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Sample records for france concentration levels

  1. Atmospheric tritium concentrations under influence of AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant (France) and background levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, O; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Maro, D; Pellerin, G; Voiseux, C; Lamotte, M; Laguionie, P

    2017-10-01

    In-air tritium measurements were conducted around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant, as well as on other sites that are not impacted by the nuclear industry in northwest of France. The results indicate that the dominant tritium form around the AREVA site is HT (86%). HT and HTO levels are lower than 5 and 1 Bq. m(-3) for hourly samples taken in the plume. No tritiated organic molecules (TOM) were detected. 26 measurement campaigns were performed and links were established between near-field (85)Kr, HT and HTO activities. Environmental measurements are in line with those taken at the discharge stack, and tend to demonstrate that there are no rapid changes in the tritium forms released. Out of the influence of any nuclear activities, the levels measured were below 13 mBq.m(-3) for HT and 5 mBq.m(-3) for HTO (<0.5 Bq. L(-1)). HTO level in air seems to be influenced by HTO activities in surrounding seawater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial distribution of Lindane concentration in topsoil across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, T G; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D; Jolivet, C C; Villanneau, E J; Marchant, B P; Caria, G; Barriuso, E; Bispo, A; Briand, O

    2013-01-15

    Lindane [γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)] is an organochlorine pesticide with toxic effects on humans. It is bioaccumulative and can remain in soils for long periods, and although its use for crop spraying was banned in France in 1998, it is possible that residues from before this time remain in the soil. The RMQS soil monitoring network consists of soil samples from 2200 sites on a 16 km regular grid across France, collected between 2002 and 2009. We use 726 measurements of the Lindane concentration in these samples to (i) investigate the main explanatory factors for its spatial distribution across France, and (ii) map this distribution. Geostatistics provides an appropriate framework to analyze our spatial dataset, though two issues regarding the data are worth special consideration: first, the harmonization of two subsets of the data (which were analyzed using different measurement processes), and second, the large proportion of data from one of these subsets that fell below a limit of quantification. We deal with these issues using recent methodological developments in geostatistics. Results demonstrate the importance of land use and rainfall for explaining part of the variability of Lindane across France: land use due to the past direct input of Lindane on cropland and its subsequent persistence in the soil, and rainfall due to the re-deposition of volatilized Lindane. Maps show the concentrations to be generally largest in the north and northwest of France, areas of more intensive agricultural land. We also compare levels to some contamination thresholds taken from the literature, and present maps showing the probability of Lindane concentrations exceeding these thresholds across France. These maps could be used as guidelines for deciding which areas require further sampling before some possible remediation strategy could be applied.

  3. Fourth High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation Held in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang; Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    To substantiate the Medium and Long-Term Plan for ChinaFrance Relations and build a strong people-to-people and cultural exchange mechanism,the Fourth High Level China-France Forumon Local Government Cooperation was held in Strasburg from November 6 to 7,2014.The Forum,jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development,the French National Committee of Local Government Co-

  4. A survey of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, B P; Saby, N P A; Arrouays, D

    2017-08-01

    Even at low concentrations, the presence of arsenic and mercury in soils can lead to ecological and health impacts. The recent European-wide LUCAS Topsoil Survey found that the arsenic concentration of a large proportion of French soils exceeded a threshold which indicated that further investigation was required. A much smaller proportion of soils exceeded the corresponding threshold for mercury but the impacts of mining and industrial activities on mercury concentrations are not well understood. We use samples from the French national soil monitoring network (RMQS: Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols) to explore the variation of topsoil arsenic and mercury concentrations across mainland France at a finer spatial resolution than was reported by LUCAS Topsoil. We use geostatistical methods to map the expected concentrations of these elements in the topsoil and the probabilities that the legislative thresholds are exceeded. We find that, with the exception of some areas where the geogenic concentrations and soil adsorption capacities are very low, arsenic concentrations are generally larger than the threshold which indicates that further assessment of the area is required. The lower of two other guideline values indicating risks to ecology or health is exceeded in fewer than 5% of RMQS samples. These exceedances occur in localised hot-spots primarily associated with mining and mineralization. The probabilities of mercury concentrations exceeding the further assessment threshold value are everywhere less than 0.01 and none of the RMQS samples exceed either of the ecological and health risk thresholds. However, there are some regions with elevated concentrations which can be related to volcanic material, natural mineralizations and industrial contamination. These regions are more diffuse than the hot-spots of arsenic reflecting the greater volatility of mercury and therefore the greater ease with which it can be transported and redeposited. The maps provide a

  5. France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    Taxes on cigarettes in France have been increased by 15 per cent, the first of an overall rise of 30 per cent. Part of the revenue raised will help subsidise motor racing which lost its sponsors following a recent national ban on cigarette advertising. The remainder will go to the social security service.

  6. France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  7. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of atmospheric tritium by scintillation. Variations in its concentration in France; Detection du tritium atmospherique par scintillation. Evolution de sa concentration en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibron, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    The tritium released into the atmosphere as a result of the explosion of thermonuclear devices is a useful radioactive tracer for the study of certain geophysical problems. The low concentrations found however call for the use of extremely sensitive detectors. Two detection methods using liquid scintillators are described. In the first method, the sample is introduced into the scintillator in liquid form, after prior concentration of the tritium by electrolysis. In the second method the tritium is incorporated into the scintillator solvent molecule by chemical synthesis. In the last part of the report are examined the variations in the tritium concentration in rain-water and of the free hydrogen in the air in France. A discussion is then made of the seasonal variations in the case of rain-water and these are compared to the variations in the strontium-90 concentrations. (author) [French] Le tritium introduit dans l'atmosphere par les explosions d'armes thermonucleaires est un traceur radioactif Interessant pour l'etude de certains problemes de geophysique. Les faibles concentrations rencontrees obligent toutefois a utiliser des detecteurs extremement sensibles. On decrit deux methodes de detection utilisant des scintillateurs liquides. Dans la premiere methode, l'echantillon est introduit dans le scintillateur, sous forme aqueuse, apres une concentration prealable du tritium par electrolyse. Dans la seconde methode, le tritium est incorpore a la molecule du solvant du scintillateur par synthese chimique. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on examine l'evolution de la concentration du tritium dans les eaux de precipitation et l'hydrogene libre de l'air en France. On discute ensuite les variations saisonnieres dans le cas des eaux de precipitation et on les compare aux variations du strontium 90. (auteur)

  9. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  10. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  11. Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Guidance Committee of the Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation and the Municipal Government of Bordeaux was held in Bordeaux,France from November 22 to 23,2007.About 700 officials of the Chinese and French governments at various levels participated in it.During the forum,centring on the theme of harmonious society and sustainable development,the participants of the two sides had in-depth discussions on cooperation between the Chinese and French local governments in the areas of environmental protection,economic development,social harmony and ways of cooperation.The forum approved the Conclusive Document on the Second High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation and achieved a full success.

  12. First High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The First High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Association of Friendship Cities and the Guiding Committee of the High Level China-France Forum on Local Governmental Cooperation was held by the Wuhan Municipal People’s Government in Wuhan from October 27 to 28, 2005. Over 600 delegates from the Chinese and French local governments attended the Forum. With the aim of seeking friend-

  13. Regional factors interact with educational and income tax levels to influence food intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndels, K; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Ruidavets, J-B; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Amouyel, P; Dauchet, L

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess whether geographic factors affect the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the French National Nutritional Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)) guidelines. The MONA LISA-NUT study (2005-2007) is a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample from northern, northeastern and southwestern France. Educational level and household income tax were recorded by trained interviewers. Food intake was assessed with a 3-day food diary in 3188 subjects aged from 35-64 years. Adherence to the PNNS guidelines was assessed with a validated score (the French score of indicators of the PNNS objective (FSIPO)). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, body mass index, energy intake and medically prescribed diets. The FSIPO score was higher in southwestern France than in the two other regions (P<0.0001). The FSIPO score was correlated with the educational level in northern and northeastern France (P<0.0001) but not in southwestern France (region-education interaction: P<0.001). This interaction was accounted for by fruit and vegetable (P<0.0001), calcium (P=0.03), saturated fatty acid (P<0.0001), and fibre (P=0.0001) components of the FSIPO score. In contrast, the income tax level and the FSIPO score were positively correlated (P<0.0001) to a similar extent in all three regions (region × income tax interaction: P=0.09). The relationship between educational level and adherence to the national nutritional health guidelines differs from one region of France to another, suggesting that nutrition education programmes should perhaps be adapted on a regional basis. In contrast, guideline adherence is correlated with income tax level independently of geographical factors, suggesting that financial constraints on food choices are uniform across France.

  14. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  15. Declining Dioxin concentrations in the Rhone River, France, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9 ± 2.6 and 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  16. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  17. Third High Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Third High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the French Foreign Ministry and Le Comite national de Cooperation decentralisee(CNCD),and organized by the Jiangsu Provincial Government and the Government of Alsace Region,was held in Nanjing from June 18 to 19,with the theme of "facing the challenges and realizing harmonious society and sustainable development".This was a grand event of local government cooperation jointly held by the two sides after the previous Wuhan and Bordeaux forums.Leaders and representatives of local governments and organizations from 73 provinces/autonomous regions and cities of China and 64 regions and cities of France,totaling about 500,attended the forum,among whom 17 were governors and 45 mayors.

  18. First Mid-Session of Third High-Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Paris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; Shuhua

    2013-01-01

    <正>Cooperation on environment protection between China and France at the local government level received a further boost from a meeting between Beijing and Paris last December to consider development of environmentally friendly buildings and

  19. Atmospheric trace element concentrations in total suspended particles near Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Senhou, Abderrahmane; Moskura, Mélanie; Gaudry, André

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate today's trace element atmospheric concentrations in large urban areas, an atmospheric survey was carried out for 18 months, from March 2002 to September 2003, in Saclay, nearby Paris. The total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected continuously on quartz fibre filters. The TSP contents were determined for 36 elements (including Ag, Bi, Mo and Sb) using two analytical methods: Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured concentrations were in agreement within the uncertainties with the certified values for the polycarbonate reference material filter SRM-2783 (National Institute for Standard Technology NIST, USA). The measured concentrations were significantly lower than the recommended atmospheric concentrations. In 2003, the Pb atmospheric level at Saclay was 15 ng/m 3, compared to the 500 ng/m 3 guideline level and to the 200 ng/m 3 observed value in 1994. The typical urban background TSP values of 1-2, 0.2-1, 4-6, 10-30 and 3-5 ng/m 3 for As, Co, Cr, Cu and Sb, respectively, were inferred from this study and were compared with the literature data. The typical urban background TSP concentrations could not be realised for Cd, Pb and Zn, since these air concentrations are highly influenced by local features. The Zn concentrations and Zn/Pb ratio observed in Saclay represented a characteristic fingerprint of the exceptionally large extent of zinc-made roofs in Paris and its suburbs. The traffic-related origin of Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sb was demonstrated, while the atmospheric source(s) of Ag was not identified.

  20. Documentation of bioaerosol concentrations in an indoor composting facility in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquenne, Philippe; Simon, Xavier; Koehler, Véronique; Goncalves-Machado, Solimar; Greff, Guylaine; Nicot, Thérèse; Poirot, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Bioaerosol concentrations were investigated in a totally indoor composting facility processing fermentable household and green wastes to assess their variability. Stationary samples were collected by filtration close to specific composting operations and then were analysed for cultivable mesophilic bacteria, thermophilic bacteria, mesophilic fungi, thermophilic fungi, endotoxins and total airborne bacteria (DAPI-staining). Indoor concentrations exceeded the background levels, between 500 and 5400 EU m(-3) for endotoxins, 10(4) and 10(6) CFU m(-3) for cultivable bacteria and generally below 10(5) CFU m(-3) for airborne cultivable fungi. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed between the indoor composting operations. Successive 30 minute bioaerosol samples were collected to investigate the variation of cultivable mesophilic microorganisms over the work shift. Concentrations of mesophilic bacteria and fungi varied up to 1 log unit depending on the time at which they were collected in the day. Total airborne particles, counted using an optical particle counter, were present at up to 10(8) particles m(-3) and several concentration peaks were noted. Values for total airborne bacteria were roughly 70-fold higher than cultivable bacteria. These results raise the question of the sampling strategy (duration of sampling; number of samples to be collected) used in similar studies. They provide new bioaerosol concentration data in a composting facility and suggest that the filtration sampling method might be a useful tool for exposure measurements in that occupational environment.

  1. Effect of Crude Protein Levels in Concentrate and Concentrate Levels in Diet on Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Van Dung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of concentrate mixtures with crude protein (CP levels 10%, 13%, 16%, and 19% and diets with roughage to concentrate ratios 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80 (w/w were determined on dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility, and fermentation metabolites using an in vitro fermentation technique. In vitro fermented attributes were measured after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation respectively. The digestibility of DM and OM, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA increased whereas pH decreased with the increased amount of concentrate in the diet (p<0.001, however CP levels of concentrate did not have any influence on these attributes. Gas production reduced with increased CP levels, while it increased with increasing concentrate levels. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and microbial CP production increased significantly (p<0.05 by increasing CP levels and with increasing concentrate levels in diet as well, however, no significant difference was found between 16% and 19% CP levels. Therefore, 16% CP in concentrate and increasing proportion of concentrate up to 80% in diet all had improved digestibility of DM and organic matter, and higher microbial protein production, with improved fermentation characteristics.

  2. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and

  3. Relative water level change in the intracoastal zone of Belgium and northern France over the last 2500 years

    OpenAIRE

    S. Louwye; Declercq, E.

    1998-01-01

    Water level positions during the Subatlantic in the coastal plain of Belgium and Northern France are assessed by means of indicators such as tidal levees, upper tidal flat deposits and mature salt marshes. The indicators are evaluated for the reconstruction of local mean high water and local mean spring high water levels in the intracoastal zone. No significant altitude difference is observed between the indicators genetically related to the Dunkerque II inundation phase, i.e. before the land...

  4. Trace element concentrations along a gradient of urban pressure in forest and lawn soils of the Paris region (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Ludovic; Dubs, Florence; Gignoux, Jacques; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Lerch, Thomas Z; Mathieu, Jérôme; Nold, François; Nunan, Naoise; Raynaud, Xavier; Abbadie, Luc; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-11-15

    The concentration, degree of contamination and pollution of 7 trace elements (TEs) along an urban pressure gradient were measured in 180 lawn and wood soils of the Paris region (France). Iron (Fe), a major element, was used as reference element. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were of anthropogenic origin, while arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were of natural origin. Road traffic was identified as the main source of anthropogenic TEs. In addition, the industrial activity of the Paris region, especially cement plants, was identified as secondary source of Cd. Soil characteristics (such as texture, organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (tot N) contents) tell the story of the soil origins and legacies along the urban pressure gradient and often can explain TE concentrations. The history of the land-use types was identified as a factor that allowed understanding the contamination and pollution by TEs. Urban wood soils were found to be more contaminated and polluted than urban lawns, probably because woods are much older than lawns and because of the legacy of the historical management of soils in the Paris region (Haussmann period). Lawn soils are similar to the fertile agricultural soils and relatively recently (mostly from the 1950s onwards) imported from the surrounding of Paris, so that they may be less influenced by urban conditions in terms of TE concentrations. Urban wood soils are heavily polluted by Cd, posing a high risk to the biological communities. The concentration of anthropogenic TEs increased from the rural to the urban areas, and the concentrations of most anthropogenic TEs in urban areas were equivalent to or above the regulatory reference values, raising the question of longer-term monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal variations of concentrations of currently used pesticides in the atmosphere of Strasbourg, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schummer, Claude [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Mothiron, Elodie [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Appenzeller, Brice M.R. [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Rizet, Anne-Laure [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Wennig, Robert [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherche Public, Sante/Laboratoire National de Sante, Universite du Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Millet, Maurice, E-mail: millet@illite.u-strasbg.f [Laboratoire des Materiaux, Surfaces et Procedes pour la Catalyse, Equipe de Physico-Chimie de l' Atmosphere (UMR 7515 CNRS-Universite de Strasbourg), 1, rue Blessig, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    Atmospheric samples have been collected in Strasbourg between April 18 and May 29, 2007 and were analyzed for 71 current-use pesticides, of which 38 were detected. Average concentrations ranged from 0.09 ng m{sup -3} for Fenarimol to 110.42 ng m{sup -3} for Dimethachlor, which was slightly higher than the concentrations reported from other, comparable agricultural regions. Significant temporal variations were observed for 30 pesticides, and for most of them it could be shown that these were linked to time, temperature or atmospheric pressure. In several cases this helped to identify pesticide application just before or at the beginning of the sampling period, or ongoing treatment. Humidity, in contrast to previous reports, could not be linked to these variations. For the other 8 pesticides, only very little temporal variations were observed. Generally, these concentrations were low (less than 1 ng m{sup -3}), and it was assumed that they are not in use in Alsace at present. - The paper describes the temporal variations of current-use pesticides in the atmosphere of Strasbourg during pesticide application.

  6. CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF METALS IN COMMERCIALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    60% of the national foreign exchange earnings, 30% of government direct ... roasted coffee varieties in different parts of the world (such as Brazil, Nigeria, India, etc.) ... Stock standard solution of concentration 1000 mg/L in 2% HNO3 of the ...

  7. Seasonal variation of microcystin concentrations in the Saint-Caprais reservoir (France) and their removal in a small full-scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Imed; Bouaïch, Noureddine; Fontan, Didier; Levi, Yves

    2002-06-01

    At the Saint-Caprais reservoir (France), a mono-specific bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurs every year in the autumn months. Levels of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) in this reservoir were evaluated by protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibition test as MCYST-LR equivalents in both raw and drinking water. Analysis by HPLC of the crude extract of the mono-specific bloom of A. flos-aquae revealed the presence of MCYST-LR with a low concentration of 270.3 +/- 20.4 ng/g wet weight. MCYST-LR equivalent concentrations in raw water were correlated with the cyanobacteria biomass and they varied between 14 and 74 ng/l. The removal of A. flos-aquae and microcystins were evaluated in a small full-scale plant associated with the Saint-Caprais reservoir. Total elimination of cyanobacterial cells and the low concentration of hepatotoxins was achieved through the combined action of pre-ozonation at 0.07 mg/l and adsorption on powdered activated carbon at 20 mg/l. However, pre-chlorination at 0.42 mg/l followed by 20 mg/l of powdered activated carbon removed only 45% of hepatotoxins.

  8. Mid-Session of 4th High Level China-France Forum On Local Government Cooperation Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Yuna

    2014-01-01

    <正>A Mid-Session of the 4th High Level China-France Forum on Local Government Cooperation(HLCFFLGC)with the theme of"Innovative Development of Cities"was held in Chengdu on October 21,2013.It was jointly organized by the CPAFFC,the Sichuan Provincial People’s Government,the National Commission for Decentralized Cooperation of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs,and

  9. Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses the data from Francois Quesnay's writings to derive a social table for pre-revolutionary France, estimate country's mean income and income distribution. These Quesnay-based estimates are compared with more recent estimates of 18th century French incomes and inequality.

  10. New cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to different levels of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Micallef, Claire Marant; Hill, Catherine; Touvier, Mathilde; Arwidson, Pierre; Bonaldi, Christophe; Ferrari, Pietro; Bray, Freddie; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-08-22

    Alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer. Thus, to inform policy decisions, this study estimated the number of new cancer cases in France in 2015 attributable to alcohol consumption generally and to light (New cancer cases attributable to alcohol were estimated using a Population-Attributable Fraction methodology, assuming a 10-year latency period between exposure and diagnosis. Population of France, 2015. Alcohol consumption was estimated by coordinating data from the Baromètre santé 2005, a national representative survey (n= 30,455), with data from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health. Relative risks were obtained from meta-analyses. Cancer data were estimated based on data from the French Cancer Registries Network. Uncertainty Intervals (UI) were estimated using a Monte Carlo procedure. In France in 2015, an estimated 27,894 (95% UI: 24,287 to 30,996) or 7.9% of all new cancer cases were attributable to alcohol. The number of alcohol-attributable new cancer cases was similar for both men and women, with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas having the largest attributable fraction (57.7%). Light, moderate, heavy and former alcohol drinking were responsible for 1.5%, 1.3%, 4.4% and 0.6% of all new cancer cases respectively. Lastly, if there had been a previous 10% reduction in alcohol consumption, 2,178 (95% UI: 1,687 to 2,601) new cancer cases would have been prevented. Alcohol consumption in France appears to cause almost 8% of new cancer cases, with light and moderate drinking contributing appreciably to this burden. A 10% drop in drinking in France would have prevented over 2000 (estimated) new cancer cases in 2015. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils differ greatly from natural ones as they are located in areas of intense anthropogenic activity (e.g. pollution, physical disturbance, surface transformation). Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, and contribute to many ecosystem services from the mitigation of urban heat island to recreational services. In the last decade, the study of urban soils has emerged as an important frontier in environmental research, at least because of their impact on the quality of life of urban populations, because of the services they deliver and because they are more and more recognized as a valuable resource. One of the key issues is the pollution of urban soils because they receive a variety of deposits from local (vehicle emissions, industrial discharges, domestic heating, waste incineration and other anthropogenic activities) and from remote sources (through atmospheric transport). Typical contaminants include persistent toxic substances, such as trace metals (TMs) that have drawn wide attention due to their long persistence in the environment, their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain and their toxicity for humans and other organisms. Concentrations, spatial distributions, dynamics, impacts and sources of TMs (e.g. industry or fossil fuels combustion) have attracted a global interest in urban soils and are the subject of ongoing research (e.g. ecotoxicological urban ecology). Some studies have already documented soil pollution with TMs at both the town and regional scales. So far, several monitoring programs (e.g. National Network for the long term Monitoring of Forest Ecosystem, Regional Monitoring Quality of Soil in France) and studies have been carried out on a national scale to measure the ranges of TM concentrations and natural background values in French soils. These studies have focused on French agricultural and forest soils and have not tackled urban soils. No study has described TM

  12. Investigation of heavy metal concentrations on urban soils, dust and vegetables nearby a former smelter site in Mortagne du Nord, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douay, F.; Roussel, H.; Fourrier, H. [Lab. Sols et Environnement, Inst. Superieur d' Agriculture, Lille (France); Heyman, C. [Cellule Inter regionale d' Epidemiologie Nord Picardie, Lille (France); Chateau, G. [Direction Regionale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales, Lille (France)

    2007-06-15

    Environmental situations near former industrial sites like Mortagne du Nord (Northern France) in which the soil, dust and homegrown vegetables have been contaminated by heavy metals can represent a sanitary risk to the surrounding population. In order to evaluate the contamination level in different exposition media in this site, 26 urban topsoils, 17 dust and 38 vegetable samples were taken near the former zinc smelter site. All the observed levels on urban soil samples (except one) are over regional agricultural reference values for Cd and Pb. 45% of the vegetable samples are over the European foodstuff limits and one dust sample taken in the school playground outdoor tarmac area exceeds the French limit in dust set up at 1000 {mu}g m-{sup 2} for Pb. The Cd and Pb levels fluctuate depending on the use of the ground (kitchen garden, lawn, courtyard) and its location. The lack of simple correlations between the distance from the former smelter site and the Pb concentrations on sampled soils let us think that human activities contributed in the local urban contamination. In this context, who is now responsible for the soil contamination and the human exposure? (orig.)

  13. Radon in soil concentration levels in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Mena, M

    1991-09-15

    Radon in soil surveys in Mexico have been carried out since 1974 both for uranium prospectus and to correlate mean values of the gas emanation with local telluric behaviour. The mapping includes the northern uranium mining region, the Mexican Neo volcanic Belt, the coastal areas adjacent to the zone of subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate, some of the active volcanoes of Southern Mexico and several sedimentary valleys in Central Mexico. Recording of {sup 222} Rn alpha decay is systematically performed with LR115 track detectors. Using mean values averaged over different observation periods at fixed monitoring stations, a radon in soil map covering one third of the Mexican territory is presented. The lowest mean values have been found in areas associated with active volcanoes. The highest levels are found in uranium ore zones. Intermediate values are obtained in regions with enhanced hydrothermal activity and stations associated with intrusive rocks. (Author)

  14. DOI and booster vaccination--dealing with the issue at practice level in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poubanne, Yannick

    2006-10-05

    After presenting pet demographics and discussing the present situation of vaccine use in France, the article focuses on the required changes to implement extended DOI vaccination protocols. Initiatives should address both the vets' and owners' attitudes and behaviour. However, many French vets are already implementing DOI protocols by vaccinating dogs every 2 years, so that the perceived risk of waning immunity is far from reality. Implementing an extended DOI schedule offers an opportunity to increase client attachment to the practice rather than perpetuate 'false loyalty' based on habit. Suggestions are made how vaccine companies may want to help French veterinarians switch from yearly booster vaccination to 3-year extended DOI protocols.

  15. Chlorine-36 and chlorine concentrations within several compartments of a deciduous forest ecosystem in Meuse/Haute-Marne (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupier, Julie; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Thiry, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine-36 is a cosmogenic nuclide mainly produced in the atmosphere by interactions between energetic particles originating from the cosmic radiations and 40Ar. Because of its long half-life (T1-2 = 3.01 105 yr) and its high mobility, chlorine-36 is a critical radionuclide concerning radioactive waste repository sites. Moreover, it has been shown that inorganic chlorine could be enriched along the trophic chain due to its high solubility and bioavailability (Ashworth and Shaw, 2006). Additionally, many studies during the last decades have established that due to chlorination process, organic chlorine may account for a large proportion of the total soil chlorine pool (more than 80 % in surface soils of temperate ecosystems. Redon et al., 2012). The aim of this study is thus to measure chlorine-36 in all the compartments of the biogeochemical cycle, to better understand its recycling in the biosphere. The study site is the experimental beech forest site of the Andra long-term monitoring and testing system (OPE*). It is located at Montiers-sur-Saulx, North-East of France and is associated to the future radioactive waste repository site of Bure. Since March 2012, rainwater above (rainfall collected from a 45 m high tower built on purpose) and below (throughfall and stemflow) the canopy, has been collected monthly, as well as soil solutions (gravitational and bound waters) at four depths (0, 10, 30, 60 cm deep). Chlorine-36 and chlorine have been measured in the rainfall samples between March and July 2012 and in water solutions collected from all compartments of the biosphere using isotope dilution mass spectrometry at the french AMS national facility ASTER located at CEREGE. The results yielded from the rainfall samples allow to study the temporal fluctuations of chlorine-36 in the atmosphere, which represents the main inflow of chlorine-36 in its biogeochemical cycle. The first results indicate a flow increase during the late spring-early summer. Santos et al

  16. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  17. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  18. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  19. Concentrations, cumulative exposure and critical levels of ozone in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Aherne, J.; Farrell, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O3) and exceedance of critical levels to vegetation have been investigated and mapped for Ireland. Hourly ozone concentration data (1995–1997) at 7 seven monitoring stations and the CORINE landcover database, supported by a Geographical Information System, were

  20. Mapping End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): Spatial Variations on Small Area Level in Northern France, and Association with Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Florent; Deram, Annabelle; Génin, Michaël; Noël, Christian; Cuny, Damien; Glowacki, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong geographic variations in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are observed in developed countries. The reasons for these variations are unknown. They may reflect regional inequalities in the population's sociodemographic characteristics, related diseases, or medical practice patterns. In France, at the district level, the highest incidence rates have been found in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. This area, with a high population density and homogeneous healthcare provision, represents a geographic situation which is quite suitable for the study, over small areas, of spatial disparities in the incidence of ESRD, together with their correlation with a deprivation index and other risk factors. Methods The Renal Epidemiology and Information Network is a national registry, which lists all ESRD patients in France. All cases included in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais registry between 2005 and 2011 were extracted. Adjusted and smoothed standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each of the 170 cantons, thanks to a hierarchical Bayesian model. The correlation between ESRD incidence and deprivation was assessed using the quintiles of Townsend index. Relative risk (RR) and credible intervals (CI) were estimated for each quintile. Results Significant spatial disparities in ESRD incidence were found within the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. The sex- and age-adjusted, smoothed SIRs varied from 0.66 to 1.64. Although no correlation is found with diabetic or vascular nephropathy, the smoothed SIRs are correlated with the Townsend index (RR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.00–1.34] for Q2; 1.28, 95% CI [1.11–1.47] for Q3; 1.30, 95% CI [1.14–1.51] for Q4; 1.44, 95% CI [1.32–1.74] for Q5). Conclusion For the first time at this aggregation level in France, this study reveals significant geographic differences in ESRD incidence. Unlike the time of renal replacement care, deprivation is certainly a determinant in this phenomenon. This association is probably

  1. How historical information can improve extreme coastal water levels probability prediction: application to the Xynthia event at La Rochelle (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulteau

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of extreme coastal water levels is useful for coastal flooding studies or the design of coastal defences. While deriving such extremes with standard analyses using tide gauge measurements, one often needs to deal with limited effective duration of observation which can result in large statistical uncertainties. This is even truer when one faces the issue of outliers, those particularly extreme values distant from the others which increase the uncertainty on the results. In this study, we investigate how historical information, even partial, of past events reported in archives can reduce statistical uncertainties and relativize such outlying observations. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is developed to tackle this issue. We apply this method to the site of La Rochelle (France, where the storm Xynthia in 2010 generated a water level considered so far as an outlier. Based on 30 years of tide gauge measurements and 8 historical events, the analysis shows that: (1 integrating historical information in the analysis greatly reduces statistical uncertainties on return levels (2 Xynthia's water level no longer appears as an outlier, (3 we could have reasonably predicted the annual exceedance probability of that level beforehand (predictive probability for 2010 based on data till end of 2009 of the same order of magnitude as the standard estimative probability using data till end of 2010. Such results illustrate the usefulness of historical information in extreme value analyses of coastal water levels, as well as the relevance of the proposed method to integrate heterogeneous data in such analyses.

  2. Measurement of indoor radon concentration levels in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.U.; Anwar, J. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [PD, PINSTECH Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk

    2008-08-15

    Indoor radon measurement survey has been carried out in properly selected houses of the city of Islamabad. In this regard, CR-39-based NRPB radon dosimeters were used. The dosimeters were installed at head heights in bedroom and living room of each house. For intercomparison purpose, houses having basements were also selected. In such houses, dosimeters were installed in basements, ground floor and first floor. All the dosimeters were exposed to radon for a period of three months. After exposure, CR-39 detectors were etched for 16 h in 6 M NaOH at 80{sup 0}C and were counted under an optical microscope. The observed track densities were then related to radon concentration levels using a calibration factor of 2.7trackscm{sup -2}h{sup -1}(kBqm{sup -3}){sup -1}. Measured indoor radon concentration levels were found to vary from 11 to 78Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration levels in bedrooms and sitting/living rooms in basements were found to be 40 and 32Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. In bedrooms and living rooms, on ground floor, the average radon concentration levels were found to be 30 and 27Bqm{sup -3}, whereas on first floor the average values were 29 and 27Bqm{sup -3}, respectively. The radon concentration levels found in this study are below the action level recommended by the ICRP.

  3. An assessment of the concentration levels of toxic chemicals within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the concentration levels of toxic chemicals within and ... The harsh economic environment in Zimbabwean cities in general and ... Ingestion of crop produce from the dumpsite area and its vicinity is likely to put lives at risk. ... the vicinity of the dumpsite, they remain a threat to human health if ingested.

  4. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M

    1999-11-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  5. Flammability of Some Ornamental Species in Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southeastern France: Laboratory Assessment at Particle Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite ( Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability ( Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable ( Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area.

  6. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  7. Characterization of POF for liquid level and concentration sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumanta, B. G.; Candidato, R. T., Jr.; Reserva, R. L.

    2015-06-01

    Measuring liquid level and solution concentration play an important role in commercial and technological applications. For years, polymer optical fibers (POFs) have been very attractive for industrial applications because of their unique characteristics. In this work, we created simple, low cost and efficient set-up for sensing liquid level and solution concentration using POFs. We have calculated the acceptance angle of the POF to be 30°from numerical aperture (NA) measurements (NA ≈ 0.500).Images of a single POF showed the presence of impurities within the fiber which can contribute to power loss of the transmitted light. Light leakage was also observed when the fiber was bent to a tight radius, i.e. beyond its minimum bend radius of 15 mm. The experimental results show that as liquid level increases, the output power decreases. Furthermore, when the liquid concentration was increased, its response showed a greater loss of optical power due to the light rays in the submerged region of the POF tend to be refracted out of the fiber instead of being totally internally reflected and transmitted when index of refraction of the surrounding liquid medium is increased.

  8. Atmospheric Pb isotopic composition and trace metal concentration as revealed by epiphytic lichens:. an investigation related to two altitudinal sections in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, F. J.; Carignan, J.

    During Fall 1996, epiphytic lichens were collected along altitudinal sections in two areas of France (the Vosges mountains in the North-East, and the Alps, in Haute-Savoie) in order to verify any geographic distribution of atmospheric metals on a small scale. These lichens have various Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.126-1.147) which are correlated with the altitude of sampling. Lichens sampled near valleys display isotopic ratios significantly less radiogenic than those sampled at several hundred to thousand meters of altitude. In the Vosges sections, Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions of lichens may be used to define three zones: (1) valley: Pb-rich and non-radiogenic ratios, (2) transition: low-Pb and intermediate isotopic compositions, (3) mountain: heterogeneous Pb concentrations but more radiogenic and homogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Other metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, As), when normalised one to another, are not fractionated between these zones and display homogeneous relative abundance along the altitudinal sections of both sites. Variation of 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios with altitude is interpreted in terms of mixing of at least two pollution sources: one being the petrol (leaded and/or unleaded) combustion, and the other being of industrial origin. The latter is characterised by a more radiogenic isotopic composition. The Pb isotopic composition of flue gas residues from different municipal solid waste combustors in the Rhine valley and in other areas of France would suggest that these plants might be an important source of industrial Pb in the atmosphere. If the average industrial Pb in France has a 206Pb/ 207Pb close to 1.15, between 60 and 80% of the total Pb in lichens from the Rhine valley would come from gasoline combustion, whereas 85-90% of the Pb would have an industrial origin in lichens from higher altitude in the Vosges mountains. Although lichens from the Alps were collected at higher altitude, the percentage of industrial Pb for these

  9. NAD kinase levels control the NADPH concentration in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Nadine; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2007-11-16

    NAD kinases (NADKs) are vital, as they generate the cellular NADP pool. As opposed to three compartment-specific isoforms in plants and yeast, only a single NADK has been identified in mammals whose cytoplasmic localization we established by immunocytochemistry. To understand the physiological roles of the human enzyme, we generated and analyzed cell lines stably deficient in or overexpressing NADK. Short hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation led to similar (about 70%) decrease of both NADK expression, activity, and the NADPH concentration and was accompanied by increased sensitivity toward H(2)O(2). Overexpression of NADK resulted in a 4-5-fold increase in the NADPH, but not NADP(+), concentration, although the recombinant enzyme phosphorylated preferentially NAD(+). Surprisingly, NADK overexpression and the ensuing increase of the NADPH level only moderately enhanced protection against oxidant treatment. Apparently, to maintain the NADPH level for the regeneration of oxidative defense systems human cells depend primarily on NADP-dependent dehydrogenases (which re-reduce NADP(+)), rather than on a net increase of NADP. The stable shifts of the NADPH level in the generated cell lines were also accompanied by alterations in the expression of peroxiredoxin 5 and Nrf2. Because the basal oxygen radical level in the cell lines was only slightly changed, the redox state of NADP may be a major transmitter of oxidative stress.

  10. Assessing temporal trends of trace metal concentrations in mosses over France between 1996 and 2011: A flexible and robust method to account for heterogeneous sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequy, Emeline; Dubos, Nicolas; Witté, Isabelle; Pascaud, Aude; Sauvage, Stéphane; Leblond, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Air quality biomonitoring has been successfully assessed using mosses for decades in Europe, particularly regarding heavy metals (HM). Assessing robust temporal variations of HM concentrations in mosses requires to better understand to what extent they are affected by the sampling protocol and the moss species. This study used the concentrations of 14 elements measured during four surveys over 15 years in France. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and a modeling approach were used to decipher temporal variations for each element and adjust them with parameters known to affect concentrations. ANOVA followed by post hoc analyses did not allow to estimate clear trends. A generalized additive mixed modeling approach including the sampling period, the collector and the moss species, plus quadratic effects, was used to analyze temporal variations on repeated sampling sites. This approach highlighted the importance of accounting for non-linear temporal variations in HM, and adjusting for confounding factors such as moss species, species-specific differences between sampling periods, collector and methodological differences in sampling campaigns. For instance, lead concentrations in mosses decreased between 1996 and 2011 following quadratic functions, with faster declines for the most contaminated sites in 1996. On the other hand, other HM showed double trends with U-shaped or hill-shaped curves. The effect of the moss was complex to handle and our results advocate for using one moss species by repeated site to better analyze temporal variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  12. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics: A case study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, L; Paul-Pont, I; Rinnert, E; Petton, S; Jaffré, J; Bihannic, I; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Huvet, A

    2017-03-31

    The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles. The presence of buoyant microplastics (PE, PP and PS) in sediment suggests the existence of physical and/or biological processes leading to vertical transfer of lightweight microplastics in the bay. In sediment (upper 5 cm), the percentage of particles identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy was lower (41%) than in surface water (79%) and may explain the apparent low concentration observed in this matrix (0.97 ± 2.08 MP kg(-1) dry sediment). Mean microplastic concentration was 0.24 ± 0.35 MP m(-3) in surface water. We suggest that the observed spatial MP distribution is related to proximity to urbanized areas and to hydrodynamics in the bay. A particle dispersal model was used to study the influence of hydrodynamics on surface microplastic distribution. The outputs of the model showed the presence of a transitional convergence zone in the centre of the bay during flood tide, where floating debris coming from the northern and southern parts of the bay tends to accumulate before being expelled from the bay. Further modelling work and observations integrating (i) the complex vertical motion of microplastics, and (ii) their point sources is required to better understand the fate of microplastics in such a complex coastal ecosystem.

  13. Radon concentration levels in ground water from Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, M T; Segovia, N; Tamez, E; Alcántara, M; Bulbulian, S

    1993-03-25

    Concentration levels of 222Rn have been analysed in water samples from deep wells of the aquifers around the City of Toluca, Mexico. The 222Rn source is the decay of 226Ra within the solid matrix of the aquifer. With a half life of 1600 years the 226Ra continuously releases 222Rn to the pores, from which it diffuses into the main body of water. This paper describes the methods used for sampling and measuring solubilized and 226Ra-supported 222Rn in the water samples, in order to evaluate possible health hazards due to the presence of radon in the drinking water supplies. The relationship of 222Rn with the hydrogeologic characteristics of the zone is also described. The analytical method involves laboratory extraction of 222Rn into toluene. Alpha disintegrations of 222Rn and contributions from short-lived daughters are counted by the liquid scintillation technique. The system was calibrated using a 226Ra standard solution. Results up to 11.3 Bq/l of 222Rn were obtained in the water samples.

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of a tephra level from Baume Moula-Guercy (Soyons, Ardeche, France); Datation par thermoluminescence d`un niveau de tephra de la Baume Moula-Guercy (Soyons, Ardeche, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzelle, S.; Montret, M.; Pilleyre, T.; Miallier, D.; Fain, J

    1998-12-31

    The Baume Moula-Guercy site (Ardeche, France) is a cave that overhangs the Rhone river valley at a hundred meters height. Since its discovery, it has been assimilated as a shelter with an upper part opened towards the sky. It contains an upper Pleistocene sequence inside which a 2-3 cm localized volcanic layer has been identified. This layer is attributed to an important phreato-magmatic emission from the Vivarais region located at about 50 km SW of the site. The filling of this cave contains neanderthalian remains in a lower level and middle Paleolithic lithic industries in a upper level. Thus, the dating of the tephra level would be of great archaeological importance as it could be used as a chronostratigraphic reference. An estimation of the age obtained by thermoluminescence dating has been requested. This report presents the dating procedure performed on quartz samples extracted from the tephra level and the estimation of the site dosimetry. (J.S.) 14 refs.

  15. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  16. The effect of level of concentrate supplementation on the productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    robinm

    intercalving period of 60 Jersey cows grazing high quality pastures over two ... maize, 42.1% rolled wheat, 4.2% molasses, 0.5% feedlime and 0.5% salt on ..... The genetic ability of cows to respond to concentrate feeding on a .... Feeding systems combining pasture with concentrate and total mixed rations for high producing.

  17. Concentrated vs. distributed energy: employment based community level differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. J.; Santini, D. J.; Smeltzer, K. K.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differences between concentrated options (central station electric, synfuels) and distributed options (SHACOB) for residential space conditioning. Employment, geographic location, community stability, and locational equity are the factors discussed.

  18. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a street-level pollen concentration and exposure forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; Krol, Maarten; van Vliet, Arnold; Heuvelink, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pollen are an increasing source of nuisance for people in industrialised countries and are associated with significant cost of medication and sick leave. Citizen pollen warnings are often based on emission mapping based on local temperature sum approaches or on long-range atmospheric model approaches. In practise, locally observed pollen may originate from both local sources (plants in streets and gardens) and from long-range transport. We argue that making this distinction is relevant because the diurnal and spatial variation in pollen concentrations is much larger for pollen from local sources than for pollen from long-range transport due to boundary layer processes. This may have an important impact on exposure of citizens to pollen and on mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the partitioning of pollen into local and long-range origin categories. Our objective is to study how the concentrations of pollen from different sources vary temporally and spatially, and how the source region influences exposure and mitigation strategies. We built a Hay Fever Forecast system (HFF) based on WRF-chem, Allergieradar.nl, and geo-statistical downscaling techniques. HFF distinguishes between local (individual trees) and regional sources (based on tree distribution maps). We show first results on how the diurnal variation of pollen concentrations depends on source proximity. Ultimately, we will compare the model with local pollen counts, patient nuisance scores and medicine use.

  20. Population-level impact of osteoporotic fractures on mortality and trends over time: a nationwide analysis of vital statistics for France, 1968-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadé, Nelly; Jougla, Eric; Coste, Joël

    2010-10-15

    Osteoporotic fractures are one of the leading causes of death in the elderly population, but mortality may have been reduced by the advances in management and prevention during recent decades. The authors analyzed the population-level impact of these fractures on mortality in France from 1968 to 2004. About 20 million death certificates registered in metropolitan France from 1968 to 2004 were analyzed. Osteoporotic fractures were identified by using a previously developed methodology. Age-specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated by site of fracture and sex, and time trends were evaluated. Associated causes of death were compared between the extreme periods of the study by the observed/expected pairs method; 440,890 (2.2%) death certificates reported an osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporotic fractures overall, particularly hip and skull fractures, declined by half during the study period, exceeding the decline in general mortality and resulting in fracture-deceased subjects being older. However, pelvis, vertebral, and rib fractures became more frequent. Associated causes of death increased with time, except for decubitus ulcers, indicating a change in the pattern of the death process. Despite a 50% decline, osteoporotic fractures still have a significant impact on mortality. The pattern of the death process has changed, with an increased role for comorbidities.

  1. Relevance of Bacteroidales and F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages for Efficient Fecal Contamination Tracking at the Level of a Catchment in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauffret, Aourell; Caprais, Marie-Paule

    2012-01-01

    The relevance of three host-associated Bacteroidales markers (HF183, Rum2Bac, and Pig2Bac) and four F-specific RNA bacteriophage genogroups (FRNAPH I to IV) as microbial source tracking markers was assessed at the level of a catchment (Daoulas, France). They were monitored together with fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and chemophysical parameters (rainfall, temperature, salinity, pH, and turbidity) by monthly sampling over 2 years (n = 240 water samples) and one specific sampling following an accidental pig manure spillage (n = 5 samples). During the 2-year regular monitoring, levels of E. coli, enterococci, total F-specific RNA bacteriophages, and the general Bacteroidales marker AllBac were strongly correlated with one another and with Rum2Bac (r = 0.37 to 0.50, P catchment. PMID:22610433

  2. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM digestibility was not influenced (P = 0.28) by feeding level, but was linearly reduced (P EO 0.05) as C: R ratio decreased ... and in C: R ratio increased rumen OM retention linearly (P EO 0.1>1).Volatile fatty .... program of Harvey (1977).

  3. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration levels. 95.025 Section 95.025 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person is...

  4. France Welcome Chinese Business Delegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the Press Communiqu(e) between China and France issued on 1st April,both sides decided to conduct high-level contact and strategic dialogue at a proper time to enhance bilateral cooperation in various fields and promote a harmonious and steady growth in Sino-France relations.Since then,the high officials from both countries experienced a frequent meet period.

  5. Consumers' segmentation based on the acceptability of meat from entire male pigs with different boar taint levels in four European countries: France, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella-Riera, N; Blanch, M; Kallas, Z; Chevillon, P; Garavaldi, A; Gil, M; Gil, J M; Font-i-Furnols, M; Oliver, M A

    2016-04-01

    Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.

  6. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors; La gestion des dechets nucleaires a haute activite et a vie longue en France: enquete aupres des acteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  7. {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am levels in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Pagano, V. [SUBATECH/IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France)

    2014-07-01

    Plutonium and americium long-lived alpha emitter isotopes can be found in the environment because of atmospheric global fallout due to thermonuclear tests performed between 1945 and 1980, to the American SNAP 9A satellite explosion in 1964, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident,... In France, the nuclear safety authority does not allow the release of artificial alpha emitters from nuclear power plants. Thus, monitoring is performed to verify the absence of these alpha emitters in liquid discharges to respect the limits set by the regulations. These thresholds ensure a very low dosimetric impact to the population compared to other radionuclides. With the objective of environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities, activity measurements of long-lived alpha emitters are carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides. Analysis of low activity by alpha spectrometry after chemical steps were performed and used to determine the {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am activities on a large set of environmental solid samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. The samples collected in the terrestrial and aquatic environment of the Loire and Garonne rivers basins (France) was investigated for the 2009-2014 period. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 238}Pu: from <0.00031 to 0.0061 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from <0.00086 to 0.011 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples; for the radionuclide {sup 239+240}Pu: from 0.00041 to 0.150 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0023 to 0.240 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples and for the radionuclide {sup 241}Am: from <0.00086 to 0.087 Bq/kg dry in terrestrial samples and from 0.0022 to 0.120 Bq/kg dry in aquatic samples. {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am/{sup 239+240}Pu ratios determined are in accordance with an environmental contamination due to

  8. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  9. Worst Case Scenario and Stakeholder Group Decision: A 5-6 Meter Sea Level Rise in the Rhone Delta, France

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Poumadere; Claire Mays; Gabriela Pfeifle; Vafeidis, Athanasios T

    2005-01-01

    Risk policy and public attitudes appear disconnected from research predicting warmer climate partially due to human activity. To step out of this stalled situation, a worst case scenario of a 5-6m sea level rise (SLR) induced by the collapse of the WAIS and occurring during the period 2030-2130 is constructed and applied to the Rhone delta. Physical and socio-economic scenarios developed with data from the Rhone delta context are developed and submitted to stakeholders for a day-long workshop...

  10. Synsedimentary tectonics, mud-mounds and sea-level changes on a Palaeozoic carbonate platform margin: a Devonian Montagne Noire example (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrouilh, Robert; Bourque, Pierre-André; Dansereau, Pauline; Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Françoise; Weyant, Pierre

    1998-06-01

    The Devonian sedimentary succession of the southern flank of the Montagne Noire (France) was deposited along a divergent margin. This paper is a contribution to describe and evaluate biogenic, sedimentary, geochemical and micropalaeontological features as indicators of sea-level changes and global history of the Devonian in this area. Following transgression and shallow-water environments during Early Devonian time (Lochkovian to early Emsian), biogenic mud-rich mounds with stromatactis developed during latest Emsian at the platform margin. The depth of the Devonian sea was increasing and the seafloor passed below the photic zone and the lower limit of storm wave base during the Emsian. Growth and seismic faults affected the mounds and created Neptunian cracks and crevices, quickly filled with sedimentary material (pisoids) and cements (Neptunian dykes and veins). Light and CL-microscopy, and stable isotope geochemistry show that stromatactis, cements of Neptunian dykes, veins and pisoid cortices are early marine, whereas the red finely crystalline material that forms the bulk of the mound has been cemented in the near-surface diagenetic environment, after the early marine cementation of stromatactis and Neptunian dykes and veins, by meteoric or hydrothermal fluids. The sedimentary rocks overlying the stromatactis mounds exhibit regularly condensed iron and manganese-rich layers, interrupted by the Kellwasser hypoxic horizon. These condensed deposits developed up to the Famennian in a context of carbonate gravity sedimentation and became more and more rhythmic and frequent up section. The occurrence and irregular distribution of large-scale submarine mass flows during Frasnian and Famennian times can be related to block faulting on which Lower Devonian stromatactis mounds could have been uplifted by this block faulting to form seamounts. The sea-level fluctuations detected in the southern flank of Montagne Noire are compared to the Devonian eustatic sea-level curve

  11. High-level cefixime- and ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in France: novel penA mosaic allele in a successful international clone causes treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Golparian, Daniel; Nicholas, Robert; Ohnishi, Makoto; Gallay, Anne; Sednaoui, Patrice

    2012-03-01

    Recently, the first Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (H041) highly resistant to the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) ceftriaxone and cefixime, which are the last remaining options for first-line gonorrhea treatment, was isolated in Japan. Here, we confirm and characterize a second strain (F89) with high-level cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance which was isolated in France and most likely caused a treatment failure with cefixime. F89 was examined using six species-confirmatory tests, antibiograms (33 antimicrobials), porB sequencing, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and sequencing of known gonococcal resistance determinants (penA, mtrR, penB, ponA, and pilQ). F89 was assigned to MLST sequence type 1901 (ST1901) and NG-MAST ST1407, which is a successful gonococcal clone that has spread globally. F89 has high-level resistance to cefixime (MIC = 4 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (MIC = 1 to 2 μg/ml) and resistance to most other antimicrobials examined. A novel penA mosaic allele (penA-CI), which was penA-XXXIV with an additional A501P alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2, was the primary determinant for high-level ESC resistance, as determined by transformation into a set of recipient strains. N. gonorrhoeae appears to be emerging as a superbug, and in certain circumstances and settings, gonorrhea may become untreatable. Investigations of the biological fitness and enhanced understanding and monitoring of the ESC-resistant clones and their international transmission are required. Enhanced disease control activities, antimicrobial resistance control and surveillance worldwide, and public health response plans for global (and national) perspectives are also crucial. Nevertheless, new treatment strategies and/or drugs and, ideally, a vaccine are essential to develop for efficacious gonorrhea management.

  12. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  13. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  14. Feeding behaviors of feedlot bulls fed concentrate levels and babassu mesocarp meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Sôffa da Cruz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot Nellore bulls fed two levels of concentrate (650 and 710 g/kg dry matter with or without the inclusion of 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate. Twenty-eight animals at 18 months of initial age and 356.66±19.25 kg initial body weight were used. A completely randomized design was used with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Increase in concentrate level from 650 to 710 g/kg dry matter did not change the feeding time, of 194.41 and 189.64 minutes/day, respectively. The inclusion of 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate increased the feeding time from 173.92 to 210.12 minutes/day, ensuring similar energy intake in relation to the diets without this byproduct. Rumination time was not changed by increasing the concentrate level in diets with 350 g babassu mesocarp meal/kg dry matter in the concentrate, with average values of 420.48 and 398.09 minutes/day for the levels of 650 and 710 g concentrate/kg dry matter, respectively. However, in diets without babassu mesocarp meal, the rumination time was reduced by the concentrate level, with average values of 452.14 and 409.76 minutes/day for 650 and 710 g of concentrate/kg dry matter, respectively. Time spent on other activities increased from 810.23 to 860.00 minutes/day with increase in the concentrate level, which was not changed in the diets containing babassu mesocarp meal. The inclusion of babassu mesocarp meal in the diet altered the feeding behavior of feedlot cattle, due to the need to increase the feeding time to maintain the energy intake.

  15. Re-Setting the Concentration Levels of Students in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Ray, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that college students' concentration levels are limited and hard to maintain. Even though relevant in higher education, scant empirical research exists on interventions to "re-set" their concentration during a college lecture. Using a within-subjects design, four active learning interventions are administered across two…

  16. Influence of paleotopography, base level and sedimentation rate on estuarine system response to the Holocene sea-level rise: The example of the Marais Vernier, Seine estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Millena; Sebag, David; Durand, Alain; Laignel, Benoit; Saliege, Jean-François; Mahler, Barbara J.; Fauchard, Cyrille

    2007-08-01

    The response of coastal systems to allogenic forcing factors is of interest to diverse research communities, including those interested in global change, sequence stratigraphy and modelling. Quaternary systems are of particular interest because they provide analogues for ancient rock records. To understand the processes responsible for the sedimentary evolution of estuarine systems, it is necessary to study as many fluvial systems as possible. The objective of this review of the sedimentary evolution of a coastal marsh is to describe the influence of glacial paleotopography on the record of climatic and sea-level changes. The Marais Vernier, located at the interface between the marine and fluvial parts of the estuary, is a part of the Lower Seine Valley wetland network, which formed after the Last Glacial Maximum. Previous studies have described the Holocene filling, which is composed of peat and detrital material deposited following climatic and sea-level changes. To understand the sedimentary evolution, a paleotopographical (based on drillings and electromagnetic surveys) and a chronological framework (based on radiocarbon dates) for the southern peat marsh were defined. The peat marsh paleotopography has three erosional surfaces. The S1 surface is the oldest and also the highest, topographically; the S2 surface is younger, wider, and incised below the S1 surface; the S3 surface, the youngest of the three, is narrow and deeply incised. Radiometric ages were considered on the basis of their geographical position in relation to the S3 surface. Prior to 7.5 ka cal BP, sediments accumulated only above the narrow area described by the S3 surface, at a rate of 5.5 mm yr - 1 . After 7.5 ka cal BP, shortly after the flooding of the Seine estuary, sediments accumulated as peat deposits over the entire peat marsh at a rate of 3 mm yr - 1 in response to the sea-level rise. The paleotopography delimits the area of deposition during the Holocene, and thus plays a critical

  17. Calorie restriction at increasing levels leads to augmented concentrations of corticosterone and decreasing concentrations of testosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Tammer, Amanda H; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2010-05-01

    The influence of calorie restriction (CR) on increasing life span, enhancing immunocompetence, and reducing the incidence of age-related diseases is well established. Evidence points to the involvement of neuroendocrine alterations in these beneficial effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that CR will result in significant alterations to the hormones investigated. Little attention has been directed toward ascertaining the doses of CR required to obtain such alterations and, indeed, whether a dose-response exists. Adult rats were subjected to 1 of 5 dietary regimens: control, CR12.5%, CR25%, CR37.5%, or CR50%. Rats were decapitated 3 weeks following the onset of restriction; and trunk blood was collected and assayed for concentrations of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, and testosterone, as well as plasma concentrations of noradrenalin and adrenalin. No effect was found as a result of dietary manipulation for serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone. However, all doses of CR resulted in increased serum corticosterone in a dose-response trend. A dose-response was also observed for serum testosterone, with higher doses of CR associated with lower testosterone. Concentrations of noradrenalin were not found to be altered by any CR dose, although a trend toward a down-regulation at CR50% was observed. Plasma adrenalin displayed a biphasic distribution with reductions observed at CR25% and CR50%, although the down-regulations only attained statistical significance relative to the CR37.5% and not the control group. As well as reporting the effect of CR on multiple hormones within individual animals, these results go some way in determining the optimal levels of CR needed to induce neuroendocrinologic alterations.

  18. Physical fitness levels of adolescents in the Ile de France region: comparisons with European standards and relevance for future cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Czaplicki, Grégory; Ulmer, Zekya

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to assess physical fitness in French schoolchildren in the region of Ile de France and to compare the results with European countries. The relationship between physical fitness and future health profile was of particular interest. Participants were 1851 French youth in the Ile de France region. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and speed agility were tested. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences between different variables. Spearman's rho correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between body mass index, socio-economic status and physical fitness. Boys were physically fitter than girls with the most significant difference being in agility. Subjects of normal weight have significantly better results than overweight or obese adolescents (+10·9% to 56·1%) (Pphysical fitness than those with low socio-economic status (+0·5% to 9·4%) (PPhysical fitness in French schoolchildren living in the region of Ile de France is relatively low and unfavourable, especially in girls, when compared with existing European test results. In contrast, the adolescent boys are generally fitter and also above the average of the European data. Introducing a health promotion curriculum in the schools of Ile de France is suggested to improve health and physical fitness. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  20. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  1. Groundwater level and nitrate concentration trends on Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain Home Air Force Base in southwestern Idaho draws most of its drinking water from the regional aquifer. The base is located within the State of Idaho's Mountain Home Groundwater Management Area and is adjacent to the State's Cinder Cone Butte Critical Groundwater Area. Both areas were established by the Idaho Department of Water Resources in the early 1980s because of declining water levels in the regional aquifer. The base also is listed by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality as a nitrate priority area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, began monitoring wells on the base in 1985, and currently monitors 25 wells for water levels and 17 wells for water quality, primarily nutrients. This report provides a summary of water-level and nitrate concentration data collected primarily between 2001 and 2013 and examines trends in those data. A Regional Kendall Test was run to combine results from all wells to determine an overall regional trend in water level. Groundwater levels declined at an average rate of about 1.08 feet per year. Nitrate concentration trends show that 3 wells (18 percent) are increasing in nitrate concentration trend, 3 wells (18 percent) show a decreasing nitrate concentration trend, and 11 wells (64 percent) show no nitrate concentration trend. Six wells (35 percent) currently exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limit of 10 milligrams per liter for nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate, measured as nitrogen).

  2. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  3. Determination of optimum sunlight concentration level in space for 3-5 cascade solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum range of concentration levels in space for III-V cascade cells was calculated using a realistic solar cell diode equation. Temperature was varied with concentration using several models and ranged from 55 C at 1 sun to between 80 and 200 C at 100 suns. A variety of series resistance and internal resistances were used. Coefficients of the diffusion and recombination terms are strongly temperature dependent. The study indicates that the maximum efficiency of 30 percent occurs in the 50 to 100 sun concentration range provided series resistance is below 0.015 ohm-sq cm and cell temperature is about 80 C at 100 suns.

  4. Rock shelter occupation during isotopic stage 5: level D of the site of Payre (Ardèche, France. Territorial organisation and intra-site activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results obtained from an interdisciplinary study of the level D archaeological assemblages from Payre (Ardèche, France. This site is dated to the final of OIS 6 and the beginning of OIS 5. The combined analysis of the lithic and faunal assemblages accumulated and their management “into” and “out of” the site gives a better understanding of the behaviour of the Neanderthal groups that inhabited it. This study has allowed us to correlate the territorial exploitation for game hunting and for raw material procurement, within the context of seasonal short term occupations probably during the end of autumn and the beginning of winter.  

    Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos a través del estudio multidisciplinar del registro arqueológico del nivel D del yacimiento de Payre (Ardèche, Francia datado entre el final del OIS 6 y el comienzo del OIS 5. El análisis conjunto de la industria lítica y de los restos óseos recuperados en el yacimiento y de la gestión de dichos recursos dentro y fuera de él, ha hecho posible la comprensión de los comportamientos humanos de los grupos neandertales que lo ocuparon. Dicho estudio nos ha permitido poner en relación el tipo de explotación del territorio de caza y de captación de materias primas, dentro del marco de ocupaciones estacionales de corta duración desarrolladas probablemente entre el final del otoño y el principio del invierno.  

  5. Use of distributed water level and soil moisture data in the evaluation of the PUMMA periurban distributed hydrological model: application to the Mercier catchment, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, Isabelle; Fuamba, Musandji; Branger, Flora; Batchabani, Essoyéké; Sanzana, Pedro; Sarrazin, Benoit; Jankowfsky, Sonja

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrological models are used at best when their outputs are compared not only to the outlet discharge, but also to internal observed variables, so that they can be used as powerful hypothesis-testing tools. In this paper, the interest of distributed networks of sensors for evaluating a distributed model and the underlying functioning hypotheses is explored. Two types of data are used: surface soil moisture and water level in streams. The model used in the study is the periurban PUMMA (Peri-Urban Model for landscape Management, Jankowfsky et al., 2014), that is applied to the Mercier catchment (6.7 km2) a semi-rural catchment with 14% imperviousness, located close to Lyon, France where distributed water level (13 locations) and surface soil moisture data (9 locations) are available. Model parameters are specified using in situ information or the results of previous studies, without any calibration and the model is run for four years from January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2010 with a variable time step for rainfall and an hourly time step for reference evapotranspiration. The model evaluation protocol was guided by the available data and how they can be interpreted in terms of hydrological processes and constraints for the model components and parameters. We followed a stepwise approach. The first step was a simple model water balance assessment, without comparison to observed data. It can be interpreted as a basic quality check for the model, ensuring that it conserves mass, makes the difference between dry and wet years, and reacts to rainfall events. The second step was an evaluation against observed discharge data at the outlet, using classical performance criteria. It gives a general picture of the model performance and allows to comparing it to other studies found in the literature. In the next steps (steps 3 to 6), focus was made on more specific hydrological processes. In step 3, distributed surface soil moisture data was used to assess the

  6. Determination of radon concentration levels in well water in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, M; Eren, N; Demirel, S; Zedef, V

    2013-10-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) measurements were undertaken in 16 samples of well water representing different depths and different types of aquifers found at the city centre of Konya, Central Turkey. The radon activity concentrations of the well water samples collected in the spring and summer seasons of 2012 were measured by using the radon gas analyser (AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO). The radon concentrations for spring and summer seasons are 2.29 ± 0.17 to 27.25 ± 1.07 and 1.44 ± 0.18 to 27.45 ± 1.25 Bq l(-1), respectively. The results at hand revealed that the radon concentration levels of the waters strictly depend on the seasons and are slightly variable with depth. Eleven of the 16 well water samples had radon concentration levels below the safe limit of 11.11 Bq l(-1) recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, all measured radon concentration levels are well below the 100 Bq l(-1) safe limit declared by the World Health Organisation. The doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The calculated minimum and maximum effective doses are 0.29 and 5.49 µSv a(-1), respectively.

  7. Modeling Cl{sup -} concentration and δ{sup 37}Cl profiles in pore water across a 250 m-thick indurated argillite at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Rebeix, Romain; Lancelot, Joel [Universite de Nimes / Site GIS - 30035 Nimes cedex 01 (France); Aix-Marseille Universite, CEREGE UMR7330, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Matray, Jean-Michel [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bensenouci, Fethic [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Michelot, Jean-Luc [IDES, UMR CNRS 8148 Universite Paris-Sud - 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dauzeres, Alexandre; Wittebroodt, Charles [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Frape, Shaun; ShouakarStash, Orphane [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue. West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved chloride in argillite pore water has been studied as a natural analogue for radionuclides potentially released from radioactive waste disposal. The Tournemire URL intersects impervious and compacted argillite. A previously obtained chloride concentration profile of intact rock is symmetric with a maximum concentration of 0.6±0.1 g/L, compared to 19 g/L for the original connate seawater. Dissolved chloride shows high δ{sup 37}Cl values, ranging between +6 and +80/00 vs. SMOC. The modeled profile considers diffusive exchange between connate seawater and meteoric freshwater. Transport parameters were obtained by radial diffusion experiments. Numerical modeling was performed with the coupled reactive-transport code Hytec. Simulations suggest a diffusive-exchange time of 85±10 Ma for Cl, which correlates with a major erosional period. Simulated δ{sup 37}Cl values between 1.002 and 1.003 agree with observed pore water δ{sup 37}Cl. This study strongly suggests that the dissolved chloride profile in the argillites results from diffusive exchange and indicates that unfractured argillites can provide good confinement. (authors)

  8. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.

    2013-06-01

    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  9. Fate of Sb(V) and Sb(III) species along a gradient of pH and oxygen concentration in the Carnoulès mine waters (Southern France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resongles, Eléonore; Casiot, Corinne; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Freydier, Rémi; Bruneel, Odile; Piot, Christine; Delpoux, Sophie; Volant, Aurélie; Desoeuvre, Angélique

    2013-08-01

    The speciation and behaviour of antimony were investigated in surface waters downstream from the abandoned Pb-Zn Carnoulès mine (Gard, France). These waters exhibit a permanent gradient of oxygen concentration and pH, ranging from acid suboxic in Reigous Creek at the outlet of sulfide tailings impoundment, to near neutral oxygenated at downstream sites along the rivers Amous and Gardon. The concentration of total dissolved (Sb attenuation. Speciation analysis carried out during three surveys indicated that Sb(III) represented up to 70% of the total dissolved Sb concentration at the source of Reigous Creek, while Sb(V) represented less than 50%. Field characterization showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were attenuated through dilution and were also removed from the dissolved phase during downstream transport. Speciation analysis in suspended particulate matter extracts gave a distribution of particulate Sb into 70 to 100% of Sb(III) and less than 30% of Sb(V). The removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species from the dissolved phase was concordant with the oversaturation of Reigous Creek water relative to Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-oxides and Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-Fe oxides. Sb(III) was more efficiently removed than Sb(V) or As(III) and it was no more detectable in the dissolved phase at downstream sites in the rivers Amous and Gardon. Conversely, the concentration of Sb(V) in the rivers Amous and Gardon still denoted contamination arising from the Carnoulès mine. The range of log Kd values, from 2.4 L kg(-1) to 4.9 L kg(-1), indicated that Sb was mainly transported in the dissolved phase downstream the Reigous Creek input. Altogether, these results give a better understanding of the fate of Sb downstream from sulfide-rich mining wastes.

  10. Carbonic anhydrase levels and internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations in aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.I.

    1979-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase levels were examined in a variety of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats. In general, carbonic anhydrase levels increased across the habitat gradient such that activities were low in submersed aquatic macrophytes and high in emergent macrophytes with floating-leaved and free-floating plants exhibiting intermediate activities. Internal lacunar CO/sub 2/ concentrations were analyzed in relation to carbonic anhydrase activities. There was no correlation between these two parameters. Internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from low to high in submersed macrophytes, but were low in floating-leaved and emergent macrophytes. The observed internal CO/sub 2/ concentrations are discussed in relation to the individual morphologies of the plants and the environments in which they occurred.

  11. Leveling and thixotropic characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks for screen-printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phair, John; Lundberg, Mats; Kaiser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Screen-printing is a cost-effective method for the mass manufacture of zirconia-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separation membranes. The present work outlines an investigation into the leveling, thixotropic, and screen-printing characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks by a v...

  12. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector. ... and restrictions on portfolio concentrations. 120.828 Section 120.828 Business Credit and Assistance... Certification and Operation § 120.828 Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio...

  13. Modeling of trophospheric ozone concentrations using genetically trained multi-level cellular neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, H. Kurtulus; Bilgili, Erdem; Sahin, Ulku; Ucan, O. Nuri; Bayat, Cuma

    2007-09-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations, which are an important air pollutant, are modeled by the use of an artificial intelligence structure. Data obtained from air pollution measurement stations in the city of Istanbul are utilized in constituting the model. A supervised algorithm for the evaluation of ozone concentration using a genetically trained multi-level cellular neural network (ML-CNN) is introduced, developed, and applied to real data. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization of CNN templates. The model results and the actual measurement results are compared and statistically evaluated. It is observed that seasonal changes in ozone concentrations are reflected effectively by the concentrations estimated by the multilevel-CNN model structure, with a correlation value of 0.57 ascertained between actual and model results. It is shown that the multilevel-CNN modeling technique is as satisfactory as other modeling techniques in associating the data in a complex medium in air pollution applications.

  14. Modeling of Trophospheric Ozone Concentrations Using Genetically Trained Multi-Level Cellular Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Kurtulus OZCAN; Erdem BILGILI; Ulku SAHIN; O. Nuri UCAN; Cuma BAYAT

    2007-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations, which are an important air pollutant, are modeled by the use of an artificial intelligence structure. Data obtained from air pollution measurement stations in the city of Istanbul are utilized in constituting the model. A supervised algorithm for the evaluation of ozone concentration using a genetically trained multi-level cellular neural network (ML-CNN) is introduced, developed, and applied to real data. A genetic algorithm is used in the optimization of CNN templates. The model results and the actual measurement results are compared and statistically evaluated. It is observed that seasonal changes in ozone concentrations are reflected effectively by the concentrations estimated by the multilevel-CNN model structure, with a correlation value of 0.57 ascertained between actual and model results. It is shown that the multilevel-CNN modeling technique is as satisfactory as other modeling techniques in associating the data in a complex medium in air pollution applications.

  15. MECHANISMS OF DAMAGING EFFECT OF MANGENESE IN TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS ON CELLULAR AND SUBCELLULAR LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharenko A. V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Influence of subtoxic concentration of manganese chloride in dose equal to LD 50 on condition of plasmatic membranes (model: erythrocytes and functional activity of cell power (model: the isolated liver mitochondrion of rats was studied. It was established that manganese chloride in fixed concentration caused authentic augmentation of sorption capacity of erythrocytes towards alcian blue, influenced increasing of their spontaneous haemolysis and activation of peroxide oxidation of lipids. In experiment on the isolated mitochondrion it was proved that manganese chloride caused dissociation of an oxidizing phosphorusling and complete inhibition of respiration in concentrations of 3 and 4,5mM. These dependences testify that subtoxic concentration of manganese can damage the cell energy. Thus, this pilot research indicated damaging effect of manganese on cellular (erythrocytes and subcellular (mitochondrion levels which are realized through external functioning of membrane structures and deprived them from restoration.

  16. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  17. Characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations over contrasting land uses in a tropical urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore Kumar, M.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Indian cities feature high human population density, heterogeneous traffic, mixed land-use patterns and mostly tropical meteorological conditions. Characteristics of ambient CO2 concentrations under these distinctive features are very specific and the related studies are limited. This paper presents the characteristics of ground level CO2 concentrations at three contrasting land uses (residential, commercial and industrial) in a tropical urban area of India. The CO2 concentrations were monitored in Chennai city for 31 days at each land use during June-September, 2013. Emissions of CO2 from all the major anthropogenic sources present at the three study sites were also quantified. Results indicated that the daily average CO2 concentrations were high at commercial (467 ± 35.15 ppm) and industrial (464 ± 31.68 ppm) sites than at residential site (448 ± 33.45 ppm). The quantified CO2 emissions were also showed high levels at commercial (1190 tons/day) and industrial sites (8886 tons/day) than at residential site (90 tons/day). On a diurnal scale, CO2 concentrations were low during afternoons and high during the late evenings and early morning hours at all the three types of land use sites. At the urban residential site, the domestic sector had a strong impact on the day time CO2 concentrations, while soil and plant respiration phenomena had a greater control over the night time CO2 concentrations. Further, the CO2 concentrations were high during the stagnation and stable meteorological conditions than the ventilation and unstable conditions.

  18. France at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June, for the 8th edition of France at CERN, 31 French companies presented their latest technology to the Laboratory. Demonstrating the latest in French technology during France at CERN. The France at CERN exhibition was inaugurated by Mr. Bernard Frois, Director of the Department Energy, Transport, Environment and Natural Resources at the Technology Directorate of the Ministry of Research. 'France is happy to be a Member of CERN, which is a successful example of the construction of scientific Europe,' he declared during the inauguration, 'this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to put fundamental research and advanced technology in contact.' Mr. Philippe Petit, French Ambassador to Switzerland, and Mr. Alexandre Defay, technical adviser of the Minister of Research, were also present to represent France and its industry. Representing CERN at the 19 June opening of the exhibition was Claude Detraz, who said, 'I hope that this exhibition will make it possible to weave stronger links between ...

  19. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  20. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  1. Comparison of salivary fluoride levels following use of dentifrices containing different concentrations of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many industrialized countries have reported a decline in caries prevalence over the past few decades. These reductions have been related to the regular use of fluoride dentifrices. Fluoride dentifrices are the most cost-effective and efficient means of caries prevention. However, there have been concerns regarding the risk of fluorosis in children due to the ingestion of dentifrices. This has led to the use of dentifrices with low concentration of fluoride. Salivary fluoride levels after tooth-brushing have been shown to be related to the anticaries efficacy of fluoride dentifrices. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the concentration of fluoride in the dentifrice, on the salivary fluoride level in children. Twenty children in the age group of five to six years were randomly selected and divided into two groups using, either 500ppm or 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice (sodium monofluorophosphate. Salivary fluoride levels at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, minutes after brushing were estimated. The data collected was statistically evaluated using the unpaired t-test. The results showed that salivary fluoride levels following use of 500ppm fluoride dentifrice were significantly lower than 1000ppm fluoride dentifrice. The low salivary fluoride levels may thereby reduce the anticaries efficacy. Hence, the pros and cons of recommending a low fluoride concentration dentifrice must be judiciously considered.

  2. Lethal copper concentration levels for Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 @ a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Van der Merwe

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Lethal copper concentrations were determined for both adult and juvenile Clarias gariepinus at representative mean summer and winter temperatures. Fish were exposed to copper for 96 hours in an experimental system and mortalities monitored. Toxicity curves of percentage mortality versus actual copper concentration were drawn, and the LC50 calculated for winter and summer temperatures. The lethal copper concentrations, expressed as LC50, found in laboratory exposures, ranged for adults from 1,29 mg/1 during summer to 1,38 mg/1 in winter. These values are considerably higher than the levels of copper in the water of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park during summer (0,055 @ 0,016 mg/1 and winter (0,085 @ 0,032 mg/1. The derived LC50 values predict the level of copper which should be prevented at all cost. The fish in the Olifants River are already exposed to sublethal concentrations (40 of LC50 of copper. The results can be used as an indication of what the safe concentrations of copper should be.

  3. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays...

  4. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    Indoor radon levels in 1618 Norwegian dwellings located in different geological settings were compared with geological information in order to determine potential correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway and to establish whether geological information is useful in radon risk analysis. In two geographically limited areas, Kinsarvik and Fen, detailed geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in order to explain their elevated natural radiation environment. Significant correlations between geology and indoor radon concentrations in Norway are found when the properties of both the bedrock and the overburden are taken into account. Areas of high radon risk in Norway include 1) exposed bedrock with elevated levels of radium (mainly alum shale and granites) and b) highly permeable unconsolidated sediments derived from all rock types (mainly glaciofluvial and fluvial deposits) and moderately permeable sediments containing radium rich rock fragments (mainly basal till). More than 20 % of Norwegian dwellings located in the high-risk areas can be expected to contain radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. The elevated radon risk related to penneable building grounds is illustrated in Kinsarvik where the highly permeable sediments and the large vadose zone underlying the Huse residential area enable the transport of radon from large volumes into the dwellings resulting in enhanced indoor radon concentrations. Subterranean air flows caused by temperature/pressure differences between soil air and atmospheric air and elevations differences within the Huse area are shown to strongly affect the annual variations in indoor radon concentrations. The marked contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds are clearly illustrated in the Fen area where outcrops of the radium rich Fen carbonatites represent areas of high radon risk while only low levels of both indoor radon concentrations and indoor gamma

  5. Mercury concentration in the feathers of birds from various trophic levels in Fereydunkenar International wetland (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Mousa; Lan-Hai, Li; Ahmadpour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Seyed Hamid; Mashrofeh, Abdolreza; Binkowski, Łukasz J

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the main global pollutants that may biomagnify in food nets, especially in wetlands. Birds may be useful in the biomonitoring of Hg in such habitats and may even serve in vivo samples. This paper examined Hg concentration in the feathers of seven bird species foraging on Fereydunkenar International wetland (in 2013). Mean Hg concentrations found ranged from 0.005 ± 0.002 μg g(-1) d.w. (dry weight) (Common hoopoe) to 0.38 ± 0.047 μg g(-1) d.w. (Greylag goose). Significant differences in Hg concentrations were noted between bird species as well as between trophic levels (one-way ANOVAs, p  Northern pintail ≥ Gadwall ≥ Mallard > Eurasian bittern ≥ Little bittern > Common hoopoe. The position in the trophic chain significantly influenced Hg concentrations, which were the highest in omnivorous species. Hg concentrations may also depend on migration routes and breeding habitats, but the evaluation of the exposure exceeds the ambit of this paper. The Hg concentrations found generally were low, lower than the safe thresholds reported in the literature.

  6. An Experimental Study on Apoptosis of cultivated Wild Ginseng Distilled Herbal Acupuncture by Concentration Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Chul Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to measure the efficacy of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture by concentration level, we've treated A549 human lung cancer lines with different concentrations of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and examined mRNA and proteins which take parts in apoptosis. Methods : A549 human lung cancer lines were treated with various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture and cell toxicity was carefully examined. From the analysis of DNA fragmentation, RT-PCR, and Western blot, manifestation of mRNA and proteins which are associated with apoptosis were inspected. Results : The following results were obtained on apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer lines after administering various concentration levels of cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture. 1. Measuring cell toxicity of lung cancer cells, strong cell toxicity was detected at high concentration level (1000㎕, 1200㎕, but no consistent concentration dependent reliance was detected. 2. Through DNA fragmentation, we were able to confirm cell destruction in all groups. 3. Experiment groups treated with cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed inhibition of Bcl-2 and COX-2 at mRNA and Protein level, whileas increase of Bax was shown. 4. Manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1 were confirmed in all groups. 5. Extrication of Cytochrome C was detected at all groups, as well as increased activity of the enzyme caspase-3 and caspase-9, and PARP fragmentation were confirmed. Conclusion : According to the results, we can carefully deduce cell destruction of A549 human lung cancer lines were induced by Apoptosis. At the fixed level, cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture showed decrease of Bcl-2 and COX-2, as well as increase of Bax. Since cultivated wild ginseng distilled herbal acupuncture increases manifestation of p21, p53, Cyclin E, and Cyclin D1, it affects

  7. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, Paloma I.; Klimecki, Walter T.; Loh, Miranda; Van Horne, Yoshira Ornelas; Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Lothrop, Nathan; Billheimer, Dean; Guerra, Stefano; Lantz, Robert Clark; Canales, Robert A.; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08), water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03), house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04), and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities. PMID:27223295

  8. Association of Children’s Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16 levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = −0.43, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.08, water (b = −0.22, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.03, house dust (b = −0.37, p = 0.07, R2 = 0.04, and dust loading (b = −0.21, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.04. In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = −0.42, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.14 (full model after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities.

  9. Effect of Nearby Forest Fires on Ground Level Ozone Concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Rubio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On 4 and 8 January 2014, at the height of the austral summer, intense wildfires in forests and dry pastures occurred in the Melipilla sector, located about 70 km to the southwest of Santiago, the Chilean capital, affecting more than 6 million inhabitants. Low level winds transported the forest fire plume towards Santiago causing a striking decrease in visibility and a marked increase in the concentration of both primary (PM10 and CO and secondary (Ozone pollutants in the urban atmosphere. In particular, ozone maximum concentrations in the Santiago basin reached hourly averages well above 80 ppb, the national air quality standard. This ozone increase took place at the three sampling sites considered in the present study. These large values can be explained in terms of high NOx concentrations and NO2/NO ratios in biomass burning emissions.

  10. Impact of elevated CO2 concentration under three soil water levels on growth of Cinnamomum camphora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Forest plays very important roles in global system with about 35% land area producing about 70% of total land net production. It is important to consider both elevated CO2 concentrations and different soil moisture when the possible effects of elevated CO2 concentration on trees are assessed. In this study, we grew Cinnamomum camphora seedlings under two CO2 concentrations (350 μmol/mol and 500 μmol/mol) and three soil moisture levels [80%, 60% and 40% FWC (field water capacity)] to focus on the effects of exposure of trees to elevated CO2 on underground and aboveground plant growth, and its dependence on soil moisture. The results indicated that high CO2 concentration has no significant effects on shoot height but significantly impacts shoot weight and ratio of shoot weight to height under three soil moisture levels. The response of root growth to CO2 enrichment is just reversed, there are obvious effects on root length growth, but no effects on root weight growth and ratio of root weight to length. The CO2 enrichment decreased 20.42%, 32.78%, 20.59% of weight ratio of root to shoot under 40%, 60% and 80% FWC soil water conditions, respectively. And elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the water content in aboveground and underground parts. Then we concluded that high CO2 concentration favours more tree aboveground biomass growth than underground biomass growth under favorable soil water conditions. And CO2 enrichment enhanced lateral growth of shoot and vertical growth of root. The responses of plants to elevated CO2 depend on soil water availability, and plants may benefit more from CO2 enrichment with sufficient water supply.

  11. Performance and economic viability of feedlot sheep fed different levels of roughage, concentrate, and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Maria da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate performance and economic viability of producing sheep fed different levels of roughage, concentrate, and water. Forty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average initial weight of 18.85 ± 2.80 kg and an average age of 5.0 ± 2.0 months were distributed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement composed of two proportions of roughage and concentrate (30:70 and 70:30 and two levels of water supply (ad libitum, and 50% restriction, with 10 replicates. Water restriction had a negative effect (P0.05 feed conversion or feed conversion. Total weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were influenced by the proportions of roughage and concentrate. In conclusion, the diet with 70% roughage, associated with a water restriction of 50%, reduced the uptake of energy and protein, compromising the animal performance. The combination of the diet plus concentrate and water restricted to 50% of the free consumption provides a better cost-benefit ratio.

  12. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Merten; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots; Katheryne Nix; Paris Lambdin

    2013-01-01

    Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in othe...

  13. BTEX in indoor air of waterpipe cafés: Levels and factors influencing their concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Sadegh; Rostami, Roohollah; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi

    2015-08-15

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) concentrations, factors affecting their levels, and the exposure risks related to these compounds were studied in waterpipe (Ghalyun/Hookah) cafés of Ardabil city in Islamic Republic of Iran. 81 waterpipe cafés from different districts of Ardabil city were selected and their ambient air was monitored for BTEX compounds. Air samples were taken from standing breathing zone of employees, ~150 cm above the ground level, and were analyzed using GC-FID. In each case, the types of smoked tobacco (regular, fruit flavored), types of ventilation systems (natural/artificial), and the floor level at which the café was located were investigated. A high mean concentration of 4.96±2.63 mg/m(3) corresponding to long term exposure to benzene-related cancer risk of 4314×10(-6) was estimated. The levels of the remaining compounds were lower than the national guideline limits, but their hazard quotients (HQ) for long term exposure to ethylbenzene (1.15) and xylene (17.32) exceeded the HQ unit value. Total hazard indices (HI) of 63.23 were obtained for non-cancer risks. Type of the smoked tobacco was the most important factor influencing BTEX concentrations in the cafés. BTEX concentrations in indoor ambient air of Ardabil waterpipe cafés were noticeably high, and therefore may pose important risks for human health on both short and long term exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between serum IL-7 concentrations and lymphopenia upon different levels of HIV immune control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluur, Caroline; Rethi, Bence; Thang, Pham Hong; Vivar, Nancy; Mowafi, Frida; Lopalco, Lucia; Foppa, Caterina Uberti; Karlsson, Anders; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Chiodi, Francesca

    2007-05-11

    Serum IL-7 levels correlate with T-cell depletion in HIV-infected individuals. In some patients, we observed that serum IL-7 decreases upon progression to AIDS, suggesting a role for IL-7 in T-cell maintenance in sporadic cases. Interestingly, IL-7 levels were significantly lower in stable long-term non-progressors (LTNP) than in patients who lost the LTNP status in a 3-year follow-up (P < 0.001), indicating that the serum IL-7 concentration might be a valuable marker for maintenance of the LTNP state.

  15. Interdependence between urinary cobalt concentrations and hemoglobin levels in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is an essential trace element but may cause toxic effects upon occupational or environmental exposure. Women accumulate more cobalt than men at similar exposure levels which may be related to higher metabolic iron loss. During pregnancy these losses are much stronger but their influence on cobalt intake has not been studied. We have studied the associations between changes in hemoglobin and cobalt urinary excretion during pregnancy. 391 pairs of urine and blood samples from pregnant women were collected during the 12th and 32nd weeks of pregnancy and were analyzed for cobalt and hemoglobin. Mean concentrations of urinary cobalt were 0.73 and 1.6 µg/g creatinine during the first and third trimesters, respectively (pcobalt in the third than in the first trimester. Cobalt concentrations were negatively associated to hemoglobin levels in the third trimester (pcobalt increases between these two periods. This correspondence involved a statistically significant difference in third trimester mean cobalt concentrations of anemic and non-anemic women, 1.8 and 1.5 µg/g creatinine, respectively (pcobalt urine levels found in pregnant women may be related to higher intestinal absorption of cobalt at iron depletion such as in the last pregnancy period when iron body demands are high. Possible toxicity effects of these cobalt increases along pregnancy should be considered in cases of populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to this metal.

  16. Sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu, A.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper looked at the sources and levels of concentration of metal pollutants in Kubanni dam, Zaria, Nigeria. The main sources of data for the study were sediment from four different sections of the long profile of the dam. The samples were prepared in the laboratory according to standard methods and the instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique was adopted in the analysis using Nigeria Research Reactor – 1 (NIRR – 1. The results of the analysis showed that 29 metal pollutants; Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Dy, Na, K, As, La, Sm, Yb, U, Br, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Zn,Cs, Ba, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, Sb and Th currently exist in Kubanni dam in various levels of concentrations. The results showed that most of the metal pollutants in the dam are routed to anthropogenic activities within the dam catchment area while few are routed to geologic formation. The results further revealed that metal pollutants that their sources are traceable to refuse dumps, farmlands, public drains and effluents showed higher levels of concentration in the dam than the ones that are gradually released from the soil regolith system.

  17. Machine learning algorithms for predicting roadside fine particulate matter concentration level in Hong Kong Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is an approach to discover knowledge from large data. Pollutant forecasting is an important problem in the environmental sciences. This paper tries to use data mining methods to forecast fine particles (PM2.5 concentration level in Hong Kong Central, which is a famous business centre in Asia. There are several classification algorithms available in data mining, such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM. ANN and SVM are both machine learning algorithm used in variant area. This paper builds PM2.5 concentration level predictive models based on ANN and SVM by using R packages. The data set includes 2008-2011 period meteorological data and PM2.5 data. The PM2.5 concentration is divided into 2 levels: low and high. The critical point is 40ug/cubic meter (24 hours mean, which is based on the standard of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. The parameters of both models are selected by multiple cross validation. According to 100 times 10-fold cross validation, the testing accuracy of SVM is around 0.803-0.820, which is much better than ANN whose accuracy is around 0.746-0.793.

  18. Cardiovascular Response and Serum Interleukin-6 Level in Concentric Vs. Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Mayank; Singh, Shraddha; Narayan, Jagdish; Pandey, Shivani; Tiwari, Sunita; Sharma, Priyanka

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Resistance exercise is strongly recommended for implementation in CVD prevention programs. Dynamic resistance exercise comprises of concentric (muscle shortening) and eccentric (muscle lengthening) phase. The contraction of skeletal muscle promotes the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and peptides from myocytes, known as 'myokines'. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the first myokine to be released in the blood in response to exercise. To compare the cardiovascular response and serum IL-6 level in concentric and eccentric exercise done at same absolute workload. In this non-randomised crossover study 24, apparently healthy and young male adults performed an acute bout of concentric and eccentric exercise. Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Pulse Pressure (PP) and serum IL-6 were measured just before and immediately after exercise. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied to compare the data within-group and in-between group. SBP, HR, MAP, PP, DBP and IL-6 level increased significantly after both, concentric and eccentric exercise. The mean change in SBP, HR, MAP, PP, and IL-6 after concentric exercise (18.54±3.06, 57.21±10.73, 8.35±1.40, 15.25±5.29, 5.40±3.13 respectively) was significantly higher than after eccentric exercise (13.38±1.72, 43.25±8.34, 6.50±1.0, 10.21±3.16, 4.36±2.54 respectively). A non-significant rise in DBP was obtained after concentric exercise (3.25±2.79) as compared to eccentric exercise (3.08±1.89). Eccentric exercise not only caused a lesser cardiovascular demand as compared to concentric exercise but also a significant increment in IL-6 level. Exercise-induced IL-6 may prevent the initiation and development of CVD. Hence, eccentric exercise training might be recommended for reducing morbidity and mortality in individuals with- or at a risk of developing CVD.

  19. Identification of nitrate long term trends in Loire-Brittany river district (France) in connection with hydrogeological contexts, agricultural practices and water table level variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, B.; Baran, N.; Bourgine, B.; Ratheau, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union (EU) has adopted directives requiring that Member States take measures to reach a "good" chemical status of water resources by the year 2015 (Water Framework Directive: WFD). Alongside, the Nitrates Directives (91/676/EEC) aims at controlling nitrogen pollution and requires Member States to identify groundwaters that contain more than 50 mg NO3 L-1 or could exceed this limit if preventive measures are not taken. In order to achieve these environmental objectives in the Loire-Brittany river basin, or to justify the non achievement of these objectives, a large dataset of nitrate concentrations (117.056 raw data distributed on 7.341 time-series) and water table level time-series (1.371.655 data distributed on 511 piezometers) is analysed from 1945 to 2007. The 156.700 sq km Loire-Brittany river basin shows various hydrogeological contexts, ranging from sedimentary aquifers to basement ones, with a few volcanic-rock aquifers. The knowledge of the evolution of agricultural practices is important in such a study and, even if this information is not locally available, agricultural practices have globally changed since the 1991 Nitrates Directives. The detailed dataset available for the Loire-Brittany basin aquifers is used to evaluate tools and to propose efficient methodologies for identifying and quantifying past and current trends in nitrate concentrations. Therefore, the challenge of this study is to propose a global and integrated approach which allows nitrate trend identifications for the whole Loire-Brittany river basin. The temporal piezometric behaviour of each aquifer is defined using geostatistical analyse of water table level time-series. This method requires the calculation of an experimental temporal variogram that can be fitted with a theoretical model valid for a large time range. Identification of contrasted behaviours (short term, annual or pluriannual water table fluctuations) allows a systematic classification of the Loire

  20. Soil concentration of glyphosate and AMPA under rice cultivation with contrasting levels of fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Montoya, Tania; Micaela Biassoni, María; Graciela Herber, Luciana; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the world's most important crop species and occupies c. 150 mill ha. The province of Corrientes in Argentina leads the national production of rice cultivation. Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide commonly used to control weeds. The molecule is inactivated once applied due to its adsorption in the soil, and once desorbed is degraded by soil microflora resulting in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphoric acid (AMPA) molecules. The objective of this investigation was to compare glyphosate and AMPA concentration in soil under different levels of fertilization along the growth season of the rice crop. A field experiment following a completely randomized design was carried out with four replicates. We evaluated four levels of fertilization (0-18-40): Control: 0 kg ha-1, Dose 1: 120 kg ha-1, Dose 2: 150 kg ha-1, Dose 3: 180 kg ha-1; and two levels of Glyphosate: with (Gly) or without (No) application. Four sampling moments were defined: pre-sowing (taken as reference), vegetative stage (V4, 30 days after application), in floral primordial differentiation-DPF (80 days post-application), and at physiological maturity-MF (125 days after application). Flooding was applied in V4 after sampling. The method used for determination and quantification was by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to ESI UHPLC-MS / MS tandem mass spectrometer (+/-) (Acquit-Quattro Premier). We found that glyphosate and AMPA varied their concentration in soil according to the time of sampling. Detected levels of both molecules at pre-sowing indicate the persistence of this herbicide from earlier crop seasons. The highest concentration was measured in MF followed by V4. Interestingly, AMPA concentration showed higher values in V4 without application compared to the treatment with glyphosate application. On the other hand, in flooded soil both molecules presented a decrease in their concentration probably because of their dilution in water, increasing it again after

  1. Summary of historical beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Weaver, Virginia M; Cadorette, Maureen; Puckett, Leslie G; Schwartz, Brian S; Wiggs, Laurie D; Jankowski, Mark D; Breysse, Patrick N

    2003-09-01

    Beryllium operations and accompanying medical surveillance of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory began in the 1940s. In 1999 a Former Workers Medical Surveillance Program that includes screening for chronic beryllium disease was initiated. As part of this program, historical beryllium exposure conditions were reconstructed from archived paper and electronic industrial hygiene data sources to improve understanding of past beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels. Archived industrial hygiene sampling reports indicated beryllium was principally used in technical areas-01 and -03, primarily being machined. Beryllium was also used at 15 other technical areas in activities that ranged from explosives detonation to the manufacture of X-ray windows. A total of 4528 personal breathing zone and area air samples for beryllium, combined for purposes of calculating summary statistics, were identified during the records review phase. The geometric mean airborne beryllium concentration for the period 1949-1989 for all technical areas was 0.04 microg Be/m(3) with 97 percent of all sample below the 2.0 microg Be/m(3) occupational exposure limit (OEL). Average beryllium concentrations per decade were less than 1 microg Be/m(3) and annual geometric mean concentrations in technical area-03, the largest user of beryllium, were generally below 0.1 microg Be/m(3), indicating exposure was generally well-controlled, that is, below the OEL. Typical of many retrospective exposure assessments, not all archived data could be extracted and summarized. Despite this, we report a reasonable summary of potential beryllium uses and airborne concentration levels a worker may have encountered from 1949-1989. These data can be used to more effectively identify former worker populations at potential risk for chronic beryllium disease and to offer these workers screening as part of the Former Worker Medical Surveillance Program, and in the event that a case is diagnosed, help to understand

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General, visits the exhibition "La France au CERN". The exhibition France at CERN, organized by UBIFRANCE in collaboration with CERN's GS/SEM (Site Engineering and Management) service, took place from Monday 7 to Wednesday 9 June in the Main Building. The 36 French firms taking part came to present their products and technologies related to the Organization's activities. The next exhibition will be "Netherlands at CERN" in November.

  3. Lead Concentration Levels in Water Samples Collected in Alameda County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethy, D.; Hoang, R.; Yu, I.; Hernandez, N.; Fang, K.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Munui, K. N.; Sot, R.; Luong, K.; Bonzo, R.; Sankar, R.; Chiu, D.; Rodriguez, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent health crisis in Flint, Michigan has attracted an amount of interest in other public utilities' water supplies and infrastructure with regards to concerns over the presence of lead. In an effort to begin assessing the potential for a health crisis similar to that experienced in Flynt, during 2016 our team measured lead concentration levels in water samples by collected in Alameda County. More than 12 sites were selected from which samples were collected. These sites included parks, schools, and private residences. At each site 500mL samples were collected and prepared for later analysis. Samples were subjected to an analytical chemistry technique designed to isolate and concentrate lead to detectable levels of 1 part per billion (ppb). All 8 samples yielded detectable levels of lead; all samples were also well below the EPA regulatory 15 ppb. Two samples collected in West Oakland parks were found to have the highest and lowest levels: DeFremery (4 ppb) and Raimondi (1ppb), respectively. Though preliminary in nature, results from this study suggest that further investigations should be undertaken to assess possible lead contamination associated with drinking water sources in Alameda County.

  4. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-09-08

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  5. High content analysis at single cell level identifies different cellular responses dependent on nanomaterial concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshian, Bella B.; Munck, Sebastian; Agostinis, Patrizia; Himmelreich, Uwe; Soenen, Stefaan J.

    2015-09-01

    A mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial (NM) interaction with biological environments is pivotal for the safe transition from basic science to applied nanomedicine. NM exposure results in varying levels of internalized NM in different neighboring cells, due to variances in cell size, cell cycle phase and NM agglomeration. Using high-content analysis, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of fluorescent quantum dots on cultured cells, where all effects were correlated with the concentration of NMs at the single cell level. Upon binning the single cell data into different categories related to NM concentration, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that quantum dots activate both cytoprotective and cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting in a zero net result on the overall cell population, yet with significant effects in cells with higher cellular NM levels. Our results suggest that future NM cytotoxicity studies should correlate NM toxicity with cellular NM numbers on the single cell level, as conflicting mechanisms in particular cell subpopulations are commonly overlooked using classical toxicological methods.

  6. High cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with breast milk dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Teruhiko; Dao, Tung Van; Ho, Manh Dung; Duc Dang, Nhu; Pham, Ngoc Thien; Okamoto, Rie; Pham, Tai The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Honma, Seijiro; Le, Son Ke; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins+polychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies.

  7. The effects of high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration of Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Yuan; YAO Meng-hao; LI Yuan; WEN Yu-jin; ZHANG Xiang; CHEN De-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higher bol worm survival rates were detected after high temperature presented during square period in Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high temperature level on the Bt efifcacy of two different types of Bt cotton cultivars at squaring stage. During the 2011 to 2013 cotton growth seasons, high temperature treatments ranged from 34 to 44°C in climate chambers, and ifeld experiments under high temperature weather with various temperature levels were conducted to investigate the effects of the high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration and nitrogen metabolism. The climate chamber experiments showed that the square insecticidal protein contents reduced after 24 h elevated temperature treatments for both cultivars, whereas signiifcant declines of the square insecticidal protein contents were detected at temperature >38°C, and only slightly numerical reductions were observed when temperature below 38°C. Similar high temperature responses were also observed at the two ifeld experimental sites in 2013. Correspondingly, high temperature below 38°C seems have little effect on the square amino acid concentrations, soluble protein contents, glutam-ic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities as wel as protease and peptidase activities; however, when the temperature was above 38°C, reduced soluble protein contents, enhanced amino acid con-centrations, decreased GPT and GOT activities, bolstered protease and peptidase activities in square were detected. In general, the higher the temperature is (>38°C), the larger the changes for the above compound contents and key enzymes activities of the square protein cycle. The ifndings indicated that the unstable insect resistance of the square was related to high temperature level during square stage.

  8. Salinity levels as a factor of phyto planktonic structure and diversity remediation in a lagoon impact by human activities. (Bolmon Lagoon, Mediterranean Coast, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle, S.; Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Ollivier, A.; Maasri, A.; Franquet, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Bolmon lagoon (south-eastern France) is located in the coastal hinterland of the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the salty Berre pond and in the other hand receives fresh waters from the La Cadiere River. This hyper-shallow lagoon has been classified in the early 70's as {beta} mixo-mesohaline. Bolmon lagoon is important for human activities (tourism, fishing) and for the preservation of the diversity of marine and birds species. In the last decades, the intensive urbanisation of its drainage basin induced a high eutrophication of its waters and, as a consequence, drastic modifications in the biodiversity and in the functioning os this ecosystem. (Author)

  9. Microbial composition and ecological features of phototrophic biofilms proliferating in the Moidons Caves (France): investigation at the single-cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderie, Fabien; Denis, Michel; Barani, Aude; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    The authors investigated the microbial composition of phototrophic biofilms proliferating in a show cave using flow cytometry for the first time in such a context. Results are based on several biofilms sampled in the Moidons Caves (France) and concern both heterotrophic prokaryotes and autotrophic microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms with low nucleic acid content were dominant in biofilms, as can be expected from the oligotrophic conditions prevailing within the cave. Analysis of the biofilm autotrophic components revealed the presence of several taxa, particularly the unicellular green algae Chlorella minutissima, specifically well adapted to this cave. Relationships between flow cytometry results and environmental variables determined in the cave were established and discussed so as to better understand biofilm proliferation processes in caves.

  10. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Merten

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.

  11. Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2013-02-01

    Indoor radon level measurements were carried out in 42 dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The measurements were performed during winter and spring seasons of the year 2010, for a period ranging from 97-118 d using a total of 100 detectors. The detectors were installed in living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, and storage areas of 39 houses, as well as in three schools, selected randomly in the surveyed area. The results of indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose in houses were found to vary from 26 - 611 Bq m(-3) and 0.65 - 14.1 m Sv y(-1), with average values of 117.0 Bq m(-3) and 2.95 m Sv y(-1), respectively. The mean values of radon concentration levels in bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are, respectively, 106.5, 113.1, 101.5, and 164.2 Bq m(-3). The corresponding mean values of annual effective dose for the bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are 2.66, 2.83, 2.54, 14.1 m Sv y(-1), respectively. In schools, the radon levels are found to vary from 31 - 400 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 125.1 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose in schools is found to be 3.12 mSv y(-1). This value is higher than the assigned international value. In general, the results show that radon concentration levels in 83% of the investigated dwellings are lower than the indoor radon action level of 150 Bq m(-3) for the United States.

  12. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  13. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  14. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  16. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Serum Hormone Levels, Semen Quality Parameters, and Sperm DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Yang, Tiffany; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. Widespread human exposure to parabens has been recently documented, and some parabens have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal studies. However, human epidemiologic studies are lacking. Objective We investigated relationships between urinary concentrations of parabens and markers of male reproductive health in an ongoing reproductive epidemiology study. Methods Urine samples collected from male partners attending an infertility clinic were analyzed for methyl paraben (MP), propyl paraben (PP), butyl paraben (BP), and bisphenol A (BPA). Associations with serum hormone levels (n = 167), semen quality parameters (n = 190), and sperm DNA damage measures (n = 132) were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Results Detection rates in urine were 100% for MP, 92% for PP, and 32% for BP. We observed no statistically significant associations between MP or PP and the outcome measures. Categories of urinary BP concentration were not associated with hormone levels or conventional semen quality parameters, but they were positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). When urinary BPA quartiles were added to the model, BP and BPA were both positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). Assessment of paraben concentrations measured on repeated urine samples from a subset of the men (n = 78) revealed substantial temporal variability. Conclusions We found no evidence for a relationship between urinary parabens and hormone levels or semen quality, although intraindividual variability in exposure and a modest sample size could have limited our ability to detect subtle relationships. Our observation of a relationship between BP and sperm DNA damage warrants further investigation. PMID:20876036

  17. Serum vaspin level in relation to postprandial plasma glucose concentration in subjects with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yin; HOU Xu-hong; PAN Xiao-ping; LU Jun-xi; JIA Wei-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Vaspin is a newly-identified adipocytokine related to obesity and insulin sensitivity.However,its pathophysiologic role in humans remains largely unknown.The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum vaspin level and glucose metabolism or obesity in Chinese adults.Methods A total of 123 subjects,including 84 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)and 39 subjects with diabetes,were enrolled in this study.Anthropometric parameters,abdominal fat areas,plasma glucose concentration,serum insulin,lipids,and vaspin level were measured in each participant.Results Serum vaspin concentration was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects(592 (438-695)pg/ml vs 380(294-517)pg/ml,P=0.020)in women.In all participants,age,fasting plasma glucose concentration(FPG),2-hour post-load plasma glucose(PG2h),hemoglobin Alc(HbAlc)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c)significantly increased from the lower tertile to the higher tertile of vaspin.Univariate linear regression analyses revealed that vaspin level was only positively correlated with age(β=0.340,P=0.002)in NGT subjects.And vaspin was positively associated with FPG(β=0.365,P=0.023),PG2h(β=0.526,P=0.001),HbA1c(13=0.388,P=0.016),and HDL-c(β=0.353,P=0.027),while negatively with homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function(HOMA-β)(β=-0.361,P=0.024)in diabetic patients.In stepwise multivariate regression analyses,age was independently associated with circulating vaspin in NGT subjects,whereas PG2h was an independent predictor of vaspin in diabetic patients.In addition,there was no significant difference of serum vaspin level between men and women.And no significant correlations between vaspin and body fat indexes were detected.Conclusions Serum vaspin level is higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects in women.Age predicts serum vaspin level in NGT subjects,while PG2h is independently associated with vaspin in diabetic patients.

  18. Time-series forecasting of pollutant concentration levels using particle swarm optimization and artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. de Albuquerque Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the application of an intelligent hybrid system for time-series forecasting of atmospheric pollutant concentration levels. The proposed method consists of an artificial neural network combined with a particle swarm optimization algorithm. The method not only searches relevant time lags for the correct characterization of the time series, but also determines the best neural network architecture. An experimental analysis is performed using four real time series and the results are shown in terms of six performance measures. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology achieves a fair prediction of the presented pollutant time series by using compact networks.

  19. Factoring the brain signatures of anesthesia concentration and level of arousal across individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Salles, Alejo; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Adapa, Ram; Menon, David K.; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity and behavioral analysis during sedation, we factored out general effects of the anesthetic drug propofol and a specific index of conscious report, participants’ level of responsiveness. The factorial analysis shows that increasing concentration of propofol in blood specifically decreases the connectivity strength of fronto-parietal cortical loops. In contrast, loss of responsiveness is indexed by a functional disconnection between the thalamus and the frontal cortex, balanced by an increase in connectivity strength of the thalamus to the occipital and temporal regions of the cortex. PMID:26509121

  20. A single untimed plasma drug concentration measurement during low-level HIV viremia predicts virologic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Serna, A; Swenson, L C; Watson, B; Zhang, W; Nohpal, A; Auyeung, K; Montaner, J S; Harrigan, P R

    2016-12-01

    Suboptimal untimed plasma drug levels (UDL) have been associated with lower rates of virologic suppression and the emergence of drug resistance. Our aim was to evaluate whether UDL among patients with low-level viremia (LLV) while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can predict subsequent virologic failure (plasma viral load ≥1000 copies/mL) and emergence of resistance. The first documented LLV episode of 328 consenting patients was analysed in terms of drug levels, viral load and resistance, which were monitored while patients were on a consistent HAART regimen. UDL of protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), were categorized as 'therapeutic' or 'subtherapeutic' based on predefined target trough concentrations. Drug resistance genotype was assessed using the Stanford algorithm. Time to virologic failure was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. We found 78 of 328 patients (24%) with subtherapeutic drug levels at time of first detectable LLV, while 19% harboured drug-resistant virus. Both subtherapeutic UDL and drug resistance independently increased the risk of subsequent virologic failure (p resistance. Patients with subtherapeutic UDL accumulated further drug resistance faster during follow-up (p 0.03). Together, resistance and UDL variables can explain a higher proportion of virologic failure than either measure alone. Our results support further prospective evaluation of UDL in the management of low-level viremia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaz de France and market regulation; Gaz de France et la regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, J.F.; Balard, Th. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-10-01

    Following an overview of the specific features of the European gas sector (characterised by highly concentrated production and increasing levels of production outside Europe and over long distances), the article describes the lead up to the opening of the market place in France. Following the application of the first directive in 2000, Gaz de France has carried out various measures, the aim of which was to achieve immediate efficiency (with the organizational separation of the transport and trading divisions, the separation of activities from an accounting viewpoint and the publication of a transparent TPA tariff as opposed to a discriminatory one). This opening of the gas sector has seen the start of a gradual process based on this experience. In addition to these initial measures, the opening of the gas markets has been subject to a regulatory framework as from January 2003, and the task of regulating the French gas sector has been given to the CRE (Commission de regulation de l'electricite). Thanks to the ongoing dialogue initiated by the latter with all key players in the market, progress has been achieved in various fields related to regulation. Even if this process is not complete, the French example demonstrates that the combined actions of the regulator and the market operators working together in a constructive manner and in stages, makes it possible to successfully introduce a genuinely open market. (authors)

  2. Leveling and thixotropic characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks for screen-printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phair, John; Lundberg, Mats; Kaiser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Screen-printing is a cost-effective method for the mass manufacture of zirconia-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separation membranes. The present work outlines an investigation into the leveling, thixotropic, and screen-printing characteristics of concentrated zirconia inks...... by a variety of rheological and imaging methods. A combination of viscosity, shear rate jump experiments, creep and recovery analysis, and yield stress measurements were used to assess ink thixotropy. Oscillatory rheometry and scanning electron microscopy/optical microscopy revealed a consistent effect...... of ethyl cellulose (binder) content upon the thixotropic and leveling characteristics of zirconia inks. While the yield stress (τ 0), extent of recovery R(%), and rate of recovery (K) increase with increasing binder content, so did the surface roughness and thickness of the screen-printed films. Increasing...

  3. Gaz de France annual report 2003; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Today, Gaz de France Group ranks as one of the largest gas utilities in Europe. This success is the fruit of a growth strategy that fuses economic, social and environmental imperatives. To respond more efficiently to fluctuations in the natural gas market and continue to expand its range of competitive products and services, Gaz de France has committed to integrated development across the full spectrum of natural gas activities, from exploration and production to the sale of energy and related services. As the leading supplier of natural gas in France, Gaz de France has honed a targeted policy to acquire equity interests and assets, mainly in Europe, assuring the Group of a privileged place at the heart of the European gas grid. As European energy markets continue to open more widely to competition, the Group intends to benefit from its presence in all the sectors of the natural gas industry and in the European market to confirm its position as an integrated energy operator, focused on gas, among Europe's leaders. To achieve this goal, Gaz de France will concentrate in a balanced fashion on activities linked to infrastructures and activities related to energy supply and services. While assuming its public service responsibilities, the Group will expand the range of products and services to customers. This activity report presents: consolidated financial highlights, profile, corporate governance, Gaz de France's ambition, panorama of activities: energy supply and services (exploration - production, purchase and sale of energy, services), infrastructures (transmission and storage - France, distribution - France, transmission and distribution - international), Commitments of Gaz de France (human resources, research and development, sustainable development, map of main subsidiaries and affiliates)

  4. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the main energy statistics of France for 2002: supplies, uses and sectoral consumption for all energies (coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, renewable energies); domestic production of primary energy (1973-2002); primary energy consumption (1973-2002); end-use energy consumption (1973-2002); general indicators (energy bill, US$ rate, prices, energy independence, GDP - 1973-2002); projections (primary energy consumption, 1973-2002); detailed data for petroleum, natural gas, electric power, and solid mineral fuels (resources, uses, prices, imports, production, domestic consumption, 1973-2002). (J.S.)

  5. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  6. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  7. Environmental wodking level monitor. Final report. [for measuring airborne Rn-daughter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.; McDowell, W. P.; Groer, P. G.

    1978-09-29

    The Environmental Working Level Monitor (EWLM) is an instrument used to automatically monitor airborne Rn-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor--based instrument with an external inverter provided for dc operation if desired. The microprocessor's control processor unit (CPU) controls the actuation of the detector assembly and processes its output signals to yield the measurements in the proper units. The detectors are fully automated and require no manual operations once the instrument is programmed. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the system program enables the EWLM to run a calibration procedure on command which yields calibration data. This data can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. This calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides the calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies required by the main system program to assure proper calibration of the individual EWLM's.

  8. Determination of GHB levels in breast milk and correlation with blood concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Mannocchi, Giulio; Tittarelli, Roberta; Pantano, Flaminia; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Marinelli, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    The sodium salt of GHB or sodium oxybate is approved and registered in some countries as a therapeutic substance (Xyrem(®)) for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy. This study was designed to measure the GHB endogenous levels in blood and breast milk of 20 breastfeeding women. In addition, blood and breast milk samples of a 32-year-old narcoleptic nursing mother, who was on sodium oxybate treatment, were simultaneously collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 4 and 5h following a 4.5g GHB dose and analyzed, in order to establish the safety interval of time to breastfeed. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of GHB in blood and breast milk was developed and fully validated. The geometric mean of endogenous GHB levels in blood and breast milk detected at time 0 were 0.57mg/L; 95% Reference Interval (RI): 0.21-1.52mg/L and 0.36mg/L; 95% RI: 0.13-1.03mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean of the concentration of GHB in milk was 37% less (95% RI: from 14 to 53%) compared to that found in the blood. The analysis of blood and breast milk samples collected from the 32 years-old female showed the following results: GHB blood concentration 0.5h after medication intake was 80.10mg/L, reaching the peak 1h after the drug administration (108.34mg/L) and it steadily decreased to reach a level of 1.75mg/L, 5h after the medication intake. The GHB concentration found in breast milk followed the same pattern as for the blood, with the highest concentration being 23.19mg/L, 1h after sodium oxybate administration and the lowest 0.99mg/L, 5h after the medication's intake. The comparison between blood and breast milk GHB levels in the 32-year-old woman, showed significant lower GHB levels in milk at 0.5, 1 and 3h, ranging from 71 to 80% less. It is interesting to note that only at 4 and 5h the difference between blood and breast milk GHB levels fell within the 95% RI (14-53%) of endogenous levels. Taking into consideration the absence of reference values for endogenous GHB in

  9. Final report on CCQM-K70: Determination of Hg in natural water at a concentration level required by the European environmental quality standard (EQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Detlef; Rienitz, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This comparison 'Hg in natural water' was a follow-up to the pilot studies CCQM-P100.1 and CCQM-P100.2. The aim of this comparison was to demonstrate the capability of national metrology institutes to measure the Hg mass concentration in a natural water sample at the very low concentration level of γ(Hg) ≈ 70 ng/L as required by the EQS. In this way it served to help implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM and was piloted by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) with the help of the co-organizers Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM, Berlin, Germany), Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais (LNE, Paris, France), and the Joint Research Centre-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (in alphabetical order): BAM (Germany) EC-JRC-IRMM (European Union) KRISS (Republic of Korea) LGC (United Kingdom) LNE (France) NIST (United States of America) NMIA (Australia) NRC (Canada) PTB (Germany) SP (Sweden) The majority of participants applied isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) in combination with cold vapour (CV) generation as the analytical technique. NRC reported a combined result of ID-CV-ICP-MS and CV atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). SP applied a standard addition method on a sector field ICP-MS, while BAM made use of an external 5-point calibration on a CV atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS). The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was agreed upon during the IAWG meeting in April 2010 at BIPM as the sum of the added Hg content calculated from the gravimetric sample preparation and the Hg matrix content of the water used for sample preparation (determined and validated on two independent pathways). Accordingly the degrees

  10. An empirical method of RH correction for satellite estimation of ground-level PM concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Chen, Liangfu; Tao, Jinhua; Liu, Yang; Hu, Xuefei; Tao, Minghui

    2014-10-01

    A hygroscopic growth model suitable for local aerosol characteristics and their temporal variations is necessary for accurate satellite retrieval of ground-level particulate matters (PM). This study develops an empirical method to correct the relative humidity (RH) impact on aerosol extinction coefficient and to further derive PM concentrations from satellite observations. Not relying on detailed information of aerosol chemical and microphysical properties, this method simply uses the in-situ observations of visibility (VIS), RH and PM concentrations to characterize aerosol hygroscopicity, and thus makes the RH correction capable of supporting the satellite PM estimations with large spatial and temporal coverage. In this method, the aerosol average mass extinction efficiency (αext) is used to describe the general hygroscopic growth behaviors of the total aerosol populations. The association between αext and RH is obtained through empirical model fitting, and is then applied to carry out RH correction. Nearly one year of in-situ measurements of VIS, RH and PM10 in Beijing urban area are collected for this study and RH correction is made for each of the months with sufficient data samples. The correlations between aerosol extinction coefficients and PM10 concentrations are significantly improved, with the monthly correlation R2 increasing from 0.26-0.63 to 0.49-0.82, as well as the whole dataset's R2 increasing from 0.36 to 0.68. PM10 concentrations are retrieved through RH correction and validated for each season individually. Good agreements between the retrieved and observed PM10 concentrations are found in all seasons, with R2 ranging from 0.54 in spring to 0.73 in fall, and the mean relative errors ranging from -2.5% in winter to -10.8% in spring. Based on the satellite AOD and the model simulated aerosol profiles, surface PM10 over Beijing area is retrieved through the RH correction. The satellite retrieved PM10 and those observed at ground sites agree well

  11. Factors controlling spatial variability of DOC concentrations in soil solution at European level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino Serrano, Marta; Janssens, Ivan; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Gielen, Bert; Guenet, Bertrand; De Vos, Bruno; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The lateral transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important and not well-understood process linking terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Up to day very few Earth System Models (ESMs) represent explicitly this process despite its crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, to be able to integrate DOC leaching in ESMs, more accurate information is needed in order to better understand and predict DOC dynamics. DOC concentrations mainly vary by geographical location, soil and vegetation types, topography, season and climate. Within this framework, a database was designed to compile data on DOC in soil solution at different depths in different ecosystems around the world, with special focus on European sites. The database contains information on 349 sites, with 304 being forest, gathered from published literature and datasets accessible on the internet. A substantial dataset was provided by International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The database also includes other meta-data related to the sites, such as land cover, soil properties, climate, annual water balance and other soil solution parameters. The analysis of the database has been focused on: 1) the study of the environmental and physical factors that are acting as drivers of DOC concentrations changes in soil solution across sites at European level , and 2) the DOC distribution through the soil profile and how this varies with different vegetation types and soil properties. The preliminary results show that variables related to biological processes (Dry weight of the organic layer, for example) are the most important in explaining the spatial distribution of the DOC concentration in soil solution at the European scale. However, the interactions between variables are complex and we will need further analysis in order to draw more robust conclusions. With regards to the vertical profile of DOC, we found that there is a

  12. Variability of levels of PM, black carbon and particle number concentration in selected European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air quality plans overestimated? Or do we need a more specific metric to evaluate the impact of the above emissions on the levels of urban aerosols?

    This study shows the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, black carbon (BC, aerosol number concentration (N and a number of gaseous pollutants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, urban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping environments from southern, central and northern Europe.

    The results showed that variations of PM and N levels do not always reflect the variation of the impact of road traffic emissions on urban aerosols. However, BC levels vary proportionally with those of traffic related gaseous pollutants, such as CO, NO2 and NO. Due to this high correlation, one may suppose that monitoring the levels of these gaseous pollutants would be enough to extrapolate exposure to traffic-derived BC levels. However, the BC/CO, BC/NO2 and BC/NO ratios vary widely among the cities studied, as a function of distance to traffic emissions, vehicle fleet composition and the influence of other emission sources such as biomass burning. Thus, levels of BC should be measured at air quality monitoring sites.

    During traffic rush hours, a narrow variation in the N/BC ratio was evidenced, but a wide variation of this ratio was determined for the noon period. Although in central and northern Europe N and BC levels tend to vary

  13. Evaluation of radon-222 concentrations levels at workplaces of Curitiba, PR, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Reque, Marilson; Martins Neto, Manoel R., E-mail: flavia_delclaro@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba - PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (FPP), Curitiba - PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radon is noble radioactive gas, which when inhaled and undergoing spontaneous decay emits alpha particles that interacting with the cells of biological tissue stimulates the development of lung cancer. The isotope {sup 222}Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective dose received by the population from natural radiation sources. Current work is focused at the evaluation of the radon concentration levels in air of different workplaces at Curitiba-PR. For this purpose 126 track-etched detectors CR-39 were mounted inside the diffusion chambers that were distributed at workplaces of three enterprises environments for a period of three months approximately. The diffusion chambers were protected by a borosilicate glass fiber filters. After the exposition in air the detectors were submitted to chemical etching using a solution of 6.25M NaOH at 70°C during 14 hours. Such chemical treatment enables to count alpha particle track using an optical microscope with 100x objective magnification. The density of alpha particle tracks in CR-39 was converted to the radon activity concentration in air using the results of previous calibration performed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan. Obtained results show that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in air at studied workplaces varied from 16±2 Bq/m³ to 78±9 Bq/m³. These values are considered within the limits established by international regulatory agencies such as EPA and ICRP, which consider as normal the radon activity up to 200 Bq/m³ and 148 Bq/m³, respectively. (author)

  14. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  15. Feedback on floods in Var, south of France, 15th June 2010 : different societal impacts and responses linked to levels of prevention, organization and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2010-09-01

    Observing the last dramatical floods in Var in south of France on 15th June 2010, very differents responses and impacts can be identified. 23 death, people missing, more than 50 communities impacted, 700 Millions Euros of damages were to declare after the event. Most of human loss, 12 people, were to deplore in Draguignan in Var were 270 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center. This tragedy reminds all the necessity of prevention, organization and communication. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. To manage these kinds of crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. While many damages were observed in Draguignan, the event was different in Hyères, Sainte-Maxime, Cogolin, Grimaud or Toulon who behaved to face it by minimizing the effects, and economic impacts of the flood. The fact is that they had prepared their organization to face flood crisis, they had informed the population of what had to be done, they had given security advices, they had reacted from the vigilance information and kept on being informed during the event to adapt their plans and actions: opening security centers, closing roads before they get flooded, evacuating when necessary. The most relevant example is in Sainte-Maxime where 260 mm of rainfall were registered in the city center, a volume close to the 270 mm registered in Draguignan during the same event. In Sainte-Maxime, no human loss was to deplore, the community was informed, had the information of rainfall intensity and rainfall effects in anticipation and could inform the citizen with the help of the police circulating and communicating in the streets. Getting informed the citizen could elevate and protect their property, evacuate their cars on the hights of the community, and secure themselves and family. Comparing this event with what happened in

  16. Patterns and concentration levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in placental tissue of women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Thomsen, Marianne; Vorkamp, Katrin;

    2009-01-01

    The levels and congener patterns of PBDEs were investigated in human placental samples in Denmark. The median concentrations of sigmaPBDE(tri-hepta) and BDE-209 in the 50 samples were 1.22 and 1.14 ng g(-1) lw, respectively, with the total sum ranging from 0.51 to 17.1 ng g(-1) lw, which is similar...... to previous placental studies. The PBDE content in placental tissue was dominated by BDE-209, which accounted for approximately 50% of the total amount of PBDEs. BDE-47, -99, and -153 were detected in all samples. Approximately equal amounts of BDE-47 and BDE-153 were observed in the placental tissue, which...... is in agreement with previous European studies of human serum. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze congener patterns within and between mothers. The loading plot showed groupings of the measured PBDE variables in three groups, representative of Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDE technical mixtures...

  17. Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, T. T., E-mail: agteca@hotmail.com [AGTECA S.A., 230 Oceanbeach Road, Mount Maunganui, Tauranga 3116 (New Zealand); Cochrane, T. A., E-mail: tom.cochrane@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate that the authors’ new “aqueous solution vs pure water” equation to calculate osmotic potential may be used to calculate the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide ranges of solute concentrations and temperatures. Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are calculated from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute concentration levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Methods: The authors experimented with their new equation for calculating the osmotic potentials of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions up to and beyond body temperatures by adjusting three of its factors; (a) the volume property of pure water, (b) the number of “free” water molecules per unit volume of solution, “N{sub f},” and (c) the “t” factor expressing the cooperative structural relaxation time of pure water at given temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N{sub f} was available, provisional equations were formulated to approximate values. Those values together with tentative t values for different temperatures chosen from values calculated by different workers were substituted into the authors’ equation to demonstrate how osmotic potentials could be estimated over temperatures up to and beyond bodily temperatures. Results: The provisional equations formulated to calculate N{sub f}, the number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N{sub f

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentration Levels on the Korean Peninsula between 2006 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds — benzo(aanthracene (BaA, chrysene (CHRY, benzo(bfluoranthene (BbF, benzo(kfluoranthene (BkF, dibenz(a,hanthracene (DahA, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene (I123P, and benzo(apyrene (BaP — in air were measured as the sum of gas and particle fractions at 32 monitoring stations dispersed across Korea during a 2-year period (February 2006 to January 2008. The data sets were collected at intervals of 1 day (24 h per month from each monitoring station. According to our analysis, the spatial distribution of PAH is distinguished by manmade activities between different land use types. Evaluation of total PAH (T-PAH concentration levels, which were derived by summing up all individual compounds, revealed that the T-PAH value varied on the order of commercial (4.85 ± 4.40 ng m-3 rural (4.42 ± 2.73 ng m-3, industrial (4.27 ± 1.79 ng m-3, greenland (3.09 ± 3.86 ng m-3, and background (2.60 ± 2.54 ng m-3 areas. The PAH values, when compared across seasons, tend to peak consistently during the winter (or spring due to the active consumption of fossil fuels. The overall results of this study confirm that the pollution status of PAH compounds are clearly discernible not only between areas with different levels of anthropogenic activities, but also between periods with changes in environmental conditions.

  19. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Deguen

    Full Text Available While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1 socioeconomic status, 2 long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3 both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France.A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866.The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001. Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution: ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02.Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels.

  20. Urban Sociology in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  1. VISAS FOR FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    1. Definition of a visa A visa is an administrative document required by the nationals of certain countries to cross a border. The visas referred to in this article ('consular visas') are issued to people who do not live in France (not to be confused with 'exit and/or re-entry visas' issued to people living in France; cf. communiqué of 26 May 1998, ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/8283). 2. Types of visa The numerous types of visa include, in particular: short-stay visas, which allow their holders to enter France for a continuous or non-continuous period not exceeding three months in any six; long-stay visas, which are required by those applying for a residence document (Carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Carte de séjour issued by a Préfecture). 3. Visa requirement 3.1 General rule In France, the requirement to obtain a visa varies, in particular, according to nationality and the length of stay. To put it simply, three different situations can...

  2. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...

  3. Traveling in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  4. Feed consumption, diet digestibility and mineral utilization in captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) fed different levels of concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Choubey, M; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Kumar, V; Swarup, D

    2013-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to know the level of concentrates in the diet of Antelope cervicapra at which diet digestibility and mineral utilization were optimum. Fifteen blackbucks (25-33 kg BW) were distributed into three groups of five each. Fresh oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders were offered ad libitum to all the animals. In addition, animals in groups II and III received concentrate mixture at the rate of 0.5 and 1% of BW, whereas animals in group I received no concentrates. As the level of concentrates increased, consumption of fodder decreased resulting in decreased consumption of neutral detergent fibre (NDFom), acid detergent fibre (ADFom), hemicellulose and cellulose. However, overall total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was not significantly different between the groups. Digestibility of DM, OM and gross energy (GE) increased while that of NDFom and ADFom decreased with increased level of concentrates in the diet. Intake of P, Zn, Cu and Mn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation; however, consumption of Ca and Fe followed the reverse trend. Absorption of P and Zn increased with increased level of concentrate supplementation. Serum concentration of Zn increased when concentrate was supplemented at the rate of 0.5% BW beyond which there was no further improvement. Increasing the level of concentrates in the diet was resulted in increased serum glucose and cholesterol levels. Forage-only diet was inadequate in supply of energy, P and zinc. Supplementation of concentrates at the rate of 0.5% BW was able to meet the requirement of these nutrients. Supplementation at the rate of 1% BW supplied energy and P in excess of requirement. It was concluded that the feeding of concentrates to the captive blackbuck fed forage-based diets should be restricted to 0.5% of BW.

  5. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to

  6. The expression levels of platelet adhesive receptors in PRP derived platelet concentrates during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nassaji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major platelet adhesive receptors that contribute significantly to thrombus formation include platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα of the GPIb-IX-V complex and platelet glycoprotein VI (GPVI. GPIbα plays a crucial role in platelet tethering to sub-endothelial matrix, which initiates thrombus formation at arterial shear rates, whereas GPVI is critically involved in platelets firm adhesion to the site of injury regardless of shear condition. During storage, platelets experience some changes that deleteriously affect the expression levels of platelet receptors, which in turn can alter platelet functional behaviors. Considering the important roles of GPIbα and GPVI in platelet adhesion, it seems that any dramatic changes in the expression levels of these receptors can influence adhesive function of transfused platelets. Thereby examining GPIbα and GPVI expression during the storage of platelet concentrates may provide some useful information about the functional quality of these products after transfusion. Methods: In our experimental study, 5 PRP-platelet concentrates were randomly obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO. All the platelet products met the standard quality assessment based on AABB (American Association of Blood Banks guidelines. Washed platelets were subjected to flowcytometry analysis for the evaluation of GPIbα and GPVI receptor expression in day 1, 3 and 5 after storage. Data were presented as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparison test. Results: The GPIbα expression on first day (MFI=86±5.9 was reduced three days after storage (MFI= 69±6.9. The expression levels continued to reduce until day 5 in which GPIbα expression was markedly decreased to (MFI= 61±7.7 (P= 0.0094. GPVI expression on the days 1, 3 and 5 after storage were 20.6±3.3, 24±2.5 and 14±4.9, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease of

  7. Baseline levels and temporal stability of 27 multiplexed serum cytokine concentrations in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Biancotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cytokines are humoral molecules that elicit regulatory function in immunologic pathways. The level and type of cytokine production has become critical in distinguishing physiologic from pathologic immune conditions. Cytokine profiling has become an important biomarker discovery tool in monitoring of the immune system. However, the variations in cytokine levels in individual subjects over time in healthy individuals have not been extensively studied. In this study, we use multiplex bead arrays to evaluate 27 analytes in paired serum samples taken seven days apart from 144 healthy individuals in order to assess variations over a short time period. METHODS: Fluorescent bead-based immunoassay (Luminex was used to measure 27 analytes in serum samples. Measurements were performed on matched samples from 144 healthy donors. To assess inter-plate variability, one arbitrarily selected serum sample was analyzed on each of the first ten plates as bridge sample. RESULTS: Using the bridge sample, we showed minimal inter-plate variations in the measurement of most analytes. In measurement of cytokines from the 144 patients at two time points, we found that three cytokines (IL-2, IL-15 and GM-CSF were undetectable and five analytes (RANTES, MCP-1, VEGF, MIP-1β and PDGF-BB showed significant difference in concentrations at Day 0 compared to Day 7. CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrated higher variations in cytokine levels among individuals than were observed for samples obtained one week apart from identical donors. These data suggest that a serum sample from each subject for use as a baseline measurement is a better control for clinical trials rather than sera from a paired cohort.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  9. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites.

  10. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  11. PM1 levels are related to CO concentrations and health impacts in the city Athens Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Polichetti, Giuliano; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Kalabokis, Vasilios; Gialouris, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Senekas, as early as 60 A.D., was the first to refer to air pollution and the possibility of imposing restrictions in Rome. In 1307, during the reign of Edward I, legislation was introduced to prevent the use of sea coal in kilns and limeburners in London. In the 19th century the first problems arising from elevated levels of smoke in cities appear. By 1930, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania suffered from heavy smoke pollution and the 1952 London smog episode stands out as one of the worst pollution disasters given the number of people who died as a result. Mega city pollution has become a serious problem to human health and in an effort to analyze and mitigate this threat, the European and worldwide scientific communities are, at present, placing considerable time, effort and resources in the field. It is well known that vehicle related NOx and CO emissions represent the main public health hazard (cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes) in the main industrialized cities of Europe with high traffic volumes. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial distribution of PM1, CO and the related health impacts within the greater Athens area (GAA). Several portable and ground based detectors were employed for the PM and CO measurements, capable of detecting CO levels in the ambient environment, up to 1000 ppm. Sampling took place on road sidewalks at a specified hour every morning to coincide with the peak in vehicle traffic. Controls were performed with no traffic and compared to normal traffic days and days with extreme traffic congestion, which included PM and CO concentration measurements. In addition, in order to monitor potentially related health impacts, daily admissions to the Emergency Departments of the Social Security Institute and Regional Hospitals of Athens were recorded. Results demonstrate a significant correlation between both PM1 and CO and particulate matter symptomatology, such as dispnea, fatigue, headache, dacryrrea and dry cough. These findings

  12. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  13. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  14. Analysis of Daytime and Nighttime Ground Level Ozone Concentrations Using Boosted Regression Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaitun Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the use of boosted regression trees (BRTs to draw an inference about daytime and nighttime ozone formation in a coastal environment. Hourly ground-level ozone data for a full calendar year in 2010 were obtained from the Kemaman (CA 002 air quality monitoring station. A BRT model was developed using hourly ozone data as a response variable and nitric oxide (NO, Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx and meteorological parameters as explanatory variables. The ozone BRT algorithm model was constructed from multiple regression models, and the 'best iteration' of BRT model was performed by optimizing prediction performance. Sensitivity testing of the BRT model was conducted to determine the best parameters and good explanatory variables. Using the number of trees between 2,500-3,500, learning rate of 0.01, and interaction depth of 5 were found to be the best setting for developing the ozone boosting model. The performance of the O3 boosting models were assessed, and the fraction of predictions within two factor (FAC2, coefficient of determination (R2 and the index of agreement (IOA of the model developed for day and nighttime are 0.93, 0.69 and 0.73 for daytime and 0.79, 0.55 and 0.69 for nighttime respectively. Results showed that the model developed was within the acceptable range and could be used to understand ozone formation and identify potential sources of ozone for estimating O3 concentrations during daytime and nighttime. Results indicated that the wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature were the most dominant variables in terms of influencing ozone formation. Finally, empirical evidence of the production of a high ozone level by wind blowing from coastal areas towards the interior region, especially from industrial areas, was obtained.

  15. How to teach geocomplexity at two opposite levels? The 'Klippen of Cabrières' case study (Hérault, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The starting point of this essay is a question from a school teacher who came in contact with me via my photo gallery online. His question, "What is the origin of the Roc de Murviel?" actually covers three or four separate problems, and requires to devise simple and specific comparisons in order to help children of 8 years old to understand a bunch of difficult and abstract concepts. But, in contrast, Carboniferous marine sedimentary deposits of the so-called unit "Klippen of Cabrières" are known of geologists worldwide, due to the presence of a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) located not far from the "Roc de Murviel", the "La Serre" section, where is defined the base of the Carboniferous System, Mississippian Sub-System and Tournaisien Stage. In this case, to remind how the conceptions about the formation of the "Klippen of Cabrières" evolved may serve as an introduction to the explanation of syntectonic sedimentation and to the history of the concept of thrust nappe for the well-trained public as well as academics or engineers not experts in the specificities of regional geology. Difficulty (at least in France) will come from the scarcity of naturalists, a species in danger of extinction, and from the small number of historians concerned by the natural sciences. At the public school, the first method is to decompose the problem into independent issues (Cartesian reductionism) such as: nature and age of the rock? mode of sedimentation? part of an ancient mountain chain? existence as a landform in the current landscape? Concerning the specific question of geological time, because most children of this age do not yet know how to read the time, a second method is to replace the model of the clock (the entire history of the planet Earth reduced to one year) by the metaphor of either the staircase or the ladder, both adapted from the international stratigraphic scale. A third method is to use the concept of "toolbox" for each sub-disciplines or

  16. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  17. Reducing concentrations of ammonia to nontoxic levels prior to initiating whole-sediment bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, E.S.; Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.O. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Greges, M.

    1994-12-31

    Determining the suitability of dredged material for ocean disposal requires whole-sediment toxicity tests with marine organisms. In addition to potential contaminants in dredged sediment, factors including grain size, salinity, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia can contribute to observed toxicity, thereby confounding test results. The presence of ammonia, a non-persistent but toxic compound, is particularly interesting because in open-water dredge and disposal situations, ammonia may not be a contaminant of concern. Sediment porewater ammonia concentrations in bioassays can be reduced to nontoxic levels before exposing organisms to permit evaluation of sediment contaminants without the additional toxicity effects of ammonia. Ten-day acute toxicity tests were conducted on sediments with Ampelisca abdita, Rhepoxynius abronius, Eohaustorius estuarius, and Mysidopsis bahia. Two procedures were followed to reduce ammonia prior to test initiation. In one, sediments in test chambers stood for 7 to 1 2 days while natural, nitrogen-reducing processes took place. In the other, sediments were tested in modified, flow-through systems. Ammonia was monitored in sediment porewater during ``purging`` periods, at test initiation and termination, and in overlying water during testing. Results were compared to the measured dose response of each species to ammonia, as determined by water-only reference toxicant tests. The question remains whether other sediment characteristics are affected by these procedures.

  18. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerau, Kerstin, E-mail: damerau@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria); Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria); Gauche, Paul [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University (South Africa)

    2011-07-15

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: > Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. > Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. > On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  19. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  20. [Primary care in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between the Serum Uric Acid Level, Visceral Fat Accumulation and Serum Adiponectin Concentration in Japanese Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamba, Sachiko; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Tohru; Okauchi, Yukiyoshi; Ogawa, Tomoko; Noguchi, Midori; Fujita, Koichi; Ryo, Miwa; Kihara, Shinji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Yamagata, Kazuya; Nakamura, Tadashi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    ...). Hypoadiponectinemia is one of the key molecules of the MetS. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the serum uric acid level, visceral fat accumulation and serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese men...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2203 - Reports of exposures, radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. 20.2203 Section 20.2203 Energy NUCLEAR..., radiation levels, and concentrations of radioactive material exceeding the constraints or limits. (a... radiation or concentrations of radioactive material in— (i) A restricted area in excess of any...

  3. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Information regarding income tax in France. Request for additional information: social security number and personal details.   Some members of the personnel living in France have received a letter from the French tax authorities accompanied by a form, to be returned by 31 March 2016 at the latest, asking them to indicate their social security number and to confirm their personal details. As employed members of the CERN personnel are members of the Organization’s own health insurance scheme and do not participate in the French social security system, we recommend that you tick the box indicating that you do not have a social security number. We also advise you to specify in writing that, as an employed member of the CERN personnel, you do not participate in the French social security system especially by virtue of the 1970 agreement on social security between France and CERN: “Je ne suis pas soumis(e), en tant que fonctionnaire du CERN, à la sécurit&...

  4. Terrorism in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Pierre; Telion, Caroline; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    France has experienced two waves of major terrorist bombings since 1980. In the first wave (1985-1986), eight bombings occurred in Paris, killing 13 and injuring 281. In the second wave (1995-1996), six bombings occurred in Paris and Lyon, killing 10 and injuring 262. Based on lessons learned during these events, France has developed and improved a sophisticated national system for prehospital emergency response to conventional terrorist attacks based on its national emergency medical services (EMS) system, Service d'Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU). According to the national plan for the emergency medical response to mass-casualty events (White Plan), the major phases of EMS response are: (1) alert; (2) search and rescue; (3) triage of victims and provision of critical care to first priority victims; (4) regulated dispatch of victims to hospitals; and (5) psychological assistance. Following the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, a national plan for the emergency response to chemical and biological events (PIRATOX) was implemented. In 2002, the Ministries of Health and the Interior collaborated to produce a comprehensive national plan (BIOTOX) for the emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events. Key aspects of BIOTOX are the prehospital provision of specialized advance life support for toxic injuries and the protection of responders in contaminated environments. BIOTOX was successfully used during the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in France.

  5. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    OpenAIRE

    Regina A. A.; I. Mohammad Halim Shah

    2010-01-01

    The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model uti...

  6. Plant safety in France 2000 until 2010; Anlagensicherheitspolitik in Frankreich 2000 bis 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, Agnes; Affeltranger, Bastien; Descourriere, Sandrine; Oger, Florence; Duval, Christophe; Gaucher, Rodolphe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2013-03-15

    The study on the safety of industrial plants on France covers the following issues: The explosion in the operational area of AZF (plant Grande Paroisse) and the consequences; classified installations; the players of accident risks in France; realization of the accident prevention policy in France from 2000 to 2010; prevention of natural risks and consideration of these risks on the level of classified installations (NATECH accidents) in France from 2000 to 2010; further specific topics; actual activities and developments.

  7. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  8. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  9. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  10. Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Grimvall, Anders; Omstedt, Anders; Rolff, Carl; Wikner, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R2Adj. = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  11. [Clinical research on improvement of glucose metabolic marker level by coffee drinking-validity of saliva caffeine concentration measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kono, Suminori; Shimazoe, Takao

    2010-05-01

    We measured both serum and saliva caffeine concentration using HPLC and assessed the correlation between them in volunteers with mild obesity. Significant correlation was shown between saliva and serum caffeine concentration. It may be necessary to measure caffeine metabolite concentration because its metabolites may also have an improving effect of glucose metabolism. In summary, we found that saliva caffeine concentration measurement was useful to assess caffeine intake level. Moreover, it will be helpful to know whether caffeine has an improving effect of glucose metabolism.

  12. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: Speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Maria Kaldal; Kristensen, Kasper; Nguyen, Quynh

    2014-01-01

    concentrations of organosulfates (47 +/- 14 ng m(-3)) and organic acids (11.5 +/- 4 ng m(-3)) were observed in January, February and March, contrary to considerably lower mean concentrations of organosulfates (2 +/- 3 ng m(3-)) and organic acids (2.2 +/- 1 ng m(-3)) observed during the rest of the year...... organosulfates - from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors were in focus. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), 12....... At Zeppelin Mountain, organosulfate and organic acid concentrations remained relatively constant during most of the year at a mean concentration of 15 +/- 4 ng m(-3) and 3.9 +/- 1 ng m(-3), respectively. However during four weeks of spring, remarkably higher concentrations of total organosulfates (23-36 ng m...

  13. First occurrence of cylindrospermopsin in freshwater in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Bormans, Myriam; Fastner, Jutta

    2009-08-01

    Eleven waterbodies in Western France dominated by cyanobacteria of the genera Aphanizomenon and Anabaena were analyzed in September 2006 for microcystins (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). CYN was detected for the first time in France in four of them in the presence of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and in the presence of Anabaena planctonica in the other. The intracellular concentrations of CYN measured by LC-MS/MS ranged between 1.55 and 1.95 microg/L. The occurrence of CYN represents an additional health hazard to MC especially because Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is the third most common species in freshwaters in France. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  15. Dimethadione embryotoxicity in the rat is neither correlated with maternal systemic drug concentrations nor embryonic tissue levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolinš, Terence R S; Weston, Andrea D; Perretta, Anthony; Thomson, Jason J; Brown, Nigel A

    2015-11-15

    Pregnant rats treated with dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, produce offspring having a 74% incidence of congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the incidence of CHD has high inter-litter variability (40-100%) that presents a challenge when studying the initiating events prior to the presentation of an abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that the variability in CHD incidence was the result of differences in maternal systemic concentrations or embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO. To test this hypothesis, dams were administered 300 mg/kg DMO every 12h from the evening of gestational day (GD) 8 until the morning of GD 11 (six total doses). Maternal serum levels of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 and 21. Embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO were assessed on GD 11, 12, 13 and 14. In a separate cohort of GD 12 embryos, DMO concentrations and parameters of growth and development were assessed to determine if tissue levels of DMO were correlated with these endpoints. Embryos were exposed directly to different concentrations of DMO with whole embryo culture (WEC) and their growth and development assessed. Key findings were that neither maternal systemic concentrations nor tissue concentrations of DMO identified embryos that were sensitive or resistant to DMO in vivo. Direct exposure of embryos to DMO via WEC also failed to show correlations between embryonic concentrations of DMO with developmental outcomes in vitro. We conclude that neither maternal serum nor embryonic tissue concentrations of DMO predict embryonic outcome.

  16. Effects of dietary selenium, sulphur and copper levels on selenium concentration in the serum and liver of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning.

  17. Effects of Dietary Selenium, Sulphur and Copper Levels on Selenium Concentration in the Serum and Liver of Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Correa, Lisia Bertonha; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; Salles, Márcia Saladini Vieira; Vilela, Flávio Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-two lambs were distributed in eight treatments under 2×2×2 factorial experiment to compare the effects of two levels of selenium (0.2 to 5 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), sulphur (0.25% and 0.37%) and copper (8 and 25 mg/kg DM) levels on selenium concentration in liver and serum of lambs. A liver biopsy was done on all animals and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein prior to the beginning of the treatments. The blood was sampled every thirty days and the liver was sampled after 90 days, at the slaughter. Increasing differences were noticed during the data collection period for the serum selenium concentration, and it was found to be 0.667 mg/L in animals fed with 5 mg Se/kg DM and normal sulphur and copper concentrations in their diet. However, a three-way interaction and a reduction of selenium concentration to 0.483 mg/L was verified when increasing copper and sulphur concentration levels to 25 ppm and 0.37% respectively. The liver selenium concentration was also high for diets containing higher selenium concentrations, but the antagonist effect with the increased copper and sulphur levels remained, due to interactions between these minerals. Therefore, for regions where selenium is scarce, increasing its concentration in animal diets can be an interesting option. For regions with higher levels of selenium, the antagonistic effect of interaction between these three minerals should be used by increasing copper and sulphur dietary concentrations, thus preventing possible selenium poisoning. PMID:25083101

  18. Determination of optimum sunlight concentration level in space for 3-4 cascade solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum range of concentration in space for III-V cascade cells has been calculated using a realistic solar cell diode equation. Temperature was varied with concentration using several models and ranged from 55 deg at one sun to between 80 deg and 200 deg C at 100 suns. A variety of series resistance and internal resistances were used. Coefficients of the diffusion and recombination terms are strongly temperature dependent. The study indicates that the maximum efficiency of 30 percent occurs in the 50 to 100 X sun concentration range provided series resistance is below 0.015 ohm sq cm and cell temperature is about 80 C at 100 suns.

  19. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Use of linear regression models to determine influence factors on the concentration levels of radon in occupied houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buermeyer, Jonas; Gundlach, Matthias; Grund, Anna-Lisa; Grimm, Volker; Spizyn, Alexander; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    This work is part of the analysis of the effects of constructional energy-saving measures to radon concentration levels in dwellings performed on behalf of the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. In parallel to radon measurements for five buildings, both meteorological data outside the buildings and the indoor climate factors were recorded. In order to access effects of inhabited buildings, the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured. For a statistical linear regression model, the data of one object was chosen as an example. Three dummy variables were extracted from the process of the CO2 concentration to provide information on the usage and ventilation of the room. The analysis revealed a highly autoregressive model for the radon concentration with additional influence by the natural environmental factors. The autoregression implies a strong dependency on a radon source since it reflects a backward dependency in time. At this point of the investigation, it cannot be determined whether the influence by outside factors affects the source of radon or the habitant’s ventilation behavior resulting in variation of the occurring concentration levels. In any case, the regression analysis might provide further information that would help to distinguish these effects. In the next step, the influence factors will be weighted according to their impact on the concentration levels. This might lead to a model that enables the prediction of radon concentration levels based on the measurement of CO2 in combination with environmental parameters, as well as the development of advices for ventilation.

  1. Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Aziz, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The analyses presented in this paper include the concentration levels of NO2 and O3 measured during 2 successive years in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan from November 2009 to March 2011. NO2 was determined using the passive sampling method, while ozone was determined by Model 400E ozone analyzer. The average NO2 and O3 concentration in twin cities of Pakistan was found to be 44 ± 6 and 18.2 ± 1.24 ppb, respectively. Results indicate that the concentration of NO2 and O3 show seasonal variations. Results also depict that NO2 and O3 concentration levels are high in areas of intense traffic flow and congestion. Rawalpindi has more elevated levels of NO2 and O3 as compared to the Islamabad due to the narrow roads, enclosing architecture of road network and congestion. Climatic variables also influenced the NO2 and O3 concentration, i.e., temperature is positively related with O3, while negatively related with NO2, relative humidity is directly related with NO2 and inversely related with O3, whereas rainfall show negative association with both NO2 and O3 concentration. Comparing the results with WHO standards reveals that NO2 concentration levels at all the sampling points are above the permissible limit, while ozone concentration is still lower than the WHO standards. Thus, there is a need to take appropriate steps to control these continuously increasing levels of NO2 and O3 before they become a serious hazard for the environment and people living in those areas.

  2. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration levels in urban environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Stathopoulou; G Mihalakakou; M Santamouris; H S Bagiorgas

    2008-06-01

    The influence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3)concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study.Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three experimental stations while ozone concentration values were measured at three of the above-mentioned stations and for a period of two years (1996 –1997).The linear correlation between ozone concentration and air temperature values as well as the temporal variation of temperature and ozone concentration,for the above-mentioned experimental stations, were calculated and analysed.Moreover,a neural network approach was used for investigating the impact of temperature on the ozone concentration values over the greater Athens area.The neural network model used ambient air temperature as one of its input parameters and it was found that temperature is a predominant parameter,affecting considerably the ozone concentration values.

  3. Comparative studies of indoor radon concentration levels in Jordan using CR-39 based bag and cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Matiullah; Khatibeh, A J

    1998-07-01

    Indoor radon concentration levels have been measured in 9 major cities of Jordan using CR(-3)9 detectors placed in punched polyethylene bags to measure both radon and thoron, and in cups to measure radon only. The average value of indoor radon and thoron concentration levels measured with bag dosimeters vary from 32 to 107 Bq m(-3) and the indoor radon concentration levels measured with cup dosimeters vary from 27 to 88 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration levels in Irbid and Zaraka are comparable to the world average of 27 Bq m(-3). In Ajloun, Jerash, Salt, Tafilah and Amman, the indoor radon levels are greater than the world average by a factor of up to 2, and in Madaba and Karak these levels are greater than the world average by a factor of more than 3. The large variation in the measured radon levels may be attributed to the large variation in the 226Ra activity in the soil of the region.

  4. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  5. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  6. Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2009-06-01

    Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

  7. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  8. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  9. Battle of France WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  10. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 Tuesday 8 June: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 9 June: 9 a.m. – 4 p.m. “FRANCE AT CERN” – INDUSTRIAL EXHIBITION Thirty-six French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to the activities of the CERN facility. Presenting their know-how in electric vehicles, PSA - PEUGEOT/CITROEN are sponsoring the event. Seminars will be hold in the Main Building’s conference rooms: R&D innovation strategy in Pôle Nucléaire Bourgogne (08/06/2010 – 13h) MU by Peugeot (08/06/2010 – 14h) Citroën (08/06/2010 – 15h) « Elément 14 » : a unique design engineer community for sharing Electronic Engineering Solutions (09/06/2010 – 11h) Individual B2B meetin...

  11. Xanthoria parietina as a monitor of ground-level ambient ammonia concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henrik Brinkmann; Berthelsen, Kasper; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months in a tra......Total nitrogen in transplanted and in situ lichen thalli of Xanthoria parietina were related to ambient ammonia air concentrations measured with passive ALPHA (Adapted Low-cost Passive High Absorption) diffusion samplers in Denmark. Transplants and ALPHA samplers were exposed four months...

  12. Forecasting model of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels using spatiotemporal correlation properties of pollen count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, Alfred; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Puc, Małgorzata; Grewling, Łukasz; Pędziszewska, Anna; Uruska, Agnieszka; Myszkowska, Dorota; Chłopek, Kazimiera; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites. These results can be used for building (1) simpler models, which require data only from aerobiological monitoring sites, and (2) combined meteorological and aerobiological models for predicting high levels of pollen concentration.

  13. Quality of Plain Set Yoghurt as affected by Levels of Ultrafiltration Concentration of Milk and Inoculum of Yoghurt Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narayana Mudiyanselage Nayana Kumari Narayana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of plain set yoghurt was investigated by varying levels of ultrafiltration concentration of cow skim milk (1-without ultrafiltration, 1.5 and 2 folds and inoculum (2, 2.5 and 3% of yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus 1:1. Titratable acidity development and pH reduction were significantly faster during incubation of yoghurt with increasing ultrafiltration concentration level and inoculum level. Increased ultrafiltration concentration level decreased spontaneous whey syneresis, but increased water holding capacity and firmness of the product significantly. Body & texture and overall acceptability scores were significantly better in yoghurts prepared from 1.5 fold concentrated milk irrespective of the inoculum level studied. Inoculum level did not show any significant effect on the quality of yoghurt, but higher inoculum level decreased the incubation period significantly. Optimized product was obtained with 1.5 fold concentrated skim milk standardized to 3.3% fat and incubated with 2% inoculum level in about five and a half hour of incubation. Optimized product had 13.60±0.02% total solids, 3.31±0.01% fat, 5.27±0.04% protein, 4.20±0.03% lactose and 0.82±0.02% ash. Whey syneresis, water holding capacity and firmness in optimized product were nil, 63.49% and 1.89 N, respectively. Thus, high quality plain yoghurt could be prepared by employing ultrafiltration, without addition of stabilizers, which is otherwise widely used commercially for the manufacture of yoghurt to control its wheying off and body.

  14. Meta-analysis reveals threshold level of rapidly fermentable dietary concentrate that triggers systemic inflammation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ametaj, B N

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the extent by which changes in the concentrate level and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content in the diet as well as the severity of acidotic insult, measured as the duration time of rumen pH below 6.0 and daily mean rumen pH, and the concentration of endotoxin in the rumen fluid are involved in the development of inflammatory conditions in cattle. A meta-analytical approach accounting for inter- and intraexperimental variation was used to generate prediction models, and data from recent studies were used to parameterize these models. A total of 10 recently conducted experiments with 43 different dietary treatments fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in this study. Diets of all of the experiments included in this meta-analysis were based on rapidly degradable grain sources, such as barley and wheat, and the findings of this study apply only to these kinds of diets. Data indicated that greater levels of concentrate in the diet were associated with increased concentrations of rumen endotoxin (R(2)=0.27), plasma haptoglobin (R(2)=0.19), and serum amyloid A (SAA) level (R(2)=0.46). Similar correlations, but in opposite directions, were observed between dietary NDF content and rumen endotoxin (R(2)=0.39) and plasma SAA concentrations (R(2)=0.22). The meta-analysis revealed that the relationships between those variables were not linear. Additionally, the breakpoint model fitted to the data of rumen endotoxin, plasma haptoglobin, and SAA indicated the presence of a threshold level of dietary concentrate and NDF, above which those responses became linear to increasing amounts of concentrate or decreasing contents of NDF in the diet. Also, feeding cattle more than 44.1% concentrate or less than 39.2% NDF in the diet was associated with a linear increase in the risk of systemic inflammation. Low daily mean rumen pH (R(2)=0.38) and duration of rumen pH inflammation. Accordingly, only 15 to 21% of the overall variation in the responses of SAA was

  15. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. K. Hansen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14 ng m−3, accounting for 7 (±2% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3 ng m−3 (accounting for 1 (±1% of total organic matter observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4 ng m−3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6% of total organic matter in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1 ng m−3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4% of total organic matter during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  16. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  17. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan GholamReza; Moghbel Masumeh; Grab Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels...

  18. Urban background levels of particle number concentration and sources in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; Plauškaitė, Kristina; Dudoitis, Vadimas; Ulevicius, Vidmantas

    2014-06-01

    This study presents results of research on urban aerosol particles with a focus on the aerosol particle number concentration (PNC) and the particle size distribution. The real time measurements of aerosol PNC (> 4.5 nm) and number size distributions (9-840 nm) were performed. The seasonal variations essentially comprised the minimum monthly mean in October 2010 (3400 ± 3000 cm- 3) and the maximum in April 2011 (19,000 ± 15,000 cm- 3). The mean annual PNC was 10,000 ± 8000 cm- 3 with an average mode size of 30-50 nm. The presence of strong diurnal patterns in aerosol PNC was evident as a direct effect of three sources of aerosol particles (nucleation, traffic, and residential heating). Hybrid receptor modeling potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were used by incorporating 72-h backward trajectories and measurements of PNC in Vilnius. The results of trajectory clustering and the PSCF method demonstrated that possible additional source areas contributing to the elevated particle number concentration in Vilnius could be industrial areas in central Europe. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed highest loadings for PNC, PM10, NOx, NO, NO2 and SO2 concentrations, indicating combustion processes occurring in vehicle engines and use of sulfur-containing fossil fuels for residential heating.

  19. Measurements of radon concentration levels in thermal waters in the region of Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Fatih; Eren, Nuretdin

    2013-01-01

    (222)Rn (radon) is one of the most important sources of natural radiation to which people are exposed. It is an alpha-emitting noble gas and it can be found in various concentrations in soil, air and in different kinds of water. In this study, we present the results of radon concentration measurements in thermal waters taken from the sources in the region of Konya located in the central part of Turkey. The radon activity concentrations in 10 thermal water samples were measured by using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser in spring and summer of the year 2012. We found that radon activity concentrations range from 0.60±0.11 to 70.34±3.55 kBq m(-3) and from 0.67±0.03 to 36.53±4.68 kBq m(-3) in spring and summer, respectively. We also calculated effective doses per treatment in the spas for the spring and summer seasons. It was found that the minimum and maximum effective doses per treatment are in the range of 0.09-10.13 nSv in spring and in the range of 0.1-5.26 nSv in summer.

  20. A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

  1. Serum creatinine concentration at the onset of uremia: higher levels in black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Shemin, D; Chazan, J A

    1992-06-01

    We compared serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations, estimated creatinine clearances and frequency of uremic symptoms at the start of chronic hemodialysis in all 20 black and 179 white males treated between 1969 and 1983. Serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in black males (16.5 +/- 5.9 mg/dl) than in white males (11.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl; p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in blood urea nitrogen concentration, estimated creatinine clearance and frequency of uremic symptoms between the two groups. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratios were lower in black males, (7.3 +/- 1.9) than in white males (11.4 +/- 3.8; p = 0.0001), and only one black male had a ratio greater than 10 compared to 60% of whites. We concluded that black males tend to have higher serum creatinine concentrations than white males at the onset of uremic symptoms, and that higher striated muscle creatinine production in black males and not lower renal function may be the cause.

  2. Concentration level and geographical distribution of nitrobenzene in Chinese surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jijun; LIU Linghua; LIU Xiaoru; ZHOU Huaidong; WANG Zijian; HUANG Shengbiao

    2008-01-01

    Nitrobenzene was reported to occur at relatively high concentrations in some Chinese surface water and to cause an environmental pollution event in 2005. In order to map the distribution of nitrobenzene in the Chinese surface water throughout China, surface water samples were collected from over 600 sites in the 7 major watersheds and three drainage areas. The samples were analyzed for concentration of nitrobenzene. Overall, nitrobenzene was more frequently detected at higher concentrations in the rivers of North China, including Songhuajiang River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River and Northwest drainage area rivers, compared with those in the rivers of South China, including Yangtze river, Pearl river, Southeast drainage area rivers and Southwest drainage rivers. The detection rate of nitrobenzene was the 83.2 % for all the samples, with a mean value of 18.1 ng/L and a range of < 0.3-8,450.0 ng/L. The highest mean concentration of nitrobenzene was observed in the Yellow River, followed by Huaihe River . The results of this investigation indicated that nitrobenzene should be of particular concern in China and its ecological and health risk should be assessed.

  3. Analysis of halogenated and priority pesticides at different concentration levels. Automated SPE extraction followed by isotope dilution-GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas, C.; Saulo, J.; Rivera, J.; Caixach, J. [Institut Investigacions Quimiques i Ambientals (IIQAB-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In this work, automatic SPE extraction of 16 pesticides and metabolites with the automated Power-Prep trademark system is evaluated at different concentration levels using polymeric (ENV+) and C{sub 18} sorbent phases. The method was optimised by comparing recoveries obtained using different eluting solvents. The optimised procedure was then applied to spiked water samples at concentration levels of 0.1{mu}g/L (quality standard for individual pesticides in drinking water) and 0.02{mu}g/L (close to the detection limit of most pesticides).

  4. Une expérience singulière A Singular Experience. The Process of Reconversion of High Level Athletes in France, in Fencing and Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Javerlhiac

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Le sport est interrogé, ici, dans sa dimension probablement la plus valorisée par les médias : la reconversion des sportifs de haut niveau (SHN. Généralement, le discours est apologétique et vante la reconversion réussie des SHN les plus connus. Mais derrière les résultats glorieux et la médiatisation, se cache une face plus sombre : la précarisation d’anciens athlètes qui reste un sujet tabou. Les exemples ne manquent pourtant pas et prennent à revers bien des idées reçues sur la réussite sociale des SHN. La question de “l’après sport” s’avère pourtant souvent cruciale et difficile pour les athlètes des sports non professionnels ou moins médiatisés ou, tout simplement, pour ceux qui n’avaient rien prévu et qui ont dû stopper leur carrière de manière inopinée à la suite d’une blessure par exemple. La disqualification sociale (Paugam, 1991 est d’autant plus douloureuse à vivre que ce processus de marginalisation marque la fin d’un statut d’exception et s’accompagne de la construction d’une identité négative lorsque l’athlète éprouve des difficultés à s’insérer professionnellement. Le sport de haut niveau, qu’il soit professionnel ou non, médiatisé ou non, en raison tout à la fois de l’entre soi qui le caractérise et de l’attention qui est portée à ceux qui réussissent, ne prépare pas à résister au stigmate et la dimension ternaire de l’identité (Heinich, 1999 trouve ici un exemple “négativement” parfait.Sport is in question here, probably in its dimension most valued by the media : the reconversion of high level athletes (HLA. Generally, the speech is laudatory and praises the successful reconversion of the most famous HLA. But behind the glorious results and the media coverage lurks a darker side : the precarious situation of former athletes, which remains a taboo subject. Yet examples are not lacking and readily upset a good many commonly held notions on

  5. Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

  6. Inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice from Fukushima Prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-03-03

    We summarize the inspections of radiocesium concentration levels in rice produced in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, for 3 years from the nuclear accident in 2011. In 2011, three types of verifications, preliminary survey, main inspection, and emergency survey, revealed that rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 500 Bq/kg (the provisional regulation level until March 2012 in Japan) was identified in the areas north and west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The internal exposure of an average adult eating rice grown in the area north of the nuclear plant was estimated as 0.05 mSv/year. In 2012, Fukushima Prefecture authorities decided to investigate the radiocesium concentration levels in all rice using custom-made belt conveyor testers. Notably, rice with radiocesium concentration levels over 100 Bq/kg (the new standard since April 2012 in Japan) were detected in only 71 and 28 bags out of the total 10,338,000 in 2012 and 11,001,000 in 2013, respectively. We considered that there were almost no rice exceeding 100 Bq/kg produced in Fukushima Prefecture after 3 years from the nuclear accident, and the safety of Fukushima's rice were ensured because of the investigation of all rice.

  7. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

  8. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

  9. A framework and a set of tools called Nutting models to estimate retention capacities and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in rivers at catchment and national level (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2016-04-01

    The Nutting-N and Nutting-P models (Dupas et al., 2013, 2015) have been developed to estimate Nitrogen and Phosphorus nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data. These models were inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen and phosphorus surplus to catchment's land and rivers characteristics to find the catchment relative retention capacities. The nutrient load (L) at the outlet of each catchment is expressed as: L=R*(B*DS+PS) [1] where DS is diffuse sources (i.e. surplus in kg.ha-1/yr-1 for N, P storage in soil for P), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kg.ha-1.yr-1), R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively and they combine observed variables and calibrated parameters. The model was calibrated on independent catchments for the 2005-2009 and 2008-2012 periods. Variables were selected according to Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in order to optimize the predictive performance of the models. From these basic models, different improvements have been realized to build a framework and a set of tools: 1) a routing module has been added in order to improve estimations on 4 or 5 stream order, i.e. upscaling the basic Nutting approach; 2) a territorial module, in order to test the models at local scale (from 500 to 5000 km²); 3) a seasonal estimation has been investigated. The basic approach as well territorial application will be illustrated. These tools allow water manager to identify areas at risk where high nutrients loads are estimated, as well areas where retention is potentially high and can buffer high nutrient sources. References Dupas R., Curie F., Gascuel-Odoux C., Moatar F., Delmas M., Parnaudeau, V., Durand P., 2013. Assessing N emissions in surface water at the national level: Comparison of country-wide vs. regionalized models. Science of the Total Environment

  10. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  11. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  12. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  13. The Future of the CEMAC CFA Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Agbor Agbor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 currency boards have come into existence at some point since the mid-19th century, but to date only about 15 of them still exist, among which is the CFA franc monetary zone. The future sustainability of the CFA franc zone, to which the CEMAC CFA franc belongs, is increasingly questioned in the light of increasing asymmetries in exposure to external shocks, differential speeds of adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks, differential impacts in economic fundamentals, and low levels of intra-regional trade and financial flows between CEMAC and WAEMU. For the CEMAC bloc of countries in particular, the future sustainability of the fixed exchange regime depends crucially on continued oil exports, which currently represent about 90percent of export revenues and 40 percent of GDP. Should oil reserves deplete in the near future or oil prices decline significantly, a substantial source of foreign reserves would be lost, thereby exposing the regime to collapse. Even without resource depletion, continued volatility in global financial markets is increasing the risks of collapse of the fixed exchange regime as oil and commodity price swings ignite currency speculation as well as render reserves much more volatile. Against this backdrop, the present study examines the stakes facing the CEMAC CFA franc, discusses the exit options from the currency board and makes recommendations towards a sustainable monetary policy framework for CEMAC countries going forward. The analysis points to the imperative of pursuing a full monetary union with a single CEMAC franc pegged to the U.S. dollar and further suggest that, like the experience of the eurozone, the CEMAC monetary arrangement can be best implemented only by complying with the principle of political union.

  14. Carcass composition of lambs finished with diets containing in natura or disabled soybean grain and two concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Castro Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the composition of carcass cuts and tissue of lambs shoulder and leg finished in feedlot receiving diets containing whole or disabled soybean grain with two concentrate levels (50% and 80% of DM. There were used 20 crossbreed entire male lambs, 120 days of age and initial body weight of 22.6 ± 2.06 kg. A completely randomized design was used, allocated in a factorial arrangement 2x2 (levels concentrate and processing of soybean grain. The slaughter criterion was body condition between 3 and 3.5. The weight of sirloin cut was superior with 80% of concentrate. In the shoulder tissue composition, the level of 50% concentrate increased the ratio of subcutaneous fat. In natura soybean provided higher values for weight and ratio of subcutaneous and total fat. For the leg tissue composition, the grain of disabled soybean showed higher muscle yield and muscle:bone ratio. Diets with 80% of concentrate, regardless of processing soybean grain, improved commercial yield and the diets containing disabled soybean more edible portion.

  15. Glucose concentration alters dissolved oxygen levels in liquid cultures of Beauveria bassiana and affects formation and bioefficacy of blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Kobori, Nilce Naomi; Behle, Robert W; Dunlap, Christopher A; Delalibera Júnior, Ítalo

    2015-08-01

    The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is an economically important pathogen of numerous arthropod pests and is able to grow in submerged culture as filaments (mycelia) or as budding yeast-like blastospores. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen and high glucose concentrations on blastospore production by submerged cultures of two isolates of B. bassiana, ESALQ1432 and GHA. Results showed that maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen levels coupled with high glucose concentrations enhanced blastospore yields by both isolates. High glucose concentrations increased the osmotic pressure of the media and coincided with higher dissolved oxygen levels and increased production of significantly smaller blastospores compared with blastospores produced in media with lower concentrations of glucose. The desiccation tolerance of blastospores dried to less than 2.6 % moisture was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium but was isolate dependent. Blastospores of isolate ESALQ1432 produced in media containing 140 g glucose L(-1) showed greater virulence toward whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) as compared with blastospores produced in media containing 40 g glucose L(-1). These results suggest a synergistic effect between glucose concentration and oxygen availability on changing morphology and enhancing the yield and efficacy of blastospores of B. bassiana, thereby facilitating the development of a cost-effective production method for this blastospore-based bioinsecticide.

  16. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  17. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  18. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C.-L. Jullien-Woringer/SPL-DI

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A. Cedrat Recher...

  19. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  20. FRANCE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From 19 to 22 June 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Thirty-one companies will present their latest technology at the 'France at CERN' exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technology, superconductivity, measurement, detection, regulation, control and testing, electrical and electronic equipment, mechanics. The exhibition is organised by the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures which will be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Air Liquide Air Liquide Alcatel Vacuum Technology Alstom Industrie S.A. Alstom Magnets & Superconductors/Jeumont Industrie ATI Electronique Atos S.A. Axon' Cable S.A...

  1. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide 14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique 15 Photonis 3 ATIM 16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS 17 Quantel 5 AXON 18 Ra...

  2. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 23 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. There follows : - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. A web page is available under the following link: http://www.lafranceaucern.com LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Qu...

  3. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 22 to 25 September 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. The French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, computer data processing, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and civil engineering. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad. Please find below: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : - your Divisional secretariat, - the reception information desk, Building 33, - the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS 1 Air Liquide14 Nicomatic 2 ATI Electronique15 Photonis 3 ATIM16 Positronic industries SAS 4 ATOS17 Quantel 5 AXON18 Radiospares 6 Cedrat Technologies19 Rexor 7 CIAT20 SDS Service &...

  4. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTO...

  5. France at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 04 to 06 october 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:00 - 17:30   Thirty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "France at CERN" exhibition. French industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, various supplies, civil engineering and buildings, and vacuum and low temperature technology. The exhibition is organised by UBIFRANCE, the French Committee for Trade Events Abroad.  You will find below : the list of exhibitors.   A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departmental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition itself.   A detailed list of the firms involved is already available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm     LIST OF EXHIBITORS AIR LIQUIDE DTA ALSTOM...

  6. Concentrations and determinants of organochlorine levels among pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Ballester, Ferran, E-mail: ballester_fer@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Nursing School, University of Valencia, Jaume Roig, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Vizcaino, Esther, E-mail: esther.vizcaino@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario, E-mail: murcia_mar@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose, E-mail: Maria-Jose.Lopez@lshtm.ac.uk [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, WC1H 9SH, London (United Kingdom); Rebagliato, Marisa, E-mail: rebagli@umh.es [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Vioque, Jesus, E-mail: vioque@umh.es [Public Health Department, Miguel Hernandez University, Crta. Nacional 332, 03550 Sant Joan, Alicante (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Alfredo, E-mail: marco_alf@gva.es [Hospital Universitari La Fe, Av. Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Grimalt, Joan O., E-mail: jgoqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) comprise a large variety of toxic substances with ample distribution. While exposure to these toxins occurs mainly through diet, maternal POP levels may be influenced by certain sociodemographic, environmental, or lifestyle factors. This is important given that these substances may have adverse effects on fetal development. The aim of this study is to examine the sociodemographic, environmental, lifestyle, and dietary determinants of the levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), b-hexachlorocyclohexane (b-HCH), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (4,4'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 180) measured in the blood of pregnant women participating in a mother-child cohort study conducted in Valencia (Spain). The study population consisted of 541 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA (Childhood and the Environment) cohort (2004-2006). POP levels were determined in blood taken during the 12th week of pregnancy with the aid of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary information was obtained from a questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit regression models were constructed in order to assess the association between POP levels and selected covariates. The results showed that all the women had detectable levels of at least one of these compounds while in 43% of the subjects, all eight compounds were detected. The compounds found in the greatest number of women were 4,4'-DDE (100%) and PCBs 153 and 180 (95%). The most important determinants of high POP levels were the mother's age, country of origin, increased body mass index, and number of weeks of breastfeeding after previous pregnancies. With regard to diet, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE levels increased with the intake of meat, fruit, and cereal. PCB 153 levels increased with the intake of seafood. The levels of HCB, b

  7. On concentration footprints for a tall tower in the presence of a nocturnal low-level jet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    of air parcel transport in a non-steady-state atmospheric boundary layer above a bare surface and a forest under different insolation suggest that sources located as far as several hundred kms away contribute to a concentration measurement made at levels as high as 500 m. The origin of the maximal...

  8. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan GholamReza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  9. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  10. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  11. Fortieth Anniversary of Diplomatic Ties Between China and France Marked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>On January 16, 2004 the CPAFFC held a reception to mark the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and France. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and French Ambassador to China Jean-Pierre Lafon spoke on the occasion.In his speech CPAFFC President Chen Haosu said, forty years ago, Chairman Mao Zedong and General Charles de Gaulle with their great foresight decided to establish the diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level between China and France,

  12. The Analysis of the Correlation between the Degree of Market Concentration and the Level of Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Cristina Curea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The common aim of legislation in the field of competition and consumer protection is to ensure the consumers’ sovereignty and well-being. Based on the analysis of literature in this field we have established, as the main focus of our research, a study of the correlation between the degree of market concentration and the level of consumer protection. By using regression analysis applied to data collected from two sectors of activity, respectively the compulsory civil liability insurance for car owners and mobile telecommunications, we have shown that there is a direct correlation, meaning that a high degree of market concentration – which indicates a low competition level, leads to a decrease in the level of consumer protection.

  13. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  14. Measured and modelled tritium concentrations in freshwater Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata) exposed to an abrupt increase in ambient tritium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, T L; Kim, S B; Baumgärtner, F; Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Miyamoto, K; Saito, M; Siclet, F; Davis, P

    2011-01-01

    To improve understanding of environmental tritium behaviour, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) included a Tritium and C-14 Working Group (WG) in its EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program. One scenario considered by the WG involved the prediction of time-dependent tritium concentrations in freshwater mussels that were subjected to an abrupt increase in ambient tritium levels. The experimental data used in the scenario were obtained from a study in which freshwater Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata) were transplanted from an area with background tritium concentrations to a small Canadian Shield lake that contains elevated tritium. The mussels were then sampled over 88 days, and concentrations of free-water tritium (HTO) and organically-bound tritium (OBT) were measured in the soft tissues to follow the build-up of tritium in the mussels over time. The HTO concentration in the mussels reached steady state with the concentration in lake water within one or two hours. Most models predicted a longer time (up to a few days) to equilibrium. All models under-predicted the OBT concentration in the mussels one hour after transplantation, but over-predicted the rate of OBT formation over the next 24h. Subsequent dynamics were not well modelled, although all participants predicted OBT concentrations that were within a factor of three of the observation at the end of the study period. The concentration at the final time point was over-predicted by all but one of the models. The relatively low observed concentration at this time was likely due to the loss of OBT by mussels during reproduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  16. Calculation of Minimum-Detectable-Concentration Levels of Radioxenon Isotopes Using the PNNL ARSA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Reeder, Paul L.

    2006-03-11

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The automated Radio-xenon Analyzer/Sampler (ARSA), built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, can detect 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe via a beta-gamma counting system. Due to the variable background and sources of these four radio-xenon isotopes, it is important to have as sensitive a detection system as possible and to quantify the Minimum-Detectable-Concentrations (MDC) that such a system will be able to detect to preclude false negative and false positive results. From data obtained from IAR in Germany MDC values for 133Xe were well below the 1 mBq/SCMA as required by the PTS for the Comprehensive Test BAn Treaty [WGB TL-11,1999].

  17. Gaz de France annual report 2001; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    One of Europe's leading gas utilities, the Gaz de France Group operates in all sectors of the natural gas industry, from exploration and production to energy distribution and services, to respond to customer demand efficiently and achieve sustained and profitable growth. To this end, the Group is organized in five lines of business: exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution and services. Active in 33 countries, the Gaz de France Group first targets growth in Europe, its natural environment. The opening of energy markets and its position at the center of Europe's gas grids offers the Group many opportunities in trading, transmission for third parties, distribution and services. Since August 10, 2000, Gaz de France has made it possible for other gas operators to access its transmission system. The Group capitalizes on its expertise at the global level as well, in emerging markets like Mexico and in fields in which it has recognized know-how, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). To ensure this growth and pursue its penetration of European and world markets, the Gaz de France Group implements a policy of cooperation and partnership with other energy sector operators, demonstrates its well-developed ability to innovate and practices a customer-focused organization that offers competitive, tailored services to residential users, companies and local governments. The Group has chosen to pursue this growth through a strategy of sustainable development. By making natural gas more accessible and promoting its uses, Gaz de France integrates demand-side management of energy, fosters human development and ensures environmental protection in France, Europe and the world. This activity report presents: the corporate profile of the group, the international natural gas businesses, the financial highlights, the growth objectives of the group in all its businesses (exploration and production, supply and trading, transmission, distribution

  18. Effect of CO/sub 2/ concentration and light levels on growth, flowering and photosynthesis of Begonia x hiemalis Fotsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L.M.; Ulsaker, R.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing the CO/sub 2/ concentration from 330 to 900 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ significantly increased the dry weight, number of leaves and flowers and reduced the time until flowering at a range of light levels (45, 130, 270 and 390 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). The mean relative growth rate was enhanced 16% by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. The plants flowered 7 days earlier in CO/sub 2/-enriched air at the lowest light level, but not earlier at the highest level. Generally the effect of increasing the CO/sub 2/ concentration from 900 to 1500 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ was negligible. Increasing the irradiance from 45 to 270 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ significantly increased plant growth and number of flowers, and reduced the time until flowering. Net photosynthetic rate measured by net CO/sub 2/ uptake of the plants was increased by increasing the CO/sub 2/ concentration from 330 to 1500-2000 ..mu..l l/sup -1/ 45, 120 and 195 ..mu..mol m/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ photon flux density. The effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment was similar at different air temperatures (16, 20, 24 and 28/sup 0/C). Oxygen inhibition of photosynthesis increased with temperature, but was substantially reduced by elevated CO/sub 2/ concentrations. 18 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Aldehyde measurements in indoor environments in Strasbourg (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Bulliot, B.; Le Calvé, S.; Mirabel, Ph.

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations have been measured in indoor environments of various public spaces (railway station, airport, shopping center, libraries, underground parking garage, etc.) of Strasbourg area (east of France). In addition, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde propionaldehyde and hexanal concentrations have been measured in 22 private homes in the same area. In most of the sampling sites, indoor and outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured simultaneously. Gaseous aldehydes levels were quantified by a conventional DNHP-derivatization method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection. Outdoor formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were both in the range 1-10 μg m -3, the highest values being measured at the airport and railway station. Indoor concentrations were strongly dependant upon the sampling sites. In homes, the average concentrations were 37 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 46 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for formaldehyde, 15 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 18 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for acetaldehyde, 1.2 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 1.6 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for propionaldehyde, 9 μg m -3 (living rooms) and 10 μg m -3 (bedrooms) for hexanal. However, concentrations as high as 123, 80 and 47 μg m -3 have been found for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexanal respectively. In public spaces, the highest formaldehyde concentration (62 μg m -3) was found in a library and the highest concentration of acetaldehyde (26 μg m -3) in the hall of a shopping center. Additional measurements of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were made inside a car both at rest or in a fluid or heavy traffic as well as in a room where cigarettes were smoked. Our data have been discussed and compared with those of previous studies.

  20. Optimizing the level of branch concentration with marginal values of Herfindahl-Hirschman index

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sukhoteplyy

    2010-01-01

    Striving of Ukraine for the European Union assumes, among other things, the sound understanding of the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) methodology in defining the level of the competition in an industry. Modeling of an industry structure using predefined values of HHI and the concept of the Index of Competitive Potential of Industry (ICPI) has shown that the traditional use of the HHI criterion with-out the explicit consideration of the number of firms in an industry can results in ambiguous...

  1. France and Norway. The unfulfilled Troll agreement; Frankrike og Norge. Den uoppfylte Trollavtalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Samuel

    1997-12-31

    The present reports starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country and France as an importing country. It describes the relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and then goes on to describe the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations. The main aim of the report is to discover whether France`s requests of 1986 have actually been realised. In order to do this, it first analyses the position occupied by French petroleum companies in Norwegian offshore sectors and secondly seeks to account for the evolution of trade exchanges between France and Norway. It will be seen that new investments in the production fields and in transportation systems have been realised most of the time by Norwegian firms as from 1986 and that France`s trade deficit towards Norway has not levelled off as from the time of the Troll deal. 18 figs., 40 tabs., 24 refs

  2. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan; Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione(GSH) and oxidized glutathione(GSSG),the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the p H of 4.1.Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups(P = 0.373; P = 0.538; and P = 0.615, respectively, independent ttest). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients(P = 0.000, Mann Whitney U test).Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range,there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  3. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Erma Sulistyaningsih; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the pH of 4.1. Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups (P=0.373;P=0.538;and P=0.615, respectively, independent t-test). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients (P=0.000, Mann Whitney U test). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated ma-laria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  4. Sensitive Detection and Identification of Isovanillin Aerosol Particles at the pg/cm3 Mass Concentration Level using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-24

    Particles at the pg/cm3 Mass Concentration Level Using Raman Spectroscopy* R. L. Aggarwal1, S. Di Cecca, L. W. Farrar, Shabshelowitz, A...and identification of isovanillin (C8H8O3, CAS No. 621‐59‐0; Molecular mass 152.15; Density 1.41) aerosol particles of mass concentration MC of 1.8...optical particle sizer. (iv) Aerosol flow cell, fabricated by the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), with two

  5. Estimating the concentration of gold nanoparticles incorporated on natural rubber membranes using multi-level starlet optimal segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A. F. de, E-mail: siqueiraaf@gmail.com; Cabrera, F. C., E-mail: flavioccabrera@yahoo.com.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil); Pagamisse, A., E-mail: aylton@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Matemática e Computação (Brazil); Job, A. E., E-mail: job@fct.unesp.br [UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Dep de Física, Química e Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This study consolidates multi-level starlet segmentation (MLSS) and multi-level starlet optimal segmentation (MLSOS) techniques for photomicrograph segmentation, based on starlet wavelet detail levels to separate areas of interest in an input image. Several segmentation levels can be obtained using MLSS; after that, Matthews correlation coefficient is used to choose an optimal segmentation level, giving rise to MLSOS. In this paper, MLSOS is employed to estimate the concentration of gold nanoparticles with diameter around 47  nm, reduced on natural rubber membranes. These samples were used for the construction of SERS/SERRS substrates and in the study of the influence of natural rubber membranes with incorporated gold nanoparticles on the physiology of Leishmania braziliensis. Precision, recall, and accuracy are used to evaluate the segmentation performance, and MLSOS presents an accuracy greater than 88 % for this application.

  6. Impact of circulating cholesterol levels on growth and intratumoral androgen concentration of prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe A Mostaghel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC. Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R = 0.3957, p = 0.0049 and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R = 0.41, p = 0.0023 in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R = 0.4073, p = 0.025 Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the

  7. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quednow, Kristin [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: quednow@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Puettmann, Wilhelm [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from <20 ng/l to 1927 ng/l, <10 ng/l to 770 ng/l, and <10 ng/l to 420 ng/l for BPA, 4-tert-OP and tech.-4-NP, respectively. BPA levels were, with the exception of two samples, below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for water organisms. Tech.-4-NP concentrations showed a significant tendency of decreasing concentrations during the sampling period. This is mainly attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 2003/53/EG, which restricts both the marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water. - Concentrations of 4-nonylphenols in rivers of Hessisches Ried in Germany decreased in the sampling period from September 2003 to September 2005.

  8. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Concentration levels and source apportionment of ultrafine particles in road microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.; Kouras, A.; Manoli, E.; Voliotis, A.; Tsakis, A.; Chasapidis, L.; Konstandopoulos, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2016-03-01

    A mobile laboratory unit (MOBILAB) with on-board instrumentation (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS; Ambient NOx analyzer) was used to measure size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) of quasi-ultrafine particles (UFPs, 9-372 nm), along with NOx, in road microenvironments. On-road measurements were carried out in and around a large Greek urban agglomeration, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area (TMA). Two 2-week measurement campaigns were conducted during the warm period of 2011 and the cold period of 2012. During each sampling campaign, MOBILAB was driven through a 5-day inner-city route and a second 5-day external route covering in total a wide range of districts (urban, urban background, industrial and residential), and road types (major and minor urban roads, freeways, arterial and interurban roads). All routes were conducted during working days, in morning and in afternoon hours under real-world traffic conditions. Spatial classification of MOBILAB measurements involved the assignment of measurement points to location bins defined by the aspect ratio of adjacent urban street canyons (USCs). Source apportionment was further carried out, by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to particle size distribution data. Apportioned PMF factors were interpreted, by employing a two-step methodology, which involved (a) statistical association of PMF factor contributions with 12 h air-mass back-trajectories ending at the TMA during MOBILAB measurements, and (b) Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) using PMF factor contributions as the dependent variables, while relative humidity, solar radiation flux, and vehicle speed were used as the independent variables. The applied data analysis showed that low-speed cruise and high-load engine operation modes are the two dominant sources of UFPs in most of the road microenvironments in the TMA, with significant contributions from background photochemical processes during the warm period, explaining the reversed

  10. [Nurse anesthetist in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ju; Yann, Douchy; De Almeida, Sylvie; Deckert, Christine; Gauss, Tobias; Bonneville, Claire Tae; Merckx, Paul; Mantz, Jean

    2006-12-01

    We present the system of nurse anesthetist (Infirmier Anesthésiste Diplômé d'Etat: IADE) in France to the community of Japanese anesthesiologists. This French system with 70 years' history is older than the Japan Society of Anesthesiologists itself. There are 7000 nurse anesthetists in France now and the number of nurse anesthetists increases by 450-500 each year. Training to become a nurse anesthetist requires at least two years' experience as a general nurse and the general nurse must pass an examination after two years' special training in an anesthetistic nurse school to acquire the national certification. The nurse anesthetist's profession is regulated by French law. They work in a team with certified anesthesiologists. They can perform many kinds of anesthetic tasks including tracheal intubation and insertion of arterial catheter under the responsibility and supervision of certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to perform spinal, epidural, conduction and local anesthesia, although they can maintain these anesthesia and control these methods, e.g., by injecting local anesthetic agents through epidural catheter, following a specified prescription. The nurse anesthetists are not allowed to insert central venous and pulmonary artery catheters, although they can manage them. They are allowed to administer inhalation anesthetic agents, and inject venous anesthetic agents, muscle relaxants, their antagonists, and opioids by their own initiatives, but the decision for the use of catecholamine and emergency drugs is reserved to certified anesthesiologists. The nurse anesthetists perform other tasks preparing and checking anesthetic agents and equipment such as anesthetic machine, monitor, and defibrillator everyday, and sometimes use autologous blood recovery systems. The relationship between the certified anesthesiologist and the nurse anesthetist is marked by mutual respect, confidence and cooperation at each step of the anesthetic

  11. The investigation of correlation between Iminoral concentration and neurotoxic levels after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tolou-Ghamari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurotoxicity side effects related to cyclosporine kinetics could lead to dysfunction of kidney graft and patient outcome after transplantation. The aim of this study was evidence-based pharmacotherapy of kidney transplant recipients and to investigate neurotoxic levels of Iminoral. Materials and Methods: The results of 2239 cyclosporine trough levels obtained from 743 patients were studied. Seventy-five adult kidney recipients who received Iminoral were studied for neurotoxicity symptoms. Demographic, clinical, hematology and biochemical data were recorded in d-base and analyzed using SPSS application for windows. Results: The mean value related to cyclosporine C 0 was 246.3 μg/l. In the 48% the signs of neurotoxicity such as tremor and headache were noted, but only in 9% the levels of cyclosporine C 0 were >400 μg/l. Further studies on 75 patients showed that the incidence of neurotoxic side effects were as follows: Tremor in 35, headache in 24 and anxiety in 34 recipients of kidney. The prescribed drug regimens from the day of transplant in most patients were based on mycophenolic acid or cellcept, pulse therapy using methylprednisolone (daily from kidney transplant up to 3 days after transplant, cyclosporine or Iminoral plus other drugs related to each individual. Administrations of ganciclovir, thymoglobulin, clotrimazol and prednisolone were also distinguished with immunosuppressant-based therapy simultaneously. Conclusion: Evidence-based study related to pharmacotherapy of Iminoral showed that clinical presentation related to neurotoxic side effects such as tremor, headache and anxiety might be due to many factors such as polypharmacy. Planning immunosuppression to individual patients based on programmed therapeutic Iminoral monitoring, avoiding polypharmacy in terms of removal or drug minimization and focusing on first week after transplant seem to be a realistic option.

  12. Serum retinol levels are positively correlated with hemoglobin concentrations, independent of iron homeostasis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba; Heidari, Gholamreza; Nabipour, Iraj; Amirinejad, Roya; Assadi, Majid; Bargahi, Afshar; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Sanjdideh, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Micronutrient interactions give rise to complex issues that have an impact on preventive strategies when multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of vitamins A and E and iron deficiencies among women 15 to 49 years of age in the northern Persian Gulf region. We hypothesized that serum retinol levels may show correlations with hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, independent of iron status. A total of 1242 nonpregnant women of reproductive age were selected via a multistage stratified random cluster sampling technique. Serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined for 727 women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of anemia (Hb retinol levels exhibit a significant association with Hb concentrations after controlling for serum ferritin levels, anemia associated with chronic disease, and risk factors for anemia. Therefore, most nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the northern Persian Gulf were found to have adequate serum vitamin A and E levels. However, the status of anemia and iron deficiency anemia could be considered a mild public health problem in this region. On the basis of multivariate analyses, we conclude that low serum retinol levels may contribute to anemia, independent of iron homeostasis.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of concentrated solar power plants in terms of levelized cost of electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Richard; Grange, Benjamin; Sgouridis, Sgouris; Guedez, Rafael; Armstrong, Peter; Slocum, Alexander; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) is an important metric which provides one way to compare the economic competitiveness of different electricity generation systems, calculated simply by dividing lifetime costs by lifetime production. Hidden behind the simplicity of this formula are various assumptions which may significantly alter results. Different LCOE studies exist in the literature, although their assumptions are rarely explicitly stated. This analysis gives all formulas and assumptions which allow for inter-study comparisons. The results of this analysis indicate that CSP LCOE is reducing markedly over time and that given the right location and market conditions, the SunShot 6¢/kWh 2020 target can be reached. Increased industrial cooperation is needed to advance the CSP market and continue to drive down LCOE. The results also indicate that there exist a country and technology level learning effect, either when installing an existing CSP technology in a new country or when using a new technology in an existing CSP country, which seems to impact market progress.

  14. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  15. Fiber optic fluorescence detection of low-level porphyrin concentrations in preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas S.; McGinnis, Carolyn; Khan, S.

    1990-07-01

    A significant clinical problem in the local treatment of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer (by any modality--surgery, radiation therapy or photodynainic therapy) is the fact that the disease almost always extends beyond the boundary of visible lesions in the form of microscopic deposits. These deposits may be distant from the site of visible disease but are often in close proximity to it and are manifested sooner or later by the development of recurrent lesions at the border of the treated area, thus the "marginal miss" in radiation therapy, the "rim recurrence" in photodynamic therapy, and the "incisional recurrence" following surgical excision. More intelligent use of these treatment modalities demands the ability to detect microscopic deposits of tumor cells using non-invasive methodology. In vivo fluorescence measurements have been made possible by the development of an extremely sensitive fiber optic in vivo fluorescence photometer. The instrument has been used to verify that fluorescence correlated with injected porphyrin levels in various tissues. The delivery of light to excite and detect background fluorescence as well as photosensitizer fluorescence in tissues has been accomplished using two HeNe lasers emitting at 632.8 nm and 612 nm delivered through a single quartz fiber optic. Chopping at different frequencies, contributions of fluorescence may be separated. Fluorescence is picked up via a 400 micron quartz fiber optic positioned appropriately near the target tissue. Validation of these levels was made by extraction of the drug from the tissues with resultant quantitation. Recently, an extensive study was undertaken to determine if fluorescence could be used for the detection of occult, clinically non-palpable metastases in the lymph node of rats. This unique model allowed for the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes using very low injected doses of the photosensitizer Photofrin II. Data obtained revealed the ability to detect on the order

  16. Defining an appropriate leucoreduction strategy by serial assessment of cytokine levels in platelet concentrates prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Different methods of platelet concentrate preparations leave behind certain number of residual leukocytes, accounting for most of the febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, especially in multitransfused patients. Various inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 are generated during storage and have been implicated for these adverse effects. We have studied the levels of these cytokines and their correlation with leucocyte contents in platelet concentrates prepared by three different methods. Study Design and Methods: Five pools of platelet rich plasma platelet concentrates (PRP-PC and buffy-coat platelet concentrates (BC-PC each were prepared and divided into two halves. One half of the pool was leucofiltered (LF, whereas the other half was stored as such. Ten apheresis units were also included in the study. All the platelet concentrates were assessed for leucocyte load and cytokine content (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α on different days of storage (0, 3, and 5 using Nageotte chamber and commercially available immunoassays respectively. Results: There was a statistically significant rise in cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in nonleucofiltered (NLF random donor platelet concentrates (RDPs (PRP-PC and BC-PC during storage (day 3 and 5 whereas LF RDP concentrates (PRP-PC and BC-PC and apheresis platelet concentrates (AP-PC did not show any significant rise in cytokine levels (on day 3 and 5 over the baseline values at day 0. Conclusion: This data suggests that although AP-PCs are superior to PRP-PC (NLF and BC-PC (NLF in terms of in vitro quality control parameters and cytokine generation during storage, BC-PC mode of platelet preparation followed by leucofiltration is the best method to store platelets and minimise the cytokine accumulation. This strategy is best suited for transfusion in multitransfused hematooncologic patients, who cannot afford

  17. Effect of levels of concentrate on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance of Thai Native Cow in mid-pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichurungsai, A.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of levels of concentrate supplementation on nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance of Thai native cows in mid-pregnancy was studied. Four mid-pregnant (4-6 months Thai native cows, 4-4.5 years old with average body weight (BW of 238±23 kg were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The cows were fed plicatulum hay ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate (13.74% crude protein, CP at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% of BW, respectively. The highest total dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and CP intake (80.28, 73.19 and 6.30 g/kgBW0.75/d, respectively was obtained for cows supplemented with con- centrate at 1% of BW and these values were linearly increased (P0.05 but these values were significantly different (P0.05 for digestion coefficients of crude fiber. Digestible CP and TDN intake for cows supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of BW (62.34 g/%BW/d and 1.06 kg/%BW/d, respectively and 1% of BW (86.91 g/%BW/d and 1.19 kg/%BW/d, respectively were optimal when compared with the digestible CP and TDN requirement of cows in mid pregnancy. Increasing levels of concentrate supplementation linearly (P<0.001 increased nitrogen balance of the cows and significant differences (P<0.05 were found among the levels of supplementation (0.00, 0.09, 0.22 and 0.33 g/kgBW0.75/d at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1% of BW, respectively. The highest metabolizable energy (ME intake was found for cows supplemented with concentrate at 1% of BW (3.74 Mcal/%BW/d and this value was linearly increased (P<0.01 as the levels of concentrate increased. The findings of this study suggested that Thai native cows in mid-pregnancy fed plicatulum hay as basal roughage obtained the optimal CP and energy when they were supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of BW.

  18. Income Tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  19. Income tax in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2008 You are reminded that each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that members of the personnel are thus exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. This memorandum is intended to provide members of the personnel residing in France with information on how salaries and emoluments paid by CERN should be indicated in the 2008 income declaration form. For any other income, they are invited to comply with the instructions attached to the form. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the FP Department, has been available since 1st March 2009 (see Bulletin No. 11-12/2009). It is int...

  20. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  1. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  2. Studying the Effect of Level of Cash Holding & Ownership Concentration on Corporate Value in Tehran Stocks & Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eyvazian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to study the effect of the level of cash holdings and concentration of ownership on the corporate value. The statistical society of the research is comprised of the companies which are accepted in Tehran Stocks & Exchange Market. The final sample includes 495 companies. The research is of applied type and also, executively, it is descriptive. The required information has been extracted and gathered through field and library methods. Testing the research hypotheses has been done using Pearson correlation test, multi-variable linear regression and Excel and SPSS20 software. Results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between the level of cash holdings and ownership concentration with the corporate value.

  3. Tour of France by foot

    CERN Multimedia

    Papini

    1982-01-01

    Monsieur Papini(nom juste?) et sa femme, tous les deux journalistes, découvrent avec leur 2 enfants, agés de 16 mois et 3 ans, ainsi qu'avec un âne, la vie nomade en parcourant la France pendant un an et demie à pied: comment être un nomade en France? Sa femme a écrit deux ouvrages concernant ce voyage.

  4. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angélica MARCIANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods: White Portland cement (WPC was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6. The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p0.05. For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05. The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05. Conclusions: The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated.

  5. Concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur and metals in fine-grained sediments in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ÅSTRÖM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available On the coastal plains of Finland, widespread Holocene marine and lacustrine sediments have developed into acid sulphate soil as a result of extensive artificial drainage for agricultural purposes. This has caused a variety of environmental problems. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration levels and spatial distribution of sulphur, carbon and metals [titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese (Mn, iron, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn] in these sediments, in order to increase the geochemical understanding of the parent materials from which acid sulphate soil develops. Sediment samples were collected at 317 sites from a depth of 1.5–3 m. While the sediments have high S (sulphide concentrations (median = 0.54% and thus a strong acidification potential, they carry transition metals mainly in smallsized silicates close to “background concentrations” far below contamination limits. The previously documented extensive release of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn from oxidised and acidified layers of these sediments (i.e. acid sulphate soil is thus not explained by anomalously high natural or anthropogenic metal concentrations of the soils/sediments, but by an inherent highly mobile metal pool. Spatial-distribution maps highlight areas of elevated S and Mn concentrations, where it is likely that ditching and subsequent oxidation will result in an exceptionally large release of protons and Mn respectively.;

  6. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit. The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.

  7. Different responses in postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels induced by concentrate or timothy hay feeding in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hasegawa, S; Touno, E; Otani, Y; Haga, S; Itoh, F; Katoh, K; Obara, Y

    2008-05-01

    Ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) play a key role in regulating energy balance, metabolic hormone secretion and food intake. Ghrelin and GH responses to dietary compositions have not yet been fully clarified, although there may be significant relationships between dietary compositions and ghrelin and GH responses. In the present study, therefore, we assessed whether dietary compositions influence postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels in wethers. Four wethers were respectively fed concentrate (C) or timothy hay (R) for 14 days. The levels of total digestive nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were adjusted to be at the same level. The basal ghrelin in both groups was rapidly and significantly decreased after feeding. Although the decline of ghrelin levels in C was greater and shorter than that in R, no significant difference was observed in the area under the curve (AUC) or in the incremental area. The plasma GH levels were also rapidly and significantly decreased after feeding in both groups and a significant difference was observed between the two groups for AUC of GH. Interestingly, the circadian changes in the plasma ghrelin levels were close to those in the GH levels in C, but this was not the case in R. These data suggest that dietary compositions influence postprandial plasma ghrelin and GH levels, and that these differences may be caused by several factors, including nutrients and ruminal fermentation.

  8. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  9. Leptin level in plasma of lactating buffaloes fed two diets with different energy and protein concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parmeggiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a protein mainly secreted from the white adipocytes, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and whole body energy balance. Moreover, leptin gene activity and leptin secretion are correlated with body adiposity and changes in food intake. Furthermore, leptin could also modulate endocrine response to changes in nutritional status and/or tissue sensitivity to hormones (Houseknecht et al., 1998; Romsos, 1998. Several factors are known to influence plasma leptin in rodents and humans: particularly it increases by body fatness, insulin, glucocorticoids, estrogens and decreases by food deprivation (Saladin et al., 1995; Ahima et al., 1996; Shimizu et al., 1997. These ones and several other observations have led to the hypothesis that leptin is a signal arising from adipose tissue, linked to the level of fat reserves and/or the nutritional status. This signal directly influences the central nervous system and peripheral organs, resulting in a better adaptation of body metabolism and physiological functions to the availability of metabolic energy...........

  10. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  11. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  12. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  13. Long term evolution and internal architecture of high-energy banner ridges of Mer d'Iroise (Western Brittany, France) : interplay of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, P., Sr.; Le Dantec, N.; Franzetti, M.; Delacourt, C.; Ehrhold, A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent completion of a coupled seismic and swath bathymetric survey, conducted across the Mer d'Iroise (Atlantic continental shelf, France), provided new data for the study of the long term evolution of deep tidal sand ridges. Three major banner sand ridges composed of biogenic sands were investigated: the Banc du Four, the Haut Fond d'Ouessant and the Banc d'Ar Men. Seismic interpretation reveals a compound internal architecture of these sand ridges with a sedimentary core forming the lower units interpreted to be shoreface deposits and overlain by sandwaves. Sandwave climbing, which combines progradation and accretion, is the major process controlling the growth of the ridges. The elevation of the preserved dune foresets reaches values of about 20 to 30 m and indicate a combination of giant dunes characterized by numerous steep (up to 20°) clinoforms corresponding to a high-energy depositional environment. All of the radiocarbon ages of the biogenic surficial deposits of the Banc du Four range from 10,036 to 2,748 cal years B.P. and suggest it has grown during the last sea-level rise. The apparent absence of recent surface deposits could be caused by a change in benthic biogenic productivity or the non-conservation of recent deposits. The multiphase accretion of the ridge is closely linked to the progressive flooding of the coastal promontories and straits that structured the igneous basement. A comparable evolutionary scheme is observed for the Haut-Fond d'Ouessant where a counter-clock wise migration of dunes characterizes the surface of the ridge. In contrast, the Banc d'Ar Men located above a regular basement displays a simpler structure with a consistent Northwestward migration of steep clinoforms. Therefore, the sand ridges of the Mer d'Iroise should be thought of as a representative example of large-scale high-energy banner banks controlled by interaction of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity, tidal and wave hydrodynamics.

  14. Gaz de France annual report 2000; Gaz de France rapport annuel 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A leader in the natural gas market in Europe, Gaz de France is an integrated group active in all sectors of the natural gas industry. In exploration and production, trading of natural gas, transmission, storage, distribution, energy management, air conditioning and heating, the Group has developed recognized skills and know-how both upstream and down to assure its customers of diversified, efficient and competitive services. A leader in liquefied natural gas, storage and distribution technologies, the Gaz de France Group has strong positions in Europe and operates throughout the world by promoting a strategy of alliances and partnerships at all levels of the gas industry. The goal of the Gaz de France Group is to continue to expand and develop its activities from the wellhead to the burner tip, and to seize, in France and throughout the world, the best opportunities offered to capitalize on its strengths. This activity report presents: the corporate profile, the financial highlights, the principal subsidiaries and affiliates, the major European trunk lines the responsive, customer-focused services (exploration-production, trading, transmission, distribution, services), the actions to ensure performance (productive research, comprehensive quality assurance, mobilized workforce ready for the opening of the markets)

  15. A paradox in physics education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  16. Carcass and meat characteristics of steers or bulls, finished in feedlot and fed with diets containing three levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Moletta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative characters of carcass and meat from bulls and steers finished in feedlot during a 116 day period, in individual stalls and fed with a diet of corn silage and three levels of concentrate (0.70; 0.97 and 1.23% of body weight. The concentrate was formulated with 25% soybean meal, 73% of ground corn grain 1% of a mineral mix and 1% of limestone. A total of 169 composite Purunã animals, being 94 bulls and 75 steers with average age of 20 months. The interaction between physiological condition and level of concentrate was not significant (P>0.05 for any of the studied variables. Likewise, no effect of level of concentrate was detected upon the same traits. The bulls presented heavier slaughter weight (493.1 kg in comparison with the steers (450.0 kg as well as higher carcass yield (55.2 vs. 53.5%, resulting in a hot carcass weight 12.1% heavier than bulls animals, though with a lower degree of carcass finishing (3.6 vs. 4.2 mm, respectively. Bulls produced carcasses with better conformation and higher area of Longissimus dorsi (68.6 vs. 63.3 cm2, and higher percentage of muscle in comparison with castrated (66.5 vs. 62.8%. The meat from bulls was darker and with lower degree of marbling in relation to steers. Nevertheless, no differences were observed for tenderness nor for juiciness, though steers had more palatable meat.

  17. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de bezerros Levels of concentrate in the diet of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaldo Divino Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar níveis de concentrado para bezerros em crescimento. Foram utilizados quatro bezerros mestiços, Holandês × Zebu, com idade média de 7 meses e 155 kg de peso vivo, distribuídos em quadrado latino (4×4. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade, na forma de dieta completa contendo os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de concentrado, com base na matéria seca (MS. As dietas foram compostas de feno de Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho, farelo de soja e mistura mineral e foram isoprotéicas (15,4%. Os consumos de MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos totais (CT apresentaram comportamento linear e os consumos de proteína bruta (PB e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, comportamento quadrático, em kg/dia. Quando calculados em %PV, os consumos de MO, PB, EE e NDT apresentaram comportamento quadrático, enquanto os de MS, FDN e CT tiveram comportamento linear. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente total da MS e PB foram influenciados de forma quadrática pelos níveis de concentrado, enquanto os de MO, EE, FDN e CT tiveram comportamento linear. Não foi observado efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre a concentração média de nitrogênio amoniacal em cada tempo de análise. Entretanto, para pH, observou-se influência dos níveis nos tempos analisados. Os níveis de concentrado não influenciaram a concentração média de glicose sérica, mas tiveram efeito linear negativo sobre o nitrogênio uréico sérico (NUS em cada tempo pós-prandial. Pode-se incluir até 60% de concentrado na dieta de bezerros, entretanto níveis maiores podem comprometer a utilização do volumoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of concentrate for growing calves. Four Holstein × Brahman crossbred calves with average age of 7 months and 155 kg of body weight were used, distributed into one Latin square design (4 × 4. The animals were fed ad libtum in the form of complete diet containing

  18. An approach to define potential radon emission level maps using indoor radon concentration measurements and radiogeochemical data positive proportion relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Lavoie, Denis; Parent, Michel; Lévesque, Benoît

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the first step of a new approach to make a map of radonprone areas showing different potential radon emission levels in the Quebec province. This map is a tool intended to assist the Quebec government in identifying populations with a higher risk of indoor radon gas exposure. This map of radon-prone areas used available radiogeochemical information for the province of Quebec: (1) Equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys; (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments; and (3) bedrock and surficial geology. Positive proportion relationships (PPR) between each individual criterion and the 1417 available basement radon concentrations were demonstrated. It was also shown that those criteria were reliable indicators of radon-prone areas. The three criteria were discretized into 3, 2 and 2 statistically significant different classes respectively. For each class, statistical heterogeneity was validated by Kruskal-Wallis one way analyses of variance on ranks. Maps of radon-prone areas were traced down for each criterion. Based on this statistical study and on the maps of radon-prone areas in Quebec, 18% of the dwellings located in areas with an equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys under 0.75 ppm showed indoor radon concentrations above 150 Bq/m3. This percentage increases to 33% when eU concentrations are between 0.75 ppm and 1.25 ppm and exceeds 40% when eU concentrations are above 1.25 ppm. A uranium concentration in sediments above 20 ppm showed an indoor radon concentration geometric mean of 215 Bq/m3 with more than 69% of the dwellings exceeding 150 Bq/m3 or more than 50% of dwellings exceeding the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m3. It is also shown that the radon emission potential is higher where a uranium-rich bedrock unit is not covered by a low permeability (silt/clay) surficial deposit.

  19. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the

  20. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the

  1. Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf, M. B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP. Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that was included in a cassava-based concentrate at 0, 14, 18 or 22 % level. Average feed intake (g/W0.725 kg was reduced (p < 0.05 in goats fed poultry manure at 22 % inclusion level when compared with the other dietary groups. Effects of poultry manure treatments on digestibility of dry matter or crude protein, nitrogen retention and body weight gain were significant (p < 0.05. It was concluded that poultry manure could be used to complement cassava leaf meal in cassava plant-based concentrates for the goats. The use of poultry manure as a source of fermentable nitrogen would promote activities of rumen microbial populations for efficient fermentation and reduce the constraints associated with collection and processing of cassava leaf in sufficient quantity for inclusion in the diet.

  2. Concentration level and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and grass around Mt.Qomolangma,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoPing; YAO TanDong; CONG ZhiYuan; YAN XinLiang; KANG ShiChang; ZHANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    High mountains may serve as a condenser for persistent organic pollutants.In the present study,soil and grass samples from Mt.Qomolangma region,China were collected from 4600 to 5620 m a.s.l and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine if they are concentrated at colder,more elevated sites and to evaluate their possible resources and fractionation.The total PAHs Concentration in soil samples was<600 ng g-1,the critical value to differentiate PAHs levels in remote and urban regions.This implied the PAHs levels at Mt.Qomolangma are relatively low and what one might expect in such a remote region of the world.These low values may represent a soil background for mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere soils away from the direct influence of an anthropogenic source.As for the distribution pattern,the low molecular weight PAHs were prone to accumulate at higher altitude,while the high molecular weight PAHs inversely related or unrelated with elevation.Based on high concentration of phenanthrene at elevated sample site and the ratios of individual PAHs,we deduced that home-heating combustion and vehicle emission may result in the constitution trait of PAHs in this mountain region.Monsoon traveling over India,Pakistan and other countries with dense population may carry contaminant to Mt.Qomolangma region.

  3. Investigation of indoor air volatile organic compounds concentration levels in dental settings and some related methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Piermattei, Alessandro; Morlino, Roberta; De Blasio, Giorgia; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration levels in dental settings has a big health relevance for the potentially massive occupational exposure to a lot of diverse contaminants. The comparison of the VOCs profile relative to indoor conditions and to the corresponding outdoor concentrations, as well as the discovery of possible correlations between specific dental activities and VOCs concentration variations are of utmost importance for offering a reliable characterization of risk for dentists and dental staff health. In this study we review the most relevant environmental studies addressing the VOCs contamination level in dental settings. We analyze the methodological problems this kind of study must face and we report preliminary results of an indoor air investigation, carried out at dental hospital in Italy, the "Ospedale odontoiatrico George Eastman" of Rome, in which general lines for the analysis of dental settings in environmental terms are sketched. The aim of this work is to identify the kind of problems a typical enclosed (non-industrial) environment indoor air investigation has to cope with by means of the analysis of a case study.

  4. Handheld Device Adapted to Smartphone Cameras for the Measurement of Sodium Ion Concentrations at Saliva-Relevant Levels via Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lipowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of saliva sampling as a minimally-invasive means for drug testing and monitoring physiology is a subject of great interest to researchers and clinicians. This study describes a new optical method based on non-axially symmetric focusing of light using an oblate spheroid sample chamber. The device is simple, lightweight, low cost and is easily attached to several different brands/models of smartphones (Apple, Samsung, HTC and Nokia for the measurement of sodium ion levels at physiologically-relevant saliva concentrations. The sample and fluorescent reagent solutions are placed in a specially-designed, lightweight device that excludes ambient light and concentrates 470-nm excitation light, from a low-power photodiode, within the sample through non-axially-symmetric refraction. The study found that smartphone cameras and post-image processing quantitated sodium ion concentration in water over the range of 0.5–10 mM, yielding best-fit regressions of the data that agree well with a data regression of microplate luminometer results. The data suggest that fluorescence can be used for the measurement of salivary sodium ion concentrations in low-resource or point-of-care settings. With further fluorescent assay testing, the device may find application in a variety of enzymatic or chemical assays.

  5. Tactical decisions of concentrate level, slaughter age and carcass weight of bulls of five beef breeds under Norwegian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BONESMO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beef production based on suckler cow breeds is a relatively new production system in Norway as in most Nordic countries. To ensure the continuation of this production, profitable management practices designed for Norwegian conditions have to be established. Thus a simulation model was developed that integrates the daily feed intake, the daily live weight (LW gain, silage net energy concentration for beef production (feed units beef (FUb kg?1 dry matter and price, concentrate level and price, and carcass price for bulls of the country's five most common beef breeds. In this work the model was combined with production statistics to find general recommendations in the finishing of beef bulls under Norwegian conditions. Among all the five breeds the Limousin bulls had the highest estimated mean daily return and the Hereford bulls the lowest estimated mean daily return from 20 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 940 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter, and from 40 g concentrate kg?1 LW0.75 for the 800 FUb kg?1 silage dry matter. Our estimated optimal slaughter ages and carcass weights shows that it pays to more intensively feed during the finishing period for all five breeds. Current farming practice in Norway for the five major breeds studied is that slaughter age is at least two months later with lighter carcass weights than the results expected from following our model estimated recommendations.

  6. [Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudon, M

    2005-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent disease that affects about 10% of people in western countries. The prevalence of calcium oxalate stones has been constantly increasing during the past fifty years in France as well as in other industrialized countries. Stone composition varies depending to gender and age of patients and also underlines the role of other risk factors and associated pathologies such as body mass index and diabetes mellitus. The decrease in struvite frequency in female patients is the result of a significantly improved diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections by urea-splitting bacteria. In contrast, the increasing occurrence of weddellite calculi in stone forming women aged more than 50 years could be the consequence of post-menopausal therapy. A high prevalence of uric acid was found in overweight and obese stone formers and in diabetic ones as well. Another important finding was the increased occurrence with time of calcium oxalate stones formed from papillary Randall's plaques, especially in young patients. Nutritional risk factors for stone disease are well known: they include excessive consumption of animal proteins, sodium chloride and rapidly absorbed glucides, and insufficient dietary intake of fruits and potassium-rich vegetables, which provide an alkaline load. As a consequence, an excessive production of hydrogen ions may induce several urinary disorders including low urine pH, high urine calcium and uric acid excretion and low urine citrate excretion. Excess in calorie intake, high chocolate consumption inducing hyperoxaluria and low water intake are other factors, which favour excessive urine concentration of solutes. Restoring the dietary balance is the first advice to prevent stone recurrence. However, the striking increase of some types of calculi, such as calcium oxalate stones developed from Randall's plaque, should alert to peculiar lithogenetic risk factors and suggests that specific advices should be given to prevent stone

  7. Impact of concentration of ellagitannins in oak wood on their levels and organoleptic influence in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Silva, Maria A; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-05-25

    Some wood substances such as ellagitannins can be extracted during wine aging in oak barrels. The level of these hydrolyzable tannins in wine depends of some parameters of oak wood. Their impact on the organoleptic perception of red wine is poorly known. In our research, oak staves were classified in three different groups according to their level of ellagitannins estimated by NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) online procedure (Oakscan). First, the ellagitannin level and composition were determine for each classified stave and an excellent correlation between the NIRS classification (low, medium and high potential level of ellagitannin) and the ellagitannin content estimated by HPLC-UV was found. Each different group of NIRS classified staves was then added to red wine during its aging in a stainless tank, and the extraction and evolution of the ellagitannins were monitored. A good correlation between the NIRS classification and the concentration of ellagitannins in red wine aging in contact with the classified staves was observed. The influence of levels of ellagitannins on the resulting wine perception was estimated by a trained judge's panel, and it reveals that the level of ellagitannins in wine has an impact on the roundness and amplitude of the red wine.

  8. CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF BaP IN OUTDOOR AIR OF UPPER SILESIA TOWNS IN THE YEARS 1983–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Moêdzierz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Silesia Region the process of restructurization of economic changes undoubtedly resulted in significant reduction of air pollution. However, concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP are still high and exceed the permissible standard. Thus the aim of our study was to evaluate air pollution by benzo[a]pyrene in Silesia in the years 1983–1990/1991–1998/1999–2005. Materials and methods: In the study, we used the statistical output data of air pollution obtained from particular measurement stations in the Silesian Region. The measurements were taken in the Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Station in Katowice city as a procedure of environmental monitoring. Concentration values for BaP obtained from particular measurement stations were used to calculate the average annual concentrations for Katowice, Bytom, Chorzów, Dàbrowa Górnicza, Gliwice, Mys∏owice, Ruda Âlàska, Rybnik, Tychy, Wodzis∏aw, Zabrze, Zawiercie. Results: On the basis of the laboratory results, it was concluded that air levels of BaP in the administrative zones of Silesian Region were many times higher than standard allowable norm of average annual concentration, i.e. 1ng/m3. Over the study period, the highest content of BaP was registered in the air of cities localized in the industrial area of the region. In the period 1983–1990 the average annual concentrations of BaP ranged from 42.00 to 272.00 ng/m3. In the years 1991–1998 the concentrations of BaP were from 9.13 to 44.83 ng/m3, and the average annual concentrations of BaP in the period 1999–2005 were from 12.21 to 20.52 ng/m3. Conclusion: At the beginning of the 1980s, a significant decrease in concentration of atmospheric benzo[a]pyrene was observed in the agglomeration.

  9. High resolution analysis of uranium and thorium concentration as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from Payre (Ardèche, France) using laser ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer; Aubert, Maxime; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Moncel, Marie-Hélène

    2008-11-01

    We have mapped U ( 238U) and Th ( 232Th) elemental concentrations as well as U-series isotope distributions in a Neanderthal tooth from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Payre using laser ablation ICP-MS. The U-concentrations in an enamel section varied between 1 and 1500 ppb. The U-concentration maps show that U-migration through the external enamel surface is minute, the bulk of the uranium having migrated internally via the dentine into the enamel. The uranium migration and uptake is critically dependent on the mineralogical structure of the enamel. Increased U-concentrations are observed along lineaments, some of which are associated with cracks, and others may be related to intra-prismatic zones or structural weaknesses reaching from the dentine into the enamel. The uranium concentrations in the dentine vary between about 25,000 and 45,000 ppb. Our systematic mapping of U-concentration and U-series isotopes provides insight into the time domain of U-accumulation. Most of the uranium was accumulated in an early stage of burial, with some much later overprints. None of the uranium concentration and U-series profiles across the root of the tooth complied with a single stage diffusion-adsorption (D-A) model that is used for quality control in U-series dating of bones and teeth. Nevertheless, in the domains that yielded the oldest apparent U-series age estimates, U-leaching could be excluded. This means that the oldest apparent U-series ages of around 200 ka represent a minimum age for this Neanderthal specimen. This is in good agreement with independent age assessments (200-230 ka) for the archaeological layer, in which it was found. The Th elemental concentrations in the dental tissues were generally low (between about 1 and 20 ppb), and show little relationship with the nature of the tissue.

  10. Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and daily fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river was in the range mg/l 0.28–10.23. The average daily received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7–16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.

  11. Analysis of concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10, total suspended particulates and black smoke in the city of Zrenjanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Bogdana B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Air quality monitoring on the territory of AP Vojvodina was initiated in mid 90s. During the last decade of the 20th century the development of the air quality monitoring in Serbia didn’t keep up with the pace of the other countries in the region due to political isolation and severe economic crisis. Monitoring of the particular pollutants was conducted unsystematically and sporadically. Data presented in this paper were obtained on the territory of the city of Zrenjanin, which represents typical agglomeration in the region in regard to its geographical location, population, level of industry development and the presence of natural gas as energy product in the remote and domestic heating system of residential objects. Available data on the concentration levels of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm, TSP (total suspended particulates and BS (black smoke during the period of 2005-2007 (three cold and three warm seasons have been used in this work in order to carry out analysis and comparison of the daily concentration levels of PM10, TSP and BS and their seasonal variation.

  12. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  13. Changes in ground-level PM mass concentration and column aerosol optical depth over East Asia during 2004-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, R.; Yoon, S. C.; Sugimoto, N.; Park, J. S.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year records of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), ground-level particulate matter (PM) mass concentration, cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization (CALIOP), and ground-level lidar were analyzed to investigate seasonal and annual changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM mass concentration over East Asia. Least mean square fit method is applied to detect the trends and their magnitudes for each selected regions and stations. Eleven-year MODIS measurements show generally increasing trends in both AOD (1.18 % yr-1) and Ångström exponent (0.98 % yr-1), especially over the east coastal industrialized region in China. Monthly variation of AOD show maximum value at April-July, which were related to the progress of summer monsoon rain band and stationary continental air mass on the northeast of Asia. Increasing trends of AOD were found for eight cites in China (0.80 % yr-1) and Seoul site, Korea (0.40 % yr-1), whereas no significant change were shown in Gosan background site (0.04 % yr-1) and decreasing trend at five background sites in Japan (-0.42 % yr-1). Contrasting to AOD trend, all fifteen sites in China (-1.28 % yr-1), Korea (-2.77 % yr-1), and Japan (-2.03 % yr-1) showed decreasing trend of PM10 mass concentration. Also, PM2.5 mass concentration at Beijing, Seoul, Rishiri, and Oki show significant decreasing trend of -1.16 % yr-1. To further discuss the opposite trend of surface PM mass concentration and column AOD, we investigate vertical aerosol profile from lidar measurements. AOD estimated for planetary boundary layer (surface~1.5 km altitude; AODPBL) from CALIOP measurements over East China show decreasing trend of -1.71 % yr-1 over the period of 2007-2014, wherever AOD estimated for free troposphere (1.5 km~5 km altitude; AODFT) show increasing trend of 2.92 % yr-1. In addition, ground-level lidar measurements in Seoul show decreasing AODPBL trend of -2.57 % yr-1, whereas, AODFT show no significant change (-0.44 % yr

  14. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  15. Prediction of ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo, Brazil: Deterministic versus statistic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Brasseur, G.; Andrade, M. F.; Gavidia-Calderón, M.; Bouarar, I.; Ynoue, R. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Two state-of-the-art models (deterministic: Weather Research and Forecast model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and statistic: Artificial Neural Networks: (ANN)) are implemented to predict the ground-level ozone concentration in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Two domains are set up for WRF-Chem simulations: a coarse domain (with 50 km horizontal resolution) including whole South America (D1) and a nested domain (with horizontal resolution of 10 km) including South Eastern Brazil (D2). To evaluate the spatial distribution of the chemical species, model results are compared to the Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) data, showing that the model satisfactorily predicts the CO concentrations in both D1 and D2. The model also reproduces the measurements made at three air quality monitoring stations in SP with the correlation coefficients of 0.74, 0.70, and 0.77 for O3 and 0.51, 0.48, and 0.57 for NOx. The input selection for ANN model is carried out using Forward Selection (FS) method. FS-ANN is then trained and validated using the data from two air quality monitoring stations, showing correlation coefficients of 0.84 and 0.75 for daily mean and 0.64 and 0.67 for daily peak ozone during the test stage. Then, both WRF-Chem and FS-ANN are deployed to forecast the daily mean and peak concentrations of ozone in two stations during 5-20 August 2012. Results show that WRF-Chem preforms better in predicting mean and peak ozone concentrations as well as in conducting mechanistic and sensitivity analysis. FS-ANN is only advantageous in predicting mean daily ozone concentrations considering its significantly lower computational costs and ease of development and implementation, compared to that of WRF-Chem.

  16. High indoor CO2 concentrations in an office environment increases the transcutaneous CO2 level and sleepiness during cognitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehviläinen, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Rintamäki, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Hirvonen, Ari; Niemi, Olli; Vinha, Juha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a multiparametric analysis on the environmental factors, the physiological stress reactions in the body, the measured alertness, and the subjective symptoms during simulated office work. Volunteer male subjects were monitored during three 4-hr work meetings in an office room, both in a ventilated and a non-ventilated environment. The environmental parameters measured included CO(2), temperature, and relative humidity. The physiological test battery consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system functions, salivary stress hormones, blood's CO(2)- content and oxygen saturation, skin temperatures, thermal sensations, vigilance, and sleepiness. The study shows that we can see physiological changes caused by high CO(2) concentration. The findings support the view that low or moderate level increases in concentration of CO(2) in indoor air might cause elevation in the blood's transcutaneously assessed CO(2). The observed findings are higher CO(2) concentrations in tissues, changes in heart rate variation, and an increase of peripheral blood circulation during exposure to elevated CO(2) concentration. The subjective parameters and symptoms support the physiological findings. This study shows that a high concentration of CO(2) in indoor air seem to be one parameter causing physiological effects, which can decrease the facility user's functional ability. The correct amount of ventilation with relation to the number of people using the facility, functional air distribution, and regular breaks can counteract the decrease in functional ability. The findings of the study suggest that merely increasing ventilation is not necessarily a rational solution from a technical-economical viewpoint. Instead or in addition, more comprehensive, anthropocentric planning of space is needed as well as instructions and new kinds of reference values for the design and realization of office environments.

  17. Hydro energy at Electricite De France; L'energie hydraulique a Electricite De France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Hopeful the hydroelectric power, the France holds the first place of the renewable energies producers at the European Union. This document presents measures taken by EDF to reach this quality level and conciliate the hydroelectricity production with other uses of water. In this framework, the first part presents the operating advantages and the social impact of the hydroelectricity, the second part deals with the water management and the last part deals with the safety downstream from the dam. (A.L.B.)

  18. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corre...

  19. Levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in reconstituted red blood cell samples washed with different concentrations of saline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the percentage of carnitine and acylcarnitines remaining in red blood cells after washing them with different concentrations of saline solution. Materials and methods: Human blood samples were centrifuged and the blood cells were washed with different saline solutions. The final pellet was resuspended in PBS for card preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: It was found that carnitine, as well as short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acylcarnitines remain in red blood cells at average percentages of 19.3; 34; 34; and 32%, respectively. Significant differences were found for carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in blood washed with an isotonic solution compared to their levels using several hypotonic solutions (p<0.05. Conclusion: Because carnitine and acylcarnitines remained associated with the blood cells, we recommend using whole blood to measure these metabolites.

  20. Levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in reconstituted red blood cell samples washed with different concentrations of saline solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henry Osorio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the percentage of carnitine and acylcarnitines remaining in red blood cells after washing them with different concentrations of saline solution.Materials and methods: Human blood samples were centrifuged and the blood cells were washed with different saline solutions. The final pellet was resuspended in PBS for card preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis.Results: It was found that carnitine, as well as short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acylcarnitines remain in red blood cells at average percentages of 19.3; 34; 34; and 32%, respectively. Significant differences were found for carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in blood washed with an isotonic solution compared to their levels using several hypotonic solutions (p<0.05.Conclusion: Because carnitine and acylcarnitines remained associated with the blood cells, we recommend using whole blood to measure these metabolites.

  1. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  2. New Phase Between China and France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In recent years,the economic cooperation between China and France has developed rapidly.In despite of the bilateral relationship was fluctuating last year,two countries kept on making their efforts to improve the relation.The 15th China-France Economic Seminar was held on April 8 and 9,in Beijing.The theme of this seminar is "Challenges and Opportunities:Beginning New Cooperation between China and France",after a statement concerning "France fully recognizes 'the importance and sensitivity of the Tibet issue' and that France refuses to support any form of Tibet independence"issued by China and France on April 1.

  3. Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Fisher, W J; Tweed, J K S; Wilkins, R J

    2003-08-01

    Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silage with either white clover silage or red clover silage (50/50, on a DM basis). Silages were prepared in round bales, using a biological inoculant additive, and wilting for up to 48 h. Although the legumes were less suited to silage-making than grass, because of their higher buffering capacity and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content, all silages were well-fermented. A standard concentrate was offered at a flat-rate (8 kg/d in yr 1, and 4 or 8 kg/d in yr 2). All of the legume silages led to higher DM intake and milk yields than for the grass silage, with little effect on milk composition. Intake and production responses to legumes were similar at the two levels of concentrate feeding and with forage mixtures they were intermediate to those for the separate forages. An additional benefit of the clover silages, particularly red clover silage, was the increase in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, in milk. Legume silages also led to a lower palmitic acid percentage in milk. The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account.

  4. Effect of protein levels and Zinc-biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performance of young male goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This trial was carried out to investigate effects of protein levels and Zinc biocomplex supplementation in concentrate diets on performances of young male Etawah grade goats. Twenty-four young male goats were divided into four groups and received concentrate diets as follows: R0= 14% crude protein (CP, R1= 18% CP, R2= R0 + 60 ppm Zn and R3= R0 + 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex. Initial live weight was 16.39±2.19 kg. Animals were offered King grass ad libitum and 400 g/h/d of concentrates diets for 16 week trial. The experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete design with four treatments and six replications. The concentrate diets had no significant effect on DM, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes (P>0.05 but significantly (P>0.05 influenced the CP and Zn daily intakes, ADG and FCR. The average DMI, TDN, NDF and ADF daily intakes for all treatments were 670, 547, 333 and 229 g, respectively. The CP daily intake for R0, R1, R2 and R3 treatments were 76.33, 91.83, 75.83 and 76.67 g, and the Zn daily intakes were 42.83, 45.50, 68.83 and 91.33 mg, respectively. The ADG for R0, R1, R2 and R3 were 71.65, 79.96, 78.17 and 82.74 g with the FCR values were 9.95, 8.50, 8.44 and 8.06, respectively. The in vivo digestibility of DM, NDF and ADF were not significant (P>0.05 but the digestibility of CP and GE were significant (P<0.05. The highest IOFC value occurred at R3 treatment. In conclusion, the improvement of CP levels from 14% to 18% in diets increased the goat performance and the supplementation of 120 ppm Zn as Zn biocomplex in diet containing 14% CP gave better performance and increased the IOFC value compared to animals receiving 18% level of CP in diet of young male goat

  5. Concentrate levels for lambs grazing on buffel grass Doses de concentrado para cordeiros mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of concentrate for lambs grazing buffel grass may improve animal performance and animal traits. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate the final body weight, average daily gain, total weight gain and carcass traits (cold and hot carcass weights, cold and hot dressing percentages of lambs grazing buffel grass and receiving different concentrate levels (0; 0.33; 0.66 and 1.0% of dry matter in relation to body weight. Forty lambs were used, ten animals by treatment, with 16.5 ± 2.0 kg of initial body weight, distributed in four groups. Experimental design was a completely randomized with ten replicates. Concentrate levels did not influence the final body weight, the average daily gain, total weight gain and cold and hot carcass weights. However, the increase of concentrate levels promoted higher cold and hot carcass yields.O uso de concentrados para ovinos mantidos em pastagens de capim-bufel pode melhorar o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros de carcaça dos mesmos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário e ganho de peso total além dos parâmetros de carcaça (pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria de ovinos mantidos em pastos de capim-bufel recebendo doses crescentes de suplemento concentrado (0; 0,33; 0,66 e 1,0% na matéria seca do suplemento em relação ao peso corporal dos animais. Foram utilizados 40 ovinos machos, dez animais por tratamento, com peso corporal inicial médio de 16,5 ± 2,0 kg, distribuídos em quatro grupos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. As doses de concentrado não influenciaram o peso corporal final, o ganho médio diário, o ganho de total, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria. Entretanto, o aumento nas doses de concentrado proporcionaram maiores rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria.

  6. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  7. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  8. Physical and sensory characteristics of pellets elaborated with different levels of corn grits and whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Whey has proteins of high biological value, which has been used as an ingredient in the elaboration of yogurt, milk beverages and as protein concentrates. Food extrusion stands out as one of the most efficient cooking techniques, allowing a number of product types, from soluble flour to convenience products, such as snacks, which have high acceptability by the consumers. Products processed by extrusion, such as those expanded by frying (pellets, have high carbohydrate content, and its enrichment with protein can favor its nutritional aspect. This study aimed to use the whey protein concentrate (WPC in combination with corn grits in the preparation of pellets. Absolute density, density of expanded pellets, color, crispness index, and pellet sensory acceptance were determined. For the absolute density, contents from 5% to 17% produced denser non-expanded pellets. The higher the WPC content and the temperature of the extruder, the higher the density of the expanded pellets. The crispness index was not altered by the protein content and by the extruder temperature. In the sensory analysis, the preferred samples were the ones with lower WPC levels (5%. We concluded that higher WPC values in the pellets formulation increased their density, but did not alter color and texture, as well as small WPC levels did not affect the acceptance of snacks.

  9. Qualitative toxicity assessment of silver nanoparticles on the fresh water bacterial isolates and consortium at low level of exposure concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumari, Jyoti; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Dalai, Swayamprava; Raichur, Ashok M; Sastry, T P; Mandal, A B; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) pose a high risk of exposure to the natural environment owing to their extensive usage in various consumer products. In the present study we attempted to understand the harmful effect of AgNPs at environmentally relevant low concentration levels (≤1ppm) towards two different freshwater bacterial isolates and their consortium. The standard plate count assay suggested that the AgNPs were toxic towards the fresh water bacterial isolates as well as the consortium, though toxicity was significantly reduced for the cells in the consortium. The oxidative stress assessment and membrane permeability studies corroborated with the toxicity data. The detailed electron microscopic studies suggested the cell degrading potential of the AgNPs, and the FT-IR studies confirmed the involvement of the surface groups in the toxic effects. No significant ion leaching from the AgNPs was observed at the applied concentration levels signifying the dominant role of the particle size, and size distribution in bacterial toxicity. The reduced toxicity for the cells in the consortium than the individual isolates has major significance in further studies on the ecotoxicity of the AgNPs.

  10. Effect of weak electromagnetic field on cardiac work, concentration of thyroid hormones and blood aminotransferase level in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Krzysztof; Sechman, Andrzej; Nieckarz, Zenon; Wojtysiak, Dorota

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of alternating electromagnetic field (EMF; 50 Hz frequency, 50 and 100 μT induction) on cardiac work of the chick embryo. Eggs from the experimental groups were exposed to EMF throughout incubation. During the experiment, heart rate (ballistocardiographic method), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, heart weight, ventricle wall thickness, and levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined. The results show, for the first time, that the exposure of chick embryos to EMF augments the heart rate, especially from 17 days of incubation. The increased heart rate in the embryos exposed to EMF was associated with considerable increases in plasma T4 and T3 concentrations, which were recorded during the final stage of embryogenesis. The significant effect of the 100-μT field on heart weight and blood AST levels in the embryos suggests that EMF has a direct effect on the physiological function of cardiac muscle.

  11. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  12. Serum hepcidin levels are associated with serum triglycerides and interleukin-6 concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Pantelias, Konstantinos; Petras, Dimitrios; Tsirpanlis, George; Bakirtzi, Joulia; Chatzivasileiou, George; Tzanatos, Helen; Grapsa, Eirini

    2014-06-01

    Hepcidin has emerged as a peptide with a key role in the regulation of iron homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), having a strong dependence on inflammation. Recent studies reveal that hepcidin may be also associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to analyze the relation of hepcidin to markers of atherosclerosis and inflammation in patients on dialysis. A total of 90 individuals were enrolled. Sixty patients with end-stage renal disease, who were on hemodialysis (HD) (N = 30) and peritoneal dialysis (N = 30) were compared with 30 normal controls (NC). Age, body mass index, time on dialysis, serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured and analyzed in correlation with hepcidin concentration. It was found that patients on HD and peritoneal dialysis have significantly higher (P triglycerides (r = 0.401, P = 0.005), HDL-C (r = -0.268, P = 0.048), CRP (r = 0.436, P = 0.0007) and IL-6 (r = 0.569, P triglycerides (β = 0.402, P = 0.041) and IL-6 (β = 0.559, P = 0.006). Moreover, patients with high triglycerides in combination with high IL-6 levels have significantly increased concentrations of hepcidin than those with low triglycerides and low IL-6 levels (P triglycerides and high IL-6 serum concentrations. This probably suggests that hepcidin may play a role to the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation, but this hypothesis should be further evaluated.

  13. High level arsenic resistance in bacteria present in biooxidation tanks used to treat gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.E.RAWLINGS

    2008-01-01

    The microbial consortium used in continuous-flow,stirred tank processes to treat gold-bearing arsenopyrite concentrates became adapted to high concentrations of arsenic over a number of years.The dominant microorganisms,Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferriphilum,were found to contain two sets of arsenic resistance genes.One set of ars genes was present in all isolates of a species irrespective of whether they were highly arsenic resistant or not.A second set of ars genes was present on Tn21-like transposons and was found in all strains tested that had been adapted to high concentrations of arsenic.The arsenic resistance transposons present in At.caldus and L.ferriphilum were closely related,but sufficiently different for them to have been acquired independently rather than having been passed from one bacterium to the other.The transposons were transpositionally active in Escherchia coli and were shown to confer higher levels of arsenic resistance than the chromosomally-located ars genes where it was possible to test this.Transposons containing arsenic resistance genes that were identical or closely related to the transposon from L.ferriphilum,originally found in South Africa,were also found in both L.ferrooxidans and L.ferriphilum isolates from South America and Europe.An arsB gene knockout of At.caldus was produced by homologous recombination that demonstrated both the ability of the chromosomal ars genes to confer low levels of arsenic resistance in At.caldus and the development of a genetic system for the creation of knock-out mutants.

  14. Interconnection France-Italy; Interconnexion France-Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents presents the rules, defined by RTE, of the attribution of electric power transportation capacity between France and Italy. The contract form and the general principles are given in annexes. A guide to the application form is provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. DO HIGH BLOOD HEPCIDIN CONCENTRATIONS CONTRIBUTE TO LOW FERRITIN LEVELS IN YOUNG TENNIS PLAYERS AT THE END OF TOURNAMENT SEASON?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Ziemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to verify whether impaired iron metabolism in young athletes is a consequence of an excessive workload during the tournament season. Low levels of ferritin (under 25 µg·L-1 have been frequently observed in young tennis players. We considered this finding to be related to the high-intensity workload or to insufficient rest, which both trigger a strong immune response. Groups of male, well-trained young tennis players (16 ± 0.9 years old, average of 10-year training experience and a control peer group participated in this study. The research consisted of two examination sessions (March and September 2010. Blood samples were collected to determine haematological and immunological parameters. Additionally, body composition and physical capacity were assessed. In both periods of the study, the trained groups were characterised by low levels of ferritin, but also elevated levels of pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Moreover, an inverse correlation between IL-1β and blood ferritin was observed. Additionally, an increased concentration of the iron homeostasis regulator hepcidin was found in blood samples (mean 71 ng·ml-1; range from 48 to 100 ng·ml-1. We concluded that the pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, most likely induced by an extensive workload during the tournament season, was responsible for the low level of ferritin in young, professional athletes

  16. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  17. Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect

  18. Utilizing patch and site level greenhouse-gas concentration measurements in tandem with the prognostic model, ecosys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, T. H.; Rey Sanchez, C.; Bohrer, G.; Riley, W. J.; Angle, J.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Stefanik, K. C.; Wrighton, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    Estimates of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets currently have large uncertainties. While wetlands are the largest source of natural methane (CH4) emissions worldwide, they are also important carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks. Determining the GHG budget of a wetland is challenging, particularly because wetlands have intrinsically temporally and spatially heterogeneous land cover patterns and complex dynamics of CH4 production and emissions. These issues pose challenges to both measuring and modeling GHG budgets from wetlands. To improve wetland GHG flux predictability, we utilized the ecosys model to predict CH4 fluxes from a natural temperate estuarine wetland in northern Ohio. Multiple patches of terrain (that included Typha spp. and Nelumbo lutea) were represented as separate grid cells in the model. Cells were initialized with measured values but were allowed to dynamically evolve in response to meteorological, hydrological, and thermodynamic conditions. Trace gas surface emissions were predicted as the end result of microbial activity, physical transport, and plant processes. Corresponding to each model gridcell, measurements of dissolved gas concentrations were conducted with pore-water dialysis samplers (peepers). The peeper measurements were taken via a series of tubes, providing an undisturbed observation of the pore water concentrations of in situ dissolved gases along a vertical gradient. Non-steady state chambers and a flux tower provided both patch level and integrated site-level fluxes of CO2 and CH4. New Typha chambers were also developed to enclose entire plants and segregate the plant fluxes from soil/water fluxes. We expect ecosys to predict the seasonal and diurnal fluxes of CH4 from within each land cover type and to resolve where CH4 is generated within the soil column and its transmission mechanisms. We demonstrate the need for detailed information at both the patch and site level when using models to predict whole wetland ecosystem-scale GHG

  19. Striatal and thalamic GABA level concentrations play differential roles for the modulation of response selection processes by proprioceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Ma, Ruoyun; Yeh, Chien-Lin; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Snyder, Sandy; Zauber, S Elizabeth; Dydak, Ulrike; Beste, Christian

    2015-10-15

    The selection of appropriate responses is a complex endeavor requiring the integration of many different sources of information in fronto-striatal-thalamic circuits. An often neglected but relevant piece of information is provided by proprioceptive inputs about the current position of our limbs. This study examines the importance of striatal and thalamic GABA levels in these processes using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (GABA-MRS) and a Simon task featuring proprioception-induced interference in healthy subjects. As a possible model of deficits in the processing of proprioceptive information, we also included Parkinson's disease (PD) patients in this study. The results show that proprioceptive information about unusual postures complicates response selection processes in controls, but not in PD patients. The well-known deficits of PD patients in processing proprioceptive information can turn into a benefit when altered proprioceptive information would normally complicate response selection processes. Striatal and thalamic GABA levels play dissociable roles in the modulation of response selection processes by proprioceptive information: Striatal GABA levels seem to be important for the general speed of responding, most likely because striatal GABA promotes response selection. In contrast, the modulation of response conflict by proprioceptive information is closely related to thalamic GABA concentrations with higher concentration being related to a smaller response conflict effect. The most likely explanation for this finding is that the thalamus is involved in the integration of sensorimotor, attentional, and cognitive information for the purpose of response formation. Yet, this effect in the thalamus vanishes when controls and PD patients were analyzed separately.

  20. Hurricane Frances Poster (September 5, 2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Frances poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-17 shows Hurricane Frances over central Florida on September 5, 2004. Poster dimension is approximately...

  1. Temporal variability of the bioaerosol background at a subway station: concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 10(3) CFU m(-3) and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents.

  2. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  3. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, V?ronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Maril?na; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, Fran?ois; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  4. Pyemotes ventricosus dermatitis, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Pascal; Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-11-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition.

  5. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  6. [Nurse home visits in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguillon, Dominique; Gracia, Pierre-Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Nurse home visits in France. More and more nurses carry out home visits, either as freelance nurses or employees of a nurse home visits service, a home hospital care structure or a nursing care centre. These home visits are both demanded by patients and encouraged by the health authorities. As a consequence, the service is expanding every year.

  7. Education in France: Number 41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires",…

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration in soil from San Luis Potosi, Mexico: levels and ecological and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Orta-García, Sandra T; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge Armando; González-Palomo, Ana K; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils from the city of San Luis Potosi in Mexico and perform an ecological and human health risk characterization. In order to confirm the presence of PBDEs, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and the concentrations of PBDEs in urban, industrial, agricultural, and brick kiln industry areas were determined. The mean total PBDEs levels obtained in the study sites were 25.0 ± 39.5 μg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation) in the brick kiln industry zone; 34.5 ± 36.0 μg/kg in the urban zone; 8.00 ± 7.10 μg/kg in the industrial zone and 16.6 ± 15.3 μg/kg in the agricultural zone. The ecological and human health risk characterization showed relatively low-hazard quotient values. However, the moderately high PBDEs levels found in soils highlight the necessity to establish a systematic monitoring process for PBDEs in environmental and biological samples.

  9. Improving microcystin monitoring relevance in recreative waters: A regional case-study (Brittany, Western France, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Vezie, Chantal; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and their toxins are known as a health hazard in recreative and distributed waters. Monitoring data from 2004 to 2011 were collected at regional scale to characterize exposition parameters to microcystins in Brittany (Western France). The data show that cyanobacteria populations are experiencing a composition shift leading to a longer duration of cell densities higher than WHO alert levels 2 and 3. Microcystins however appear to be more frequently detected with subacute concentrations in low cell density samples than in high cell density samples or during bloom episodes. Positive relations are described between microcystin concentrations, detection frequencies and cyanobacteria biovolumes, allowing for a novel definition of alert levels and decision framework following WHO recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i map the reported cases in France, and ii produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model. Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central, at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average, 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France.

  11. Long-term observations of cluster ion concentration, sources and sinks in clear sky conditions at the high-altitude site of the Puy de Dôme, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C.; Boulon, J.; Hervo, M.; Holmgren, H.; Asmi, E.; Ramonet, M.; Laj, P.; Sellegri, K.

    2013-11-01

    Cluster particles (0.8-1.9 nm) are key entities involved in nucleation and new particle formation processes in the atmosphere. Cluster ions were characterized in clear sky conditions at the Puy de Dôme station (1465 m a.s.l.). The studied data set spread over five years (February 2007-February 2012), which provided a unique chance to observe seasonal variations of cluster ion properties at high altitude. Statistical values of the cluster ion concentrations and diameters are reported for both positive and negative polarities. Cluster ions were found to be ubiquitous at the Puy de Dôme and displayed an annual variation with lower concentrations in spring. Positive cluster ions were less numerous than negative, but were larger in diameter. Negative cluster ion properties were not sensitive to the occurrence of a new particle formation (NPF) event, while positive cluster ions appeared to be significantly more numerous and larger on event days. The parameters of the balance equation for the positive cluster concentration are reported separately for the different seasons and for the NPF event days and non-event days. The steady-state assumption suggests that the ionization rate is balanced with two sinks: the ion recombination and the attachment onto background aerosol particles, referred to as "aerosol ion sink". The aerosol ion sink was predominant compared to the recombination sink. The positive ionization rates derived from the balance equation (Qcalc) were well correlated with the ionization rates obtained from radon measurement (Qmeas). When ignoring the gamma radiation contribution to the ion production, Qcalc is on average higher than Qmeas during the warm season. In contrast, when a seasonal gamma contribution is taken into account, Qmeas always exceeds Qcalc. We found that neither the aerosol ion sink nor the ionization rate (calculated or measured, with or without the gamma contribution) were significantly different on event days compared to non-event days

  12. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration determined by MR imaging: impact of hematologic disease and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Allard W; Sijens, Paul E; Kreeftenberg, Herman G; Kappert, Peter; Irwan, Roy; van der Jagt, Eric J; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2007-02-01

    Liver iron concentration was determined in 28 patients by magnetic resonance imaging using the method of Gandon et al. (Non-invasive assessment of hepatic iron stores by MRI. Lancet 2004;363:357-362). The result showed a significant correlation with blood plasma ferritin content (Spearman's r=.66; P<.001) and a slightly improving correlation coefficient when limited to those patients not known to have inflammation (r=.82; n=17; P<.001). Zooming in on patients with hematologic disease also had a beneficial effect on the correlation between liver iron content and plasma ferritin level (r=.79; n=13; P=.001). It is concluded that in patients without inflammation and in patients with hematologic disease, the content of ferritin in blood is a better predictor of liver iron content than in other patient categories.

  13. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  14. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values, and low calpastatin activity, all of which are related to more tender meat.

  15. Modelling NO2 concentrations at the street level in the GAINS integrated assessment model: projections under current legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available NO2 concentrations at the street level are a major concern for urban air quality in Europe and have been regulated under the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. Despite the legal requirements, limit values are exceeded at many monitoring stations with little or no improvement during recent years. In order to assess the effects of future emission control regulations on roadside NO2 concentrations, a downscaling module has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model. The module follows a hybrid approach based on atmospheric dispersion calculations and observations from the AirBase European air quality data base that are used to estimate site-specific parameters. Pollutant concentrations at every monitoring site with sufficient data coverage are disaggregated into contributions from regional background, urban increment, and local roadside increment. The future evolution of each contribution is assessed with a model of the appropriate scale – 28 × 28 km grid based on the EMEP Model for the regional background, 7 × 7 km urban increment based on the CHIMERE Chemistry Transport Model, and a chemical box model for the roadside increment. Thus, different emission scenarios and control options for long-range transport, regional and local emissions can be analysed. Observed concentrations and historical trends are well captured, in particular the differing NO2 and total NOx = NO + NO2 trends. Altogether, more than 1950 air quality monitoring stations in the EU are covered by the model, including more than 400 traffic stations and 70% of the critical stations. Together with its well-established bottom-up emission and dispersion calculation scheme, GAINS is thus able to bridge the scales from European-wide policies to impacts in street canyons. As an application of the model, we assess the evolution of attainment of NO2 limit values under current legislation until 2030. Strong improvements are expected with the introduction of the Euro 6

  16. Modelling NO2 concentrations at the street level in the GAINS integrated assessment model: projections under current legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Gsella, A.; Amann, M.

    2014-01-01

    NO2 concentrations at the street level are a major concern for urban air quality in Europe and have been regulated under the EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. Despite the legal requirements, limit values are exceeded at many monitoring stations with little or no improvement in recent years. In order to assess the effects of future emission control regulations on roadside NO2 concentrations, a downscaling module has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model. The module follows a hybrid approach based on atmospheric dispersion calculations and observations from the AirBase European air quality database that are used to estimate site-specific parameters. Pollutant concentrations at every monitoring site with sufficient data coverage are disaggregated into contributions from regional background, urban increment, and local roadside increment. The future evolution of each contribution is assessed with a model of the appropriate scale: 28 × 28 km grid based on the EMEP Model for the regional background, 7 × 7 km urban increment based on the CHIMERE Chemistry Transport Model, and a chemical box model for the roadside increment. Thus, different emission scenarios and control options for long-range transport as well as regional and local emissions can be analysed. Observed concentrations and historical trends are well captured, in particular the differing NO2 and total NOx = NO + NO2 trends. Altogether, more than 1950 air quality monitoring stations in the EU are covered by the model, including more than 400 traffic stations and 70% of the critical stations. Together with its well-established bottom-up emission and dispersion calculation scheme, GAINS is thus able to bridge the scales from European-wide policies to impacts in street canyons. As an application of the model, we assess the evolution of attainment of NO2 limit values under current legislation until 2030. Strong improvements are expected with the introduction of the Euro 6 emission standard

  17. 2035: a no nuclear France; 2035: une France sans nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.; Chandes, C.; James, O.; Moragues, M.

    2011-06-15

    The authors propose a prospective scenario: the newly elected French president decides of a 20-year program to give up nuclear energy production. First, the Fessenheim and Gravelines reactors are closed. The others are to be closed by 2035. Investments are decided for offshore wind energy production, methanation projects, housing thermal insulation. Employees of the nuclear energy sector are taken into account. The authors describe the situation in 2020: energy supply problems, 5 more years of lifetime awarded to some nuclear power stations, decision to build only positive energy buildings, mandatory housing renovation, job creation, decision to develop carbon capture and storage projects. In 2025: the dismantling of nuclear reactors is going on and its cost is assessed, always more electrical vehicles, drastic cost reduction for lithium batteries. In 2035: renewable energies represent the half of the energy mix, the dismantling activity is a success for Areva. In parallel, current figures are given for energy consumption per year and per person in France and Germany, for energy French exports and imports, for electricity cost associated with the different energy sources, for the energy mix in France, for the number of jobs in the nuclear sector. In an interview, a member of the CEA comments the Italian, German and Swiss decisions to give up nuclear energy, the possibilities of its replacement by renewable energies, and the challenges associated with such a decision in France

  18. The role of storm flows in concentration of pesticides associated with particulate and dissolved fractions as a threat to aquatic ecosystems - Case study: the agricultural watershed of Save river (Southwest of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi L.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the fluxes of pesticides was carried out for a year, ending in March 2009, in the Save catchment, in the vicinity of Toulouse. The hydrograph separation technique was used to evaluate the respective contribution of stormflow and baseflow in transport of 12 pesticide molecules. Transport of over 59% of pesticides and their controlling factors such as total suspended matter (TSM, particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC occurred during storm periods. Hysteresis patterns could be observed in the concentration-discharge relationships only for some molecules between rising and falling periods of the storm hydrograph. Clockwise hysteresis was noticed for low to moderately soluble pesticide molecules and for particulate fractions, which explains the role of surface runoff in pesticide displacement. In contrast, anticlockwise hysteresis was registered for soluble molecules and dissolved fractions, explaining the role of subsurface flows and soil leaching processes. The important role of TSM, POC and DOC in pesticide transport was clearly established. We also came to the conclusion that the role of stormy periods in pesticide movement and their controlling factors worked as a threat to aquatic ecosystems. And there was a positive relation between riverine TSM, POC, DOC and pesticides according to pesticide properties.

  19. France: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Bahrami, Stéphane Bahrami; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Mladovsky, Philipa

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The French health care system is a mix of public and private providers and insurers. Public insurance, financed by both employees and employer contributions and earmarked taxes, is compulsory and covers almost the whole population, while private insurance is of a complementary type and voluntary. Providers of outpatient care are largely private. Hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. The French population enjoys good health and a high level of choice of providers. It is relatively satisfied with the health care system. However, as in many other countries, the rising cost of health care is of concern with regards to the objectives of the health care system. Many measures were or are being implemented in order to contain costs and increase efficiency. These include, for example, developing pay-for-performance for both hospitals and self-employed providers and increasing quality of professional practice; refining patient pathways; raising additional revenue for statutory health insurance (SHI); and increasing the role of voluntary health insurance (VHI). Meanwhile, socioeconomic disparities and geographic inequality in the density of health care professionals remain considerable challenges to providing a good level of equity in access to health care. Organizational changes at the regional level are important in attempting to tackle both equity and efficiency-related challenges. While the organizational structure of the system

  20. RELATIVE LEVELS OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR PARTICLE NUMBER CONCENTRATIONS IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN XI'AN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming Kang; Ke Zhong; Shun-Cheng Lee

    2006-01-01

    The time series of indoor and outdoor particle number concentrations in a naturally ventilated residential building in Xi'an were tested simultaneously for 7 days in summer. The relationships between indoor and outdoor concentrations were examined and discussed, and linear regression analysis was employed to correlate the indoor and outdoor concentrations. The diurnal cycles of indoor and outdoor particle concentrations of different particle size ranges all showed positive correlations between indoor and outdoor number concentrations. The I/O ratios of number concentrations varied with the increase of particle size in the range of 0.89 (±0.19) to 0.99 (±0.15).

  1. Global Estimates of Average Ground-Level Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations from Satellite-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Brauer, M.; Kahn, R.; Levy, R.; Verduzco, C.; Villeneuve, P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particles can cause acute or chronic respiratory disease and can exacerbate heart disease, some cancers, and other conditions in susceptible populations. Ground stations that monitor fine particulate matter in the air (smaller than 2.5 microns, called PM2.5) are positioned primarily to observe severe pollution events in areas of high population density; coverage is very limited, even in developed countries, and is not well designed to capture long-term, lower-level exposure that is increasingly linked to chronic health effects. In many parts of the developing world, air quality observation is absent entirely. Instruments aboard NASA Earth Observing System satellites, such as the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), monitor aerosols from space, providing once daily and about once-weekly coverage, respectively. However, these data are only rarely used for health applications, in part because the can retrieve the amount of aerosols only summed over the entire atmospheric column, rather than focusing just on the near-surface component, in the airspace humans actually breathe. In addition, air quality monitoring often includes detailed analysis of particle chemical composition, impossible from space. In this paper, near-surface aerosol concentrations are derived globally from the total-column aerosol amounts retrieved by MODIS and MISR. Here a computer aerosol simulation is used to determine how much of the satellite-retrieved total column aerosol amount is near the surface. The five-year average (2001-2006) global near-surface aerosol concentration shows that World Health Organization Air Quality standards are exceeded over parts of central and eastern Asia for nearly half the year.

  2. Concentration of trace metals in sediments and soils from protected lands in south Florida: background levels and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Joffre E; Fernandez, Adolfo M; Gonzalez-Caccia, Valentina; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive environmental evaluation was completed on 20 metals: two reference metals (Fe, Al) and several minor trace metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) for surface soils and sediments collected from 50 sites in Everglades National Park (ENP), the coastal fringes of Biscayne National Park (BNP), and Big Cypress National Preserve. Samples were prepared by acid digestion (EPA3050) and analyzed by ICP/MS detection (EPA6020). Although no widespread contamination was detected across the two parks and one preserve, there were some specific areas where metal concentrations exceeded Florida's ecological thresholds, suggesting that some metals were of concern. A screening-level evaluation based on a proposed effect index grouped trace metals by their potential for causing negligible, possible, and probable effects on the biota. For example, Cu in BNP and Cr and Pb in ENP were considered of concern because their adverse effect likelihood to biota was assessed as probable; consequently, these trace metals were selected for further risk characterization. Also, stations were ranked based on a proposed overall contamination index that showed that: site BB10 in BNP and sites E3 and E5 in ENP had the highest scores. The first site was located in a marina in BNP, and the other two sites were along the eastern boundary of ENP adjacent to current or former agricultural lands. An assessment tool for south Florida protected lands was developed for evaluating impacts from on-going Everglades restoration projects and to assist State and Federal agencies with resource management. The tool consists of enrichment plots and statistically derived background concentrations based on soil/sediment data collected from the two national parks and one preserve. Finally, an equally accurate but much simplified approach is offered for developing enrichment plots for other environmental settings.

  3. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  4. [End of life in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  5. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  6. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  7. [Epidemiology of burns in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, Jacques; Ravat, François

    2012-01-01

    As with most traumas, the epidemiology of the "burn" health-event has long been neglected by public health doctors and rarely considered by burns specialists. There were therefore few verified data and many approximations and preconceived ideas. The gathering of information recently undertaken in France enables the reliability of the data to be improved and the diagnostic and demographic elements relating to hospitalised patients with burns to be established.

  8. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  9. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  10. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  12. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  13. Simulation de la sédimentation dans un bassin évaporitique à niveau d'eau sous influence eustatique. Application au bassin paléogène de Mulhouse (Alsace, France Simulation of Sedimentation in an Evaporitic Basin At Water Level under Eustatic Influence. Application to the Paleogene Mulhouse Basin (Alsace, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier B.

    2006-11-01

    lower body of salt water (salt saturated, an upper body of salt water (with varying salinity and sometimes at the surface a body of low-salt water linked to the supply of continental water. The lower body of salt water, called captive brine , is defined as the water layer underneath the threshold. Its height during time depends on the difference between the depth of the sediments deposited and the subsidence. We will assume that the depth of the basin (and hence the subsidence is always sufficient for the captive brineto be able to exist. The upper body of salt water, called active body of water , is defined as the salt water layer located topographically above the threshold. It is in communication with the transfer zone or the open marine domain/basin . Its height during time thus depends on eustatic variations. The body of low-salt water corresponds to a body of pellicular water whose existence is defined by the presence or absence of influxes of fresh continental water in the mesh. On the scale of the basin, this body of low-salt water has a geographic extension that is governed by the regional hydrologic balance (influxes of continental water and evaporation. It may not exist at the level of the mesh considered, and its presence at the top is linked to the very strong contrast of density between the low-salt water and the underlying brines. In the model, sedimentation as a function of time is governed by the alternating passage of the regional hydrologic balance between the two states:(a State 1 ( dryperiod in which the volume of continental water supplied to the top of the mesh is lower than the volume of water evaporated. There is no body of low-salt water, and sedimentation is evaporitic. (b State 2 ( wetperiod in which the volume of continental water supplied to the top of the mesh is greater than the volume of water evaporated. A body of low-salt water exists at the top of the mesh, and sedimentation is shaly. The duration of each stateand the regional

  14. Recent developments in automated determinations of trace level concentrations of elements and on-line fractionations schemes exploiting the micro-sequential injection - lab-on-valve approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel; Long, Xiangbao

    2006-01-01

    The determination of trace level concentrations of elements, such as metal species, in complex matrices by atomic absorption or emission spectrometric methods often require appropriate pretreatments comprising separation of the analyte from interfering constituents and analyte preconcentration...

  15. PROJECTED POPULATION-LEVEL EFFECTS OF THIOBENCARB EXPOSURE ON THE MYSID, AMERICAMYSIS BAHIA, AND EXTINCTION PROBABILITY IN A CONCENTRATION-DECAY EXPOSURE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-level effects of the mysid, Americamysis bahia, exposed to varying thiobencarb concentrations were estimated using stage-structured matrix models. A deterministic density-independent matrix model estimated the decrease in population growth rate, l, with increas...

  16. Influence of local meteorology and NO2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, A K; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B; Ambinakudige, S

    2015-02-01

    The influence of local climatic factors on ground-level ozone concentrations is an area of increasing interest to air quality management in regards to future climate change. This study presents an analysis on the role of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and NO2 level on ground-level ozone concentrations over the region of Eastern Texas, USA. Ozone concentrations at the ground level depend on the formation and dispersion processes. Formation process mainly depends on the precursor sources, whereas, the dispersion of ozone depends on meteorological factors. Study results showed that the spatial mean of ground-level ozone concentrations was highly dependent on the spatial mean of NO2 concentrations. However, spatial distributions of NO2 and ozone concentrations were not uniformed throughout the study period due to uneven wind speeds and wind directions. Wind speed and wind direction also played a significant role in the dispersion of ozone. Temperature profile in the area rarely had any effects on the ozone concentrations due to low spatial variations.

  17. Data on metals (Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid (As concentration levels of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Soleimani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we determined the concentration levels of metals including Zn, Al, Sr, and Co and metalloid of As of ballast water in commercial ships entering Bushehr port, along the Persian Gulf. Ballast water samples were taken from commercial ships entering Bushehr port from 34 ports around the world during 15 February and 25 August 2016. The concentration levels of metals and metalloid were determined by using a graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS.

  18. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  19. Mathematical relationships between spore concentrations, delta-endotoxin levels, and entomotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis preparations produced in different fermentation media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y; Valéro, J R

    2012-11-01

    Mathematic relationships between spore concentrations, delta-endotoxin concentrations and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk HD-1) preparations produced in six different media were analysed. The relationship between delta-endotoxin and spore concentration and SpTx-spore (specific Tx per 1000 spore) and spore concentration produced in the different media (starch industry wastewater (SIW) with total solids (TS) concentration of 15g/L, SIW with TS of 30g/L, SIW supplemented with 0.2% (w/v) colloidal chitin, SIW supplemented with 1.25% (w/v) cornstarch and 0.2% (v/v) Tween 80, secondary sludge, and semi-synthetic medium) strictly followed the Power law. Tx and delta endotoxin concentration followed the exponential relation whereas a definite relation between Tx and spore concentration could not be established. Spore and delta-endotoxin produced at the early time (12h) during fermentation might be more toxic than those produced during latter period of fermentation irrespective of media used. Tx and delta-endotoxin concentration exhibited a semi-log linear relationship. Based on these findings, delta-endotoxin concentration can be determined rapidly to monitor the progress of the biopesticide production process.

  20. Dietary glycerin does not affect meat quality of Ile de France lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Henrique Borghi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of meat from three muscles of Ile de France lambs fed diets containing different levels of glycerin as an alternative to corn. Thirty non-castrated feedlot Ile de France lambs weighing 15±0.2 kg were housed in individual pens and slaughtered at 32±0.2 kg. Treatments consisted of three diets: sugarcane + 0% glycerin; sugarcane + 10% glycerin; and sugarcane + 20% glycerin; and three muscles were evaluated: triceps brachii, semimembranosus, and longissimus lumborum. No interactions were observed among glycerin levels and muscle types for the quality characteristics evaluated. Muscles were similar in terms of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics, and only differed in sarcomere length, diameter of muscle fibers, and cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin did not affect pH, water holding capacity (24 h and 30 days after slaughter, weight loss by thawing and cooking, shear force, diameter of muscle fibers, sarcomere length, lipid oxidation, chemical composition, or meat cholesterol content. Dietary glycerin resulted in a linear decrease of muscle yellowness from 3.99 to 3.29. Dietary glycerin altered intramuscular fat fatty acid profile, increasing the concentration of margaric acid (1.47 to 2.61%. Up to 20% glycerin can be included in the diet of feedlot lambs without any harm to meat quality.

  1. Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Nitrogen and Potassium in Nutrient Solution on Yield and Leaf N and K Concentrations of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farzaneh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L and potassium (125, 250 and 375 mg/L on yield and leaf N and K concentrations of tomato were investigated in perlit culture using a factorial randomized design with three replications. The highest fruit yield was obtained with 200 mg/L N. Higher levels of nitrogen decreased tomato yield. With increasing nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, N content of leaf increased significantly whereas leaf K concentration decreased. Different potassium levels had no significant effect on tomato yield. With increasing potassium levels of nutrient solution, concentration of leaf N decreased significantly whereas concentration of leaf K increased. The greatest and the least fruit yields were obtained from N200K250 and N400K375 treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest concentrations of leaf N were observed in N400K125 and N100K375 treatments, respectively. The greatest and the least concentrations of leaf K were observed in N100K375 and N400K125 treatments, respectively.

  2. Variations of Ground-level Ozone Concentration in Malaysia: A Case Study in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nur Izzah Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hourly ground ozone concentration, measured from the monitoring stations in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 10 years (2003-2012 were used to analyse the ozone characteristic in Nilai, Melaka and Petaling Jaya. The prediction of tropospheric ozone concentrations is very important due to the negative impacts of ozone on human health, climate and vegetation. The mean concentration of ozone at the studied areas had not exceeded the recommended value of Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guideline (MAAQG for 8-hour average (0.06 ppm, however some of the measurements exceeded the hourly permitted concentration by MAAQG that is 0.1 ppm. Higher concentration of ozone can be observed during the daytime since ozone needs sunlight for the photochemical reactions. The diurnal cycle of ozone concentration has a mid-day peak (14:00-15:00 and lower night-time concentrations. The ozone concentration slowly rises after the sun rises (08:00, reaching a maximum during daytime and then decreases until the next morning.

  3. Events - France. Stock exchange. International; Actualite - France. Bourse. International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-10-01

    These columns made of short articles report on facts and events in the oil and gas industry in France and worldwide: 1 - France: increase of the production capacity of the ethylene oxide unit of BP's Lavera plant; the 'Plateaux-du-Vexin' gas pipeline crosses the Seine river; completion of the pumping of the front wreckage of the Erika tanker ship; Total inaugurates a vapor recovery unit at the Gonfreville l'Orcher refinery; a national energy saving plan for the abatement of the greenhouse effect; Sercel, a daughter company of Compagnie Generale de Geophysique (CGG), acquires Mark Products division of Shaw industries; the oil prices shoot the international trade; 2 - stock exchange: trend of market values in the context of oil crisis; 3 - international: important oil and gas strike made by TotalFinaElf and OKIOC (Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Company) in Kazakhstan; communication: a new look for BP; status of Lukoil reserves in Russia; next round for the exploration of the Norwegian North Sea; Transocean Sedco Forex absorbs R and B Falcon Corp and becomes the first drilling contractor; ENI (Italy) becomes operator on the development of South Pars gas field (Iran) for the phases 4 and 5; Shell Overseas Investments BV, BP and Exxon Mobil have signed strategic alliance agreements with China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec); first exploration permits for the Faeroe islands; different gas pricing rules for the industrialists in the different European countries. (J.S.)

  4. Studying in France,Serving at Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    DEAR EDITOR, I am a 75-year-old retired primary school teacher. I published my new work The Work-Study Movement of Young Chinese in France (1912-1930) three years ago, expressing my fondness of history, especially China’s history. Currently, I pay more attention to the Chinese women who came to France for studies in their early years, Could you publish some precise information on their situations before and after returning to China? GABRIELLE REYGNER FRANCE

  5. Stress and burnout among teachers in Italy and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrabissi, L; Rolland, J P; Santinello, M

    1993-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show differences between culture-bound stress levels in two samples of elementary and junior high school teachers in Italy (N = 299) and in France (N = 217), using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) as a questionnaire. The results confirmed the influence of sociocultural background on stress levels in both samples in relation to age. Personal accomplishment was the most discriminating indicator in the two groups.

  6. Seasonal variations and depth dependence of soil radon concentration levels in different geological formations in Deir Abu-Said District, Irbid-Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shereideh, S.A. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)]. E-mail: enidal@yu.edu.jo; Bataina, B.A. [Physics Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan); Ershaidat, N.M. [Physics Department, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2006-07-15

    Soil radon concentration levels in Deir Abu-Said District, Irbid-Jordan were measured using CR-39 track detectors in both summer and winter at several depths over six geological formations. Seasonal variations of soil radon were measured at five depths (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100cm). At a depth of 100cm; soil radon concentration levels, in summer, range from 6.85kBqm{sup -3} for Muwaqqar Chalky-Marl (MCM) to 35.5kBqm{sup -3} for Al-Hisa Phosphatic (AHP) Limestone, while in winter the range is between 4.01 and 24.6kBqm{sup -3}, respectively. The highest values of soil radon concentration obtained are found for AHP in both seasons at all depths. This is related to the high content of uranium of this geological formation. As expected, our data show an increase of soil radon concentration levels with depth.

  7. [Health and politics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  8. France, an international partner in the climate change field; La France, partenaire international dans le domaine du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cooperation for low carbon and energy efficient development is a high priority for France, in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. France contributes to tackling climate change by working with its partners on all continents to implement projects both to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change. Within the framework of the Marrakech Accords, France also encourages the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism, in particular between French business and non-Annex I countries; this mechanism will facilitate the financing of mitigation projects and contribute to the sustainable development of host countries in the South. At multilateral level, France is a major donor. At a bilateral level, an initial analysis of cooperation projects which are strongly linked to tackling climate change identified public support of 136 millions euros per year, as an average over the past few years. Some project examples, mostly implemented with local/national co-financing are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Effect of ammonia-generating diet on ovine serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Pal, D T; Gupta, P S P

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of ammonia-generating diet on serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea levels, serum oestrogen and progesterone concentrations and granulosa cell growth and secretion parameters in ewes (Ovis aries). Ewes were fed with 14% CP diet (control) or ammonia-generating diet or ammonia-generating diet plus soluble sugar. The serum and follicular fluid ammonia and urea level, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels and granulosa cell (obtained from ovaries of slaughtered ewes) growth parameters and secretory activities were estimated. Ammonia-generating diet (high-protein diet) increased the serum ammonia and urea concentration. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the ammonia concentration in serum with comparable levels as in control group; however, the urea level in the same group was higher than that observed in control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar significantly reduced the follicular fluid ammonia concentration; however, the level was significantly higher compared to control group. Supplementation of soluble sugar brought down the follicular fluid urea level comparable to that observed in control group. Oestrogen and progesterone levels remained unchanged in ewes fed with different types of diet. Oestrogen and progesterone secretion were significantly lowered from granulosa cells recovered from ewes fed with high ammonia-generating diet. Low metabolic activity and high incidence of apoptosis were observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of ewes fed with ammonia-generating diet.

  10. The public safety and Gaz de France; La securite du public et Gaz de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of its utilities missions, Gaz de France has to assure the public safety and the continuity of the gas supply chain. To avoid accidents and help victims of accidents, Gas de France implemented a system of financial assistance but also a preventive action to verify the installations. The first part of the document presents the liabilities of Gas de France, the second part deals with the voluntarist approach of Gas de france towards the public safety. (A.L.B.)

  11. Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high-resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3] for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem Control simulations are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NOx, and wind fields, the Control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O3] are within acceptance ranges recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA that characterize skillful experiments. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ to ozone exceedance within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1 SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2 AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3 SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated to account only for biogenic emissions [BEO]. Results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O3] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30% relative to Control experiments. [O3] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BEO contributions to DMA8 [O3] in Phoenix also play a key role. Finally, ozone transport processes and pathways within the lower troposphere are investigated. During daytime, pollutants (mainly ozone near the southern California coasts are pumped into the planetary boundary-layer over the southern California desert through the mountain chimney and pass channel effects, aiding eastward transport along the desert air basins in southern

  12. Economic consequences of migration from North Africa to France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Migration to France from the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) for employment has supplied France with a labor force on favorable terms, though with some problems. In the Maghreb countries, development has been immediately aided by emigrant remittances and the relief of underemployment. Whether or not emigration will favor those countries in the long run is the question. Immigration to France from the Maghreb was suspended in July 1974 when 1.3 million emigrants from the Maghreb were living there including 710,000 workers. Building and engineering firms employed them as unskilled labor. Whole sections were able to grow at little social cost. It is the country of origin that loses the manpower, the human capital, and investment. Every Algerian in gainful employment has to provide, directly or indirectly, for the subsistence of 7 other Algerians who are not productive. In France the equivalent ratio is 1 to 2.5. As long as female employment is so limited in the Maghreb the pattern of emigration to support the family left behind will continue. The monthly postal order is a means of survival for many Maghreb families living at the subsistence level. The family of the emigrant is liable to pattern its consumption on the Western ideas which support the breadwinner.

  13. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  14. Effects of silage from maize crops differing in maturity at harvest, grass silage feed value and concentrate feed level on performance of finishing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2013-07-01

    The effects of (i) medium and high feed value (MFV and HFV) maize silages and (ii) MFV and HFV grass silages, each in combination with a range of concentrate feed levels, on the performance of finishing lambs were evaluated using 280 Suffolk-X lambs (initial live weight 36.1 kg). The MFV and HFV maize silages represented crops with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 185 and 250 g/kg, respectively, at harvest, and had starch and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations of 33 and 277 g/kg DM and 9.6 and 11.0 MJ/kg, respectively. HFV and MFV grass silages had DM and ME concentrations of 216 and 294 g/kg and 11.0 and 11.5 MJ/kg DM, respectively. A total of 13 treatments were involved. The four silages were offered ad libitum with daily concentrate supplements of 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 kg per lamb. A final treatment consisted of concentrate offered ad libitum with 0.5 kg of the HFV grass silage daily. Increasing the feed value of grass silage increased (P maize silage feed value tended to increase (P = 0.07) daily carcass gain. Increasing concentrate feed level increased total food and ME intakes, and live weight and carcass gains. There was a significant interaction between silage feed value and the response to concentrate feed level. Relative to the HFV grass silage, the positive linear response to increasing concentrate feed level was greater with lambs offered the MFV grass silage for daily live weight gain (P maize silage, there was a greater response to increasing concentrate feed level from lambs offered the MFV maize silage in terms of daily carcass gain (P silage supplemented with 0.2 kg concentrate, the potential concentrate-sparing effect of the HFV grass silage, and the MFV and HFV maize silages was 0.41, 0.09 and 0.25 kg daily per lamb, respectively. It is concluded that increasing forage feed value increased forage intake and animal performance, and maize silage can replace MFV grass silage in the diet of finishing lambs as performance was equal to or better

  15. Organization of Higher Environmental Education in Universities of Ukraine and France: Comparative Pedagogical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova Viktoria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the organization of higher environmental education in France and Ukraine. The main elements of the pedagogical comparison between the two countries have been defined. Scientific and educational literature analysis devoted to the study of specific aspects of environmental education in universities of both countries has been done. Regulatory and legal framework for environmental training in these countries has been researched. The structure of higher education and the ecological system of educational levels both in Ukraine and France have been stipulated. Basic elements of a comparative analysis of higher environmental education in Ukraine and France have been characterized. The main areas of environmental education in universities of France and Ukraine have been determined. Principles of higher environmental education in France, based on the systems of laws and regulations, have been outlined. The importance of design and styling concept of environmental education has been proved. The main reason for increasing trend to expansion of environmental education at various university departments and levels of education has been defined. Milestones of higher environmental education in France and Ukraine have been determined. After the comparative analysis of higher environmental education in France and Ukraine common features of higher education in these countries have been outlined.

  16. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH RATE AND AGE AT MATURITY IN GROWING BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RAFIQ, M. A. CHAUDHRY AND M. A. JABBAR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effect of supplementation of concentrate mixture alongwith green fodder on growth rate and age of maturity in growing buffalo heifers. Twenty seven heifers of Nili-Ravi buffalo, with 18-21 months of age and on an average 280.0 Kg body weight, were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, with 9 animals in each group. All the groups were given chaffed green fodder ad lib. on group feeding basis. In addition, heifers of groups A and B were given 2.0 and 4.0 kg of concentrate mixture per head per day, while the group C received no concentrate and was kept as control. Daily green fodder consumption was 32.5, 30.00 and 37.50 Kg, with a growth rate of 0.558, 0.659 and 0.354 Kg in groups A, B and C, respectively. The age at maturity averaged 774, 728 and 993 days, while body weights were 411, 431 and 388 Kg in respective groups. The results revealed that the maturity age was significantly reduced (P<0.01 by concentrate supplementation compared with fodder alone. Cost of rearing of buffalo heifers up to age of maturity was 5829.00, 6862.00 and 8747.00 rupees in respective groups. Rearing of buffalo heifers on green fodder ad lib. alongwith supplementation of 2 Kg of concentrate mixture was economical.

  17. Short-term exposure to low concentrations of the synthetic androgen methyltestosterone affects vitellogenin and steroid levels in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lene; Goto-Kazeto, Rie; Trant, John M; Nash, Jon P; Korsgaard, Bodil; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2006-03-10

    Short-term effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the endocrine system of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) were examined. Males were exposed to 0, 4.5, 6.6, 8.5, 19.8, 35.9, 62.3 ng MT/l and ethinylestradiol (EE2) (26.4 ng/l) for 7 days. Several physiological endpoints that may be affected by endocrine disrupters were analysed, specifically vitellogenin (VTG) concentration, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) content, brain aromatase activity and gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 in the testis. Exposure to the lowest MT concentration (4.5 ng MT/l), and the EE2 increased the concentration of VTG significantly compared to solvent control group. Exposure to higher concentrations of MT did not increase VTG levels. Endogenous KT and T levels decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner in response to the MT exposure and the lowest effective concentrations were 6.4 and 8.5 ng MT/l, respectively. The levels of KT and T were also significantly suppressed by EE2 when compared to the solvent control group. Significant decreases in endogenous E2 levels were found in some MT groups but it was not possible to distinguish a simple concentration-response relationship. No effects of MT or EE2 on the brain aromatase activity or on testicular gene expression of CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 were detected. The results show that androgens such as MT can act as endocrine disrupters even at very low concentrations.

  18. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  19. Administrative and Judicial Cooperation in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is very little knowledge in the Netherlands of how economic private law and public law are enforced in France. In France too, however, scant information can be gleaned. There is little if any contact in the university community between criminal law and administrative law, partly because crimin

  20. Natech disasters risk management in France

    OpenAIRE

    Vallée, Agnès

    2004-01-01

    International audience; France is subjected to several types of natural phenomena (floods, earthquake, landslides, storms, forest fires...) and to attacks potentially generated by human activities (industrial facilities, nuclear power plants, transportation of dangerous goods...). The natural and technological risks are managed in France, as regards prevention, protection, intervention, in order to limit their human and economic consequences. Furthermore, an industrial accident could be trigg...

  1. Arctic interests and policy of France

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri I. Rubinsky

    2016-01-01

    The author considers scientific, economic and political activities of France for the development and exploration of the Arctic, providing security there. Along with some other non-Arctic countries, France is not ready to accept such a situation when eight members of the Arctic Council solve Arctic problems on behalf of all mankind.

  2. Effects of level of concentrate supplementation on growth performance of Arsi-Bale and Boer × Arsi-Bale male goats consuming low-quality grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Seid; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew; Awigechew, Kassahun; Abebe, Girma; Goetsch, Arthur Louis

    2012-08-01

    Eighteen Arsi-Bale (local) and 18 Boer × Arsi-Bale (crossbred) male goats, initially approximately 10 months of age, were used in a 12-week experiment to investigate potential interactions between genotype and nutritional plane in growth performance, carcass and skin characteristics, and mass of non-carcass components. Grass hay (6.7% crude protein and 71.9% neutral detergent fiber) was consumed ad libitum supplemented with 150, 300, or 450 g/day (dry matter; low, moderate, and high, respectively) of a concentrate mixture (50% wheat bran, 49% noug seed cake, and 1% salt). Initial body weight was 20.7 and 14.0 kg for crossbred and local goats, respectively (SE = 0.36). Hay dry matter intake was greater (P goats (461 and 429 g/day) and similar among concentrate levels (438, 444, and 451 g/day for high, moderate, and low, respectively; SE = 4.7). Average daily gain was greater (P goats (36.6 and 20.8 g) and differed (P goats, respectively; SE = 0.59) and greater (P goats, respectively) and high and low (8.80 and 6.66 kg, respectively). Carcass concentrations of physically dissectible lean and fat were similar between genotypes and high and low concentrate levels. There were few differences between genotypes or concentrate levels in other carcass characteristics such as color and skin properties. Relative to empty body weight, the mass of most non-carcass tissues and organs did not differ between genotypes. However, the low concentrate-level mass of omental-mesenteric fat was greater (P goats (1.06% vs. 0.54% empty body weight, respectively). In conclusion, growth performance and carcass weight advantages from crossing Boer and Arsi-Bale goats were similar with a low-quality basal grass hay diet regardless of level of supplemental concentrate.

  3. Evaluation and development of integrated technology of rare metal concentrate production in high-level ore processing at Zashikhinsk deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhulya, MS; Mukhina, TN; Ivanova, V. A.; Mitrofanova, G. V.; Fomin, A. V.; Sokolov, VD

    2017-02-01

    The authors discuss material constitution of columbite ore sample and recommend optimized pretreatment modes to obtain ball milling products at the maximum dissociation of ore minerals in aggregates. A concentration technology is proposed, with division of material into two flows –0.315 mm and –0.2 mm in sizes, generated in the milling and screening cycles and subjected to gravity–magnetic and magnetic–gravity treatment, respectively. It is shown that the technology ensures production of both tantalum–niobium and zircon concentrates. It has become possible to additionally recover rare metal components Nb2O5 and ZrO2 from tailings through flotation.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Kristin; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2008-03-01

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water.

  5. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  6. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gheshlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting, two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM were used in a hydroponics greenhouse experiment with a completely randomized design and 3 replications. Modified Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solutions were used for the experiment. The results indicated that by increasing nitrate concentration of solution, nitrate accumulation in roots and shoots of lettuce and spinach increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05, and the same trend was observed for the nitrate reductase activity in the shoots of the two species. Increasing the nitrate concentrations of solution, reduced the shoot dry weight and the concentration of Fe and Cu in both species, where as it increased the K and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the two species in each both harvest times, the nitrate accumulation increased, but the nitrate reductase activity decreased in the shoots of the two species over the course of the growth. The Concentration of Fe, Cu and K decreased in the shoots of lettuce and the spinach with the time, despite the increase in Zn concentration in the shoots. The results also indicated that increasing nitrate concentrations of solution to the levels greater than the plant capacity for reduction and net uptake of nitrate, leads to the nitrate accumulation in the plants. Nitrate accumulation in plant tissue led to decreases in fresh shoot yield and Fe and Cu concentrations and nitrate reductase activities in both lettuce and spinach.

  7. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science…

  8. Immunoglobulin concentration in blood serum of postcolostral calves: Ratio between immunoglobulin level and appearance of enzootic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The timely supply of newborn calves with optimal quantities of colostrum has a key role in the process of immune protection in the early phase of their lives. Passively acquired antibodies can protect the digestive organs from infection caused by E.coli bacteria, and it seems also from the appearance of diseases of the respiratory tract. These examinations were performed on a cattle farm where bronchopneumonia was one of the most significant health problems, and a group of 39 calves were selected for the investigations. The calves were fed with their mothers’ colostrum after birth, and then with collective milk. Immunoglobulin concentration was determined in blood samples taken during the postcolostral period, with the method using zinc-sulphate. At the age of 40 days, the calves were administered a polyvalent inactivated vaccine, and revaccinated 20 days after that (Vibak, Veterinary Department Subotica. In 74.34% calves, the immunoglobulin G concentration ranged from 26 to 40 g/l. In 25.66% calves, the immunoglobulin concentration was lower, from 8 to 25 g/l. The calves found to have a lower concentration of immunoglobulin in blood contracted bronchopneumonia more frequently, and the outcome of the disease in some cases was mortality, even.

  9. Correlation between serum ferritin levels and liver iron concentration determined by MR imaging : impact of hematologic disease and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Allard W.; Sijens, Paul E.; Kreeftenberg, Herman G.; Kappert, Peter; Irwan, Roy; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Liver iron concentration was determined in 28 patients by magnetic resonance imaging using the method of Gandon et al. (Non-invasive assessment of hepatic iron stores by MRI. Lancet 2004;363:357-362). The result showed a significant correlation with blood plasma ferritin content (Spearman's r = .66;

  10. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  11. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were…

  12. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  13. Trace level determination of beryllium in natural and flavored mineral waters after pre-concentration using activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Ersin; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of beryllium (Be) in natural and flavored mineral water samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) after pre-concentration based on the complexation of Be(+2) with a mixture of acetylacetone (pentane-2,4-dione) plus morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentaoxyflavone) and adsorption on activated carbon. The adsorbed complex was eluted with 1.5 ml of 2.0 M HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. After adding 1.5 ml of 2 M HNO(3) and centrifuging, Be in acid solution was determined by FAAS. To remove a number of metals present in water, EDTA was used as a chelating agent. Beryllium in mineral water samples was pre-concentrated by 500-fold, taking 750 ml as initial sample and 1.5 ml as the final volume. The relative standard deviations were sufficiently low for practical purposes and recoveries were up to 85%. Spiking experiments were performed in real samples to establish accuracy and recoveries. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 ng ml(-1), respectively. Twenty samples were analyzed for their beryllium content using optimum parameters. The highest concentration of beryllium was found to be 0.94 ± 0.15 ng ml(-1) in a natural mineral water, while beryllium was not detected in five samples.

  14. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  15. Communication on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassaad Ben Mahjoub

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393

  16. EFFECTS OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTIONS ON SERUM MYOSTATIN AND FOLLISTATIN-LIKE RELATED GENE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel Taylor

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of concentric and eccentric muscle actions on the contents of serum myostatin and follistatin-like related gene (FLRG. Eight untrained males performed one exercise bout with each leg, separated by three weeks. One bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of eccentric muscle actions of the knee extensors at 150% of the concentric 1-RM while the other bout consisted of 7 sets of 10 repetitions of concentric muscle actions at 75% 1-RM. The legs used and the bouts performed were randomized. Five days prior to each exercise bout, baseline measurements were taken for muscle strength. For both bouts, a venous blood sample was obtained immediately prior to exercise and again at 6, 24, and 48 hr post-exercise. Data were analyzed with 2 X 4 (bout x test ANOVA (p < 0.05. Increases in serum myostatin and FLRG occurred with each exercise bout and, excluding 48 hr post-exercise, were significantly correlated to one another (p < 0.05. After eccentric exercise, peak increases of 68% and 50% (p < 0.05 were observed for myostatin and FLRG, respectively. Similar increases of 54% and 44% (p < 0.05 were observed after concentric muscle actions. There was no significant difference in expression of myostatin or FLRG as a function of muscle action type. Our results suggest that a single bout of exercise with either eccentric or concentric muscle actions appear to elicit a similar increase in serum myostatin and FLRG. Therefore, the type of muscle action may not be as much a mitigating factor for increasing serum myostatin and FLRG rather than the muscle action per se.

  17. Effects of nutrition level of concentrate-based diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Li, Mao; Shi, Liguang; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of different nutrition levels of diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six diet treatments, which consisted of two levels of crude protein (CP; 15 and 17 %) and three levels of digestive energy (DE; 11.72, 12.55, and 13.39 MJ/kg). The results revealed that 17 % CP significantly (P  0.05) on carcass characteristics of the goats. The mRNA expression levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 in muscle tissues increased with increasing CP and DE levels (P < 0.05).

  18. Effects of replacing grass silage with maize silages differing in inclusion level and maturity on the performance, meat quality and concentrate-sparing effect of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keady, T W J; Gordon, A W; Moss, B W

    2013-05-01

    The effects of maturity of maize at harvest, level of inclusion and potential interactions on the performance, carcass composition, meat quality and potential concentrate-sparing effect when offered to finishing beef cattle were studied. Two maize silages were ensiled that had dry matter (DM) concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg and starch concentrations of 55 and 258 g/kg DM, respectively. Grass silage was offered as the sole forage supplemented with either 4 or 8 kg concentrate/steer daily or in addition with one of the two maize silages at a ratio 0.5 : 0.5, on a DM basis, maize silage : grass silage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate daily. The two maize silages were also offered as the sole forage supplemented with 4 kg concentrate/steer daily. The forages were offered ad libitum. The six diets were offered to 72 steers (initial live weight 522 s.d. 23.5 kg) for 146 days. There were significant interactions (P maize maturity and inclusion level for food intake, fibre digestibility and daily gain. For the grass silage supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, and the maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 or 1.0 of the forage component of the diet, total DM intakes were 8.3, 9.8, 8.9, 8.2, 9.2 and 9.8 kg DM/day (s.e. 0.27); live-weight gains were 0.74, 1.17, 0.86, 0.71, 0.88 and 1.03 kg/day (s.e. 0.057); and carcass gains were 0.48, 0.73, 0.56, 0.46, 0.56 and 0.63 kg/day (s.e. 0.037), respectively. Increasing the level of concentrate (offered with grass silage), maize maturity and level of maize inclusion reduced (P maize silages with DM concentrations of 217 and 304 g/kg offered as 0.5 and 1.0 of the forage component of the diet were 1.3, -0.3, 1.3 and 2.4 kg fresh weight, respectively. It is concluded that the response, in animal performance, including maize silage is dependent on the stage of maturity and level of inclusion in the diet. Maize silage with a DM of 304 g/kg offered ad libitum increased carcass gain by 31%, because

  19. Household Food Consumption, Individual Caloric Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  20. Household Food Consumption, Individual Calories Intake and Obesity in France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Orozco, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    We show how to use a long period of observation of all food purchases at the household level to infer the profile of average individual caloric intakes according to the gender, age and the body mass index of household members. Using data from France, we apply this method to analyze the relationship between obesity and individual food consumption. The results show that obese or overweight individuals do absorb more calories at all ages but with differences that vary across gender and ages and ...

  1. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekawiecki, R; Nowocin, A; Kotwica, J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate of the relationship between luteal concentrations of oxytocin (OT), noradrenaline (NA), progesterone (P4), oxytocin receptors (OT-R) and beta(2)-adrenoreceptors (beta(2)-R) gene expression and their protein level throughout the estrous cycle in cattle. Corpora lutea (CL) collected during days 1-5, 6-10, 11-16 and 17-21 of the estrous cycle were used in these studies. Concentrations of P4, OT and NA were determined in tissue extracts. Gene expression and protein level for OT-R and beta(2)-R were investigated by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Luteal concentration of P4 was higher (P<0.01) on days 6-10 and 11-16 than during days 1-5 and 17-20 of the estrous cycle. Concentration of OT was the highest on days 1-5 and 6-10 of the estrous cycle. This concentration decreased (P<0.01) during days 11-16 reaching the lowest level (P<0.001) on days 17-20 as opposed to days 1-10 of the estrous cycle. Expression of OT-R mRNA was lower on days 6-16 (P<0.05) followed by its increase on days 17-20 as opposed to the expression observed on days 1-5. Expression of OT-R mRNA was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with the profile of OT-R protein level. This latter parameter was the lowest on days 17-20 and 1-5, and the highest on days 6-10 and 11-16. Oxytocin concentration was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with expression of OT-R mRNA and positively correlated (P<0.001) with OT-R protein level. This protein level was only correlated with P4 (r=0.59; P<0.05). Concentration of OT was positively correlated with level of P4 (P<0.001). Concentration of NA was the highest on days 1-5 of the estrous cycle, whereas it was similar or lower (P<0.05) on days 6-21. Expression of mRNA for beta(2)-R was the lowest on days 1-5 and was highly increased (P<0.05) on days 6-16. The expression was the highest (P<0.001) on days 17-21 compared to all others group of the estrous cycle. Protein level for beta(2)-R was the highest on days 1-5 and decreased (P<0

  2. Factors influencing particle number concentrations, size distributions and modal parameters at a roof-level and roadside site in Leicester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Emily L; Young, David T; Lingard, Justin J N; Smalley, Robert J; Tate, James E; Goodman, Paul S; Tomlin, Alison S

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of urban particle number concentrations and size distributions in the range 5-1000 nm were taken at elevated (roof-level) and roadside sampling sites on Narborough Road in Leicester, UK, along with simultaneous measurements of traffic, NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene concentrations and meteorological parameters. A fitting program was used to determine the characteristics of up to five modal groups present in the particle size distributions. All particle modal concentrations peaked during the morning and evening rush hours. Additional events associated with the smallest mode, that were not observed to be connected to primary emissions, were also present suggesting that this mode consisted of newly formed secondary particles. These events included peaks in concentration which coincided with peaks in solar radiation, and lower concentrations of the larger modes. Investigation into the relationships between traffic flow and occupancy indicated three flow regimes; free-flow, unstable and congested. During free-flow conditions, positive linear relationships existed between traffic flow and particle modal number concentrations. However, during unstable and congested periods, this relationship was shown to break-down. Similar trends were observed for concentrations of the gas phase pollutants NO(x), CO and 1,3-butadiene. Strong linear relationships existed between NO(x), CO, 1,3-butadiene concentrations, nucleation and Aitken mode concentrations at both sampling locations, indicating a local traffic related emission source. At the roadside, both nucleation and Aitken mode are best represented by a decreasing exponential function with wind speed, whereas at the roof-level this relationship only occurred for Aitken mode particles. The differing relationships at the two sampling locations are most likely due to a combination of meteorological factors and distance from the local emission source.

  3. Trophic calculations reveal the mechanism of population-level variation in mercury concentrations between marine ecosystems: case studies of two polar seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Polito, Michael J

    2013-10-15

    The incorporation of quantitative trophic level analysis in ecotoxicological studies provides explanatory power to identify the factors, trophic or environmental, driving population-level variation in mercury exposure at large geographic scales. In the Antarctic marine ecosystem, mercury concentrations and stable isotope values in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) were compared between the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea. Correcting tissue δ(15)N values for baseline δ(15)N values revealed population-level differences in trophic position which contributes to differences in mercury. Data from Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) were synthesized from published values from Baffin Bay and Svalbard to demonstrate the utility of baseline δ(15)N values in identifying differences in environmental mercury exposure independent of diet. Here, we demonstrate the importance of calculating population-specific trophic level data to uncover the source of variation in mercury concentrations between geographically distinct populations of marine predators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma levels of nitric oxide related amino acids in demented subjects with Down syndrome are related to neopterin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppus, A M W; Fekkes, D; Verhoeven, W M A; Tuinier, S; van Duijn, C M

    2010-03-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have abnormalities in virtually all aspects of the immune system and almost all will be affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of AD. In the present study, including a total of 401 elderly DS subjects, the spectrum of plasma amino acids and neopterin was investigated and related to development of AD. Concentrations of nearly all amino acids in DS subjects differed significantly from those of healthy controls. Neopterin was increased in DS subjects, especially in dementia. The production of NO as reflected by an increased citrulline/arginine ratio (Cit/Arg ratio) was enhanced during development of clinical dementia. Neopterin concentrations correlated to the Cit/Arg ratio only in the group of prevalent demented subjects (rho = 0.48, P = 0.006). The results of this study are suggestive for an increase in oxidative processes in DS subjects with AD.

  5. Effect of Interaction Between Testosterone and Morphine on Serum Ghrelin Concentration in Sheep Fed on Different Dietary Energy Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jafaripour, Davood; Khazali, Homayoun; Rokni, Hasan; Alipanah, Hiva

    2012-01-01

    Background Ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. It also decreases testosterone and opioid secretion. Objectives The goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone, morphine or simultaneous injection of testosterone and morphine on mean serum ghrelin concentration in sheep. Materials and Methods Ten sheep were divided into two groups (n = 5 in each group), they were fed with either 50 % or 100 % of their dietary energy needs...

  6. Estimating Ground-Level PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern U.S. using MAIAC AOD Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.

    2011-12-01

    previous studies showed that fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles smaller than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) is associated with various health outcomes. The traditional in situ measurements are both time and cost consuming, compared to the satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. In addition, AOD measurements have the potential to provide spatiotemporally resolved predictions of both long and short term exposures and therefore are adopted in many previous studies for PM2.5 concentration estimation. However, the coarse resolutions (e.g. 10 km) of the AOD products limit the capabilities of various prediction models and make it impossible to predict PM2.5 concentrations with fine details. In this paper, a new aerosol product derived by the Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is used. The MAIAC aerosol product provides AOD at the spatial resolution of 1 km and thus has the potential to predict PM2.5 concentrations at high spatial resolution. In addition, a linear mixed model is developed to model the linkage between PM2.5 concentrations and various predictors including MAIAC AOD, meteorological parameters (e.g. surface temperature and wind speed), and land use information (e.g. elevation, major roads, and point source emission). The study area is the city of Atlanta and surrounding areas, Georgia, USA, and the data of year 2003 was collected from various sources. A cross validation is implemented for model validation. Both model fitting and cross validation generate high R2 values, indicating a good of fitness between the dependent variable and predictor variables.

  7. Levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines in reconstituted red blood cell samples washed with different concentrations of saline solutions

    OpenAIRE

    José Henry Osorio; Morteza Pourfarzam

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the percentage of carnitine and acylcarnitines remaining in red blood cells after washing them with different concentrations of saline solution. Materials and methods: Human blood samples were centrifuged and the blood cells were washed with different saline solutions. The final pellet was resuspended in PBS for card preparation and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: It was found that carnitine, as well as short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acylca...

  8. The Level of Vasopressin is not solely resulted from the Concentration of Endotoxin but Proportional to Creatinine in Dogs with Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Shia1, K. C. Tung1, 2, S. C. Chang1, 2, C. H. Yang1, 2, C. H. Lee2, C. C. Chou1 and W. M. Lee1, 2*

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is one of the most common reproductive disorder characterized as fluid accumulation mainly pus and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from uterus in bitches. Impaired function of vasopressin is found in the disease. The impact of the circulating endotoxin concentration on vasopressin involved water regulation is still unclear. To document the effect of endotoxin on vasopressin-involved water regulation in dogs with pyometra, blood samples were collected for examination of circulating endotoxin concentration, osmolarity values, vasopressin concentrations, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine. The results indicated that the concentration change of endotoxin was contrary to BUN and creatinine in dogs with pyometra. The trends of concentrations change of BUN and creatinine were similar with osmolarity and vasopressin. Pyometric dogs with high level of circulating endotoxin had significantly lower (P 20 mg/dL and creatinine (> 1.5 mg/dL also had plasma vasopressin significantly higher (P<0.05 than those with low levels of BUN and creatinine and control dogs. The overall results suggested that elevated vasopressin was not mainly associated with the circulating endotoxin concentration and some other factors may collaborate with endotoxin causing impaired function of vasopressin.

  9. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-P. Hyvärinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon (BC measurements. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments characterized by high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change – as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ~3 μg m−3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 or 1 m3 h−1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photodetector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photodetector raw signals. It was found that, in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m−3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 L min−1 and concentration of about 24 μg m−3 (BC accumulation rate ~0.4 μg min−1, the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from

  10. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-P. Hyvärinen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon observations. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments with high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change – as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ∼3 μg m−3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 or 1 m3 h−1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photo detector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photo detector raw signals. It was found that in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m−3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 l min−1 and concentration of about 24 μg m−3 (BC accumulation rate ∼0.4 μg min−1, the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from Gual Pahari

  11. Correction for a measurement artifact of the Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) at high black carbon mass concentration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Vakkari, V.; Laakso, L.; Hooda, R. K.; Sharma, V. P.; Panwar, T. S.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Josipovic, M.; Garland, R. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.; Petzold, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) is a widely-used instrument for aerosol black carbon (BC) measurements. In this paper, we show correction methods for an artifact found to affect the instrument accuracy in environments characterized by high black carbon concentrations. The artifact occurs after a filter spot change - as BC mass is accumulated on a fresh filter spot, the attenuation of the light (raw signal) is weaker than anticipated. This causes a sudden decrease, followed by a gradual increase in measured BC concentration. The artifact is present in the data when the BC concentration exceeds ~3 μg m-3 at the typical MAAP flow rate of 16.7 L min-1 or 1 m3 h-1. The artifact is caused by erroneous dark counts in the photodetector measuring the transmitted light, in combination with an instrument internal averaging procedure of the photodetector raw signals. It was found that, in addition to the erroneous temporal response of the data, concentrations higher than 9 μg m-3 (at the flow rate of 16.7 L min-1) are underestimated by the MAAP. The underestimation increases with increasing BC accumulation rate. At a flow rate of 16.7 L min-1 and concentration of about 24 μg m-3 (BC accumulation rate ~0.4 μg min-1), the underestimation is about 30%. There are two ways of overcoming the MAAP artifact. One method is by logging the raw signal of the 165° photomultiplier measuring the reflected light from the filter spot. As this signal is not affected by the artifact, it can be converted to approximately correct absorption and BC values. However, as the typical print formats of the MAAP do not give the reflected signal as an output, a semi-empirical correction method was developed based on laboratory experiments to correct for the results in the post-processing phase. The correction function was applied to three MAAP datasets from Gual Pahari (India), Beijing (China), and Welgegund (South Africa). In Beijing, the results could also be compared against a

  12. Methods for the determination of low-level actinide concentrations and their behaviour in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilvioe, R

    1998-12-31

    Intentional and accidental releases have contaminated the environment with radionuclides, posing a potential health hazard to populations of the polluted regions. Low concentrations of the actinides in the environment and complex sample matrices have made their determination a time consuming and complicated task. Separation methods based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography were developed, and subsequently modified, for analysis of different sample matrices in this work. These methods were used for the investigations of the behaviour of actinides in the environment. Chemical properties play an important role in the phenomena affecting the migration of radionuclides. The method based on anion exchange was used to study the behaviour of U in a small U-Th deposit and also the behaviour of Pu, Am and Cm in a lake system after the Chernobyl accident. The speciation of U and Pu in natural waters has also been investigated. A trend of higher {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios with lower {sup 238}U concentrations was seen in the ground waters in the Palmottu analogue study site in southern Finland. This indicates chemical leaching of U(VI) in oxidising conditions and preferable dissolution of {sup 234}U due to the recoil effects of the alpha decay in reducing conditions. The factors affecting the distribution of U concentrations and the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in filtered ground water and the particulate fraction in the Palmottu are also discussed. The concentrations of Pu, Am and Cm in filtered water, particulate and surface sediment samples in Lake Paeijaenne in southern Finland have been determined. Pu, Am and Cm fallout from the Chernobyl accident was minor compared to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Based on the {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu isotopic ratio, only 10 % of the Pu in the surface layer of the bottom sediment derived from the Chernobyl accident. Three months after the accident, 73 % of the total {sup 239

  13. Methods for the determination of low-level actinide concentrations and their behaviour in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilvioe, R

    1998-12-31

    Intentional and accidental releases have contaminated the environment with radionuclides, posing a potential health hazard to populations of the polluted regions. Low concentrations of the actinides in the environment and complex sample matrices have made their determination a time consuming and complicated task. Separation methods based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography were developed, and subsequently modified, for analysis of different sample matrices in this work. These methods were used for the investigations of the behaviour of actinides in the environment. Chemical properties play an important role in the phenomena affecting the migration of radionuclides. The method based on anion exchange was used to study the behaviour of U in a small U-Th deposit and also the behaviour of Pu, Am and Cm in a lake system after the Chernobyl accident. The speciation of U and Pu in natural waters has also been investigated. A trend of higher {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios with lower {sup 238}U concentrations was seen in the ground waters in the Palmottu analogue study site in southern Finland. This indicates chemical leaching of U(VI) in oxidising conditions and preferable dissolution of {sup 234}U due to the recoil effects of the alpha decay in reducing conditions. The factors affecting the distribution of U concentrations and the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in filtered ground water and the particulate fraction in the Palmottu are also discussed. The concentrations of Pu, Am and Cm in filtered water, particulate and surface sediment samples in Lake Paeijaenne in southern Finland have been determined. Pu, Am and Cm fallout from the Chernobyl accident was minor compared to global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Based on the {sup 238}Pu/{sup 239,240}Pu isotopic ratio, only 10 % of the Pu in the surface layer of the bottom sediment derived from the Chernobyl accident. Three months after the accident, 73 % of the total {sup 239

  14. Cysteine peptidase and its inhibitor activity levels and vitamin E concentration in normal human serum and colorectal carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Szwed; Zygmunt Grzebieniak; Yousif Saleh; Godwin Bwire Ekonjo; Maciej Siewinski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Cysteine peptidase (CP) and its inhibitor (CPI) are a matrix protease that may be associated with colorectal carcinoma invasion and progression, and vitamin E is also a stimulator of the immunological system. Our purpose was to determine the correlation between the expression of cysteine peptidases and their endogenous inhibitors,and the level of vitamin E in sera of patients with colorectal cancer in comparison with healthy individuals.METHODS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were determined in the sera of patients with primary and metastatic colorectal carcinoma and healthy individuals using fluorogenic substrate, and the level of vitamin E was determined by HPLC.RESULTS: The levels of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors were significantly higher in the metastatic colorectal cancer patients than that in the healthy controls (P<0.05).The activity of CP increased 2.2-fold, CPI 2.8-fold and vitamin E decreased 3.4-fold in sera of patients with metastasis in comparison with controls. The level of vitamin E in healthy individuals was higher, whereas the activity of cysteine peptidases and their inhibitors associated with complexes was lower than that in patients with cancer of the digestive tract.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the serum levels of CP and their inhibitors could be an indicator of the prognosis for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Vitamin E can be administered prophylactically to prevent digestive tract neoplasmas.

  15. Effects of crude protein level in concentrate supplements on animal performance and nitrogen utilization of lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, D N; Stergiadis, S; Gordon, A; Yan, T

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen pollution of air and ground water from grazing cattle is of increasing concern. Although several studies have investigated mitigation strategies for nitrogen output from dairy cows fed conserved forages and concentrates, similar research on fresh-cut grass in addition to production parameters is limited. The current study, using 3dietary treatments and incorporating 2 genotypes, was designed to evaluate the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) levels on animal production and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows (6 Holstein and 6 Holstein × Swedish Red) were used in a changeover study with three 25-d periods and 3 diet treatments. Low, medium and high CP concentrate [14.1, 16.1, and 18.1%, respectively, dry matter (DM) basis] diets were fed at 32.8% DM intake combined with good-quality zero-grazed perennial ryegrass (18.2% CP, DM basis). Each period consisted of an adaptation phase (18d) housed as a single group, a 1-d adaptation phase in individual stalls, and a 6-d measurement phase with feed intake and feces, urine, and milk output recorded. We observed no significant interaction between cow genotype and concentrate CP level on any animal performance or NUE parameter. Total DM intake, milk yield and composition, and NUE were not affected by dietary treatment. However, increasing concentrate CP level increased (1) N intake by 42g/d and excretion in urine and manure by 38 and 40g/d, respectively, and (2) the ratio of urine N over manure N. Feeding high CP rather than low CP concentrate increased milk urea N (MUN) content by 3.6mg/dL and total MUN output by 1.08g/d. Crossbred cows had lower grass DM intake, total DM intake, total N intake, and energy-corrected milk yield. However, cow genotype had no significant effect on NUE or MUN parameters. Equations have been developed to predict urine N excretion using MUN output as a sole predictor or in combination with dietary CP level. The present study

  16. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard

    2006-01-01

    to one of four diets in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and a six week experimental period. Treatments were total mixed rations with maize (M) or grass (G) silage differing in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profile and starch content, combined with a high (H) or a low (L) level...... of concentrate (with or without grain). Treatments had no significant effect on milk, protein and lactose yield, but energy corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage and fat yield was lower and protein percentage higher for maize compared with grass silage diets. Overall, maize silage diets resulted in higher......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  17. Modeling caspian sea water level oscilLations Under Diffrent Scenarioes of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GholamReza Roshan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978 has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in thecoastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was stimulated. Variations in environmentalparameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, tmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for bothpast (1951-2006 and future (2025-2100 time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software(version 5.3. The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site has increased by ca. 0.17ºC per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21. The Caspian Sea water level has increasedby ca. +36 mm per decade (r=0.82 between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64ºC and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin,temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78ºC and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels projectfuture water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  18. Airborne microorganisms in Lascaux Cave (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M Martin-Sanchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lascaux Cave in France contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings. The importance of the paintings, one of the finest examples of European rock art paintings, was recognized shortly after their discovery in 1940. In the 60’s of the past century the cave received a huge number of visitors and suffered a microbial crisis due to the impact of massive tourism and the previous adaptation works carried out to facilitate visits. In 1963, the cave was closed due to the damage produced by visitors’ breath, lighting and algal growth on the paintings. In 2001, an outbreak of the fungus Fusarium solani covered the walls and sediments. Later, black stains, produced by the growth of the fungus Ochroconis lascauxensis, appeared on the walls. In 2006, the extensive black stains constituted the third major microbial crisis. In an attempt to know the dispersion of microorganisms inside the cave, aerobiological and microclimate studies were carried out in two different seasons, when a climate system for preventing condensation of water vapor on the walls was active (September 2010 or inactive (February 2010. The data showed that in September the convection currents created by the climate system evacuated the airborne microorganisms whereas in February they remained in suspension which explained the high concentrations of bacteria and fungi found in the air. This double aerobiological and microclimate study inLascauxCave can help to understand the dispersion of microorganisms and to adopt measures for a correct cave management.

  19. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  20. [Concentration levels and spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil surrounding a municipal solid waste incineration plant (Shenzhen)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Zeng, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration has been well known among key sources of heavy metal (HM) emission. To investigate the multivariate relationships and spatial distribution of HMs from this source, 9 HMs (Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) were analysed by multivariate statistical analysis in 80 representative soil samples including surface soils and subsurface soils around the Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSW Incineration Plant (MSWIP). Results show that, the concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn range 0.012-0.136, 0.23-75.89, not detected (ND)-1.17, 21.7-116.0, ND-61.1, ND-47.0, ND-133.0, ND-16.4 and 8.6-246.9 mg x kg(-1), respectively. No significant elevation of concentrations of HMs in soils is observed, compared with the natural background. Based on the hierarchical cluster and historical analysis, the spatial correlations of HMs have been changed by the impact of MSWIP. According to the similarity of concentration, the HMs can be divided into 3 categories: (1) Cu, Ni, Cr, Se, Zn, Pb; (2) As, Cd; (3) Hg. Factors analysis was also performed and shows that the HM distribution patterns are dominantly affected by 3 principal components: local biogeochemical characteristics (48.6% of variance), impact of the MSWIP (16.6% of variance) as well as topographical characteristics (13.2% of variance). Subsequently the 3 maps of factor scores are calculated and exhibited. This study favors to estimate the long-term effects of HM emission from MSWIP on surrounding soil environment and facilitate the local health risk assessment.

  1. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  2. Growth Performance Characteristics of Goats Fed Varied Levels of Poultry Manure in whole Cassava Plant Based Concentrate Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yousuf, M.B.; Adeloye A. A.; Okukpe K. M; Adeyemi, K. D.; A. H. A Badmus; Daramola, J. O.; Ogundun, N. J.

    2013-01-01

    A 56-day feed intake, growth and digestibility trial was carried out to investigate the use of poultry manure as a fermentable nitrogen source in whole cassava plant-based concentrate fed to goats on basal Panicummaximum hay (9.18 % CP). Sixteen adult (2 years old; 12.48 – 16.72 kg initial body weights) West African Dwarf goats were blocked on the basis of body weights into four similar groups that were assigned randomly to four treatments. Treatments consisted of dried poultry manure that wa...

  3. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  4. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  5. Regulation of pluralism in France. Context, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Almiron-Roig, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a historical and up-to-date study of the media regulation in France with regards to the protection of pluralism. To this end, the article presents a study on the French legal framework for the media, which is complemented with the opinions of scholars, journalists, trade union representatives, members of public organizations regulating the media, and relevant figures with expertise in the media sector in France. The views of these actors were obtained through a series of in-depth interviews conducted in Paris in July 2008 and December 2009. The study reveals that the legal framework, which uses multiple mechanisms and instruments to guarantee pluralism, both external (mainly, corporate concentration and internal (media contents, is highly complex, vast, difficult, and almost impossible to apply. The study suggests that the French legal framework is a top example of inefficient hyper-regulation, which the author sees as a result of the ferocious battle between the two strongest modern forces in France: the egalitarian democratic values, based on solidarity and deeply rooted in the historical tradition of the French Republic; and the neoliberal capitalism based on the ideas of material accumulation and individualism.

  6. Efeito dos níveis de concentrado sobre o desempenho de ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento Effect of concentrate level on performance of feedlot Morada Nova sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovergue Rodrigues de Medeiros

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em 32 ovinos Morada Nova, castrados, em confinamento alimentados com dietas contendo 20, 40, 60 e 80% de concentrado. Os animais tinham 8,11 ± 1,15 meses de idade, peso inicial de 19,67 ± 2,97 kg e peso ao abate de 30,0 kg. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Houve efeito linear decrescente dos níveis de concentrado sobre o número de dias em confinamento, que variou de 123,37 a 52,50 para as dietas com 20 e 80% de concentrado. O consumo diário de MS aumentou linearmente com a redução da proporção volumoso:concentrado, que variou de 0,925 a 1,124 kg. O ganho de peso, a conversão e a eficiência alimentar melhoraram com aumento do nível de concentrado na dieta. Os consumos de MO, PB, EE, NDT, EM, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF elevaram, enquanto os de FDN e FDA decresceram com a inclusão do concentrado. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de MS, MO e dos CT foram crescentes, enquanto a digestibilidade do EE e dos CNF sofreram efeito quadrático e as digestibilidades de PB, FDN e FDA não foram influenciadas pelo aumento de concentrado na dieta. Níveis de concentrado acima de 60% elevaram os ganhos de peso e anteciparam a idade ao abate dos ovinos Morada Nova. Dietas com níveis superiores a 40% de concentrado melhoraram os índices de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes. A raça Morada Nova tem potencial para produção de carne em confinamento.The objective of this trial was to evaluate performance and nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot Morada Nova hair sheep fed increasing levels of dietary concentrate. Thirty-two castratated Morada Nova sheep averaging 8.11 ± 1.15 months of age and 19.67 ± 2.97 kg of body weight (BW at the beginning of the study were used in this trial. Animals were slaughtered with 30.0 kg of BW and fed diets with the following concentrate

  7. The effect of vernal solar UV radiation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration depends on the baseline level: observations from a high latitude in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Toni; Ala-Houhala, Meri; Ylianttila, Lasse; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lakkala, Kaisa; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Turunen, Esa; Viljakainen, Heli; Reunala, Timo; Snellman, Erna

    2017-01-01

    Humans obtain vitamin D from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation or from dietary sources. As the radiation level is insufficient in winter, vitamin D deficiency is common at higher latitudes. We assessed whether vernal solar UVB radiation at latitudes 61°N and 67°N in Finland has an impact on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] concentrations. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers participated in outdoor activities in snow-covered terrain for 4-10 days in March or April, with their face and hands sun-exposed. The personal UVB doses and S-25(OH)D levels were monitored. A mean UVB dose of 11.8 standard erythema doses (SED) was received during an average of 12.3 outdoor hours. The mean S-25(OH)D concentration in subjects with a baseline concentration below 90.0 nmol/L (n=13) increased significantly, by 6.0 nmol/L from an initial mean of 62.4 nmol/L (pD levels in subjects with a baseline level below 90 nmol/L but not in those with higher levels.

  8. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  10. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  11. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Shi

    Full Text Available Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808 and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615 were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05. There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91. In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882. This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  12. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  13. Preparation of eutectic substrate mixtures for enzymatic conversion of ATC to L-cysteine at high concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sung Hun; Park, Hae Woong; Choe, Deokyeong; Shin, Chul Soo

    2014-06-01

    High concentration eutectic substrate solutions for the enzymatic production of L-cysteine were prepared. Eutectic melting of binary mixtures consisting of D,L-2-amino-Δ(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) as a substrate and malonic acid occurred at 39 °C with an ATC mole fraction of 0.5. Formation of eutectic mixtures was confirmed using SEM, SEM-EDS, and XPS surface analyses. Sorbitol, MnSO4, and NaOH were used as supplements for the enzymatic reactions. Strategies for sequential addition of five compounds, including a binary ATC mixture and supplements, during preparation of eutectic substrate solutions were established. Eutectic substrate solutions were stable for 24 h. After 6 h of enzymatic reactions, a 550 mM L-cysteine yield was obtained from a 670 mM eutectic ATC solution.

  14. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased.

  15. Oxidation Level of Vacuum-Packaged Shredded Meat Treated with Different Concentrations of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Diacetate and Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservatives have been common used in food product, drugs and cosmetics to prevent their aging and decay. Shredded meat has been frequently used in Chinese traditional dishes. However, there is little information available for the corrosion protection of preservatives in commercial shredded meat products. The effect of different concentrations of potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate and nisin on the inhibition of oxidation process of shredded meat was studied. Results showed that potassium sorbate (0.05 g/kg and nisin (0.2 g/kg showed the greatest antioxidation activity by determining the Aerobic Plate Count (APC, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and Peroxide Value (PV. It could help to provide theoretical basis for developing convenience shredded meat products with long shelf life.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil.

  17. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  18. [The occupational physician in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shinya

    2013-10-01

    The French Labor law defines the role and its allocation criteria of the occupational physician (OP) the same as in Japan. In France, occupational medicine is one of the medical specialties. The OP resident must follow the 4 years clinical training before certification. After having finished their residency, they are entitled to work for the occupational health service office of a company or company association (in the case of small and medium sized companies). The most important characteristics of the French system is that they cover all workers regardless of company size. The main role of the OP is prevention of work related diseases and accidents. They are not allowed to do clinical services except for emergency cases. Their main activities are health examinations, health education, patrol and advice for better working condition. Formerly, it was rather difficult to attract the medical students for OP resident course because of its prevention oriented characteristics. A growing concern about the importance of health management at the work site, however, has changed the situation. Now, the number of candidates for OP resident course is increasing. Their task has expanded to cover mental health and other life style related diseases. The 2011 modification of law redefines the role of the OP as a director of an occupational health service office who has a total responsibility of multidisciplinary services. The French and Japanese occupational health systems have many of similarities. A comparative study by researchers of UOEH is expected to yield useful information.

  19. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  20. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  1. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  2. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  3. Cold wake of Hurricane Frances

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asaro, Eric A.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Niiler, P. Peter; Terrill, Eric J.

    2007-08-01

    An array of instruments air-deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances measured the three-dimensional, time dependent response of the ocean to this strong (60 ms-1) storm. Sea surface temperature cooled by up to 2.2°C with the greatest cooling occurring in a 50-km-wide band centered 60-85 km to the right of the track. The cooling was almost entirely due to vertical mixing, not air-sea heat fluxes. Currents of up to 1.6 ms-1 and thermocline displacements of up to 50 m dispersed as near-inertial internal waves. The heat in excess of 26°C, decreased behind the storm due primarily to horizontal advection of heat away from the storm track, with a small contribution from mixing across the 26°C isotherm. SST cooling under the storm core (0.4°C) produced a 16% decrease in air-sea heat flux implying an approximately 5 ms-1 reduction in peak winds

  4. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, E; Boffa, C

    2001-05-31

    The data concerning the prevalence of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) in France are scarce: in 1994 official numbers were 14,000 deaths due to chronic bronchitis, 2,000 due to asthma for a total number of 40,000 deaths with respiratory cause; the same year 27,000 new patients were compensated for chronic respiratory insufficiency by social security services. On January 1st 2000 the non-profit organizations was in charge of 21,500 patients with long term oxygen therapy and 10,500 with home ventilation, and the commercial companies respectively 30,000 and 6,000. Accordingly the total of patients treated at home for CRI is about 68,000. The repartition by cause of CRI, the characteristics of patients and the prognosis can be evaluated thanks to the ANTADIR observatory which collects medical data since 1981. Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) count for more than half of the total of cases. Other causes comprise pleuro-parietal diseases (tuberculosis sequelae, kyphoscoliosis), neuro-muscular diseases and interstitial lung diseases. CRI is a severe disease with a survival median of three years for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and a prognosis slightly better for kyphoscoliosis and neuro-muscular diseases, and worse for pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Relative effects of educational level and occupational social class on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-valueeducation and POP levels were observed after adjusting for age and BMI in men; e.g., men with university studies had higher HCB concentrations than men with first stage of primary schooling (adjusted GM 153.9 and 80.5ng/g, respectively) (p-valueeducation and social class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by

  6. Adaptation to climate change in France; L'adaptation au changement climatique en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This report first comments some data and facts illustrating climate change. It discusses its various impacts (extreme meteorological events, dramatic impacts on ecosystems with the possible disappearance of some vegetal and animal species, crisis regarding food resources, health risks, population migrations notably because of sea level rise), and briefly evokes these impacts in France. It outlines the need for adaptation and describes the different adaptation principles: reduction of vulnerability, and anticipation of changes and of their impacts. It comments how adaptation and mitigation are two complementary approaches. It presents the French State strategy with its national adaptation strategy, its national adaptation plan, the mandatory elaboration of regional schemes for climate, air and energy, and the action of local communities

  7. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  8. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR...

  9. Register for the local elections in France

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2007-01-01

    If you are a European Union citizen residing in France and wish to vote in the forthcoming local elections you must register on the supplementary register at your town hall (mairie) before 31 December 2007. EU citizens are regarded as residing in France if their primary residence is in France or if they live there continuously. To be eligible to vote you must: be a national of one of the 26 listed States of the European Union and present a valid identification document. Residence permits are valid; be at least 18 years old by the closing date of revision of the supplementary electoral register, i.e. by the last day of February; enjoy civic rights both in France and in your State of origin. For more information: http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/particuliers/F1937.xhtml?&n=Elections&l=N4&n=Elections%20politiques&l=N47

  10. Effects of CO2 Concentration on Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance of Potatoes Grown Under Different Irradiance Levels and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Russet Burbank, Denali, and Norland, were grown in environmental rooms controlled at approx 350 micro mol/mol (ambient during years 1987/1988) and 1000 micro mol/mol (enriched) CO2 concentrations. Plants and electric lamps were arranged to provide two irradiance zones, 400 and 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and studies were repeated using two photoperiods (12-h light / 12-h dark and continuous light). Leaf photosynthetic rates and leaf stomatal conductance were measured using fully expanded, upper canopy leaves at weekly intervals throughout growth (21 through 84 days after transplanting). Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod increased leaf photosynthetic rates by 39% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 27% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under continuous light decreased leaf photosynthetic rates by 7% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 13% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod plants decreased stomatal conductance by an average of 26% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 42% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Under continuous light, CO2 enrichment resulted in a small increase (2%) of stomatal conductance at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF, and a small decrease (3%) at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment under the 12-h photoperiod showed the expected increase in photosynthesis and decrease in stomatal conductance for a C3 species like potato, but the decreases in leaf photosynthetic rates and minimal effect on conductance from CO2 enrichment under continuous light were not expected. The plant leaves under continuous light showed more chlorosis and some rusty flecking versus plants under the 12-h photoperiod, suggesting the continuous light was more stressful on the plants. The increased

  11. Chinese Peking Opera Troupe Visits France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Municipal Government of Marmande, France and the Festival de Sylvanes, a Chinese Peking Opera troupe, drawn mainly from the National Academy of Chinese Theatre Arts and sent by the CPAFFC,visited France from August 19 to 31 to introduce the quintessence of Chinese culture through their performances.An additional purpose was to promote exchanges between the two countries in theatrical arts and culture,thus enhancing mutual

  12. Privatizations and corporate governance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, A.

    2013-01-01

    From the middle of 1993, the French government has followed an ambitious privatisation programme. Nine major state-owned enterprises have been at least partially sold; other companies some of which are amongst the largest in France, will be sold in the next few years. An analysis is undertaken of how the post-1993 privatisations have related to changes in both the mechanisms of corporate governance and the market for corporate control. Privatisation in France is found to be tactically motivat...

  13. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yiming; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Jiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor. During the operating period, it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly. Unlike the existing hypothesis, the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions. When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L, low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments. When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone, where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate, they underwent denitrification. However, when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions, denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation. Hence, in order to avoid filamentous bulking, the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L, or alternatively, the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO(3-)-N/g SS.

  14. Effect of nitrate concentration on filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen in an airlift inner circular anoxic-aerobic incorporate reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming Su; Yalei Zhang; Xuefei Zhou; Ming Jiang

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory research investigated a possible cause of filamentous bulking under low level of dissolved oxygen conditions (dissolved oxygen value in aerobic zone maintained between 0.6-0.8 mg O2/L) in an airlift inner-circular anoxic-aerobic reactor.During the operating period,it was observed that low nitrate concentrations affected sludge volume index significantly.Unlike the existing hypothesis,the batch tests indicated that filamentous bacteria (mainly Thiothrix sp.) could store nitrate temporarily under carbon restricted conditions.When nitrate concentration was below 4 mg/L,low levels of carbon substrates and dissolved oxygen in the aerobic zone stimulated the nitrate-storing capacity of filaments.When filamentous bacteria riched in nitrate reached the anoxic zone,where they were exposed to high levels of carbon but limited nitrate,they underwent denitrification.However,when nonfilamentous bacteria were exposed to similar conditions,denitrification was restrained due to their intrinsic nitrate limitation.Hence,in order to avoid filamentous bulking,the nitrate concentration in the return sludge (from aerobic zone to the anoxic zone) should be above 4 mg/L,or alternatively,the nitrate load in the anoxic zone should be kept at levels above 2.7 mg NO-3-N/g SS.

  15. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsucchy@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Jap