cas en Espagne au cours des dernières années, de montrer l'impact de cette technique au cours des âges du Cuivre et du Bronze.

  4. Les filtres plantés de roseaux en assainissement : de la compréhension des mécanismes vers l'optimisation des procédés et la diversification des domaines d'application.

    Molle, P.

    2015-01-01

    / L'usage des végétaux aquatiques dans les filières de traitement des eaux provient de l'observation du rôle des zones humides naturelles dans la préservation de la qualité des milieux aquatiques. En France l'expérience a démarré en 1978. Depuis les premières réalisations jusqu'au début des années 2000 la filière a été évaluée principalement par des bilans 24 h à chaque étape de traitement. Si cette méthode considère les systèmes comme une boîte noire et ne donne pas accès à la quantification...

  5. Unstable work histories and fertility in France: An adaptation of sequence complexity measures to employment trajectories

    Daniel Ciganda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of new evidence suggesting a sign shift in the long-standing negativecorrelation between prosperity and fertility levels has sparked a renewed interest in understanding the relationship between economic conditions and fertility decisions. In thiscontext, the notion of uncertainty has gained relevance in analyses of low fertility. So far, most studies have approached this notion using snapshot indicators such as type of contract or employment situation. However, these types of measures seem to be fallingshort in capturing what is intrinsically a dynamic process. Objective: Our first objective is to analyze to what extent employment trajectories have become lessstable over time, and the second, to determine whether or not employment instability has an impact on the timing and quantum of fertility in France.Additionally, we present a new indicator of employment instability that takes into account both the frequency and duration of unemployment, with the objective of comparing its performance against other, more commonly used indicators of economic uncertainty. Methods: Our study combines exploratory (Sequence Analysis with confirmatory (Event History, Logistic Regression methods to understand the relationship between early life-course uncertainty and the timing and intensity of fertility. We use employment histories from the three available waves of the Etude des relations familiales et intergenerationnelles (ERFI, a panel survey carried out by INED and INSEE which constitutes the base of the Generations and Gender Survey (GGS in France. Results: Although France is characterized by strong family policies and high and stable fertility levels, we find that employment instability not only has a strong and persistent negative effect on the final number of children for both men and women, but also contributes to fertility postponement in the case of men.Regarding the timing of the transition to motherhood, we show how

  6. IMFREX impact of the anthropic changes on the frequency of the extreme phenomena of the wind, the temperature and the rainfall. Final report; Imfrex impact des changements anthropiques sur la frequence des phenomenes extremes de vent de temperature et de precipitations. Rapport final

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The aim of Imfrex was to evaluate the impact of a climatic change on the frequency of extreme phenomena of wind and rainfall in France. The study is based on an hypothesis proposed by the GIEC and called scenario A2. A first simulation, low resolution 300 km, using a coupled model ocean-atmosphere allowed to provide an evolution scenario for the temperature of the sea surface and the ice field area. A second simulation, high resolution 50 km, provided a daily evolution of the climate during 140 years. Imfrex was organized in five work-packages: the constitution of the data base, the validation of the models, the direct approach the statistical approach and the dynamical approach. (A.L.B.)

  7. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France). Impact of diagenesis on reservoir properties of the Upper Jurassic carbonate sediments

    Makhloufi, Yasin; Rusillon, Elme; Brentini, Maud; Clerc, Nicolas; Meyer, Michel; Samankassou, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Diagenesis of carbonate rocks is known to affect the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability) of the host rock. Assessing the diagenetic history of the rock is thus essential when evaluating any reservoir exploitation project. The Canton of Geneva (Switzerland) is currently exploring the opportunities for geothermal energy exploitation in the Great Geneva Basin (GGB) sub-surface. In this context, a structural analysis of the basin (Clerc et al., 2016) associated with reservoir appraisal (Brentini et al., 2017) and rock-typing of reservoir bodies of potential interest were conducted (Rusillon et al., 2017). Other geothermal exploitation projects elsewhere (e.g. Bavaria, south Germany, Paris Basin, France) showed that dolomitized carbonate rocks have good reservoir properties and are suitable for geothermal energy production. The objectives of this work are to (1) describe and characterize the dolomitized bodies in the GGB and especially their diagenetic history and (2) quantify the reservoir properties of those bodies (porosity, permeability). Currently, our study focuses on the Upper Jurassic sedimentary bodies of the GGB. Field and well data show that the dolomitization is not ubiquitous in the GGB. Results from the petrographical analyses of the Kimmeridgian cores (Humilly-2) and of field analogues (Jura, Saleve and Vuache mountains) display complex diagenetic histories, dependent of the study sites. The paragenesis exhibits several stages of interparticular calcite cementation as well as different stages of dolomitization and/or dedolomitization. Those processes seem to follow constrained path of fluid migrations through burial, faulting or exhumation during the basin's history. These complex diagenetic histories affected the petrophysical and microstructural properties via porogenesis (conservation of initial porosity, moldic porosity) and/or poronecrosis events. The best reservoir properties appear to be recorded in patch reef and peri

  8. L’impact de l’IFRS 8 sur le coût des capitaux propres

    Lenormand , Gaëlle; Touchais , Lionel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This article measures the impact of IFRS 8 on the informational content of segment data. With a sample of French groups, we find a reduction of the cost of equity for firms changing the number of segments with IFRS 8. In this situation, IFRS 8 improves the usefulness of information to the shareholders thanks to a change in segmentation. This result confirms the IASB's expectation and conclusion about IFRS 8.; L'article vise à mesurer l'impact de l'IFRS 8 sur le contenu...

  9. Fertilisation et sensibilité des cultures de laitue et de tomate aux bioagresseurs

    Julhia, L.; Nicot, Philippe C.

    2014-01-01

    Les producteurs de légumes sont confrontés à de nouveaux défis avec la réduction de l’usage des produits phytosanitaires. Limiter le recours aux moyens de lutte chimique conduit à revisiter les pratiques et à mettre en oeuvre des stratégies globales à moindre risque phytosanitaire. La fertilisation est examinée dans son action sur la santé des plantes et comme levier dans la gestion des bioagresseurs. L’étude porte sur deux cultures légumières majeures en France, en termes de surfaces, la lai...

  10. Results of the working group on the division by four of greenhouse gases emissions in France, at the horizon of 2050, called ''factor 4''. DGEMP- Observatory of the energy; Les travaux du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la france, a l'horizon 2050, dit ''facteur 4''. DGEMP-Observatoire de l'Energie

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This group, created by the french Government in march 2005, aims to evaluate the different possibilities to reach the objective of division by four the greenhouse gases emissions. This document presents some recalls on the climatic change and the situation today, the positions of the France and the foreign and the conclusions and the recommendations of the group. (A.L.B.)

  11. Results of the working group on the division by four of greenhouse gases emissions in France, at the horizon of 2050, called ''factor 4''. DGEMP- Observatory of the energy; Les travaux du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la france, a l'horizon 2050, dit ''facteur 4''. DGEMP-Observatoire de l'Energie

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This group, created by the french Government in march 2005, aims to evaluate the different possibilities to reach the objective of division by four the greenhouse gases emissions. This document presents some recalls on the climatic change and the situation today, the positions of the France and the foreign and the conclusions and the recommendations of the group. (A.L.B.)

  12. Wind power in France

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  13. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  14. [Primary care in France].

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. La titrisation en France.

    BIROUK, O.; CASSAN, L.

    2012-01-01

    La crise financière a justifié une surveillance accrue de la titrisation dans le refinancement de l’économie. Les créances titrisées en France sont en grande majorité représentatives de crédits octroyés par les banques aux ménages et aux sociétés non financières résidents.

  16. France in Black Africa,

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  17. Simulation of the lateral pole-impact on a crash simulation system; Simulation des seitlichen Pfahlaufpralls auf einer Katapultanlage

    Hoegner, C.; Gajewski, M.; Zippel, I. [ACTS GmbH und Co. KG, Sailauf (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The test set-up for the simulation of a lateral pole impact has the following characteristics: - Simulation of pole impact procedures Euro-NCAP and others - Very realistic reproduction of the deformation performance of side panels (with simulated or original part assemblies) - Consideration of the dynamic displacement of the cant rail - Seat displacement and deformation - Realistic depiction of the vehicle displacement (i.e. car-to-pole) - Test velocity: up to 50 km/h - Intrusion: up to 550 mm (more also possible on demand) - Pole diameter 254 mm (variable). This test system design results in variable set-up possibilities: - Test-set up possible from very simple (on the basis of simulation data without real parts) to very complex (use of side panels and interior door trim) - Support of different protection systems (window bag and side bag) - A maximum of two occupants feasible (set up weight max. 300 kg) - Optimal camera perspectives, stationary or onboard - Front as well as rear side impact simulation possible - Front-rear interaction of protection systems feasible (two dummies). A test system has been realised with which the complex process in a lateral pole impact can be simulated with excellent approximation and with relatively simple means. Due to the avoidance of point validation this methodology can be ideally implemented for development tests. (orig.)

  18. The radiological impact of 50 years of uranium mining in France. The necessity of a site satisfying restructuring by Cogema-Areva

    2005-01-01

    In a first text, the author briefly describes the radioprotection risks related to uranium mining, gives an overview of the characteristics of extraction residues in uranium extraction factories. Then, after having presented the case of the Limousin region in France, he outlines the high level of contamination of the environment of the mining sites, recalls the extraction process and discusses the careless use of the extracted radioactive rocks and materials. He outlines the insufficient management and processing of liquid effluents, the risk associated with the dispersal of contaminated scrap metals and of radioactive ores. He also discusses air contamination due to dusts and radioactive gases. He comments the issue of long term storage of uranium mining residues. He outlines the responsibility of the Administration and comments the trial against Cogema which took place in 2005. He outlines how restructuring of all the concerned sites is a challenging issue for our future. A second text in English describes radiological hazards from uranium mining (uranium by-products, radiological situation before and during extraction, long term contamination after mines closure, problems posed by tailing disposal)

  19. Hospital staffing and local pay: an investigation into the impact of local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay on the staffing of hospitals in France.

    Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Delattre, Eric; Elliott, Bob; Skåtun, Diane

    2015-09-01

    Spatial wage theory suggests that employers in different regions may offer different pay rates to reflect local amenities and cost of living. Higher wages may be required to compensate for a less pleasant environment or a higher cost of living. If wages in a competing sector within an area are less flexible and therefore less competitive this may lead to an inability to employ staff. This paper considers the market for nursing staff in France where there is general regulation of wages and public hospitals compete for staff with the private hospital and non-hospital sectors. We consider two types of nursing staff, registered and assistant nurses and first establish the degree of spatial variation in the competitiveness of pay of nurses in public hospitals. We then consider whether these spatial variations are associated with variation in the employment of nursing staff. We find that despite regulation of pay in the public and private sector, there are substantial local variations in the competitiveness of nurses' pay. We find evidence that the spatial variations in the competitiveness of pay are associated with relative numbers of assistant nurses but not registered nurses. While we find the influence of the competitiveness of pay is small, it suggests that nonpay conditions may be an important factor in adjusting the labour market as might be expected in such a regulated market.

  20. Final report of the project CARBOFOR. Carbon sequestration in the big forest ecosystems in France. Quantification, spatialization, vulnerability and impacts of different climatic and forestry scenario

    Loustau, D.

    2004-06-01

    The main outcomes of the project allowed to revise the carbon stock estimate of the national french forests, to clarify the interactions between climate and sylviculture according to the ecological profile of main species, to describe the changes in species area distribution for forest trees and pathogens. Different approaches for estimating the national carbon stock in forest biomass were investigated such as biomass equations and architectural models. Some conclusions in terms of adaptation scenario can be drawn. The global production potential of the french forest will be changed. This change is rapid and will occur a time interval shorter than average tree life duration. Species substitution and changing practices must be considered from now. The soil water holding capacity and the nutrient availability interact strongly with the climate effects and are therefore target factors for adapting forest stands to future changes. The dramatic change in the potential area distribution of most pathogens over France lead to recommend strong regulations for avoiding dissemination of fungal diseases and to anticipate the pathogen risks through species distribution. (A.L.B.)