WorldWideScience

Sample records for frame wall systems

  1. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  2. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  3. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  4. Innovations in rocking wall-frame systems-theory and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorian, Mark; Tavousi, Shayan

    2017-09-01

    The need to improve the seismic performance of buildings has brought about innovative systems such as rocking wall-moment frame (RWMF) combinations. The behavior of RWMFs can best be visualized by the moment-frame (MF) restraining the wall in place, and the rigid rocking wall (RRW) providing additional damping and imposing uniform drift along the height of the frame. A novel method of analysis followed by the development of a new lateral resisting system is introduced. The proposed concepts lead to an efficient structural configuration with provisions for self-centering, reparability, performance control, damage tolerance and collapse prevention. Exact, unique, closed form formulae have been provided to assess the collapse prevention and self-centering capabilities of the system. The objective is to provide an informative account of RWMF behavior for preliminary design as well as educational purposes. All formulae have been verified by independent computer analysis. Parametric examples have been provided to verify the validity of the proposed solutions.

  5. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  6. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  7. Hybrid system of unbonded post-tensioned CLT panels and light-frame wood shear walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Ho; T. Dao; S. Aaleti; J. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer

    2016-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a relatively new type of massive timber system that has shown to possess excellent mechanical properties and structural behavior in building construction. When post-tensioned with high-strength tendons, CLT panels perform well under cyclic loadings because of two key characteristics: their rocking behavior and self-centering capacity....

  8. Evaluation of the Lateral Performance of Roof Truss-to-Wall Connections in Light-Frame Wood Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew DeRenzis; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2012-01-01

    This testing program was designed to benchmark the performance of traditional roof systems and incrementally improved roof-to-wall systems with the goal of developing connection solutions that are optimized for performance and constructability. Nine full-size roof systems were constructed and tested with various levels and types of heel detailing to measure the lateral...

  9. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  10. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  11. Cartan frames for heart wall fiber motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samari, Babak; Aumentado-Armstrong, Tristan; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Froeling, Martijn; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2017-01-01

    Current understanding of heart wall fiber geometry is based on ex vivo static data obtained through diffusion imaging or histology. Thus, little is known about the manner in which fibers rotate as the heart beats. Yet, the geometric organization of moving fibers in the heart wall is key to its

  12. Literature Review of Shear Performance of Light-weight Steel Framing Wall Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuangnan; Liu, Shen; Liu, Hong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive review of light-weight steel framing wall panels was carried out. The structure and force characteristics of light-weight steel framing wall panels were introduced. The testing and theoretical research results on the shear behaviour of light-weight steel framing wall panels were summarized in the domestic and foreign. And combined with the existing standards in China, the author's views and ideas are put forward to the problems in the research field of this kind of structural system.

  13. Modeling Force Transfer around Openings in Wood-Frame Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghao Li; Frank Lam; Borjen Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Doug Rammer; James Wacker

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented a modeling study on force transfer around openings (FTAO) in wood-frame shear walls detailed for FTAO. To understand the load transfer in the walls, this study used a finite-element model WALL2D, which is able to model individual wall components, including framing members, sheathing panels, oriented panel-frame nailed connections, framing...

  14. A Systematic Method of Assessing the Durability of Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    to the effects of moisture accumulation in wall cavities. Several approaches to assessing the vulnerability of wood-frame structures to deterioration have been developed in recent years, some of which suggest applying a limit-states design approach to the performance assessment of the assembly. In this paper......, a limit-states design approach is described that forms the basis of a performance assessment method for wood-frame wall assemblies. The approach is based on the requirements set out in ISO 13823. The approach, developed for the Moisture Management of Exterior Wall Systems (MEWS) project, is described...

  15. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  16. Structural pounding of concrete frame structure with masonry infill wall under seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Hasnan, Mohd Hafizudin; Shamsudin, Nurhanis

    2017-10-01

    Structural pounding is additional problem than the other harmful damage that may occurs due to the earthquake vibrations. A lot of study has been made by past researcher but most of them did not include the walls. The infill masonry walls are rarely involved analysis of structural systems but it does contribute to earthquake response of the structures. In this research, a comparison between adjacent building of 10-storey and 7-storey concrete frame structure without of masonry infill walls and the same dynamic properties of buildings. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling masonry infill walls. This research also focused on finding critical building separation in order to prevent the adjacent structures from pounding. LUSAS FEA v14.03 software has been used for modeling analyzing the behavior of structures due to seismic loading and the displacement each floor of the building has been taken in order to determine the critical separation distance between the buildings. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that masonry infill walls do affect the structures behavior under seismic load. Structures without masonry infill walls needs more distance between the structures to prevent structural pounding due to higher displacement of the buildings when it sways under seismic load compared to structures with masonry infill walls. This shows that contribution of masonry infill walls to the analysis of structures cannot be neglected.

  17. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  18. Effect of infill wall on the ductility and behavior of high strength reinforced concrete frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sayed Ahmed Tawfik Essa

    2014-12-01

    From the representation and the analysis of the obtained results, the main conclusions are pointed out; the lateral load resistance for infilled frames F2, F3 and F4 with infill wall (red bricks thickness 12, 6 cm and cement bricks 12 cm, respectively was greater than the bare frame (F1 by about 184%, 61% and 99%, respectively. The ductility factor for infilled frames F2, F3 and F4 was less than the bare frame (F1 by about 57%, 51% and 46%, respectively.

  19. A Computationally-Efficient Numerical Model to Characterize the Noise Behavior of Metal-Framed Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Arjunan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Architects, designers, and engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically-efficient metal-framed walls, minimizing acoustic bridging. Therefore, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation complying with ISO 10140 are needed at a design stage. In order to achieve this, a numerical model consisting of two fluid-filled reverberation chambers, partitioned using a metal-framed wall, is to be simulated at one-third-octaves. This produces a large simulation model consisting of several millions of nodes and elements. Therefore, efficient meshing procedures are necessary to obtain better solution times and to effectively utilise computational resources. Such models should also demonstrate effective Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI along with acoustic-fluid coupling to simulate a realistic scenario. In this contribution, the development of a finite element frequency-dependent mesh model that can characterize the sound insulation of metal-framed walls is presented. Preliminary results on the application of the proposed model to study the geometric contribution of stud frames on the overall acoustic performance of metal-framed walls are also presented. It is considered that the presented numerical model can be used to effectively visualize the noise behaviour of advanced materials and multi-material structures.

  20. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  1. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Maciej; Kosiń, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study). Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  2. Effect of Steel Framing for Securing Drywall Panels on Thermal and Humidity Parameters of the Outer Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the effect of steel framing used to secure drywall panels on thermal and humidity properties of outer walls. In the practice of building a light structure, the most popular components are steel and wood studs. They are used to obtain framing for building a wall (an outer wall in this study. Analysis presented in this study concerned the corner of the outer wall build using the technology of light steel framing. Computer simulation was used to perform thermal and humidity analysis for the joint of the outer wall.

  3. Thin-Walled CFST Columns for Enhancing Seismic Collapse Performance of High-Rise Steel Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtao Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically studied the collapse capacity of high-rise steel moment-resisting frames (SMRFs using various width-to-thickness members subjected to successive earthquakes. It was found that the long-period component of earthquakes obviously correlates with the first-mode period of high-rises controlled by the total number of stories. A higher building tends to produce more significant component deterioration to enlarge the maximum story drift angle at lower stories. The width-to-thickness ratio of beam and column components overtly affects the collapse capacity when the plastic deformation extensively develops. The ratio of residual to maximum story drift angle is significantly sensitive to the collapse capacity of various building models. A thin-walled concrete filled steel tubular (CFST column is proposed as one efficient alternative to enhance the overall stiffness and deformation capacity of the high-rise SMRFs with fragile collapse performance. With the equivalent flexural stiffness, CFST-MRF buildings with thin-walled members demonstrate higher capacity to avoid collapse, and the greater collapse margin indicates that CFST-MRFs are a reasonable system for high-rises in seismic prone regions.

  4. Soil-structure Interaction in the Seismic Response of Coupled Wall-frame Structures on Pile Foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, S.; Dezi, F.; Leoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response of coupled wall-frame structures founded on piles. A complete soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out with reference to a case study. Three different soils and seven real accelerograms are considered. Local site response analyses are performed in order to evaluate the incoming free-field motion at different depths and the ground motion amplifications. A numerical model, accounting for the pile-soil-pile interaction and for material and radiation damping, is used to evaluate the impedance matrix and the foundation input motion. The domain decomposition technique is adopted to perform time-domain seismic analyses introducing Lumped Parameter Models to take into account the impedance of the soil-structure system. Applications show that the rocking phenomena affect the behaviour of the structure by changing the base shear distribution within the wall and the frame and by increasing the structural displacements

  5. Numerical analysis for the optimal location of a thin PCM layer in frame walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Xing; Medina, Mario A.; Zhang, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal PCM location was estimated by a mathematical model. • The optimal PCM location was affected by the properties of PCM. • The optimal PCM location was affected by the environmental conditions. - Abstract: The thermal performance of building walls can be improved using phase change materials (PCMs). The objective of this study was to estimate the optimal location of a “thin” PCM layer to be incorporated into frame walls, parallel to the frame and insulation, for the purpose of increasing thermal mass and reducing peak heat fluxes through the wall. Based on a mathematical model built in this paper, it was found that an optimal location of this “thin” PCM layer can be estimated, and it was affected by the thermal properties of PCM and the environmental conditions. The optimal locations for the PCM layer were found to be closer to the exterior surface of the wall when the thickness of PCM layer, the heat of fusion of PCM, and the PCM melting temperature were increased, while the optimal location was closer to the interior surface of the wall when the interior surface temperature of the wall was increased.

  6. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  7. Influence of metal frame on heat protection properties of a polystyrene concrete wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetkov Nikolay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of novel thermal-efficient building materials and technologies that allow increasing the level of thermal protection of external envelope structures and reducing the time for construction are of practical interest and represent a relevant task in the conditions of rapidly changing and increasing requirements to energy efficiency of buildings. This research aims at simulating the process of spatial heat transfer in a multilayer non-uniform structure of an external cast-in-place framed wall produced from polystyrene concrete with a stay-in-place formwork. Based on the physico-mathematical model developed with the use of ANSYS and COMSOL software complexes, parametric analysis of the impact of various factors on thermal behavior of the external wall was performed with the account of heat-stressed frame elements. The nature of temperature fields distribution in a polystyrene concrete structure was defined, and its thermal protection properties were investigated. The impact of a metal frame on thermal protection properties of a wall was found to be insignificant.

  8. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages. The d....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  9. Frames and generalized shift-invariant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space to be writ......With motivation from the theory of Hilbert-Schmidt operators we review recent topics concerning frames in L 2 (R) and their duals. Frames are generalizations of orthonormal bases in Hilbert spaces. As for an orthonormal basis, a frame allows each element in the underlying Hilbert space...

  10. Numerical simulation of instability behaviour of thin-walled frames with flexible connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkalj, G. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: goran.turkalj@riteh.hr; Brnic, J.; Vizentin, G.; Lanc, D. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2009-01-15

    A one-dimensional finite element formulation for numerical simulation of instability behaviour of thin-walled frames containing flexible connections is presented. Stiffness matrices of a conventional 14-degree of freedom beam element are derived by applying the linearized virtual work principle and Vlasov's assumption. The structural material is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and linear-elastic. Flexible connection behaviour and different warping deformation conditions are introduced into the numerical model by modifying stiffness matrices of a conventional beam element. For that purpose a special transformation matrix is derived. The effectiveness of the numerical algorithm discussed is validated through the test problem.

  11. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Glass; Vladimir Kochkin; S. Drumheller; Lance Barta

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB)...

  12. Development of an Augmented Reality environment for the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall using the BIM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Mizrahy Cuperschmid

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the development of an Augmented Reality (AR application to assist in the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall, based on the BIM model of the wall execution sequence. The research study used the Design Science Research approach and its aim was to develop an AR application named "montAR" (version 2.0. This application offers a tutorial that combines a wall model visualized in AR in actual scale, followed by an audio with step-by-step instructions of the assembly process. Its applicability was simulated in a laboratory with the participation of volunteers (architecture and engineering students. Two visualization gadgets were used and compared: smartphones and smart glasses. The potentialities and difficulties of the use of the AR system were assessed through a questionnaire answered by the participants and through direct observation and result analysis by the researchers. The results demonstrated the potential of using AR for precast wall assembly. From a technological innovation perspective, this study emphasizes the potential use of AR as a technology suitable for training and for construction quality control.

  13. Million frames per second infrared imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, Alan T.; Guduru, Pradeep R.; Rosakis, Ares J.; Ravichandran, G.

    2000-01-01

    An infrared imaging system has been developed for measuring the temperature increase during the dynamic deformation of materials. The system consists of an 8x8 HgCdTe focal plane array, each with its own preamplifier. Outputs from the 64 detector/preamplifiers are digitized using a row-parallel scheme. In this approach, all 64 signals are simultaneously acquired and held using a bank of track and hold amplifiers. An array of eight 8:1 multiplexers then routes the signals to eight 10 MHz digitizers, acquiring data from each row of detectors in parallel. The maximum rate is one million frames per second. A fully reflective lens system was developed, consisting of two Schwarszchild objectives operating at infinite conjugation ratio. The ratio of the focal lengths of the objectives determines the lens magnification. The system has been used to image the distribution of temperature rise near the tip of a notch in a high strength steel sample (C-300) subjected to impact loading by a drop weight testing machine. The results show temperature rises at the crack tip up to around 70 K. Localization of temperature, and hence, of deformation into ''U'' shaped zones emanating from the notch tip is clearly seen, as is the onset of crack propagation

  14. Combined electric heating system for timber frame houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Yu. Shelekhov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article presents an overview of the factors affecting the decrease in energy costs during the construction and operation of frame type buildings. The authors propose the methods to increase energy efficiency in heating of frame type buildings. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in an individual residential building with a total area of 80 square meters. Two panels with an infrared heating element and thermoelectric temperature sensors were used. Signals from the sensors were registered by measuring instruments. The amount of the consumed energy was measured by the electric meter. Results: The article identifies the problem and researches of parameters of the combined electric heating system, mutual influence of the two heating devices which are made on the basis of the heating elements with a positive temperature coefficient of resistance. The authors considered the basic scenario, and change of microclimate parameters. They studied the changes of microclimate parameters in the penetration of cold airflows into the room through the opening, and when the temperature of the walls decreases. Discussion and Conclusions: The heating unit using the effect of self-regulation reduces the time for establishing the stationary regime. It helps to reduce the inertia of the heating system and to promote rapid recovery of the microclimate parameters, reducing energy costs and heat loss.

  15. Generalized shift-invariant systems and approximately dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Ana; Christensen, Ole; Zakowicz, Maria I.

    2017-01-01

    Dual pairs of frames yield a procedure for obtaining perfect reconstruction of elements in the underlying Hilbert space in terms of superpositions of the frame elements. However, practical constraints often force us to apply sequences that do not exactly form dual frames. In this article, we...... consider the important case of generalized shift-invariant systems and provide various ways of estimating the deviation from perfect reconstruction that occur when the systems do not form dual frames. The deviation from being dual frames will be measured either in terms of a perturbation condition...

  16. Seismic Response of a Platform-Frame System with Steel Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Trutalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber platform-frame shear walls are characterized by high ductility and diffuse energy dissipation but limited in-plane shear resistance. A novel lightweight constructive system composed of steel columns braced with oriented strand board (OSB panels was conceived and tested. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed to study the OSB-to-column connections with self-drilling screws. Then, the seismic response of a shear wall was determined performing a quasi-static cyclic-loading test of a full-scale specimen. Results presented in this work in terms of force-displacement capacity show that this system confers to shear walls high in-plane strength and stiffness with good ductility and dissipative capacity. Therefore, the incorporation of steel columns within OSB bracing panels results in a strong and stiff platform-frame system with high potential for low- and medium-rise buildings in seismic-prone areas.

  17. Approach to Assessing the Long-term Performance of Wall Assemblies – Durability of Low-rise Wood-frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    a limit-states design (LSD) approach to the performance assessment of the assembly. In this paper emphasis is placed on a further development of the LSD approach within the context of requirements set out in ISO 13823 “General principles on the design of structures for durability”. An example is presented...... in which the LSD approach is applied to low-rise wood-frame walls, as are built in North America, and that incorporate drainage components, such components forming part of a rain screen wall assembly. The use of this approach permits determining whether wall assemblies incorporating novel components...

  18. Approach to Assessing the Long-term Performance of Wall Assemblies – Durability of Low-rise Wood-frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacasse, Michael A.; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    a limit-states design (LSD) approach to the performance assessment of the assembly. In this paper emphasis is placed on a further development of the LSD approach within the context of requirements set out in ISO 13823 “General principles on the design of structures for durability”. An example is presented......The long-term performance or durability of wall assemblies in respect to the moisture management of components of which comprise the wall depends on the hygrothermal response of the wall to local climate loads. Critical factors in estimating the longevity of wood frame structures include limiting...... the temperature range, wood moisture content and time of exposure to conditions suitable for the onset, growth and propagation of mould and rot to occur. Several approaches to assessing the vulnerability of wood frame structures to deterioration have been developed in recent years some of which suggest applying...

  19. A Virtual Frame System for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Eric; Purger, David; Tryggestad, Erik; McNutt, Todd; Christodouleas, John; Rigamonti, Daniele; Shokek, Ori; Won Sang; Zhou, Jessica; Lim, Michael; Wong, John; Kleinberg, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe a computerized (or virtual) model of a stereotactic head frame to enable planning prior to the day of radiosurgery. The location of the virtual frame acts as a guide to frame placement on the day of the procedure. Methods and Materials: The software consists of a triangular mesh representation of the essential frame hardware that can be overlaid with any MR scan of the patient and manipulated in three dimensions. The software calculates regions of the head that will actually be accessible for treatment, subject to the geometric constraints of the Leksell Gamma Knife hardware. DICOM-compliant MR images with virtual fiducial markers overlaid onto the image can then be generated for recognition by the treatment planning system. Results: Retrospective evaluation of the software on 24 previously treated patients shows a mean deviation of the position of the virtual frame from the actual frame position of 1.6 ± 1.3 mm. Initial clinical use on five patients indicates an average discrepancy of the virtual frame location and the actual frame location of <1 mm. MR images with virtual fiducial markers can be imported into radiosurgical treatment planning software and used to generate an initial treatment plan. Conclusions: The virtual frame provides a tool for prospective determination of lesion accessibility, optimization of the frame placement, and treatment planning before the day of the procedure. This promises to shorten overall treatment times, improve patient comfort, and reduce the need for repeat treatments due to suboptimally placed frames

  20. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Glass

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB structural panel sheathing were measured over a period from mid-November 2011 through March 2013 in both north- and south-facing orientations in test structures near Washington, DC, USA. Wall configurations varied in exterior cladding, water-resistive barrier, level of cavity insulation, presence of exterior continuous insulation, and interior vapor retarder. The combination of high interior humidity and high vapor permeance of painted gypsum board led to significant moisture accumulation in OSB sheathing during winter in walls without a vapor retarder. In contrast, wintertime moisture accumulation was not significant with an interior kraft vapor retarder. Extruded polystyrene exterior insulation had a predictable effect on wall cavity temperature but a marginal impact on OSB moisture content in walls with vinyl siding and interior kraft vapor retarder. Hygrothermal simulations approximately captured the timing of seasonal changes in OSB moisture content, differences between north- and south-facing walls, and differences between walls with and without an interior kraft vapor retarder.

  1. A bamboo braced frame system for tropical climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverria, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost housing system was developed for use in tropical countries, specifically Haiti, with the aims of minimizing environmental impact (including carbon emissions, maximizing use of local and preferably recycled materials, and using local labor. The housing system integrates low-strength concrete blocks (made using recycled concrete aggregate, an innovative seismically-resistant bamboo frame, earthen plasters, bamboo trusses, and metal deck roofs. The bamboo frame relies on flexural yielding of a short rebar dowel to provide ductile performance at a controlled strength level. The plinth walls below the frame and short rebar dowel protects the bamboo from moisture. The top of a plastic soda bottle is used to protect the rebar from moisture and to seal the base of the bamboo culm, allowing mortar to be introduced into the culm above. This paper focuses on the experimental and analytical results of the flexural yielding of the rebar dowel to establish the structural design of this critical component of the system for resisting wind and seismic loads.En este artículo se presenta un sistema de construcción de viviendas de bajo coste para países tropicales en los cuales existe riesgo sísmico. Los objetivos de este trabajo son generar bajo impacto medioambiental (incluyendo las emisiones de carbono, empleo de materiales locales, preferiblemente reciclados, y mano de obra local. Para esta construcción se han empleado bloques de hormigón de baja resistencia (con agregado reciclado junto con un innovador sistema de pórticos de bambú, botellas de plástico, vigas de bambú y cubiertas de chapa. El comportamiento dúctil de la estructura se garantiza introduciendo una barra de acero en la base del pórtico de bambú. Para proteger el bambú de la humedad, el pórtico se monta sobre un zócalo. Los resultados experimentales y analíticos obtenidos se utilizan para el diseño estructural del sistema frente a cargas de viento y sísmicas.

  2. Framing futures: visualizing on social-ecological systems change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    An appreciation of the complexity and uncertainty that characterizes linked human and natural systems - or social-ecological systems - has proliferated throughout the sciences in recent decades. However, dominant societal images, mental models and discourses frame the complexity of

  3. A short introduction to frames, Gabor systems, and wavelet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa.......In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa....

  4. Plant Wall Degradative Compounds and Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present invention relates to cell wall degradative systems, in particular to systems containing enzymes that bind to and/or depolymerize cellulose. These systems...

  5. Infill Walls Contribution on the Progressive Collapse Resistance of a Typical Mid-rise RC Framed Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besoiu, Teodora; Popa, Anca

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of the autoclaved aerated concrete infill walls on the progressive collapse resistance of a typical RC framed structure. The 13-storey building located in Brăila (a zone with high seismic risk in Romania) was designed according to the former Romanian seismic code P13-70 (1970). Two models of the structure are generated in the Extreme Loading® for Structures computer software: a model with infill walls and a model without infill walls. Following GSA (2003) Guidelines, a nonlinear dynamic procedure is used to determine the progressive collapse risk of the building when a first-storey corner column is suddenly removed. It was found that, the structure is not expected to fail under the standard GSA loading: DL+0.25LL. Moreover, if the infill walls are introduced in the model, the maximum vertical displacement of the node above the removed column is reduced by about 48%.

  6. Living Color Frame System: PC graphics tool for data visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1993-01-01

    Living Color Frame System (LCFS) is a personal computer software tool for generating real-time graphics applications. It is highly applicable for a wide range of data visualization in virtual environment applications. Engineers often use computer graphics to enhance the interpretation of data under observation. These graphics become more complicated when 'run time' animations are required, such as found in many typical modern artificial intelligence and expert systems. Living Color Frame System solves many of these real-time graphics problems.

  7. On frame properties for Fourier-like systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Osgooei, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    structure. An attractive class of frames is formed by letting the window functions be trigonometric polynomials, restricted to compact intervals. We prove, under weak conditions, that such systems generate a frame with a dual that is also generated by a trigonometric polynomial. For polynomial windows......, a result of this type does not hold. Throughout the paper the results are related to the well established theory for Gabor systems.......Fourier-like systems are formed by multiplying a class of exponentials with a set of window functions. Via the Fourier transform they are equivalent to shift-invariant systems. We present sufficient and easily verifiable conditions for such systems to form a frame with a dual frame having the same...

  8. Analysis of reconfigurable assembly system framing systems in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zain Mohamad Zamri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trend in automotive industry shows increasing demand for multiple models with lean production. Prior to that, automotive manufacturing systems evolved from mass production to flexible automation. Material handling systems and equipment in a single assembly line with multiple models require high investment but with low throughput thus making production cost relatively high. Current assembly process of side structure and undercarriage with downtime occurrence during assembly process affecting production performance (quality, cost and delivery. Manufacturing facilities should allow more flexibility and increase intelligence evolving toward novel reconfigurable assembly systems (RAS. RAS is envisaged capable of increasing factor flexibility and responsiveness by incorporating assembly jig, robot and framing, which could be next generation of world class automotive assembly systems. This project research proposes a new methodology of framework reconfigurable assembly systems principles in automotive framing systems i.e. enhance assembly process between side structure assembly and undercarriage assembly which a new RAS is capable to reconfigure the assembly processes of multiple model on a single assembly line. Simulation software (Witness will be used to simulate and validate current and proposed assembly process. RAS is expected to be a solution for rapid change in structure and for a responsively adjustable production capacity. Quality, cost and delivery are production key parameters that can be achieved by implementing RAS.

  9. Developing a Frame of Reference for understanding configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Edwards, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the theory of technical systems to develop a frame of reference of product configuration systems. Following a definition of the configuration task, product model and product configuration system the theory of technical systems are presented. Configuration systems are then related...

  10. Fracture Mechanics Models for Brittle Failure of Bottom Rails due to Uplift in Timber Frame Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen L. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In partially anchored timber frame shear walls, hold-down devices are not provided; hence the uplift forces are transferred by the fasteners of the sheathing-to-framing joints into the bottom rail and via anchor bolts from the bottom rail into the foundation. Since the force in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail is subjected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. This paper presents simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics for the analysis of such bottom rails. An existing model is reviewed and several alternative models are derived and compared qualitatively and with experimental data. It is concluded that several of the fracture mechanics models lead to failure load predictions which seem in sufficiently good agreement with the experimental results to justify their application in practical design.

  11. Vacuum system and wall conditioning in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usselmann, E.; Dietz, K.J.; Hemmerich, H.; Schueller, F.C.; Tanga, A.

    1984-01-01

    The JET vacuum system, operation experience and the modifications required for future Tritium operation are described. The techniques and results of the wall conditioning employed will be summarised with respect to plasma performance. Consequences for the choice of limiter and wall material will be discussed. (author)

  12. Experimental study on semi-active control of frame-shear wall eccentric structure using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Ling, Sr.; Li, Hong Nan, Sr.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper is a kind of intelligent actuator, which shows immense potential in the field of structural vibration control. The construction and mechanical behavior of MR damper are introduced firstly, and then a new mechanical model--double sigmoid model is proposed based on the experimental study of MR damper. The simulation system of the 3-floor frame-shear wall eccentric structure with MR dampers was built according to the coupled translation and torsion response control using MR damper, based on Matlab/Simulink software environment and hardware/software resources of dSPACE. The shaking table experiment of the structural model was implemented by using rapid control prototyping (RCP) technology. The validity of two passive control strategies and one semi-active control strategy is verified under three input earthquake excitation with different peak value. The experimental results show that the coupled translation and torsion response is significantly mitigated, and the semi-active control strategies can achieve higher performance levels as compared to those of the two passive control cases. Moreover, the location of the MR damper has an important effect on the control results.

  13. Conceptual frames for changing production system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In order to integrate ergonomic aspects into the design of products and production systems many tools and procedures are available. For the ergonomists, however, it is a question of recognizing the organizational context and the role to play for making integration possible. Based on an understand...

  14. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders.

  15. FRAMES Software System: Linking to the Statistical Package R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castleton, Karl J.; Whelan, Gene; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2006-12-11

    This document provides requirements, design, data-file specifications, test plan, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control protocol for the linkage between the statistical package R and the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Versions 1.x and 2.0. The requirements identify the attributes of the system. The design describes how the system will be structured to meet those requirements. The specification presents the specific modifications to FRAMES to meet the requirements and design. The test plan confirms that the basic functionality listed in the requirements (black box testing) actually functions as designed, and QA/QC confirms that the software meets the client’s needs.

  16. On extensions of wavelet systems to dual pairs of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2015-01-01

    It is an open problem whether any pair of Bessel sequences with wavelet structure can be extended to a pair of dual frames by adding a pair of singly generated wavelet systems. We consider the particular case where the given wavelet systems are generated by the multiscale setup with trigonometric...... masks and provide a positive answer under extra assumptions. We also identify a number of conditions that are necessary for the extension to dual (multi-) wavelet frames with any number of generators, and show that they imply that an extension with two pairs of wavelet systems is possible. Along the way...

  17. Frame Decoder for Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Miguel A. De Jesus

    2014-01-01

    GNU Radio is a free and open source development toolkit that provides signal processing to implement software radios. It can be used with low-cost external RF hardware to create software defined radios, or without hardware in a simulation-like environment. GNU Radio applications are primarily written in Python and C++. The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a computer-hosted software radio designed by Ettus Research. The USRP connects to a host computer via high-speed Gigabit Ethernet. Using the open source Universal Hardware Driver (UHD), we can run GNU Radio applications using the USRP. An SDR is a "radio in which some or all physical layer functions are software defined"(IEEE Definition). A radio is any kind of device that wirelessly transmits or receives radio frequency (RF) signals in the radio frequency. An SDR is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware are implemented in software. GNU Radio has a generic packet decoder block that is not optimized for CCSDS frames. Using this generic packet decoder will add bytes to the CCSDS frames and will not permit for bit error correction using Reed-Solomon. The CCSDS frames consist of 256 bytes, including a 32-bit sync marker (0x1ACFFC1D). This frames are generated by the Space Data Processor and GNU Radio will perform the modulation and framing operations, including frame synchronization.

  18. Static and free-vibrational response of semi-circular graphite-epoxy frames with thin-walled open sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Scott; Johnson, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the three-dimensional static and free vibrational response of two graphite-epoxy, thin-walled, open section frames. The frames are semi-circular with a radius of three feet, and one specimen has an I cross section and the other has a channel cross section. The flexibility influence coefficients were measured in static tests for loads applied at midspan with the ends of the specimens clamped. Natural frequencies and modes were determined from vibrational tests for free and clamped end conditions. The experimental data is used to evaluate a new finite element which was developed specifically for the analysis of curved, thin-walled structures. The formulation of the element is based on a Vlasov-type, thin-walled, curved beam theory. The predictions from the finite element program generally correlated well with the experimental data for the symmetric I-specimen. Discrepancies in some of the data were found to be due to flexibility in the clamped end conditions. With respect to the data for the channel specimen, the correlation was less satisfactory. The finite element analysis predicted the out-of-plane response of the channel specimen reasonably well, but large discrepancies occurred between the predicted in-plane response and the experimental data. The analysis predicted a much more compliant in-plane response than was observed in the experiments.

  19. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-10

    A zero energy ready home was recently completed that features an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system, called the extended plate and beam, is for use above grade in residential buildings. The Building America research team Home Innovation Research Labs featured this system in a new construction test house.

  20. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  1. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  2. INTOR impurity control and first wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1983-04-01

    The highlights of the recent INTOR effort on examining the key issues of the impurity control/first wall system are summarized. The emphasis of the work was an integrated study of the edge-region physics, plasma-wall interaction, materials, engineering and magnetic considerations associated with the poloidal divertor and pump limiter. The development of limiter and divertor collector plate designs with an acceptable lifetime was a major part of the work

  3. Frame model of knowledge in quality control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macherauskas, V.Yu.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a semiotic model for representation of data and knowledge in a system for supplying operational information to management personnel on the progress of a technological process, with the aim of enabling an analysis of deviations of product quality and formulation of recommendations to the technologists as to how to eliminate them. Since any knowledge of people that can be realistically utilized in machine systems is represented in natural language form, special languages for representation of knowledge, based on the concept of frames, are being developed for formation of semiotic models in computers. This article defines the frames, followed by a description of a mechanism of knowledge manipulation and of some aspects of realization of a frame model of knowledge. 9 references.

  4. Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, Joseph [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This report presents the design and evaluation of an innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  5. An approximate method for lateral stability analysis of wall-frame ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Example 2. The frame structure with two spans eleven storeys in figure 4 has been considered for Example 2. The section properties of columns and heights of the storeys are given in table 4. All girders have the same cross section, and the modulus of elasticity of the structure is E = 25000 MN/m2. The equivalent rigidities of ...

  6. Dynamic Response of Wall Backfill Retaining System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ full-scale test is conducted to measure the dynamic response of a long cantilever wall that retains backfill soil. The recorded modal parameters of this retaining wall exhibited significant similarity to those of a clamped cantilever plate (rather than those of a cantilever beam or plane-strain analysis. Such a three-dimensional (3-D response pattern is not accounted for by current analysis procedures. A simple 3-D finite element model is employed to further analyze the observed resonant configurations. The results indicate that such configurations play an important role in the seismic response of wall backfill soil systems of variable height, such as wing walls supporting highway approach ramps.

  7. Floating frame grounding system. [for wind tunnel static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a floating frame grounding system (FFGS) for the 40- by 80-foot low speed wind tunnel facility at the NASA Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex is addresssed. When electrical faults are detected, the FFGS ensures a ground path for the fault current. In addition, the FFGS alerts the tunnel operator when a mechanical foul occurs.

  8. Responses of a 58-story RC dual core shear wall and outrigger frame building inferred from two earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Responses of a dual core shear-wall and outrigger-framed 58-story building recorded during the Mw6.0 Napa earthquake of 24 August 2014 and the Mw3.8 Berkeley earthquake of 20 October 2011 are used to identify its dynamic characteristics and behavior. Fundamental frequencies are 0.28 Hz (NS), 0.25 Hz (EW), and 0.43 Hz (torsional). Rigid body motions due to rocking are not significant. Average drift ratios are small. Outrigger frames do not affect average drift ratios or mode shapes. Local site effects do not affect the response; however, response associated with deeper structure may be substantial. A beating effect is observed from data of both earthquakes but beating periods are not consistent. Low critical damping ratios may have contributed to the beating effect. Torsion is relatively larger above outriggers as indicated by the time-histories of motions at the roof, possibly due to the discontinuity of the stiffer shear walls above level 47.

  9. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI; Dineshbabu MALLAVALLI; Ramya PEDDI; Neelesh KATRAGADDA; Prudhvikrishna MULPURU

    2012-01-01

    Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnishe...

  10. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  11. Design of a wavelength frame multiplication system using acceptance diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrassov, D.; Zendler, C.; Lieutenant, K.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Wavelength Frame Multiplication (WFM) was developed to extend the usable wavelength range on long pulse neutron sources for instruments using pulse shaping choppers. For some instruments, it is combined with a pulse shaping double chopper, which defines a constant wavelength resolution, and a set of frame overlap choppers that prevent spurious neutrons from reaching the detector thus avoiding systematic errors in the calculation of wavelength from time of flight. Due to its complexity, the design of such a system is challenging and there are several criteria that need to be accounted for. In this work, the design of the WFM chopper system for a potential future liquids reflectometer at the European Spallation Source (ESS) is presented, which makes use of acceptance diagrams. They prove to be a powerful tool for understanding the work principle of the system and recognizing potential problems. The authors assume that the presented study can be useful for design or upgrade of further instruments, in particular the ones planned for the ESS. -- Highlights: • Design of a wavelength frame multiplication system for a long pulse source beamline. • First application of the acceptance diagrams method to WFM systems. • Confirmation of analytical considerations by neutronic MC simulations. • Implications of this work for instrument design at the European Spallation Source

  12. Experimental study on the influence of the opening in brick-masonry wall to seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidiawati, Tanjung, Jafril; Medriosa, Hamdeni

    2017-10-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures with brick-masonry infills are commonly used in developing countries and high-risk seismic area, such as Indonesia. Significant researches have been carried out for studying the seismic performance of RC frame structures with brick-masonry infills. Only few of them focused on effects of the opening in the brick-masonry infill to the seismic performance of the RC frame structures. The presence of opening in brick-masonry infill is often used for placing doors and windows as well, however, it may reduce the seismic performance of the RC frame structure. In the current study, they influence of the opening in brick-masonry infills to the seismic performance RC frame structure will experimentally evaluated. Five of 1/4-scaled single story and single bay RC frame specimens were prepared, i.e. an RC bare frame, a clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame and three of clay brick-masonry infilled RC frame with openings in the brick-masonry infills. The last three specimens were clay brick infilled RC frame with a center opening, clay brick infilled RC frame with two openings used for placing the windows and clay brick infilled RC frame with opening for placing the door. The specimens pushed over by applying the static monotonic lateral load to the upper beam of the RC frame structures. The incremental of the lateral load and the lateral displacement of RC frame's column was recorded during test. The crack propagation and the major cracks were also observed to identify the mechanism failure of specimens. As the results, the opening in the brick-masonry wall controls the failure mechanism, the lateral strength and the stiffness of the overall of infilled RC frame structure. The diagonal shear crack pattern was found on brick-masonry wall without opening, on other hand the different crack patterns were observed on brick-masonry wall with openings. Although the opening in the brick masonry infill reduced the lateral strength and stiffness of

  13. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.

  14. Effects of Precast Cladding Systems on Dynamic Characteristics of Steel Frame Buildings by Ambient and Free Vibration Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale tests on a one-story steel frame structure with a typical precast cladding system using ambient and free vibration methods are described in detail. The cladding system is primarily composed of ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight Concrete external wall cladding panels, gypsum plasterboard interior linings, and window glazing systems. Ten test cases including the bare steel frame and the steel frame with addition of different parts of the precast cladding system are prepared for detailed investigations. The amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristics of the test cases including natural frequencies and damping ratios determined from the tests are presented. The effects of the ALC external wall cladding panels, the gypsum plasterboard interior linings, and the window glazing systems on the stiffness and structural damping of the steel frame are discussed in detail. The effect of the precast cladding systems on the amplitude dependency of the dynamic characteristics and the tendencies of the dynamic parameters with respect to the structural response amplitude are investigated over a wide range. Furthermore, results estimated from the ambient vibration method are compared with those from the free vibration tests to evaluate the feasibility of the ambient vibration method.

  15. Development of NRU reflector wall inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, R.H.; Luloff, B.V.; Zahn, N.; Simpson, N., E-mail: lumsdenr@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    In 2009 May, the National Research Universal (NRU) calandria leaked. During the next year, the calandria was inspected with six new Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques to determine the extent of the corrosion, repaired, and finally the repair was inspected with four additional new NDE techniques before the reactor was returned to service. The calandria is surrounded by a light-water reflector vessel fabricated from the same material as the calandria vessel. Concerns that the same corrosion mechanism had damaged the reflector vessel led to the development of a system to inspect the full circumference of the reflector wall for corrosion damage. The inspection region could only be accessed through 64 mm diameter ports, was 10 m below the port, and had to be inspected from the corroded surface. The ultrasonic technique was designed to produce a closely spaced wall thickness (WT) grid over an area of approximately 5 m2 on the corroded surface using a very small probe holder. This paper describes the Reflector Wall Inspection (RWI) development project and the system that resulted. (author)

  16. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a topic of current interest due to its wide range of public safety, law enforcement, and defense applications. Among the various available technologies such as, acoustic, thermal, and optical imaging, which can be employed to sense and image targets of interest, electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in the microwave frequency bands, is the most widely utilized technology and has been at the forefront of research in recent years. The primary objectives for any Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) system are to obtain a layout of the building and/or inner rooms, detect if there are targets of interest including humans or weapons, determine if there are countermeasures being employed to further obscure the contents of a building or room of interest, and finally to classify the detected targets. Unlike conventional radar scenarios, the presence of walls, made of common construction materials such as brick, drywall, plywood, cinder block, and solid concrete, adversely affects the ability of any conventional imaging technique to properly image targets enclosed within building structures as the propagation through the wall can induce shadowing effects on targets of interest which may result in image degradation, errors in target localization, and even complete target masking. For many applications of TWR systems, the wall ringing signals are strong enough to mask the returns from targets not located a sufficient distance behind the wall, beyond the distance of the wall ringing, and thus without proper wall mitigation, target detection becomes extremely difficult. The results presented in this thesis focus on the development of wall parameter estimation, and intra-wall and wall-type characterization techniques for use in both the time and frequency domains as well as analysis of these techniques under various real world scenarios such as reduced system bandwidth scenarios, various wall backing scenarios, the case of inhomogeneous walls, presence

  17. Behaviour and Modelling of Semi-rigid Structural Frame Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The computer software ABAQUS is used. Experimental investigations were designed in order to evaluate frame load-deflection characteristics, joint local rotations, failure modes, and the contribution of end-plates and bolt connectors to the joint rotations. Theoretical results of frame load-deflection characteristics predicted ...

  18. Generalized shift-invariant systems and frames for subspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Eldar, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    )(j is an element of J,k is an element of Z) are Bessel sequences, we are interested in expansions [GRAPHICS] Our main result gives an equivalent condition for this to hold in a more general setting than described here, where translation by k is an element of Z(d) is replaced by translation via the action......Let T-k denote translation by k is an element of Z(d). Given countable collections of functions {phi(j)}(j is an element of J), {(phi) over bar (j)}(j is an element of J) subset of L-2(R-d) and assuming that {T(k)phi(j)}(j is an element of J,k is an element of Z)(d) and {T-k(phi) over bar (j)} (d...... of a matrix. As special cases of our result we find conditions for shift-invariant systems, Gabor systems, and wavelet systems to generate a subspace frame with a corresponding dual having the same structure....

  19. Research Advances on Fabricated Shear Wall System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Donghui; Wang, Sheng; Zhai, Yu

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of the construction industry, building energy consumption has been increasing, has become a problem that can not be ignored. It is imperative to develop energy-saving buildings. A new type of prefabricated shear wall is assembled and partially assembled by prefabricated parts, and some concrete is spliced together. The new structure has good integrity, seismic resistance and excellent energy saving and environmental protection performance. It reduces building energy consumption to a great extent. Therefore, the design method, manufacturing process, site assembly process and key technical problems of the system are discussed. For the construction industry gradually entered the energy conservation, environmental protection, safety and durability of sustainable development laid the foundation.

  20. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  1. Extended Plate and Beam Wall System: Concept Investigation and Initial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new and innovative High-R wall design, referred to as the Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B), is under development. The EP&B system uniquely integrates foam sheathing insulation with wall framing such that wood structural panels are installed exterior of the foam sheathing, enabling the use of standard practices for installation of drainage plane, windows and doors, claddings, cavity insulation, and the standard exterior foam sheathing installation approach prone to damage of the foam during transportation of prefabricated wall panels. As part of the ongoing work, the EP&B wall system concept has undergone structural verification testing and has been positively vetted by a group of industry stakeholders. Having passed these initial milestone markers, the advanced wall system design has been analyzed to assess cost implications relative to other advanced wall systems, undergone design assessment to develop construction details, and has been evaluated to develop representative prescriptive requirements for the building code. This report summarizes the assessment steps conducted to-date and provides details of the concept development.

  2. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate. Of primary interest is the influence of the ICF walls on developing an effective air sealing strategy and selecting an appropriate heating and cooling equipment type and capacity. The domestic water heating system is analyzed for costs and savings to investigate options for higher efficiency electric water heating. A method to ensure mechanical ventilation air flows is examined. The final solution package includes high-R mass walls, very low infiltration rates, multi-stage heat pump heating, solar thermal domestic hot water system, and energy recovery ventilation. This solution package can be used for homes to exceed 2012 International Energy Conservation Code requirements throughout all climate zones and achieves the DOE Challenge Home certification.

  3. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  4. Project ME: A Report on the Learning Wall System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Morton L.

    The learning wall system, which consists primarily of a special wall used instead of a screen for a variety of projection purposes, is described, shown diagrammatically, and pictured. Designed to provide visual perceptual motor training on a level that would fall between gross and fine motor performance for perceptually handicapped children, the…

  5. Cut-off wall system for subsurface liquid containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.; Khan, F.

    1997-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the use of a Cut-off Wall System (CWS) in conjunction with conventional soil bentonite slurry walls. The system is a vertical subsurface containment solution for isolating contaminated soils and groundwater in situ, thereby enhancing protection of the environment. The CWS is composed of geomembrane panels and specially designed connectors that form an interlocking subsurface vertical barrier wall. This system provides a cost effective, easily installed, positive cut-off for isolation of mixed and hazardous wastes, and wastes from uncontrolled releases. This application will address manufacturing, fabrication, installation, strength, QA/QC, chemical compatibility, and permeability

  6. Case history: Vertical barrier wall system for Superfund Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, M.A.; Kovac, C.P.; Norris, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Design considerations and construction aspects are presented for the installation of a vertical barrier wall system for the Boeing Company at a Superfund Site near Seattle, WA. The construction was performed during 1996. The vertical barrier wall system included: (1) a soil-bentonite (SB) slurry wall, approximately 670 meters (2200 feet) in length, ranging from 12 to 21 meters (40 to 70 feet) in depth; (2) expansion of a cover system over the area enclosed by the SB wall; and (3) surface drainage improvements. Design and construction of the system addressed requirements of a Consent Decree for the site issued in 1993. The paper discusses the development of the design to meet remedial performance goals of preventing migration of contaminants in the soil/groundwater system and aiding aquifer restoration. Secondly, the paper details installation of the SB wall, highlighting the more significant construction issues, which included excavation of the wall through glacially deposited cobbles/boulders/till as well as addressing the severe elevation changes along the wall alignment. Thirdly, the paper presents Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring and testing performed during the construction phase

  7. Rotating wall vessel system designed for fluorescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayag, Tristan J.; Dimitrijevich, S. Dan; Del Gallego, Lauren C.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescent imaging of cells and tissues cultured within a rotating wall vessel bioreactor offers quantitative assessment of the 3-dimensional aggregation of cells into tissue constructs. We present the design of a rotating wall vessel system optimized for real-time fluorescent analysis. The modulation transfer function of our system is found to be superior to the commercially-available vessel used in previous fluorescence imaging studies. We demonstrate dynamic fluorescent imaging of DAPI-stained porcine pancreatic islets.

  8. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Final Orbit/Reference Frame Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Final Orbit/Reference Frame Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information...

  9. Numerical study of a modified Trombe wall solar collector system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Snežana M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents numerical analysis of efficiency of the modified Trombe wall with forced convection. The analyzed system comprises a double glass glazing, and a massive wall with opening and central channel in it. In order to increase the efficiency, a fan is provided at the bottom vent of the wall. It is more advanced as compared with simple Trombe solar wall with a relatively low thermal resistance, which is taken as a reference in experimental analysis. The mathematical model, composed for the massive solar wall efficiency, is usually very complicated and assessment of the thermal behavior requires the use of thermal simulation techniques. This paper presents steady-state and one-dimensional mathematical model for simplified analysis of thermal efficiency of modified Trombe solar wall. The results from presented model were analyzed to predict the effects of variations in the operational parameters on the solar wall efficiency: solar radiation intensity, air velocity in the entrance duct, and room air temperature. The results have been compared with the available experimental study, and the comparison has shown satisfactory agreement. The obtained results have be used for simple and fast running design tools that designers can use in the early phases of the design process for approximate calculations of efficiency of the passive solar heating systems.

  10. Regional wall thickening in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in a Japanese population: effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Nasima; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Taki, Junichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2008-01-01

    Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of myocardium by 99m Tc and 201 Tl is used extensively to measure quantitative cardiac functional parameters. However, factors affecting normal values for myocardial functional parameters and population-specific standards have not yet been established. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of sex, radiotracer, rotation angles and frame rates on resting myocardial wall thickening (WT) and to develop a Japanese standard of normal values for WT. Data from a total of 202 patients with low possibility of having cardiac problems were collected from nine hospitals throughout Japan. Patients were divided into five groups according to study protocol, and WT was evaluated according to the 17-segment and four-region (basal, mid and apical regions and the apex) polar map distribution. WT was generally higher in women than in men irrespective of the use of radiotracers, rotation angles or frame rates, and the difference was highly significant in the mid and apical regions. In any protocol used, resting myocardial thickening in the apex was higher than in the mid and apical regions, and thickening was lowest in the basal region, suggesting heterogeneous regional myocardial thickening (%) in normal subjects. Different rotation angles showed no significant change on WT, but different frame rates and tracers showed significant WT change in both sexes. Percent thickening of the myocardium was significantly higher in imaging by 99m Tc-labelled tracers than in 201 Tl. Sex, radiotracers and frame rates had a significant effect on myocardial thickening, and the importance of population-specific standards should be emphasized. A normal database can serve as a standard for gated SPECT evaluation of myocardial thickening in a Japanese population and might be applicable to Asian populations having a similar physique. (orig.)

  11. Multifunctional outer wall systems; Multifunktionale Aussenwandsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahne, E.; Twerdy, C. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Pfluger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Facades will have a multitude of functions in the future. All of them will be energy-oriented and overall energy balances considering production, utilization and destruction will become an important factor. For a detached house and multiple dwelling, examples of facade constructions and appliances are discussed. A `Solar Wall` facade provides preheating of combustion air in a combined heating/power station. Progressive facade elements are being investigated in so-called `Test Cells` for determining their heat transfer coefficient (k), their heat capacity (C) and their energy transport factor (g). PV modules are investigated in such cells in order to work out European Rules for the testing of PV-hybrid components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fassaden werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl von Funktionen zu erfuellen haben. Alle werden letztlich energieorientiert sein; gesamtheitliche Betrachtungen von der Produktion ueber die Nutzung bis zur Entsorgung werden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Fuer ein Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaus werden Beispiele fuer die Fassadenkonstruktion und Geraetschaften angefuehrt. In einem Fernheizkraftwerk dient eine `Solarwand` zur Vorwaermung der Verbrennungsluft. Fortschrittliche Fassaden-Elemente werden in sogenannten Testzellen untersucht hinsichtlich ihres Gesamtwaermedurchgangskoeffizienten, ihrer Waermekapazitaet und ihres Gesamtenergie-Durchlassgrads. PV-Module werden gegenwaertig in diesen Zellen untersucht, um Testregeln fuer PV-Hybridkomponenten fuer die Europaeische Union auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  12. Schedulability-Driven Frame Packing for Multi-Cluster Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to frame packing for multi-cluster distributed embedded systems consisting of time-triggered and event-triggered clusters, interconnected via gateways. In our approach, the application messages are packed into frames such that the application is schedulable. Thus, we have...... also proposed a schedulability analysis for applications consisting of mixed event-triggered and time-triggered processes and messages, and a worst case queuing delay analysis for the gateways, responsible for routing inter-cluster traffic. Optimization heuristics for frame packing aiming at producing...

  13. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbary, Lawrence D. [Dow Corning Corporation; Perkins, Laura L. [Dow Corning Corporation; Serino, Roland [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Preston, Bill [Dryvit Systems, Inc; Kosny, Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Inc. CSE

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  14. The visual system encodes others' direction of gaze in a first-person frame of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin J; Clifford, Colin W G

    2017-11-01

    The primate visual system contains specialised neural mechanisms for encoding the direction of others' gaze. A foundational question that we can ask in this domain concerns the frame of reference in which another person's gaze is represented. Electrophysiological recordings in macaque monkeys suggest that direction of gaze might be encoded relative to the observer (i.e., in a first person reference frame) or relative to the head or body of the stimulus (i.e., in a second person reference frame). Here we use sensory adaptation to gaze direction as a psychophysical tool to probe how this property of the environment is represented in the human visual system. We find that strong perceptual aftereffects occur following adaptation to images that share a common direction of gaze in the first person reference frame, but vary in their direction of gaze in the second person reference frame. In contrast, sensory aftereffects do not occur following adaptation to images that share a common direction of gaze in the second person reference frame. These findings suggest that the adaptive coding of gaze direction in the human visual system occurs primarily in a first-person coordinate system. These data also provide strong support for perceptual constancy in the context of perceived gaze direction, implying that the direction of others' attention is represented in the brain as a higher-level perceptual property abstracted from lower-level cues (e.g., iris position and head rotation). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding sustainability from an exergetic frame in complex adaptive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Hernandez, Glem Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability was developed from thermodynamic properties applied to complex adaptive systems. The origins of the perception about sustainable development and limitation in its application to analyze the interaction between a system and its surroundings were described. The properties of a complex adaptive system were taken as basis to determine how a system can to be affected by the resources restriction and irreversibility of the processes. The complex adaptive system was understood using the first and second law of thermodynamics, generating a conceptual framework to define the sustainability of a system. The contributions developed by exergy were shown to analyze the sustainability of systems in an economic, social and environmental context [es

  16. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  17. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  18. Framing in innovation. Towards sustainable agro-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartkruis, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability issues in the agro-food sector have become increasingly important, and in order to deal with these sustainability issues, innovations are deemed necessary. Only introducing new technologies is not enough, system innovations are needed in which changes in the whole socio-technical

  19. Sustainable urban systems: Co-design and framing for transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert; Bai, Xuemei; Smith, Mark Stafford; Costanza, Robert; Griggs, David; Moglia, Magnus; Neuman, Michael; Newman, Peter; Newton, Peter; Norman, Barbara; Ryan, Chris; Schandl, Heinz; Steffen, Will; Tapper, Nigel; Thomson, Giles

    2018-02-01

    Rapid urbanisation generates risks and opportunities for sustainable development. Urban policy and decision makers are challenged by the complexity of cities as social-ecological-technical systems. Consequently there is an increasing need for collaborative knowledge development that supports a whole-of-system view, and transformational change at multiple scales. Such holistic urban approaches are rare in practice. A co-design process involving researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders, has progressed such an approach in the Australian context, aiming to also contribute to international knowledge development and sharing. This process has generated three outputs: (1) a shared framework to support more systematic knowledge development and use, (2) identification of barriers that create a gap between stated urban goals and actual practice, and (3) identification of strategic focal areas to address this gap. Developing integrated strategies at broader urban scales is seen as the most pressing need. The knowledge framework adopts a systems perspective that incorporates the many urban trade-offs and synergies revealed by a systems view. Broader implications are drawn for policy and decision makers, for researchers and for a shared forward agenda.

  20. Artificial frame filling using adaptive neural fuzzy inference system for particle image velocimetry dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Bayram; Doǧan, Sercan; Aksoy, Muharrem H.; Canli, Eyüp; Özgören, Muammer

    2015-03-01

    Liquid behaviors are very important for many areas especially for Mechanical Engineering. Fast camera is a way to observe and search the liquid behaviors. Camera traces the dust or colored markers travelling in the liquid and takes many pictures in a second as possible as. Every image has large data structure due to resolution. For fast liquid velocity, there is not easy to evaluate or make a fluent frame after the taken images. Artificial intelligence has much popularity in science to solve the nonlinear problems. Adaptive neural fuzzy inference system is a common artificial intelligence in literature. Any particle velocity in a liquid has two dimension speed and its derivatives. Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System has been used to create an artificial frame between previous and post frames as offline. Adaptive neural fuzzy inference system uses velocities and vorticities to create a crossing point vector between previous and post points. In this study, Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System has been used to fill virtual frames among the real frames in order to improve image continuity. So this evaluation makes the images much understandable at chaotic or vorticity points. After executed adaptive neural fuzzy inference system, the image dataset increase two times and has a sequence as virtual and real, respectively. The obtained success is evaluated using R2 testing and mean squared error. R2 testing has a statistical importance about similarity and 0.82, 0.81, 0.85 and 0.8 were obtained for velocities and derivatives, respectively.

  1. Effects of frame shadow on the PV character of a photovoltaic/thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunyun; Pei, Gang; Zhang, Longcan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a method for predicting the performance of a partly shaded PV cell. • Even a small shadow can significantly affect the performance of a PV/T system. • A parallel circuit is better than a series circuit in addressing partial shadows. • The total output of a series circuit within a day/year is higher than that of a parallel circuit. - Abstract: Most photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems have an air layer between the glass cover and the cells to minimize heat loss and to improve overall efficiency. This feature is not found in typical PV systems. The frame border that supports the glass cover casts a shadow over the cells near the frame when sunlight is slanted. This design is common in PV/T systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of a frame shadow on PV/T systems. A mathematical model of a PV module in a PV/T system is established. An experimental research on a partly shaded single cell is then conducted. Based on the module model and the results of the experiment, a single cell model that simulates the performance of partly shaded cells is developed and integrated into an existing system model. The new model can be applied to simulate frame shadow in a PV/T system. Results show that the performance of a partly shaded single cell can be calculated as the cell operates below the average irradiation intensity of the shaded and unshaded parts. In the worst-case scenario, the frame shadow can cause a 39.3% decrease in photoelectric efficiency. Although the parallel circuit performs better than the series circuit in minimizing loss caused by the frame shadow, the latter has a higher total output

  2. Evaluation of a KeyStone/Tensar geogrid retaining wall system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The KeyStone/Tensar Geogrid retaining wall system is an alternative to conventional reinforced concrete retaining wall structures. KeyStone concrete wall units, Tensar geogrid, and compacted soils are combined to form a reinforced soil mass that toge...

  3. Weyl-Heisenberg frames, translation invariant systems, and the Walnut representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.G.; Christensen, Ole; Janssen, A. J. E. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the convergence properties of the frame operators of Weyl-Heisenberg systems and shift-invariant systems, and relate these to the convergence of the Walnut representation. We give a deep analysis of necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for converge...

  4. Extension of shift-invariant systems in L2(ℝ) to frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Christensen, Ole; Huang, Xinli

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we show that any shift-invariant Bessel sequence with an at most countable number of generators can be extended to a tight frame for its closed linear span by adding another shift-invariant system with at most the same number of generators. We show that in general this result...... is optimal, by providing examples where it is impossible to obtain a tight frame by adding a smaller number of generators. An alternative construction (which avoids the technical complication of extracting the square root of a positive operator) yields an extension of the given Bessel sequence to a pair...

  5. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhu, XueJun; Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao

    2016-01-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  6. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng [Academy of Equipment, Beijing 101416 (China); College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, XueJun, E-mail: zhuxuejun1990@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  7. Harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems : Ecological sanitation in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, M.; Vervoort, J.; Snel, D.; de Castro, F.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a case study on ecological sanitation as a basis for lessons on identifying and harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems, thereby moving beyond the advocacy positions often taken by implementing NGOs. The study aimed to explore how perspectives between

  8. Frame, bit and chip error rate evaluation for a DSSS communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Castillo–Soria

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The relation between chips, bits and frames error rates in the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN channel for a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS system, in Multiple Access Interference (MAI conditions is evaluated. A simple error–correction code (ECC for the Frame Error Rate (FER evaluation is used. 64 bits (chips Pseudo Noise (PN sequences are employed for the spread spectrum transmission.An iterative Montecarlo (stochastic simulation is used to evaluate how many errors on chips are introduced for channel effects and how they are related to the bit errors. It can be observed how the bit errors may eventually cause a frame error, i. e. CODEC or communication error. These results are useful for academics, engineers, or professionals alike.

  9. The slow control system of the HADES RPC wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Blanco, A.; Castro, E.; Díaz, J.; Garzón, J.A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Fouedjio, L.; Kolb, B.W.; Palka, M.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Zumbruch, P.

    2012-01-01

    The control and monitoring system for the new HADES RPC time of flight wall installed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Darmstadt, Germany), is described. The slow control system controls/monitors about 6000 variables from different physical devices via a distributed architecture, which uses intensively the 1-wire ® bus. The software implementation is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software tool kit providing low cost, reliability and adaptability without requiring large hardware resources. The control and monitoring system attends five different subsystems: front-end electronics, low voltage, high voltage, gases, and detector.

  10. Dynamic modeling and response of soil-wall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veletsos, A.S.; Younan, A.H.

    1993-10-01

    The study reported herein is the third in a series of investigations motivated by need to gain improved understanding of the responses to earthquakes of deeply embedded and underground tanks storing radioactive wastes, and to develop rational but simple methods of analysis and design for such systems. Following a brief review of the errors that may result from the use of a popular model for evaluating the dynamic soil forces induced in a base-excited rigid wall retaining an elastic stratum, the sources of the errors are identified and a modification is proposed which defines correctly the action of the system. In the proposed modification, the stratum is modeled by a series of elastically supported, semi-infinite horizontal bars with distributed mass instead of massless springs. The concepts involved are introduced by reference to a system composed of a fixed-based wall and a homogeneous elastic stratum, and are then applied to the analysis of more complex soil-wall systems. Both harmonic and transient excitations are considered, and comprehensive numerical solutions are presented which elucidate the actions involved and the effects and relative importance of the relevant parameters

  11. The algorithm of random length sequences synthesis for frame synchronization of digital television systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аndriy V. Sadchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital television systems need to ensure that all digital signals processing operations are performed simultaneously and consistently. Frame synchronization dictated by the need to match phases of transmitter and receiver so that it would be possible to identify the start of a frame. As a frame synchronization signals are often used long length binary sequence with good aperiodic autocorrelation function. Aim: This work is dedicated to the development of the algorithm of random length sequences synthesis. Materials and Methods: The paper provides a comparative analysis of the known sequences, which can be used at present as synchronization ones, revealed their advantages and disadvantages. This work proposes the algorithm for the synthesis of binary synchronization sequences of random length with good autocorrelation properties based on noise generator with a uniform distribution law of probabilities. A "white noise" semiconductor generator is proposed to use as the initial material for the synthesis of binary sequences with desired properties. Results: The statistical analysis of the initial implementations of the "white noise" and synthesized sequences for frame synchronization of digital television is conducted. The comparative analysis of the synthesized sequences with known ones was carried out. The results show the benefits of obtained sequences in compare with known ones. The performed simulations confirm the obtained results. Conclusions: Thus, the search algorithm of binary synchronization sequences with desired autocorrelation properties received. According to this algorithm, the sequence can be longer in length and without length limitations. The received sync sequence can be used for frame synchronization in modern digital communication systems that will increase their efficiency and noise immunity.

  12. Framing the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords

  13. Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Science Center, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cheung, Ken K.S. [Housing Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-08-15

    An experimental approach is used to assess the effect of vegetation on the thermal performance of a vertical greening system, which comprised of turf-based vertical planting modules, on an elevated facade wall of a public housing apartment. Despite temperature fluctuations in the various compartments external and internal to a concrete wall, the vegetated cladding reduced interior temperatures and delayed the transfer of solar heat, which consequently reduced power consumption in air-conditioning compared with a building envelope with bare concrete. Vegetation cover led to a different pattern of temperature fluctuations on wall surfaces, which may affect the comfort of occupants even after sunset. The cooling effect which was closely associated with the area covered by living plants and moisture in the growth medium, demonstrated the value of maintaining a healthy vegetation cover beyond visual amenity. Marked variation in moisture distribution along the vertical profile of the growth medium highlighted a concern rarely addressed in planting on ground. Substrate moisture measured at randomly selected locations would underestimate the water stress in some plants and impair their survival. (author)

  14. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  15. Study of an active wall solar heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, Talal

    2006-01-01

    An active wall solar heating system was built and tested. In the same time a compatible computer program has been according to set the recommended dimensions for the solar collectors where (F-Chart) method used to set the ratio of monthly solar sharing average for the examined heating system. Some parameters, such as collectors' areas, its tilt angle and near earth reflecting were experimentally investigated, affecting the executed active solar heating system performance. The study explain the ability of using this system which is simple, Low coast and high performance in heating residential and public buildings and heating water with ratio of yearly solar sharing achieves the needed saving of using this system.(Author)

  16. Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representations: An investigation of programming paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The project was initiated to research Object Oriented Programming Systems (OOPS) and frame representation systems, their significance and applicability, and their implementation in or relationship to Ada. Object orientated is currently a very popular conceptual adjective. Object oriented programming, in particular, is promoted as a particularly productive approach to programming; an approach which maximizes opportunities for code reuse and lends itself to the definition of convenient and well-developed units. Such units are thus expected to be usable in a variety of situations, beyond the typical highly specific unit development of other approaches. Frame represenation systems share a common heritage and similar conceptual foundations. Together they represent a quickly emerging alternative approach to programming. The approach is to first define the terms, starting with relevant concepts and using these to put bounds on what is meant by OOPS and Frames. From this the possibilities were pursued to merge OOPS with Ada which will further elucidate the significant characteristics which make up this programming approach. Finally, some of the merits and demerits of OOPS were briefly considered as a way of addressing the applicability of OOPS to various programming tasks.

  17. Optical loop framing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system

  18. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  19. Frames and semi-frames

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Balazs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, bot...

  20. How the Framing of Instructional Coaching as a Lever for Systemic or Individual Reform Influences the Enactment of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Dunsmore, KaiLonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Instructional coaching is framed as both a means for systemic and individual reform. These competing conceptualizations of coaching as a mechanism for change have not been systematically examined, and therefore, we know little about how the framing of instructional coaching initiatives affects the enactment of coaching. In response to…

  1. 30 CFR 77.703 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 77.703 Section 77.703 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703 Grounding frames of...

  2. 30 CFR 75.704 - Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving power from ungrounded delta systems. 75.704 Section 75.704 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.704 Grounding frames of stationary high-voltage equipment receiving...

  3. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, J.; Stich, D.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.

    2014-05-01

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  4. Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

  5. Inter-frame Collusion Attack in SS-N Video Watermarking System

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Mohammad Taheri; Alireza Zolghadr–asli; Mehran Yazdi

    2009-01-01

    Video watermarking is usually considered as watermarking of a set of still images. In frame-by-frame watermarking approach, each video frame is seen as a single watermarked image, so collusion attack is more critical in video watermarking. If the same or redundant watermark is used for embedding in every frame of video, the watermark can be estimated and then removed by watermark estimate remodolulation (WER) attack. Also if uncorrelated watermarks are used for every frame, these watermarks c...

  6. FPGA-based voltage and current dual drive system for high frame rate electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shadab; Manwaring, Preston; Borsic, Andrea; Halter, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to image the electrical property distribution of a tissue under test. An EIT system comprises complex hardware and software modules, which are typically designed for a specific application. Upgrading these modules is a time-consuming process, and requires rigorous testing to ensure proper functioning of new modules with the existing ones. To this end, we developed a modular and reconfigurable data acquisition (DAQ) system using National Instruments' (NI) hardware and software modules, which offer inherent compatibility over generations of hardware and software revisions. The system can be configured to use up to 32-channels. This EIT system can be used to interchangeably apply current or voltage signal, and measure the tissue response in a semi-parallel fashion. A novel signal averaging algorithm, and 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT) computation block was implemented on the FPGA. FFT output bins were classified as signal or noise. Signal bins constitute a tissue's response to a pure or mixed tone signal. Signal bins' data can be used for traditional applications, as well as synchronous frequency-difference imaging. Noise bins were used to compute noise power on the FPGA. Noise power represents a metric of signal quality, and can be used to ensure proper tissue-electrode contact. Allocation of these computationally expensive tasks to the FPGA reduced the required bandwidth between PC, and the FPGA for high frame rate EIT. In 16-channel configuration, with a signal-averaging factor of 8, the DAQ frame rate at 100 kHz exceeded 110 frames s (-1), and signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 90 dB across the spectrum. Reciprocity error was found to be for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Static imaging experiments were performed on a high-conductivity inclusion placed in a saline filled tank; the inclusion was clearly localized in the reconstructions obtained for both absolute current and voltage mode data.

  7. System identification of timber masonry walls using shaking table test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Timir B.; Guerreiro, Luis; Bagchi, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic study is important in order to design, repair and rehabilitation of structures. It has played an important role in the behavior characterization of structures; such as: bridges, dams, high rise buildings etc. There had been substantial development in this area over the last few decades, especially in the field of dynamic identification techniques of structural systems. Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition are most commonly used methods to identify modal parameters; such as: natural frequency, modal damping and mode shape. The focus of the present research is to study the dynamic characteristics of typical timber masonry walls commonly used in Portugal. For that purpose, a multi-storey structural prototype of such wall has been tested on a seismic shake table at the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Portugal (LNEC). Signal processing has been performed of the output response, which is collected from the shaking table experiment of the prototype using accelerometers. In the present work signal processing of the output response, based on the input response has been done in two ways: FDD and Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI). In order to estimate the values of the modal parameters, algorithms for FDD are formulated and parametric functions for the SSI are computed. Finally, estimated values from both the methods are compared to measure the accuracy of both the techniques.

  8. Identifying the dynamic characteristics of a dual core-wall and frame building in Chile using aftershocks of the 27 February 2010 (Mw=8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Sereci, Mark; Boroschek, Ruben; Carreño, Rodrigo; Bonelli, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Following the 27 February 2010 (Mw = 8.8) Offshore Maule, Chile earthquake, a temporary, 16-channel, real-time data streaming array was installed in a recently constructed building in Viña del Mar to capture its responses to aftershocks. The cast-in-place, reinforced concrete building is 16 stories high, with 3 additional basement levels, and has dual system comprising multiple structural walls and perimeter frames. This building was not damaged during the main-shock, but other buildings of similar design in Viña del Mar and other parts of Chile were damaged, although none collapsed. Dynamic characteristics of the building identified from the low-amplitude (PGA of about 2 Gal) response recordings of aftershocks are found to compare well with those determined from modal analyses using a design level FEM model. Distinct “major-axes” translational and torsional fundamental frequencies, as well as frequencies of secondary modes, are identified. Evidence of beating is consistently observed in the response data for each earthquake. Results do not match well with U.S. code formulas.

  9. A construction of unimodular equiangular tight frames from resolvable Steiner systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, John

    2013-09-01

    An equiangular tight frame (ETF) is an M x N matrix which has orthogonal equal norm rows, equal norm columns, and the inner products of all pairs of columns have the same modulus. In this paper we study ETFs in which all of the entries are unimodular, and in particular pth roots of unity. A new construction of unimodular ETFs based on resolvable Steiner systems is presented. This construction gives many new examples of unimodular ETFs. In particular, an new infinite class of ETFs with entries in f1;-1g is presented.

  10. Rate of alignment and communication using quantum systems in the absence of a shared frame of reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotiniotis, Michael

    Quantum information theory is concerned with the storage, transmission, and manipulation of information that is represented in the degrees of freedom of quantum systems. These degrees of freedom are described relative to an external frame of reference. The lack of a requisite frame of reference imposes restrictions on the types of states quantum systems can be prepared in and the type of operations that can be performed on quantum systems. This thesis is concerned with the communication between two parties that lack a shared frame of reference. Specifically, I introduce a protocol whereby the parties can align their respective frames of reference, and a protocol for communicating quantum information in a reference frame independent manner. Using the accessible information to quantify the success of a reference frame alignment protocol I propose a new measure—the alignment rate—for quantifying the ability of a quantum state to stand in place of a classical frame of reference. I show that for the case where Alice and Bob lack a shared frame of reference associated with the groups G = U(1) and G = ZM (the finite cyclic group of M elements), the alignment rate is equal to the regularized, linearized G-asymmetry. The latter is a unique measure of the frameness of a quantum state and my result provides an operational interpretation of the G-asymmetry that was thus far lacking. In addition, I show that the alignment rate for finite cyclic groups of more than three elements is super-additive under the tensor product of two distinct pure quantum states. The latter is, to my knowledge, the first instance of a regularized quantity that exhibits super-additivity. In addition, I propose a reference-frame-independent protocol for communicating quantum information in the absence of a shared frame of reference associated with a general finite group G. The protocol transmits m logical qudits using r + m physical qudits prepared in a specific state that is reference-frame

  11. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Araszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  12. Computer-aided load monitoring system for nuclear power plant steel framing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaczylo, A.T.; Fung, S-J; Hooks, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant steel framing structures is a long and involved process. It is often complicated by numerous changes in design loads as a result of additions, deletions and modifications of HVAC hangers, cable tray hangers, electric conduit hangers, and small bore and large bore mechanical component supports. Manual tracking of load changes of thousands of supports and their impact to the structural steel design adequacy is very time-consuming and is susceptible to errors. This paper presents a computer-aided load monitoring system using the latest technology of data base management and interactive computer software. By linking the data base to analysis and investigation computer programs, the engineer has a very powerful tool to monitor not only the load revisions but also their impact on the steel structural floor framing members and connections. Links to reporting programs allow quick information retrieval in the form of comprehensive reports. Drawing programs extract data from the data base to draw hanger load system drawings on a computer-aided drafting system. These capabilities allow engineers to minimize modifications by strategically locating new hangers or rearranging auxiliary steel configuration

  13. Modeling fault diagnosis as the activation and use of a frame system. [for pilot problem-solving rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; Giffin, Walter C.; Rockwell, Thomas H.; Thomas, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Twenty pilots with instrument flight ratings were asked to perform a fault-diagnosis task for which they had relevant domain knowledge. The pilots were asked to think out loud as they requested and interpreted information. Performances were then modeled as the activation and use of a frame system. Cognitive biases, memory distortions and losses, and failures to correctly diagnose the problem were studied in the context of this frame system model.

  14. Food Security Framings within the UK and the Integration of Local Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…

  15. Selective tungsten deposition in a batch cold wall CVD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Kang, S.; Harshbarger, W.R.; Susoeff, M.

    1987-01-01

    Selective deposition of tungsten offers many advantages for VLSI technology. The process can be used as a planarization technique for multilevel interconnect technology, it can be used to fill contacts and to provide a barrier layer between Al and Si materials, and the selective W process might be used as a self-aligned technology to provide low resistance layers on source/drain and gate conductors. Recent publications have indicate that cold wall CVD systems provide advantages for development of selective W process. Genus has investigated selective W deposition processing, and we have developed a selective W deposition process for the Genus 8402 multifilm deposition system. This paper describes the Genus 8402 system and the selective W process developed in this reactor. To further develop selective W technology, Genus has signed an agreement with General Electric establishing a joint development program. As a part of this program, the authors characterized the selective W process for encroachment, Si consumption and degrees of selectivity on various dielectrics. The status of this development activity and process characterization is reviewed in this paper

  16. Determination of seismic performance factors for CLT shear wall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Omar Amini; John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Shiling Pei; Philip Line; Marjan Popovski

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents selected results of connector testing and wall testing which were part of a Forest Products Lab-funded project undertaken at Colorado State University in an effort to determine seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber (CLT) shear walls in the United States. Archetype development, which is required as part of the process, is also...

  17. A read-out system for the Medipix2 chip capable of 500 frames per second

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, M. [IFAE Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: maiorino@ifae.es; Martinez, R. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Blanchot, G. [IFAE Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Chmeissani, M. [IFAE Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J. [IFAE Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Puigdengoles, C. [IFAE Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ullan, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, UAB Campus, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    High-speed X-ray-imaging acquisition technique is a growing field that can be used to understand microscopic mechanism of different phenomena in biology and material science. IFAE and CNM developed a very high-speed readout system, named DEMAS, for the Medipix2. The system is able to read a single Medipix2 chip through the parallel bus at a rate of 1 kHz.With a duty cycle of 50%, the real sampling speed is 500 frames per second (fps). This implies that 1 ms is allocated to the exposure time and another millisecond is devoted to the read-out of the chip. In such configuration, the raw data throughput is about 500 Mbit/s. For the first time we present examples of acquisition at 500 fps of moving samples with X-rays working in direct capture and photon counting mode.

  18. Frames and semi-frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium); Balazs, Peter, E-mail: jean-pierre.antoine@uclouvain.be, E-mail: peter.balazs@oeaw.ac.at [Acoustics Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-05-20

    Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with a bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, both in the continuous and discrete case, and give some remarks for the dual situation. In particular, we show that reconstruction is still possible in certain cases.

  19. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  20. Seismic Behavior of Steel Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS Utilized in Reinforced Concrete Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of an eccentricity in this system results in a geometric nonlinearity behavior. The midpoint of the diagonal member is connected to the corner joint using a brace member with a relatively low stiffness, thus forming a three-member bracing system in each braced panel. An iterative method of analysis has been developed to study the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of ODBS. The results indicate that the load-deflection behavior of this system follows a nonlinear stiffness-hardening pattern with two yielding points, which reflect the tensile failure of different bracings; the present study aims to investigate the efficiency of applying off-diagonal steel braces to reinforced concrete frames. To achieve this, three types of 2-story, 6-story, and 15-story structures without and with X-bracing and off-center bracing systems were modeled using SAP2000 software, and for micromodeling ANSYS software was used to achieve finite element results for an exact comparison between various retrofitting systems. The results showed that the structures strengthened by toggle bracing system revealed better behavior for low oscillation periods. Moreover, this type of bracing system is quite suitable for 10-story structures but not for higher ones. Its main problem, which requires special contrivances to solve, is the existence of a soft ground floor.

  1. Rival framings: A framework for discovering how problem formulation uncertainties shape risk management trade-offs in water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2017-08-01

    Managing water resources systems requires coordinated operation of system infrastructure to mitigate the impacts of hydrologic extremes while balancing conflicting multisectoral demands. Traditionally, recommended management strategies are derived by optimizing system operations under a single problem framing that is assumed to accurately represent the system objectives, tacitly ignoring the myriad of effects that could arise from simplifications and mathematical assumptions made when formulating the problem. This study illustrates the benefits of a rival framings framework in which analysts instead interrogate multiple competing hypotheses of how complex water management problems should be formulated. Analyzing rival framings helps discover unintended consequences resulting from inherent biases of alternative problem formulations. We illustrate this on the monsoonal Red River basin in Vietnam by optimizing operations of the system's four largest reservoirs under several different multiobjective problem framings. In each rival framing, we specify different quantitative representations of the system's objectives related to hydropower production, agricultural water supply, and flood protection of the capital city of Hanoi. We find that some formulations result in counterintuitive behavior. In particular, policies designed to minimize expected flood damages inadvertently increase the risk of catastrophic flood events in favor of hydropower production, while min-max objectives commonly used in robust optimization provide poor representations of system tradeoffs due to their instability. This study highlights the importance of carefully formulating and evaluating alternative mathematical abstractions of stakeholder objectives describing the multisectoral water demands and risks associated with hydrologic extremes.

  2. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.; Bowers, D.; Trachsel, C.; Merrill, B.

    1981-10-01

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described.

  3. Conceptual design of the INTOR first-wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.; Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.; Bowers, D.; Trachsel, C.; Merrill, B.

    1981-10-01

    The design concept and performance characteristics of the first-wall design for the phase-1 INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor) study is described. The reference design consists of a water-cooled stainless steel panel. The major uncertainty regarding the performance of the bare stainless steel wall relates to the response of a thin-melt layer predicted to form on limited regions during a plasma disruption. A more-complex backup design, which incorporates radiatively cooled graphite tiles on the inboard wall, is briefly described

  4. 3D MODELLING OF AN INDOOR SPACE USING A ROTATING STEREO FRAME CAMERA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  5. D Modelling of AN Indoor Space Using a Rotating Stereo Frame Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    Sophisticated indoor design and growing development in urban architecture make indoor spaces more complex. And the indoor spaces are easily connected to public transportations such as subway and train stations. These phenomena allow to transfer outdoor activities to the indoor spaces. Constant development of technology has a significant impact on people knowledge about services such as location awareness services in the indoor spaces. Thus, it is required to develop the low-cost system to create the 3D model of the indoor spaces for services based on the indoor models. In this paper, we thus introduce the rotating stereo frame camera system that has two cameras and generate the indoor 3D model using the system. First, select a test site and acquired images eight times during one day with different positions and heights of the system. Measurements were complemented by object control points obtained from a total station. As the data were obtained from the different positions and heights of the system, it was possible to make various combinations of data and choose several suitable combinations for input data. Next, we generated the 3D model of the test site using commercial software with previously chosen input data. The last part of the processes will be to evaluate the accuracy of the generated indoor model from selected input data. In summary, this paper introduces the low-cost system to acquire indoor spatial data and generate the 3D model using images acquired by the system. Through this experiments, we ensure that the introduced system is suitable for generating indoor spatial information. The proposed low-cost system will be applied to indoor services based on the indoor spatial information.

  6. A regulatory frame for safety digital systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozas Garcia, A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on Spanish experience regarding software based systems for safety applications from the regulator's point of view. It describes the actual situation in Spain, number and models of reactors, modernization projects, digital systems implemented and licensing documentation and processes already followed by some upgrading projects. The paper wonders what documents should be required for safety and reliability demonstration of a safety system, when they should be reviewed, and what other activities may be necessary to acquire confidence on a particular system. It describes Spanish laws regarding nuclear safety under which, national standards from the NPP design original country apply to nuclear reactors in Spain. It finally suggests that an international standard jointly used by system manufacturers, nuclear licensees and nuclear safety authorities, both from the country where the NPP is installed, and from the original design country, should be developed so that rapid and easy agreement on licensing issues is reached among all parties. The last part of the paper describes the licensing approach proposed by CSN (Spanish Nuclear Safety Authority). It is still under development and it is based on previous experience on digital systems for non-safety applications. It consists of constructing several frames: 1) databases of existing software based systems, 2) guides for inspection and 3) questionnaires for helping in verification and validation activities evaluation. The scope is to establish a well defined procedure that helps in evaluating the particular system. However, in order for such a procedure to be useful, both regulators and utilities and, perhaps also system manufacturers, should agree on it. Joint CSN-utilities working groups may be suitable for such a purpose. (author)

  7. Seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahanpour, A.; Jönsson, J.; Moharrami, H.

    2012-01-01

    During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair...... of secondary columns that do not carry vertical gravity loads. In this paper, the interaction between the wall plate and the surrounding frame is investigated experimentally for typical SSSW systems in which the wall-frame has a bending-dominant behavior. Based on the possible storey failure mechanisms...... corresponding to those described by ECCS. From this investigation hysteresis loops are obtained and it is seen that pinching occurs in the loops, since the plate system is un-stiffened. The results of the experimental study are compared to the results obtained using the proposed analytical method. As predicted...

  8. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  9. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWaler trademark Blastrac reg-sign shot blast cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools

  10. High-speed three-frame image recording system using colored flash units and low-cost video equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Roberto G.; Scotten, Larry N.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes a method that allows the digital recording of sequences of three black and white images at rates of several thousand frames per second using a system consisting of an ordinary CCD camcorder, three flash units with color filters, a PC-based frame grabber board and some additional electronics. The maximum framing rate is determined by the duration of the flashtube emission, and for common photographic flash units lasting about 20 microsecond(s) it can exceed 10,000 frames per second in actual use. The subject under study is strobe- illuminated using a red, a green and a blue flash unit controlled by a special sequencer, and the three images are captured by a color CCD camera on a single video field. Color is used as the distinguishing parameter that allows the overlaid exposures to be resolved. The video output for that particular field will contain three individual scenes, one for each primary color component, which potentially can be resolved with no crosstalk between them. The output is electronically decoded into the primary color channels, frame grabbed and stored into digital memory, yielding three time-resolved images of the subject. A synchronization pulse provided by the flash sequencer triggers the frame grabbing so that the correct video field is acquired. A scheme involving the use of videotape as intermediate storage allows the frame grabbing to be performed using a monochrome video digitizer. Ideally each flash- illuminated scene would be confined to one color channel, but in practice various factors, both optical and electronic, affect color separation. Correction equations have been derived that counteract these effects in the digitized images and minimize 'ghosting' between frames. Once the appropriate coefficients have been established through a calibration procedure that needs to be performed only once for a given configuration of the equipment, the correction process is carried out transparently in software every time a

  11. A Unified Transform for LTI Systems--Presented as a (Generalized) Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuer, A.; Van Den Hof, P.M.J.; Heuberger, P.S.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of functions in L2([0,8)) and show it to be a (tight) generalized frame (as presented by G. Kaiser (1994)). The analysis side of the frame operation is called the continuous unified transform. We show that some of the well-known transforms (such as Laplace, Laguerre, Kautz, and

  12. Examining egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in virtual space systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, through evidence from both gesture and linguistic communication. The action of frames of reference, helps the user refer to the agent as a base for movement or to the object as a guiding point. We will show that

  13. Investigation on Reference Frames and Time Systems in Multi-GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Nicolini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Receivers able to track satellites belonging to different GNSSs (Global Navigation Satellite Systems are available on the market. To compute coordinates and velocities it is necessary to identify all the elements that contribute to interoperability of the different GNSSs. For example the timescales kept by different GNSSs have to be aligned. Receiver-specific biases, or firmware-dependent biases, need to be calibrated. The reference frame used in the representation of the orbits must be unique. In this paper we address the interoperability issues from the standpoint of a Single Point Positioning (SPP user, i.e., using pseudoranges and broadcast ephemeris. The biases between GNSSs timescales and receiver-dependent biases are analyzed for a set of 31 MGEX (Multi-GNSS Experiment stations over a time span of more than three years. Time series of biases between timescales of GPS (Global Positioning System, GLONASS (Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System and NAVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation are investigated, in addition to the identification of events like discontinuity of receiver-dependent biases due to firmware updating. The GPS broadcast reference frame is shown to be aligned to the one (IGS14 realized by the precise ephemeris of CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe to within 0.1 m and 2 milliarcsec, with values dependent on whether IIR-A, IIR-B/M or IIF satellite blocks are considered. Larger offsets are observed for GLONASS, up to 1 m for GLONASS K satellites. For Galileo the alignment of the broadcast orbit to IGS14/CODE is again at the 0.1 m and several milliarcsec level, with the FOC (Full Operational Capability satellites slightly better than IOV (In Orbit Validation. For BeiDou an alignment of the broadcast frame to IGS14/CODE comparable to GLONASS is observed, regardless of whether IGSO (Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit or MEO

  14. Multivariate wavelet frames

    CERN Document Server

    Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...

  15. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, D.F., E-mail: daniel.valcarcel@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Card, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carvalho, B.B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Reux, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, LPP, CNRS UMR 7648, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rimini, F.; Stephen, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St., Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.

  16. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Card, P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J.; Maviglia, F.; McCullen, P.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Stephen, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  17. Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings with Hysteretic Bracing Systems: Design Procedure and Behaviour Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of hysteretic Energy Dissipation Bracing (EDB systems for seismic retrofitting of existing reinforced concrete framed buildings. The proposed procedure, aiming at controlling the maximum interstorey drifts, imposes a maximum top displacement as function of the seismic demand and, if needed, regularizes the stiffness and strength of the building along its elevation. In order to explain the application of the proposed procedure and its capacity to involve most of the devices in the energy dissipation with similar level of ductility demand, a simple benchmark structure has been studied and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed. A further goal of this work is to propose a simplified approach for designing dissipating systems based on linear analysis with the application of a suitable behaviour factor, in order to achieve a widespread adoption of the passive control techniques. At this goal, the increasing of the structural performances due to the addition of an EDB system designed with the above-mentioned procedure has been estimated considering one thousand case studies designed with different combinations of the main design parameters. An analytical formulation of the behaviour factor for braced buildings has been proposed.

  18. Domain wall motion and magnetization reversal processes in a FeSi picture frame single crystal studied by the time-dependent neutron depolarization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaik, F.J. van.

    1979-01-01

    The three dimensional neutron depolarization technique, which gives detailed information about the static properties of ferromagnetic materials, has been extended to a method by means of which the time dependence of magnetic phenomena can be studied. The measurement of the neutron depolarization against time is made possible by applying a periodical magnetic field on the investigated specimen and by continuous sampling of the transmitted neutron intensity in time channels, which are started synchronously with the applied field. The technique has been used in the study of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature of a (010) [001] picture frame FeSi single crystal (3.5 wt.% Si) with outer dimensions of (15 x 10 x 0.26) mm and a frame width of 2.78 mm. (Auth.)

  19. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  20. Development of full scale testing of an alternate foundation system for post and panel retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The alternate post system offers benefits such as ease of construction, reduced construction time, and : lower wall costs. While this system seems feasible, there are concerns regarding its performance, in : particular the amount of bending in the po...

  1. New model of chlorine-wall reaction for simulating chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ian; Kastl, George; Sathasivan, Arumugam

    2017-11-15

    Accurate modelling of chlorine concentrations throughout a drinking water system needs sound mathematical descriptions of decay mechanisms in bulk water and at pipe walls. Wall-reaction rates along pipelines in three different systems were calculated from differences between field chlorine profiles and accurately modelled bulk decay. Lined pipes with sufficiently large diameters (>500 mm) and higher chlorine concentrations (>0.5 mg/L) had negligible wall-decay rates, compared with bulk-decay rates. Further downstream, wall-reaction rate consistently increased (peaking around 0.15 mg/dm 2 /h) as chlorine concentration decreased, until mass-transport to the wall was controlling wall reaction. These results contradict wall-reaction models, including those incorporated in the EPANET software, which assume wall decay is of either zero-order (constant decay rate) or first-order (wall-decay rate reduces with chlorine concentration). Instead, results are consistent with facilitation of the wall reaction by biofilm activity, rather than surficial chemical reactions. A new model of wall reaction combines the effect of biofilm activity moderated by chlorine concentration and mass-transport limitation. This wall reaction model, with an accurate bulk chlorine decay model, is essential for sufficiently accurate prediction of chlorine residuals towards the end of distribution systems and therefore control of microbial contamination. Implementing this model in EPANET-MSX (or similar) software enables the accurate chlorine modelling required for improving disinfection strategies in drinking water networks. New insight into the effect of chlorine on biofilm can also assist in controlling biofilm to maintain chlorine residuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Free Vibration Response of a Frame Structural Model Controlled by a Nonlinear Active Mass Driver System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Venanzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Active control devices, such as active mass dampers, are mainly employed for the reduction of wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings, with the final aim of satisfying vibration serviceability limit state requirements and of meeting appropriate comfort criteria. When such active devices, normally operating under wind loads associated with short return periods, are subjected to seismic events, they can experience large amplitude vibrations and exceed stroke limits. This may lead to a reduced performance of the control system that can even worsen the performance of the whole structure. In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy based on a modified direct velocity feedback algorithm is proposed for handling stroke limits of an active mass driver (AMD system. In particular, a suitable nonlinear braking term proportional to the relative AMD velocity is included in the control law in order to slowdown the device in the proximity of the stroke limits. Experimental and numerical free vibration tests are carried out on a scaled-down five-story frame structure equipped with an AMD to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  3. Tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we generalize the entanglement of three-qbit Bosonic systems beyond the single-mode approximation when one of the observers is accelerated. For this purpose, we review the effects of acceleration on field modes and quantum states. The single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods are introduced. After this brief introduction, the main problem of this paper, tripartite entanglement of bosonic systems in a noninertial frame beyond the single- mode approximation is investigated. The tripartite entangled states have different classes with GHZ and W states being most important. Here, we choose &pi-tangle as a measure of tripartite entanglement. If the three parties share GHZ state, the corresponding &pi-tangle will increase by increasing acceleration for some Unruh modes. This phenomenon, increasing entanglement, has never been observed in the single-mode approximation for bosonic case. Moreover, the &pi-tangle dose not exhibit a monotonic behavior with increasing acceleration. In the infinite acceleration limit, the &pi-tangle goes to different nonzero values for distinct Unruh modes. Unlike GHZ state, the entanglement of the W state shows only monotonically increasing and decreasing behaviors with increasing acceleration. Also, the entanglement for all possible choices of Unruh modes approaches only 0.176 in the high acceleration limit. Therefore, according to the quantum entanglement, there is no distinction between the single-mode approximation and beyond the single-mode approximation methods in this limit.

  4. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 2: 2x4 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Part 2 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides straightforward and cost-effective strategies to construct durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x4 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) sheathing as wall bracing and added backing for foam sheathing, a layer of rigid foam sheathing insulation up to 1.5 inches thick over the WSP, and a cladding system installed over the foam sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high. Walls with 2x6 framing are addressed in Part 1 of the Guide.

  5. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 2: 2x4 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Part 2 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides straightforward and cost-effective strategies to construct durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x4 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) sheathing as wall bracing and added backing for foam sheathing, a layer of rigid foam sheathing insulation up to 1.5 inches thick over the WSP, and a cladding system installed over the foam sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high. Walls with 2x6 framing are addressed in Part 1 of the Guide.

  6. Pseudo-random Aloha for inter-frame soft combining in RFID systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castiglione, Paolo; Ricciato, Fabio; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider a recently proposed variant of the classical Framed Slotted-ALOHA where slot selection is based on a pseudo-random function of the message to be transmitted and of the frame index. We couple this feature with convolutional encoding, that allows to perform Inter-frame Soft...... cancellation (instead of combining). Numerical simulation results show that the ISoC scheme brings a noticeable throughput gain over traditional schemes in a dense RFID scenario with multiple concurrent Tag transmissions....

  7. Pressure-induced shift of the plasma in a helical system with ideally conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    The global plasma shift is calculated analytically for a helical system with an ideal wall. The derived expression for the plasma shift, incorporating both the finite-β plasma expansion and the opposing reaction of the nearby ideal wall, can be used for interpreting the observable high-β equilibrium effects in LHD and other helical devices. (author)

  8. Cooling System for a Frame-Store PN-CCD Detector for Low Background Application

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Santos Silva, P; Kuster, M; Lang, P

    2012-01-01

    The astroparticle physics experiment CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) aims to detect hypothetical axions or axion-like particles produced in the Sun by the Primakoff process. A Large Hadron Collider (LHC) prototype superconducting dipole magnet provides a 9 T transverse magnetic field for the conversion of axions into detectable X-ray photons. These photons are detected with an X-ray telescope and a novel type of frame-store CCD detector built from radio-pure materials, installed in the optics focal plane. A novel type of cooling system has been designed and built based on krypton-filled cryogenic heat pipes, made out of oxygen-free radiopure copper, and a Stirling cryocooler as cold source. The heat pipes provide an efficient thermal coupling between the cryocooler and the CCD which is kept at stable temperatures between 150 and 230 K within an accuracy of 0.1 K. A graded-Z radiation shield, also serving as a gas cold-trap operated at 120 K, is implemented to reduce the surface contamination of the CCD wind...

  9. Description logic-based methods for auditing frame-based medical terminological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2005-07-01

    Medical terminological systems (TSs) play an increasingly important role in health care by supporting recording, retrieval and analysis of patient information. As the size and complexity of TSs are growing, the need arises for means to audit them, i.e. verify and maintain (logical) consistency and (semantic) correctness of their contents. This is not only important for the management of TSs but also for providing their users with confidence about the reliability of their contents. Formal methods have the potential to play an important role in the audit of TSs, although there are few empirical studies to assess the benefits of using these methods. In this paper we propose a method based on description logics (DLs) for the audit of TSs. This method is based on the migration of the medical TS from a frame-based representation to a DL-based one. Our method is characterized by a process in which initially stringent assumptions are made about concept definitions. The assumptions allow the detection of concepts and relations that might comprise a source of logical inconsistency. If the assumptions hold then definitions are to be altered to eliminate the inconsistency, otherwise the assumptions are revised. In order to demonstrate the utility of the approach in a real-world case study we audit a TS in the intensive care domain and discuss decisions pertaining to building DL-based representations. This case study demonstrates that certain types of inconsistencies can indeed be detected by applying the method to a medical terminological system. The added value of the method described in this paper is that it provides a means to evaluate the compliance to a number of common modeling principles in a formal manner. The proposed method reveals potential modeling inconsistencies, helping to audit and (if possible) improve the medical TS. In this way, it contributes to providing confidence in the contents of the terminological system.

  10. Electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The drum driving system is one of the weakest parts of the long-wall shearer, and some methods are also needed to monitor and control the long-wall shearer to adapt to the important trend of unmanned operation in future mining systems. Therefore, it is essential to conduct an electromechanical dynamic analysis for the drum driving system of the long-wall shearer. First, a torsional dynamic model of planetary gears is proposed which is convenient to be connected to the electric motor model for electromechanical dynamic analysis. Next, an electromechanical dynamic model for the drum driving system is constructed including the electric motor, the gear transmission system, and the drum. Then, the electromechanical dynamic characteristics are simulated when the shock loads are acted on the drum driving system. Finally, some advices are proposed for improving the reliability, monitoring the operating state, and choosing the control signals of the long-wall shearer based on the simulation.

  11. Textbooks of Doubt: Using Systemic Functional Analysis to Explore the Framing of Climate Change in Middle-School Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Diego; Busch, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Middle school students are learning about climate change in large part through textbooks used in their classes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the language employed in these materials frames this topic. To this end, we used systemic functional analysis to study the language of the chapters related to climate change in four sixth grade…

  12. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts,

  13. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Traum, D.; Alexandersson, J.; Jonsson, A.; Zukerman, I.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts,

  14. Education policy and frame conflict : Student assignment in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis research explores frame conflict in the context of education policy. It centers on the public discourse surrounding the retraction of a student assignment policy aimed at socio-economic diversity in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina, USA. It argues that the

  15. An improved synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop for stand-alone variable speed constant frequency power generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Wei; Ke, Longzhang

    2017-01-01

    The phase-locked loop (PLL) based on conventional synchronous reference frame, i.e. dqPLL, is usually employed in grid-connected variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) power generation systems (PGSs). However, the voltage amplitude drop of stand-alone PGSs is often greater than that of the grid...

  16. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  17. On Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture.......On framing as artistic and conceptual tool in the works of Claudia Carbone. Contribution to exhibition at the Aarhus School of Architecture....

  18. What Is Robustness?: Problem Framing Challenges for Water Systems Planning Under Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Reed, P. M.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Water systems planners have long recognized the need for robust solutions capable of withstanding deviations from the conditions for which they were designed. Faced with a set of alternatives to choose from—for example, resulting from a multi-objective optimization—existing analysis frameworks offer competing definitions of robustness under change. Robustness analyses have moved from expected utility to exploratory "bottom-up" approaches in which vulnerable scenarios are identified prior to assigning likelihoods; examples include Robust Decision Making (RDM), Decision Scaling, Info-Gap, and Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). We propose a taxonomy of robustness frameworks to compare and contrast these approaches, based on their methods of (1) alternative selection, (2) sampling of states of the world, (3) quantification of robustness measures, and (4) identification of key uncertainties using sensitivity analysis. Using model simulations from recent work in multi-objective urban water supply portfolio planning, we illustrate the decision-relevant consequences that emerge from each of these choices. Results indicate that the methodological choices in the taxonomy lead to substantially different planning alternatives, underscoring the importance of an informed definition of robustness. We conclude with a set of recommendations for problem framing: that alternatives should be searched rather than prespecified; dominant uncertainties should be discovered rather than assumed; and that a multivariate satisficing measure of robustness allows stakeholders to achieve their problem-specific performance requirements. This work highlights the importance of careful problem formulation, and provides a common vocabulary to link the robustness frameworks widely used in the field of water systems planning.

  19. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω H BH-ring of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J H by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω H Kerr (J H ) = J H /2M 2 R H (here M and R H are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R) = 2J R /R 3 for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J R and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω H BH-ring (J H = 0, J R , R → R H + ) → 2J R /R H 3 (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω H Kerr (J H new )= J H new /2M new2 R H new [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J H new = J R , M new , and R H new are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations in which the central black holes possess non-zero angular momenta. In particular, it is shown that the continuity argument (namely, the characteristic smooth evolution of the black-hole angular velocity

  20. Uncertainty analysis of integrated gasification combined cycle systems based on Frame 7H versus 7F gas turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Frey, H Christopher

    2006-12-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is a promising alternative for clean generation of power and coproduction of chemicals from coal and other feedstocks. Advanced concepts for IGCC systems that incorporate state-of-the-art gas turbine systems, however, are not commercially demonstrated. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding the future commercial-scale performance, emissions, and cost of such technologies. The Frame 7F gas turbine represents current state-of-practice, whereas the Frame 7H is the most recently introduced advanced commercial gas turbine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risks and potential payoffs of IGCC technology based on different gas turbine combined cycle designs. Models of entrained-flow gasifier-based IGCC systems with Frame 7F (IGCC-7F) and 7H gas turbine combined cycles (IGCC-7H) were developed in ASPEN Plus. An uncertainty analysis was conducted. Gasifier carbon conversion and project cost uncertainty are identified as the most important uncertain inputs with respect to system performance and cost. The uncertainties in the difference of the efficiencies and costs for the two systems are characterized. Despite uncertainty, the IGCC-7H system is robustly preferred to the IGCC-7F system. Advances in gas turbine design will improve the performance, emissions, and cost of IGCC systems. The implications of this study for decision-making regarding technology selection, research planning, and plant operation are discussed.

  1. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Gil [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future.

  2. Development of platform to compare different wall heat transfer packages for system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Won Woong; Lee, Jeong Ik; Shin, Sung Gil

    2016-01-01

    System thermal hydraulic (STH) analysis code is used for analyzing and evaluating the safety of a designed nuclear system. The system thermal hydraulic analysis code typically solves mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for multiple phases with sets of selected empirical constitutive equations to close the problem. Several STH codes are utilized in academia, industry and regulators, such as MARS-KS, SPACE, RELAP5, COBRA-TF, TRACE, and so on. Each system thermal hydraulic code consists of different sets of governing equations and correlations. However, the packages and sets of correlations of each code are not compared quantitatively yet. Wall heat transfer mode transition maps of SPACE and MARS-KS have a little difference for the transition from wall nucleate heat transfer mode to wall film heat transfer mode. Both codes have the same heat transfer packages and correlations in most region except for wall film heat transfer mode. Most of heat transfer coefficients calculated for the range of selected variables of SPACE are the same with those of MARS-KS. For the intervals between 500K and 540K of wall temperature, MARS-KS selects the wall film heat transfer mode and Bromley correlation but SPACE select the wall nucleate heat transfer mode and Chen correlation. This is because the transition from nucleate boiling to film boiling of MARS-KS is earlier than SPACE. More detailed analysis of the heat transfer package and flow regime package will be followed in the near future

  3. PHYSICAL BASES OF SYSTEMS CREATION FOR MAGNETIC-IMPULSIVE ATTRACTION OF THIN-WALLED SHEET METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the physical base of systems creating for the thin-walled sheet metals magnetic pulse attraction. Some practical realization models of the author’s suggestions are represented.

  4. Operational analysis of the tailings bund wall drainage system at mirny ore mining and processing enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues of environmental safety of tailings of ore mining and processing enterprises are considered; parameters of drainage of bund walls are of great significance for the environmental safety. Description of the bund wall of Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise and the tailings filling layouts are given. Results of field observation and model study of the tailings bund wall drainage system at Mirny ore mining and processing enterprise are presented. The drainage system rebuilding project analysis was performed. Proposals for its improvement were set forward.

  5. 2D turbulence structure observed by a fast framing camera system in linear magnetized device PANTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdachi, Satoshi; Inagaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Goto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale structure, such as the zonal flow and the streamer plays important role in the drift-wave turbulence. The interaction of the mesoscale structure and the turbulence is not only interesting phenomena but also a key to understand the turbulence driven transport in the magnetically confined plasmas. In the cylindrical magnetized device, PANTA, the interaction of the streamer and the drift wave has been found by the bi-spectrum analysis of the turbulence. In order to study the mesoscale physics directly, the 2D turbulence is studied by a fast-framing visible camera system view from a window located at the end plate of the device. The parameters of the plasma is the following; Te∼3eV, n ∼ 1x10 19 m -3 , Ti∼0.3eV, B=900G, Neutral pressure P n =0.8 mTorr, a∼ 6cm, L=4m, Helicon source (7MHz, 3kW). Fluctuating component of the visible image is decomposed by the Fourier-Bessel expansion method. Several rotating mode is observed simultaneously. From the images, m = 1 (f∼0.7 kHz) and m = 2, 3 (f∼-3.4 kHz) components which rotate in the opposite direction can be easily distinguished. Though the modes rotate constantly in most time, there appear periods where the radially complicated node structure is formed (for example, m=3 component, t = 142.5∼6 in the figure) and coherent mode structures are disturbed. Then, a new rotating period is started again with different phase of the initial rotation until the next event happens. The typical time interval of the event is 0.5 to 1.0 times of the one rotation of the slow m = 1 mode. The wave-wave interaction might be interrupted occasionally. Detailed analysis of the turbulence using imaging technique will be discussed. (author)

  6. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with computational and theoretical aspects of wavelet frame analysis in higher dimensions and, in particular, with the study of so-called dual frames of wavelet frames. A frame is a system of "simple" functions or building blocks which deliver ways of analyzing signals....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  7. Dynamic Stability of Structures: Application to Frames, Cylindrical Shells and Other Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    13. 1.11 2.2 I .2 BiI~~11.62-i IIg MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHART NATI, NAt HI t, ’,IA I A W th . - A AFWAL-TR-81-3155 DYNAMIC STABILITY OF STRUCTURES...are demonstrated through several structural configurations, such as eccentri- cally loaded simple two- bar frames, geometrically imperfect, thin...IWO- BAR FRAMES UNDER SUDDENLY APPLIED LOADS. 7 III. STIFFENED AND UNSTIFFENED, IMPERFECT CYLINDRICAL SHELLS 27 UNDER SUDDENLY APPLIED LOADS. The

  8. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  9. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  10. Overpower transient in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-09-01

    The overpower transient from a plasma power excursion. The overpower transient considered in this report results from a postulated linear increase of the plasma power from the nominal generated power to four times this nominal power in 30 s. The Next European Torus (NET) design or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design will be cooled by a number of separate cooling systems. The most important cooling systems are: The first wall cooling system, the blanket cooling system, the divertor cooling system, and the shield cooling system. In this report, the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the above-mentioned overpower transient will be presented for the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER. During overpower transients, the fusion power will increase to less than four times the nominal power. For this reason, the overpower transient considered in this report is the worst case scenario. The analysis of the thermal-hydraulic system behaviour during the considered overpower transient has been performed for a coolant temperature of 333 K (60 C) in the first wall inlet manifolds and 433 K (160 C) in the first wall outlet manifolds. The analysis has been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analysis, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall. (orig.)

  11. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyi Qin

    Full Text Available A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What's more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously.

  12. Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

  13. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  14. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; Traum, D.; Alexandersson, J.; Jonsson, A.; Zukerman, I.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts, the slot level dialogue manager and the global dialogue manager. Our implemented dialogue manager prototype can handle hundreds of slots; each slot might have many values. A first evaluation of th...

  15. A tractable DDN-POMDP Approach to Affective Dialogue Modeling for General Probabilistic Frame-based Dialogue Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to developing a tractable affective dialogue model for general probabilistic frame-based dialogue systems. The dialogue model, based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) and the Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) techniques, is composed of two main parts, the slot level dialogue manager and the global dialogue manager. It has two new features: (1) being able to deal with a large number of slots and (2) being able to take into account some aspects o...

  16. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TWO TYPES OF FRAME FOR THE DUMMY NECK TESTING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIUNEL Ştefăniţă

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a complete study made on two mechanical structures. First, was made a FEA analysis on the two types of frames using a static loading. The results were not conclusive. In that case, was made a dynamic analysis. The results were organized and analyzed. In the final, the paper presents important conclusion including the reasons for the choosing of the best type of framework.

  18. Distribution functions in systems of hard dumbbells and linear hard triatomics near a hard wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublik, Tomás

    2008-12-04

    An extension of the theoretical approach to determine the distribution function in the inhomogeneous systems of hard spheres near a planar hard wall (based on the evaluation of the background correlation function in terms of the residual chemical potentials of the hard particle, hard wall, and the corresponding combined body) is extended to inhomogeneous systems of hard dumbbells (HD) and hard triatomics (HT). The perpendicular and parallel orientations of both HD and HT with respect to the hard wall are considered, and the way of the evaluation of the residual chemical potentials in terms of the geometric quantities-a volume, surface area, and the mean curvature integral, divided by 4pi-of a particle, hard wall, and the corresponding combined body is outlined. The inhomogeneous systems hard wall + hard dumbbell with the site-site distance L* = 0.6 and reduced density rho* = 0.491 and hard wall + hard triatomics with L* = 1.6 and packing fraction y = 0.409 are studied, and the obtained distribution functions are compared with simulation data. A fair agreement in the most important range of distances was found.

  19. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  20. D Visualization of a Timber Frame Historic Building: Partite Usage and its Impact on the Structural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, S.

    2017-08-01

    Throughout their lifetime, historic buildings might be altered for different kind of usage for different purposes. If this new function or new usage requires utilization of the building in separate units, this separation might affect the historic building's functionality and structure and as a result its overall condition. Yorguc Pasa Mansion conservation project was prepared as a part of the Middle East Technical University (METU) Master's Program in Documentation and Conservation of Historic Monuments and Sites for the historic Yorguc Pasa Mansion. The mansion is a 19th century Ottoman Period timber frame building in Amasya, a Black Sea Region city in Turkey that has traces from different civilizations such as Hittites, Greeks, Romans and Ottomans. This paper aims to discuss the affects of the partite usage on structural conditions of timber frame buildings with the case study of Amasya Yorguc Pasa Mansion through the 3D visualized structural systems.

  1. Thermal Feature of a Modified Solar Phase Change Material Storage Wall System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is to study a novel solar PCM storage wall technology, that is, a dual-channel and thermal-insulation-in-the-middle type solar PCM storage wall (MSPCMW system. The system has the following four independent functions, passive solar heating, heat preservation, heat insulation, and passive cooling, and it can agilely cope with the requirements of climatization of buildings in different seasons throughout the year and is exactly suitable for building in regions characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The present work experimentally analyzes thermal feature of the system working in summer and winter modes, respectively.

  2. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...

  3. Framing world monetary system reform: Fritz Machlup and the Bellagio Group conferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M. Connell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influence of Fritz Machlup and the Bellagio Group on world monetary reform. After an examination of the literature, the paper addresses research into MachlupÕs framing of the problem of world monetary reform, his method, his selection of economists to join the Bellagio Group, his close working relationship with the treasury and central bank officials who were the deputies of the Group of Ten, and his creation of a broad platform of joint conferences, papers and books to promote their work. Taking an historico-biographical approach, this paper draws on the archives and published works of Fritz Machlup, Robert Triffin and their contemporaries.

  4. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat storage walls coupled with active solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyu; You, Shijun; Zhu, Chunying; Yu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the performance of a system combining a low-temperature water wall radiant heating system and phase change energy storage technology with an active solar system. This system uses a thermal storage wall that is designed with multilayer thermal storage plates. The heat storage material is expanded graphite that absorbs a mixture of capric acid and lauric acid. An experiment is performed to study the actual effect. The following are studied under winter conditions: (1) the temperature of the radiation wall surface, (2) the melting status of the thermal storage material in the internal plate, (3) the density of the heat flux, and (4) the temperature distribution of the indoor space. The results reveal that the room temperature is controlled between 16 and 20 °C, and the thermal storage wall meets the heating and temperature requirements. The following are also studied under summer conditions: (1) the internal relationship between the indoor temperature distribution and the heat transfer within the regenerative plates during the day and (2) the relationship between the outlet air temperature and inlet air temperature in the thermal storage wall in cooling mode at night. The results indicate that the indoor temperature is approximately 27 °C, which satisfies the summer air-conditioning requirements.

  5. Analysis Of Masonry Infilled RC Frame Structures Under Lateral Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaure Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partition walls are often made of masonry in Romania. Although they are usually considered non-structural elements in the case of reinforced concrete framed structures, the infill panels contribute significantly to the seismic behaviour of the building. Their impact is difficult to assess, mainly because the interaction between the bounding frame and the infill is an intricate issue. This paper analyses the structural behaviour of a masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame system subjected to in - plane loading. Three numerical models are proposed and their results are compared in terms of stiffness and strength of the structure. The role of the openings in the infill panel on the behaviour is analysed and discussed. The effect of gaps between the frame and the infill on the structural behaviour is also investigated. Comparisons are made with the in-force Romanian and European regulations provisions.

  6. Framing Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Kaitlynn

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the framing in four British and American newspapers of the second wave feminist movement during its most politically active period (1968–1982). Using content and critical discourse analysis of 555 news articles, the article investigates how movement members were represented, what problems and solutions to women’s oppression/inequality were posed and whose voices were used. This paper identifies: opposition to the movement, support for the movement, conflict and movement ...

  7. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  8. Evaluation of Shielding Wall Optimization in Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Ju Young; Kim, Jeong Dong; Lee, Yong Deok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer (LSDS) system is nondestructive technology for analyzing isotope fissile content in spent fuel and pyro processed material, in real time and directly. The high intensity neutron and gamma ray were generated from a nuclear material (Pyro, Spent nuclear fuel), electron beam-target reaction and fission of fissile material. Therefore, shielding analysis of LSDS system should be carried out. In this study, Borax, B{sub 4}C, Li{sub 2}Co{sub 3}, Resin were chosen for shielding analysis. The radiation dose limit (<0.1 μSv/hr) was adopted conservatively at the outer wall surface. The covering could be able to reduce the concrete wall thickness from 5cm to 15cm. The optimized shielding walls evaluation will be used as an important data for future real LSDS facility design and shielding door assessment.

  9. Contribution to the study of superconducting magnetic systems in the frame of fusion projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Artiguelongue, H.; Bej, Z.; Ciazynski, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Hertout, P.; Libeyre, P.; Martinez, A.; Nicollet, S.; Rubino, M.; Schild, T.; Verger, J.M. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-02-01

    This report is a presentation of all the 55 publications made by the Magnet Group of the 'Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee' during the 94-99 period. These publications have been made mainly in the frame of EURATOM contracts and task for ITER. This collection deals with most of the dimensioning aspects of large superconducting magnets and hence the field interest is wider than the restricted field of magnets for fusion by magnetic confinement. Whenever it is possible, simple expressions and criteria are given for dimensioning superconducting strands, assembling them to build cables and cooling them by an adapted forced flow cooling. This is hence a major for the understanding of the behaviour of large modern superconducting magnets and provides many tools for design and construction. (author)

  10. Contribution to the study of superconducting magnetic systems in the frame of fusion projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Artiguelongue, H.; Bej, Z.; Ciazynski, D.; Cloez, H.; Decool, P.; Hertout, P.; Libeyre, P.; Martinez, A.; Nicollet, S.; Rubino, M.; Schild, T.; Verger, J.M.

    2000-02-01

    This report is a presentation of all the 55 publications made by the Magnet Group of the 'Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee' during the 94-99 period. These publications have been made mainly in the frame of EURATOM contracts and task for ITER. This collection deals with most of the dimensioning aspects of large superconducting magnets and hence the field interest is wider than the restricted field of magnets for fusion by magnetic confinement. Whenever it is possible, simple expressions and criteria are given for dimensioning superconducting strands, assembling them to build cables and cooling them by an adapted forced flow cooling. This is hence a major for the understanding of the behaviour of large modern superconducting magnets and provides many tools for design and construction. (author)

  11. Systems and synthetic biology approaches to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Udaya C; Yin, Hengfu; Yang, Xiaohan; Davison, Brian H

    2014-12-01

    Fine-tuning plant cell wall properties to render plant biomass more amenable to biofuel conversion is a colossal challenge. A deep knowledge of the biosynthesis and regulation of plant cell wall and a high-precision genome engineering toolset are the two essential pillars of efforts to alter plant cell walls and reduce biomass recalcitrance. The past decade has seen a meteoric rise in use of transcriptomics and high-resolution imaging methods resulting in fresh insights into composition, structure, formation and deconstruction of plant cell walls. Subsequent gene manipulation approaches, however, commonly include ubiquitous mis-expression of a single candidate gene in a host that carries an intact copy of the native gene. The challenges posed by pleiotropic and unintended changes resulting from such an approach are moving the field towards synthetic biology approaches. Synthetic biology builds on a systems biology knowledge base and leverages high-precision tools for high-throughput assembly of multigene constructs and pathways, precision genome editing and site-specific gene stacking, silencing and/or removal. Here, we summarize the recent breakthroughs in biosynthesis and remodelling of major secondary cell wall components, assess the impediments in obtaining a systems-level understanding and explore the potential opportunities in leveraging synthetic biology approaches to reduce biomass recalcitrance. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Integration and framing between system engineering, enterprise engineering and whole of society

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, Louwrence D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vision 2025: “Expanding the application of systems engineering across industry domains, applying systems engineering to help shape policy related to social and natural systems, expanding the theoretical foundation for systems engineering, advancing...

  13. Multihit two-dimensional charged-particle imaging system with real-time image processing at 1000 frames/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed imaging system developed for two-dimensional counting of charged particles is presented. Microchannel plates coupled with a phosphor screen of a short emission lifetime (screen is captured with a 1 kHz complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor (512×512 pixels). A multistage image intensifier consisting of the first and second generation devices was used to compensate for the low sensitivity of CMOS. The centers of gravity (COG) of individual light spots in each image frame are calculated in real time by a field programmable gate array circuit. The performance of this system is tested by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TR-PEI) of NO using (1+1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization via the A Σ2+ state with a femtosecond laser operated at 1 kHz. The new system enabled COG detection for more than ten particles in each frame at 1 kHz and achieved an extremely high degree of accuracy in the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions in TR-PEI.

  14. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right? Comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-17

    Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as 'global health.' In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities) and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar's and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world), the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world's (still) most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise) in many other of the world's nations. To challenge right-populism's rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo)-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. PECULIARITIES OF DESIGN OF CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS TO ASSURE THERMAL INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golunov Sergej Anatolevich

    2012-10-01

    The results of laboratory tests (given the adjustments for permissible tolerances may be regarded as the principal criteria in the assessment of applicability of a curtain wall system in the course of a major building repair project or a new construction to assure the required reliability and durability.

  16. Comparison for the interfacial and wall friction models in thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Park, Jee Won; Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, See Dal

    2007-07-01

    The average equations employed in the current thermal hydraulic analysis codes need to be closed with the appropriate models and correlations to specify the interphase phenomena along with fluid/structure interactions. This includes both thermal and mechanical interactions. Among the closure laws, an interfacial and wall frictions, which are included in the momentum equations, not only affect pressure drops along the fluid flow, but also have great effects for the numerical stability of the codes. In this study, the interfacial and wall frictions are reviewed for the commonly applied thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, i.e. RELAP5-3D, MARS-3D, TRAC-M, and CATHARE

  17. Frame on frames: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.; Tsao, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The success or failure of any sample survey of a finite population is largely dependent upon the condition and adequacy of the list or frame from which the probability sample is selected. Much of the published survey sampling related work has focused on the measurement of sampling errors and, more recently, on nonsampling errors to a lesser extent. Recent studies on data quality for various types of data collection systems have revealed that the extent of the nonsampling errors far exceeds that of the sampling errors in many cases. While much of this nonsampling error, which is difficult to measure, can be attributed to poor frames, relatively little effort or theoretical work has focused on this contribution to total error. The objective of this paper is to present an annotated bibliography on frames with the hope that it will bring together, for experimenters, a number of suggestions for action when sampling from imperfect frames and that more attention will be given to this area of survey methods research

  18. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  19. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  20. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 1: 2x6 Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Part 1 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides time-proven, practical, and cost-effective strategies for constructing durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x6 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) exterior sheathing, and a cladding system installed over WSP sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high.

  1. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  2. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age artery disease offers some protection from protection....

  3. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work…

  4. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  5. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spac...... with a high occupant density. Radiant systems can remove most sensible heat loads resulting in a relatively small requirement for supply air for ventilation....

  6. Study on the Seismic Response of a Portal Frame Structure Based on the Transfer Matrix Method of Multibody System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Portal frame structures are widely used in industrial building design but unfortunately are often damaged during an earthquake. As a result, a study on the seismic response of this type of structure is important to both human safety and future building designs. Traditionally, finite element methods such as the ANSYS and MIDAS have been used as the primary methods of computing the response of such a structure during an earthquake; however, these methods yield low calculation efficiencies. In this paper, the mechanical model of a single-story portal frame structure with two spans is constructed based on the transfer matrix method of multibody system (MS-TMM; both the transfer matrix of the components in the model and the total transfer matrix equation of the structure are derived, and the corresponding MATLAB program is compiled to determine the natural period and seismic response of the structure. The results show that the results based on the MS-TMM are similar to those obtained by ANSYS, but the calculation time of the MS-TMM method is only 1/20 of that of the ANSYS method. Additionally, it is shown that the MS-TMM method greatly increases the calculation efficiency while maintaining accuracy.

  7. An Inquiry into the Life Cycle of Systems of Inner Walls: Comparison of Masonry and Drywall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Condeixa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment is a methodology that investigates impacts linked to a product or service during its entire life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment studies investigate processes and sub-processes in a fragmented way to ascertain their inputs, outputs and emissions and get an overview of the generating sources of their environmental loads. The lifecycle concept involves all direct and indirect processes of the studied object. This article aims to model the material flows in the masonry and drywall systems and internal walls in a Brazilian scenario, and calculate the climate change impacts generated by the transport of the component materials of the systems. Internal walls of a residential dwelling in Rio de Janeiro are analyzed from a qualitative inventory of all life cycles with an analysis of material flows, based on technical and academic literature. All Life Cycle Impact Assessment of the systems is carried out with international data from the database, and using the IPCC2013 method for climate change impacts. This study disregards the refurbishment and possible extensions within the use phase. Thus, the inventory identifies weaknesses of the systems while the impact assessment validates the results. This study allows us a complete understanding about the inner walls systems in the Brazilian scenario, evidencing its main weaknesses and subsidizes decision-making for the industry and for planning of the new buildings.

  8. Measurements of energy distribution and wall temperature in flowing hydrogen microwave plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into translational energy of the flowing gas is being investigated. A calorimetric experimental system has been designed and built enclosing the microwave plasma system to accurately determine the net energy transferred to the flowing gas. For a flow rate of 8900 micromoles/sec, a pressure of 7.4 torr, and an absorbed power level of 80 W, an energy transfer efficiency of 50 percent has been measured. A heat transfer model that characterizes the energy transfer processes in the plasma is developed. A wall temperature for the plasma system is calculated.

  9. Experimental investigations on the performance of a collector–storage wall system using phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guobing; Pang, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of collector–storage wall using PCM was experimentally studied. • PCM surface temperature rises steep–slow–steep successively during charge. • After sharp drops, PCM surface temperature decreases slightly during discharge. • Temperatures of gap air, glazing and room vary with PCM surface temperature. • Air flow rate and heating rate fluctuate during charge but go steady after discharge. - Abstract: Experiments have been performed on the thermal behavior of a collector–storage wall system using PCM (phase change material). PCM slabs were attached on the gap-side wall surface to increase the heat storage. The test was carried out for a whole day with charging period of 6.5 h and discharging period of 17.5 h, respectively. Wall and air temperatures as well as air velocity in the gap were measured for analysis. The results showed that the PCM surface temperature increases first rapidly, then slowly and rapidly again during the charging process, which in turn corresponds with the three storage stages: sensible heat (solid), latent heat (melting) and sensible heat (liquid), respectively; while in the discharging process the PCM surface temperature decreases slightly shortly after the initial sharp drops, which suggests the long time period of solidification for PCM to release latent heat. Subject to the variations of PCM surface temperatures, similar trends were also found for the gap air temperatures, glazing temperature and indoor temperature. Both the air flow rate and heating rate by air circulation have up and down fluctuations during the charging period, and then, shortly after initial sharp drops, they keep at nearly steady values during the discharging period. The indoor temperature was found to be above 22 °C during the whole discharging period (17.5 h) under present conditions, which indicates that the indoor thermal comfort could be kept for a long time by using PCM in collector–storage wall system.

  10. Evaluation of a Thermoplastic Immobilization System for Breast and Chest Wall Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strydhorst, Jared H.; Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Clark, Brenda G.; Montgomery, Lynn A.; Fox, Greg; MacPherson, Miller S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the impact of a thermoplastic immobilization system on intra- and interfraction motion for patients undergoing breast or chest wall radiation therapy. Patients for this study were treated using helical tomotherapy. All patients were immobilized using a thermoplastic shell extending from the shoulders to the ribcage. Intrafraction motion was assessed by measuring maximum displacement of the skin, heart, and chest wall on a pretreatment 4D computed tomography, while inter-fraction motion was inferred from patient shift data arising from daily image guidance procedures on tomotherapy. Using thermoplastic immobilization, the average maximum motion of the external contour was 1.3 ± 1.6 mm, whereas the chest wall was found to be 1.6 ± 1.9 mm. The day-to-day setup variation was found to be large, with random errors of 4.0, 12.0, and 4.5 mm in the left-right, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively, and the standard deviations of the systematic errors were found to be 2.7, 9.8, and 4.1 mm. These errors would be expected to dominate any respiratory motion but can be mitigated by daily online image guidance. Using thermoplastic immobilization can effectively reduce respiratory motion of the chest wall and external contour, but these gains can only be realized if daily image guidance is used.

  11. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging or...

  12. High frame-rate MR-guided near-infrared tomography system to monitor breast hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiu; Jiang, Shudong; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Davis, Scott C.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2011-02-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) tomography system with spectral-encoded sources at two wavelength bands was built to quantify the temporal contrast at 20 Hz bandwidth, while imaging breast tissue. The NIR system was integrated with a magnetic resonance (MR) machine through a custom breast coil interface, and both NIR data and MR images were acquired simultaneously. MR images provided breast tissue structural information for NIR reconstruction. Acquisition of finger pulse oximeter (PO) plethysmogram was synchronized with the NIR system in the experiment to offer a frequency-locked reference. The recovered absorption coefficients of the breast at two wavelengths showed identical temporal frequency as the PO output, proving this multi-modality design can recover the small pulsatile variation of absorption property in breast tissue related to the heartbeat. And it also showed the system's ability on novel contrast imaging of fast flow signals in deep tissue.

  13. A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, Paul A., E-mail: paul.shade.1@us.af.mil; Schuren, Jay C.; Turner, Todd J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Blank, Basil [PulseRay, Beaver Dams, New York 14812 (United States); Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Suter, Robert M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lind, Jonathan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability.

  14. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  15. Study and application of the balloon frame system to the industrialization of housing: the case of the American System-Built Houses of Frank Lloyd Wright

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Serra Soriano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Within his large architectural production, Frank Lloyd Wright had the opportunity to experiment with the timber industrialization, linking a traditional material with the modern sense of architecture. Wood and Frank Lloyd Wright are inseparable from the balloon frame system, a system which he will use at his first housing and through which he will materialize the spatial decomposition concept. The research on the particular American System-Built Houses case will serve to show the earliest experiences of Wright with the industry, whose conclusions he would use for subsequent researches on prefabrication.

  16. Concept of operation and preliminary experimental results of the DRDC through-wall SAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévigny, Pascale; DiFilippo, David J.; Laneve, Tony; Chan, Brigitte; Fournier, Jonathan; Roy, Simon; Ricard, Benoît; Maheux, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Mapping the interior of buildings is of great interest to military forces operating in an urban battlefield. Throughwall radars have the potential of mapping interior room layout, including the location of walls, doors and furniture. They could provide information on the in-wall structure, and detect objects of interest concealed in buildings, such as persons and arms caches. We are proposing to provide further context to the end user by fusing the radar data with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) images of the building exterior. In this paper, we present our system concept of operation, which involves a vehicle driven along a path in front of a building of interest. The vehicle is equipped with both radar and LIDAR systems, as well as a motion compensation unit. We describe our ultra wideband through-wall L-band radar system which uses stretch processing techniques to obtain high range resolution, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques to achieve good azimuth resolution. We demonstrate its current 2-D capabilities with experimental data, and discuss the current progress in using array processing in elevation to provide a 3-D image. Finally, we show preliminary data fusion of SAR and LIDAR data.

  17. Comparative study of comminuted posterior acetabular wall fracture treated with the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Zhao, Xue; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Chuncai; Xu, Shuogui; Xie, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Posterior wall fractures are one of the most common acetabular fractures. However, only 30% of these fractures involve a single large fragment, and comminuted acetabular posterior wall fractures pose a particular surgical challenge. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between patients who received fixation for comminuted posterior wall fracture using the Acetabular Tridimensional Memory Fixation System (ATMFS) and patients who underwent fixation with conventional screws and buttress plates (Plates group). Between April 2003 and May 2007, 196 consecutive patients who sustained a comminuted posterior wall fracture of acetabulum were treated with ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plates. Operative time, fluoroscopy time, blood loss, and any intra-operative complications were recorded. Plain AP and lateral radiographs were obtained at all visits (Matta's criteria). Modified Merle d' Aubigne-Postel score, and Mos SF-36 score were compared between groups. Fifty patients were included in the analysis with 26 in the ATMFS group and 24 in the Plates group. The mean follow-up time was 57.5 months, ranging from 31 to 69 months. All patients had fully healed fractures at the final follow-up. There was no difference in clinical outcomes or radiological evaluations between groups. Patients with comminuted posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum treated with the ATMFS or conventional screws and buttress plate techniques achieve a good surgical result. Both techniques are safe, reliable, and practical. Use of the ATMFS technique may reduce blood loss and improve rigid support to marginal bone impaction. The use ATMFS may need additional support when fractures involve the superior roof. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteins of the lactococcin A secretion system : lcnD encodes two in-frame proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcamonti, M; Nicastro, G; Venema, G; Kok, J

    2001-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against LcnC and LcnD proteins of the Lactococcus lactis bacteriocin lactococcin A secretory system to examine their cellular location and interaction. Two major reacting bands were detected by Western immunoblot with the anti-LcnD antibody: one of 52 kDa (LcnD) and

  19. Description logic-based methods for auditing frame-based medical terminological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Medical terminological systems (TSs) play an increasingly important role in health care by supporting recording, retrieval and analysis of patient information. As the size and complexity of TSs are growing, the need arises for means to audit them, i.e. verify and maintain (logical)

  20. Resilience Attributes of Social-Ecological Systems: Framing Metrics for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Kerner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If resilience theory is to be of practical value for policy makers and resource managers, the theory must be translated into sensible decision-support tools. We present herein a set of resilience attributes, developed to characterize human-managed systems, that helps system stakeholders to make practical use of resilience concepts in tangible applications. In order to build and maintain resilience, these stakeholders must be able to understand what qualities or attributes enhance—or detract from—a system’s resilience. We describe standardized resilience terms that can be incorporated into resource management plans and decision-support tools to derive metrics that help managers assess the current resilience status of their systems, make rational resource allocation decisions, and track progress toward meeting goals. Our intention is to provide an approachable set of terms for both specialists and non-specialists alike to apply to programs that would benefit from a resilience perspective. These resilience terms can facilitate the modeling of resilience behavior within systems, as well as support those lacking access to sophisticated models. Our goal is to enable policy makers and resource managers to put resilience theory to work in the real world.

  1. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  2. System-environment dynamics of X-type states in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jieci; Jing Jiliang

    2012-01-01

    The system–environment dynamics of noninertial systems is investigated. It is shown that for the amplitude damping channel: (i) the biggest difference between the decoherence effect and the Unruh radiation on the dynamics of the entanglement is that the former only leads to entanglement transfer in the whole system, but the latter damages all types of entanglement; (ii) the system–environment entanglement increases and then declines, while the environment–environment entanglement always increases as the decay parameter p increases; and (iii) the thermal fields generated by the Unruh effect can promote the sudden death of entanglement between the subsystems while postponing the sudden birth of entanglement between the environments. It is also found that there are no system–environment and environment–environment entanglements when the system is coupled with the phase damping environment. - Highlights: ► The system–environment dynamics of noninertial systems is investigated. ► The roles of decoherence and Unruh effect on dynamics of entanglement are very different. ► Unruh effect promotes the sudden death of entanglement between the subsystems. ► But it postpones the sudden birth of entanglement between the environments. ► No system–reservoir and reservoir–reservoir entanglement for phase damping channel.

  3. Using Systems Thinking to Frame the Evaluation of a Complex Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Baldassari, C.; DeLisi, J.; Manduca, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    InTeGrate (serc.carleton.edu/integrate/) is the geoscience component of NSF's STEM Talent Expansion Center program. As such, it is a $10M, 5 year effort, with dual goals of improving undergraduate STEM education and addressing an important national challenge, which in InTeGrate's case is environmental sustainability. InTeGrate is very complicated, involving five PI's, dozens of curriculum developers, scores of workshops and webinars, hundreds of faculty, and thousands of students. To get a handle on this complexity, the leadership team and evaluators are viewing project activities and outcomes through a system thinking lens, analogous to how geoscientists view the Earth system. For each major component of the project, we have a flowchart logic model that traces the flows of information, materials, influence, and people that are thought to result from project activities. As is to be expected in a complex system, individual activities are often influenced by multiple inputs and contribute to multiple outputs. The systems approach allows us to spot critical points in the system where evaluative probes are needed; for example, are workshops actually resulting in a flux of new people into roles of increased responsibility within InTeGrate as intended? InTeGrate is permeated with opportunities for participants to engage in assessment, reflection and peer-review. From a systems perspective, this evaluative culture can be seen as an effort to create reinforcing feedback loops for processes that advance InTeGrate's values. For example, assessment team members review draft instructional materials against a materials development rubric and coach developers through an iterative development cycle towards materials that embody InTeGrate's priorities. Of particular interest are flows of information or influence that may carry InTeGrate's impact outward in space and time beyond activities that are directly funded by the project. For example, positive experiences during materials

  4. CHANGES INSIDE THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM IN THE FRAME OF THE FINANCIAL AND BANKING CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU MAGDALENA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After the year 1990, bashfully at first, but then more and more prominently, the countries of Central andEastern Europe have become major loan recipients from foreign banks, either cross-border, or local through opensubsidiaries in the emerging European countries. The Romanian banking system continues to be among the mostdynamic economic areas in Romania. Further on characterized by a relatively low level of financial intermediation,the Romanian banking market is considered to have potential for the possible buyers, especially in the crisis periodwhen many small banks looked for a merger with another small or medium bank for consolidation reasons. Althoughthe Romanian banking system faced crisis pretty well comparative with the rest of the world countries, if we considerits equity, its profits kept on decreasing every year and the rate of the non-performing loans increased.

  5. Value Framing: A Prelude to Software Problem Framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Gordijn, Jaap; van Eck, Pascal; Cox, K.; Hall, J.G.; Rapanotti, L.

    2004-01-01

    Software problem framing is a way to find specifications for software. Software problem frames can be used to structure the environment of a software system (the machine) and specify desired software properties in such a way that we can show that software with these properties will help achieve the

  6. Bagging system, soil stabilization mat, and tent frame for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Georgia Tech's School of Textile and Fiber Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering participated in four cooperative design efforts this year. Each of two interdisciplinary teams designed a system consisting of a lunar regolith bag and an apparatus for filling this bag. The third group designed a mat for stabilization of lunar soil during takeoff and landing, and a method for packaging and deploying this mat. Finally, the fourth group designed a sunlight diffusing tent to be used as a lunar worksite. Summaries of these projects are given.

  7. 2nd International Conference on Historic Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Costa, Alfredo; Candeias, Paulo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Catarino, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance ...

  8. Development of small size wall decontamination robot systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tsuneaki; Takahashi, Tsuyosi

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of wall decontamination robot systems for nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, it is required to reduce maintenance costs, including annual inspection, repairs and so on. Most of such maintenance activities are actually performed after decontamination processes are completed. In particular, the decontamination process of reactor wells is very important for reducing the radiation exposure of human workers. In the past, decontamination of reactor wells used to be done by extra large machine and tools, which caused long working hours and tiresome works. It was one of the reasons maintenance costs couldn't have been easily reduced. There are narrow spaces in the reactor wells that have to be decontaminated by human workers. In order to minimize the radiation exposure to humans, wall decontamination robot systems have been developed. The decontamination robots have rolled brushes and suction mechanisms and are capable of removing contaminants attached to the wall surface of the reactor wells. By making the robots smaller, it is possible to work in narrower spaces. In this paper, the effectiveness of decontamination by the developed robots is shown through experiments in the actual nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Perterbative O(asa) matching in static heavy and domain-wall light quark system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa,T.

    2008-07-14

    We discuss the perturbative O(a{sub s}a) matching in the static heavy and domain-wall light quark system. The gluon action is the Iwasaki action and the link smearing is performed in the static heavy action. The chiral symmetry of the light quark realized by using the domain-wall fermion formulation does not prohibit the mixing of the operators at O(a). The application of O(a) improvement to the actual data shows that the B meson decay constant f{sub B}, the matrix elements M{sub B} and the B parameter B{sub B} have non-negligible effects, while the effect on the SU(3) breaking ratio {zeta} is small.

  10. [Evaluation of the navigation system for orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Gong, Xi; He, Yang; An, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of navigation system for orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures. Fifteen patients (7 male and 8 female) with unilateral orbital fracture underwent orbital reconstruction with the help of intraoperative navigation system. The average age was 34.3 ± 9.5 years. All patients underwent spiral CT scanning preoperatively, and the CT data was imported to the BrainLab navigation system (Germany, BrainLab company). The orbit of the intact side was mirrored to the opposite side as the reference for pre-operative planning. The titanium mesh was mounted on the resin template made by rapid prototyping machine based on the mirrored CT data. When the injury was limited, the hydroxyapatite sheet was used for the orbital wall reconstruction. During the operation, the real-time navigation helped to ensure precise placement. The re-establishing result was assessed based on the postoperative CT data with the following four variables: the volumetric difference between the bilateral orbit, the volume of the herniated soft tissue, the global projection and the discrepancy between the simulated and the achieved position of the reconstructed orbital wall. The reconstructive discrepancy was measured only in the titanium plate grafting cases. There were no serious complications such as infection, graft rejection and optic nerve injury in any case. Preoperatively, the average degree of enophthalmos was (3.5 ± 1.6) mm, the average volumetric difference between the injured and the unaffected orbit was (4.5 ± 1.8) ml, and the average volume of the herniated orbital soft tissue was (2.1 ± 0.7) ml. Postoperatively, the three values were respectively reduced to (1.3 ± 0.6) mm, (1.8 ± 0.9) ml and (0.7 ± 0.3) ml. The discrepancy of the medial and inferior wall were (2.5 ± 0.6) mm and (2.1 ± 0.4) mm. The intraoperative use of navigation system for the orbital wall reconstruction in unilateral orbital fractures can provide reliable accuracy and

  11. THE EUROPEAN BANKING UNION AND ROMANIA. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EUROPEANLEGAL FRAME ON THE ROMANIAN FINANCIAL AND BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Adrian Cărămidariu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies from a legal and economical perspective the European Banking Union, the latest set of measures adopted by the European Union in order to assure the stability of Europe’s financial and banking system and to prevent future crises. At the same time, the paper analyzes the influence this new institutional and legal mechanism could have on the Romanian financial and banking system, if our country is to take part in the European Banking Union. The paper will discuss the four European legal texts, namely the EU Regulation No 575/2013 and the three directives concerning the capital requirements for the banking system, the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and the deposit guarantee schemes, which, together, set up the European Banking Union’s legal frame. Further, the paper will study the implementation and the transposition of these European provisions into national law. The study’s conclusions will take into consideration the advantages and disadvantages connected to Romania’s participation to the European Banking Union, by showing that, in the context of the introduction of the single currency, the participation to the Banking Union is a necessary exercise.

  12. The design preparation for radiation monitoring system in the frame of completion NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevecka, S.; Slavik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    In 1985 a Basic Design of Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) has been elaborated for Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4 construction. Due to construction interruption in the following years this design solution became obsolete. A new solution of RMS have been developed with conception following that of original Basic Design accommodating also safety measures implemented in RMS of NPP EMO units 1 and 2, and based on modem instrumentation and computer technique. Following the updating of Basic Design documentation the preparation of elaboration of RMS detailed design was carried on. In the frame of this preparation a review of possible suppliers of instrumentation satisfying the conception of radiation monitoring system and the extension of required deliveries has been made. Also criteria on RMS suppliers selection have been determined. The types of monitoring systems and equipment, as well as their quantities, have been specified based on updated Basic Design requirements and production profiles and possibilities of potential suppliers. The required parameters of measurements (including measurement geometry) have been evaluated, as well as requirements of legislation and requirements of proposed RMS architecture. (authors)

  13. Energy loss of the electron system in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavicca, Daniel F; Chudow, Joel D; Prober, Daniel E; Purewal, Meninder S; Kim, Philip

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the energy loss of the nonequilibrium electron system in individual metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes at low temperature. Using Johnson noise thermometry, we demonstrate that, for a nanotube with Ohmic contacts, the dc resistance at finite bias current directly reflects the average electron temperature. This enables a straightforward determination of the thermal conductance associated with cooling of the nanotube electron system. In analyzing the temperature- and length-dependence of the thermal conductance, we consider contributions from acoustic phonon emission, optical phonon emission, and hot electron outdiffusion.

  14. Density of Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Heil, Christopher; Deng, Baiqiao

    1999-01-01

    A Gabor system is a set of time-frequency shifts S(g, Lambda) = {e(2 pi ibx) g(x - a)}((a,b)is an element of Lambda) of a function g is an element of L-2(R-d). We prove that if a finite union of Gabor systems boolean (ORk=1S)-S-r(g(k), Lambda(k)) forms a frame for L-2(R-d) then the lower and upper...

  15. Density of Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Heil, C.; Deng, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Gabor system is a set of time-frequency shifts$S(g,\\Lambda) = \\{e^{2\\pi i b x} g(x-a)\\}_{(a,b) \\in \\Lambda}$of a function $g \\in L^2({\\bold R}^d)$.We prove that if a finite union of Gabor systems$\\bigcup_{k=1}^r S(g_k,\\Lambda_k)$, with arbitrary sequences $\\Lambda_k$,forms a frame for $L^2({\\bold...

  16. Legal frame work and implementation of the strengthened safeguards system in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solichah, M.; Zarkasi, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    operator's declaration of nuclear material accountancy including accountancy record and supporting source document. BAPETEN should evaluate and send the Facility's report (ICR, PIL and MBR) to the Agency. Additional Protocol to Safeguards agreement was signed and ratified on 29 September 1999, that means Indonesia committed to implement Strengthened Safeguards System. Indonesia has already participated in developing Strengthened Safeguards regimes by offering itself for trial of a number of new concepts before signing the protocol. Since 1995, Indonesia has reported its thorium import every year, which is known as the Voluntary Reporting Scheme. Indonesia also offered itself for trial of environmental sampling test, which are taken during special visits by IAEA inspectors and during routine inspection, up to the initial declaration submission of the Additional Protocol. IAEA has already conducted six times location for specific environmental sampling and twice wide area environmental sampling. The first year declaration was set to the IAEA six batch declaration submission, three batches of them are pursuant to article 2.a (ix) with respect to export of specified equipment and non nuclear material listed in annex D. It was a very easy task since we just sent a blank form with the statement 'Nothing to declare' on it. The second batch declaration pursuant to the additional protocol article 2.a (I), 2.a (iii), 2.a (iv), 2.a (v), 2.a (vi), 2.a (vii), 2.a (x), and 2.b (i) ran to about 22 pages of information in tabular form of which about half was dedicated to the information of buildings on nuclear sites. The second batch declaration submission was not easy to finish due to a lot of information to fill out. To get and collect this information we conducted several meetings with BATAN, and made a lot of phone calls for confirmation. The third batch declaration are pursuant to the additional protocol article 2.a (v), 2.a (vi) b and c, 2.a (viii), and 2.a (ix), to get source

  17. Quantum coherence behaviors of fermionic system in non-inertial frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Situ, Haozhen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the quantum coherence behaviors of a single qubit in the relativistic regime beyond the single-mode approximation. Firstly, we investigate the freezing condition of quantum coherence in fermionic system. We also study the quantum coherence tradeoff between particle and antiparticle sector. It is found that there exists quantum coherence transfer between particle and antiparticle sector, but the coherence lost in particle sector is not entirely compensated by the coherence generation of antiparticle sector. Besides, we emphatically discuss the cohering power and decohering power of Unruh channel with respect to the computational basis. It is shown that cohering power is vanishing and decohering power is dependent of the choice of Unruh mode and acceleration. Finally, we compare the behaviors of quantum coherence with geometric quantum discord and entanglement in relativistic setup. Our results show that this quantifiers in two region converge at infinite acceleration limit, which implies that this measures become independent of Unruh modes beyond the single-mode approximations. It is also demonstrated that the robustness of quantum coherence and geometric quantum discord are better than entanglement under the influence of acceleration, since entanglement undergoes sudden death.

  18. Is climatic regionalization in frame of estimated pedologic-ecological system actual in 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Středová, Hana; Chuchma, Filip

    2014-09-01

    Climatic variables defining climatic regions of estimated pedologic-ecological system (EPEU) were calculated based on fifty-year climatic data from 1961 to 2010. Obtained results were subsequently compared to intervals determining individual climatic regions defined by previous climatic data (1901-1950). In many agricultural intense areas sum of air temperature and mean air temperature exceeded upper limit. In terms of precipitation it is especially noticeable in the wet (higher) altitudes. Significant volatility was found for probability of dry periods from April to September. The values of the moisture certainty from April to September for the period 1961-2010 reached to several tens. In the final analysis, the only safe prediction is that the present and future are likely to be very different from the past. It is necessary to take it into account for actualization of EPEU methodology. Among the strongest arguments justifying the need of this actualization is in particular climate development since 1901, technological progress and improved measurement technology as well as automation and development of climate models coupled with simulations of complex characteristics and estimates of future climate. It is evident that the development of climate and other factors have an enormous impact on soil fertility. This should be also taken into consideration when fixing the official price. It is necessary to consider the possible replacement of the existing characteristics by more suitable (for example soil moisture balance). The findings might be summarized in few words: old climatic regions do not reflect actual climatic conditions.

  19. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  20. Georeferenced scanning system to estimate the leaf wall area in tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Arnó, Jaume; Escolà, Alexandre; Sanz, Ricardo; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Company-Messa, Joaquim; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-04-10

    This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA). Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA) is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution), as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU) time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  1. Fusion technology development: first wall/blanket system and component testing in existing nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-12-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment employing an existing nuclear facility, the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of an existing test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module. The principal reaction considered involves 3 He in the annulus as follows: n + 3 He → p + t + 0.75 MeV. Bulk heating in the test module is accomplished by neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and absorption reactions involving 6 Li in the blanket breeding region. The concept can be extended to modified core configurations that will accommodate test modules of different sizes and types. It makes possible development testing of first wall/blanket systems and other fusion components on a scale and in ways not otherwise available until actual high-power fusion reactors are built

  2. The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisicchia, Paola; Noone, David; Lioliou, Efthimia

    2007-01-01

    Adaptation of bacteria to the prevailing environmental and nutritional conditions is often mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). The Bacillus subtilis YycFG TCS has attracted special attention as it is essential for viability and its regulon is poorly defined. Here we show...... that YycFG is a regulator of cell wall metabolism. We have identified five new members of the YycFG regulon: YycF activates expression of yvcE, lytE and ydjM and represses expression of yoeB and yjeA. YvcE(CwlO) and LytE encode endopeptidase-type autolysins that participate in peptidoglycan synthesis...... to lysozyme digestion and YdjM is also predicted to have a role in cell wall metabolism. A genetic analysis shows that YycFG essentiality is polygenic in nature, being a manifestation of disrupted cell wall metabolism caused by aberrant expression of a number of YycFG regulon genes....

  3. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE OF NANOCOMPOSITES FOR SYSTEMS DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ENVELOPE WALLS TECHNICAL CONDITION OF NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. Enveloped concrete wall type structures of localizing safety systems for restaint and localization of radioactive decay products or in the case of special natural or man-made impacts on the power unit is one of the most important components to ensure the safety of nuclear power. The promising direction for the development of the NPP technical system monitoring is to use conductive nanocomposites as primary elements of information. The purpose of the article is to review the theoretical background and experience in the conductive nanocomposites creating for diagnostics of localizing nuclear safety systems. Conclusions. A promising area for the development of diagnostic systems of localizing nuclear safety systems is the use of electrically conductive nanocomposites (conductive concrete - bethels, plasters, paint coatings. A mechanism for conductive nanocomposites creating is the use of the filler metal and carbon nanoparticles. As binders is promising to use nanocomposites of the mineral binders (cement and water glass.

  4. Development of remote replacement system for armor tiles of first wall of FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Junichi; Yoshizawa, Shunji; Nakano, Yasuo; Kuboyama, Takashi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Kakudate, Satoshi; Oka, Kiyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A remote system has been developed to replace automatically armor tiles of first walls with a single manipulator arm for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER). The system is composed of a manipulator arm and an end-effector (a tile replacement hand), which have a gripper of the tiles, a nutrunner to rotate attatching bolts of them and a vision sensor to measure positions of them. The system can replace the tiles by means of a visual feedback system using vision sensor, even if the positions of the tiles would have changed. As a result of tests, it has been proved that the end-effector is useful and the control system is practicable. (author)

  5. IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Aggregation Enhancement to Provide High Performance in Life-Critical Patient Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Muhammad Sajjad; Yu, Hongnian; Cang, Shuang

    2017-01-28

    In wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs), Quality of Service (QoS) provision for patient monitoring systems in terms of time-critical deadlines, high throughput and energy efficiency is a challenging task. The periodic data from these systems generates a large number of small packets in a short time period which needs an efficient channel access mechanism. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is recommended for low power devices and widely used for many wireless sensor networks applications. It provides a hybrid channel access mechanism at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer which plays a key role in overall successful transmission in WBASNs. There are many WBASN's MAC protocols that use this hybrid channel access mechanism in variety of sensor applications. However, these protocols are less efficient for patient monitoring systems where life critical data requires limited delay, high throughput and energy efficient communication simultaneously. To address these issues, this paper proposes a frame aggregation scheme by using the aggregated-MAC protocol data unit (A-MPDU) which works with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. To implement the scheme accurately, we develop a traffic patterns analysis mechanism to understand the requirements of the sensor nodes in patient monitoring systems, then model the channel access to find the performance gap on the basis of obtained requirements, finally propose the design based on the needs of patient monitoring systems. The mechanism is initially verified using numerical modelling and then simulation is conducted using NS2.29, Castalia 3.2 and OMNeT++. The proposed scheme provides the optimal performance considering the required QoS.

  6. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  7. Numerical investigations of cooling holes system role in the protection of the walls of a gas turbine combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Sik Ali, Ahlem; Kriaa, Wassim; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale D' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Bournot, Philippe [IUSTI, UMR CNRS 6595, Marseille (France)

    2012-05-15

    Numerical simulations in a gas turbine Swirl stabilized combustor were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a cooling system in the protection of combustor walls. The studied combustion chamber has a high degree of geometrical complexity related to the injection system as well as the cooling system based on a big distribution of small holes (about 3,390 holes) bored on the flame tube walls. Two cases were considered respectively the flame tube without and with its cooling system. The calculations were carried out using the industrial CFD code FLUENT 6.2. The various simulations made it possible to highlight the role of cooling holes in the protection of the flame tube walls against the high temperatures of the combustion products. In fact, the comparison between the results of the two studied cases demonstrated that the walls temperature can be reduced by about 800 C by the mean of cooling holes technique. (orig.)

  8. User's Guide: Computer Program for Simulation of Construction Sequence for Stiff Wall Systems With Multiple Levels of Anchors (CMULTIANC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawkins, William

    2003-01-01

    .... Top-down construction is assumed in this analysis procedure. The retaining wall system is modeled using beam on inelastic foundation methods with elastoplastic soil- pressure deformation curves (R-y curves...

  9. Nonmonotonic belief state frames and reasoning frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Herre, H.; Treur, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper five levels of specification of nonmonotonic reasoning are distinguished. The notions of semantical frame, belief state frame and reasoning frame are introduced and used as a semantical basis for the first three levels. Moreover, the semantical connections between the levels are

  10. Development of the double-wall-tube steam generator. Evaluation of inner tube leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    A double-wall-tube steam generator (DWT-SG) is considered to have possibility of eliminating a secondary heat transport system to realize a reliable and simplified FBR plant. Thus, basic tests for inner/outer tube leak detection and prototypical leak tests by use of the 1MWt DWT-SG model have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of DWT-SG. Their results demonstrated that the inner leak detection system can definitely detect a steam leak from an inner tube flaw. Analyses of the inner tube leak and detection behavior obtained in the 1MWt DWT-SG test enabled to estimate the performance of the inner tube detection system of the commercial DWT-SG system. (author)

  11. Critical examination of isolation system design paradigms for a coupled powertrain and frame: Partial torque roll axis decoupling methods given practical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liette, Jared; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-12-01

    The torque roll axis motion decoupling concept is analytically and computationally studied in a realistic coupled powertrain and frame system using discrete, proportionally damped linear models. Recently, Hu and Singh (2012 [1]) (Journal of Sound and Vibration 331 (2012) 1498-1518) proposed new paradigms to fully decouple such a system. However, critical examination shows that the derivation does not always lead to a physically realizable system, as each powertrain mount is not referenced to a single location. This deficiency is overcome by deriving mount compatibility conditions to ensure realistic mount positions which are incorporated into proposed decoupling conditions. It is mathematically shown that full decoupling is not possible for a practical system, and therefore partial decoupling paradigms are pursued. Powertrain mount design using only the decoupled powertrain achieves better decoupling than minimizing conditions for the coupled system using a total least squares method. Further decoupling is obtained through frame isolation design using a decoupled frame model such that the torque roll mode is dominant over the frequency range considered. Other methods for limiting frame coupling are also briefly discussed.

  12. The Influence of Framing Effects on Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Behavioral Intention in Information Technology Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autrey, Jon

    2001-01-01

    .... There is some question as to the necessity of the amount of this spending. This thesis looks at the use of information framing to influence users' perceptions of information technology using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM...

  13. Separability and Entanglement in the Hilbert Space Reference Frames Related Through the Generic Unitary Transform for Four Level System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Markovich, L. A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum correlations in the state of four-level atom are investigated by using generic unitary transforms of the classical (diagonal) density matrix. Partial cases of pure state, X-state, Werner state are studied in details. The geometrical meaning of unitary Hilbert reference-frame rotations generating entanglement in the initially separable state is discussed. Characteristics of the entanglement in terms of concurrence, entropy and negativity are obtained as functions of the unitary matrix rotating the reference frame.

  14. Evaluating Main Parameters Effects of Near-Field Earthquakes on the Behavior of Concrete Structures with Moment Frame System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Talebi Jouneghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Amplitude and frequency content are two important features of the earthquake which are different for near and far-fault earthquakes and in most of the standards, effects of the near -field earthquakes in loading are not considered. So study and comparison of these effects on structures is necessary. In this paper, structures operation against near and far fault earthquakes for two near sites and two far sites have been investigated. For this purpose, in order to achieve operation point of a six stairs structural model with mean lateral bending frame resistant system, from special plan spectrums of two different sites, near and far fault, which are obtained from seismic hazard analysis is used. Evaluation of effects due to near and far fault earthquakes based on the Iran’s standard 2800 ranges on operation point and also comparison of operation effects of near and far fault spectrums with Iran’s standard are results of this research work. In continues, after presentation of obtained results from time history analyses, some suggestions have been proposed for design correction based on the regulations in near -field earthquakes.

  15. Innovative Seismic Response-Controlled System with Shear Wall and Concentrated Dampers in Lower Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Tani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new structural control system using damper-installed shear walls in lower stories with reduced stiffness is proposed for vibration control of high-rise RC buildings. That system has some design variables, i.e., height of shear wall, degree of stiffness reduction at lower stories, and quantity of dampers. In this paper, some parametric studies on the shear-beam model with a stiff beam against two kinds of ground motion, a pulse-type sinusoidal wave and a resonant sinusoidal wave, are conducted to clarify the vibration characteristics of the proposed structural control system. It is shown that the optimal combination of design parameters depends on the input ground motion. It is also shown that it is possible to prevent from increasing the response under the one-cycle sinusoidal input resonant to the lowest mode and reduce the steady-state response under the harmonic input with the resonant fundamental period by reducing the stiffness in the lower structure and increasing the damper deformation.

  16. Heat removal characteristics of a water wall type passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio

    1996-01-01

    A water wall type passive containment cooling system, which has an outer pool (O/P) outside the suppression pool (S/P), is one passive safety system for next generation reactors. The core decay heat during an accident is accumulated in the S/P and then transferred to the O/P through the steel primary containment vessel wall. Thermal hydraulic behavior of this system was experimentally investigated using a 5m high test apparatus. Basic thermal hydraulic characteristics, such as temperature distributions in pools, natural convection heat transfer in pools, condensation and evaporation heat transfer with a noncondensable gas present in the wetwell region, were clarified. Further, for application to a large sized reactor, two procedures were proposed as improvements to the heat removal capability. One is installation of a baffle plate to mitigate thermal stratification and enlarge the effective heat transfer area between pools. The other is employment of a divided wetwell to avoid a noncondensable gas effect and enlarge the temperature difference between pools. The effectiveness of these procedures was experimentally and analytically confirmed. (author)

  17. Characterizing the Dynamic Response of a Chassis Frame in a Heavy-Duty Dump Vehicle Based on an Improved Stochastic System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an online method for the assessment of the dynamic performance of the chassis frame in a heavy-duty dump truck based on a novel stochastic subspace identification (SSI method. It introduces the use of an average correlation signal as the input data to conventional SSI methods in order to reduce the noisy and nonstationary contents in the vibration signals from the frame, allowing accurate modal properties to be attained for realistically assessing the dynamic behaviour of the frame when the vehicle travels on both bumped and unpaved roads under different operating conditions. The modal results show that the modal properties obtained online are significantly different from the offline ones in that the identifiable modes are less because of the integration of different vehicle systems onto the frame. Moreover, the modal shapes between 7 Hz and 40 Hz clearly indicate the weak section of the structure where earlier fatigues and unsafe operations may occur due to the high relative changes in the modal shapes. In addition, the loaded operations show more modes which cause high deformation on the weak section. These results have verified the performance of the proposed SSI method and provide reliable references for optimizing the construction of the frame.

  18. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  19. Design of in-situ reactive wall systems - a combined hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, G.; Tolksdorff, J.; Schad, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a coupled hydraulical-geochemical-economical simulation model for the design of in-situ reactive wall systems. More specific, the model is used for cost-optimization and sensitivity analysis of a funnel-and-gate system with an in-situ sorption reactor. The groundwater flow and advective transport are simulated under steady-state conditions using a finite-difference numerical model. This model is coupled to an analytical solution describing the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds within the reactor (gate). The third part of the model system is an economical model which calculates (a) the investment costs for the funnel-and-gate construction and (b) the operation cost based on the number of reactor refills, which depends on the breakthrough time for a given contaminant and the anticipated total operation time. For practical applications a simplified approximation of the cost-function is derived and tested

  20. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...... by flexural loading. Numerical investigations were based on 3-D linear elastic finite element analysis. Results from the numerical investigations were compared with experimental results of small and semi-scale specimens for the validation of the design procedure. Experimental and numerical results based...

  1. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. An in-vacuum wall current monitor and low cost signal sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Rawnsley, W.R.; Mackenzie, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    The beam bunches extracted from the TRIUMF cyclotron are usually about 4 ns long, contain ∼ 4 x 10 7 protons, and are spaced at 43 ns. A wall current monitor capable of giving the charge distribution within a bunch, on a bunch by bunch basis, has recently been installed together with a sampling system for routine display in the control room. The wall current monitor is enclosed in a vacuum vessel and no ceramic spacer is required. This enhances the response to high frequencies, ferrite rings extend the low frequency response. Bench measurements show a flat response between a few hundred kilohertz and 4.6 GHz. For a permanent display in the control room the oscilloscope will be replaced by a Stanford Research Systems fast sampler module, a scanner module, and an interface module made at TRIUMF. The time to acquire one 10 ns distribution encompassing the beam bunch is 30 ms with a sample width of 100 ps and an average sample spacing of 13 ps. The scan, sample, and retrace signals are buffered carried on 70 m differential lines to the control room. An analog scope in XYZ mode provides a real time display. Signal averaging can be performed by using a digital oscilloscope in YT mode. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Monte Carlo calculations on the magnetization profile and domain wall structure in bulk systems and nanoconstricitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, P. A. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Costa-Kraemer, J. L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm suitable to study systems described by an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian is presented. This technique has been tested successfully with 3D and 2D systems, illustrating how magnetic properties depend on the dimensionality and the coordination number. We have found that magnetic properties of constrictions differ from those appearing in bulk. In particular, spin fluctuations are considerable larger than those calculated for bulk materials. In addition, domain walls are strongly modified when a constriction is present, with a decrease of the domain-wall width. This decrease is explained in terms of previous theoretical works. [Spanish] Se presenta un algoritmo de Monte Carlo para estudiar sistemas discritos por un hamiltoniano anisotropico de Heisenburg. Esta tecnica ha sido probada exitosamente con sistemas de dos y tres dimensiones, ilustrado con las propiedades magneticas dependen de la dimensionalidad y el numero de coordinacion. Hemos encontrado que las propiedades magneticas de constricciones difieren de aquellas del bulto. En particular, las fluctuaciones de espin son considerablemente mayores. Ademas, las paredes de dominio son fuertemente modificadas cuando una construccion esta presente, originando un decrecimiento del ancho de la pared de dominio. Damos cuenta de este decrecimiento en terminos de un trabajo teorico previo.

  4. Arabidopsis Regenerating Protoplast: A Powerful Model System for Combining the Proteomics of Cell Wall Proteins and the Visualization of Cell Wall Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yokoyama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of a range of sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall has identified many of the cell wall proteins. However, it remains difficult to elucidate the precise biological role of each protein and the cell wall dynamics driven by their actions. The plant protoplast provides an excellent means not only for characterizing cell wall proteins, but also for visualizing the dynamics of cell wall regeneration, during which cell wall proteins are secreted. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to investigate the de novo construction process of the cell wall. This review deals with sub-proteomic approaches to the plant cell wall through the use of protoplasts, a methodology that will provide the basis for further exploration of cell wall proteins and cell wall dynamics.

  5. Operational skill assessment of the IBI-MFC Ocean Forecasting System within the frame of the CMEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Amo-Balandron, Arancha; Aznar Lecocq, Roland; Perez Gomez, Begoña; Levier, Bruno; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Since operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs) are increasingly used as tools to support high-stakes decision-making for coastal management, a rigorous skill assessment of model performance becomes essential. In this context, the IBI-MFC (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland Monitoring & Forecasting Centre) has been providing daily ocean model estimates and forecasts for the IBI regional seas since 2011, first in the frame of MyOcean projects and later as part of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). A comprehensive web validation tool named NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) has been developed to routinely monitor IBI performance and to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Three-dimensional comparisons are carried out on a different time basis ('online mode' - daily verifications - and 'delayed mode' - for longer time periods -) using a broad variety of in-situ (buoys, tide-gauges, ARGO-floats, drifters and gliders) and remote-sensing (satellite and HF radars) observational sources as reference fields to validate against the NEMO model solution. Product quality indicators and meaningful skill metrics are automatically computed not only averaged over the entire IBI domain but also over specific sub-regions of particular interest from a user perspective (i.e. coastal or shelf areas) in order to determine IBI spatial and temporal uncertainty levels. A complementary aspect of NARVAL web tool is the intercomparison of different CMEMS forecast model solutions in overlapping areas. Noticeable efforts are in progress in order to quantitatively assess the quality and consistency of nested system outputs by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on different temporal and spatial scales, encompassing global configurations (CMEMS Global system), regional applications (NWS and MED ones) and local high-resolution coastal models (i.e. the PdE SAMPA system in the Gibraltar Strait). NARVAL constitutes a powerful approach to increase

  6. Development of carbon steel with superior resistance to wall thinning and fracture for nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2010-07-01

    Carbon steel is usually used for piping for secondary coolant system in nuclear power plant because of low cost and good machinability. However, it is generally reported that carbon steel was failed catastrophically because of its low resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness. Especially, flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of main problems of the wall thinning of piping in the nuclear power plant. Therefore, in this project, fabrication technology of new advanced carbon steel materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide ceramics into the matrix is developed first in order to improve the resistance to wall thinning and fracture toughness drastically compared to the conventional one. In order to get highly wettable fine TiC ceramic particles into molten metal, the micro-sized TiC particles were first mechanically milled by Fe (MMed TiC/Fe) in a high energy ball mill machine in Ar gas atmosphere, and then mixed with surfactant metal elements (Sn, Cr, Ni) to obtain better wettability, as this lowered surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to microscopic images revealed that an addition of MMed TiC/Fe-surfactant mixed powders favorably disperses the fine TiC particles in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when fine TiC particles were added due to the fact that they act as nucleation sites during the solidification process. As a results, a cast carbon steel dispersed with fine TiC particles shows improved mechanical properties such as hardness, tensile strength and cavitation resistance compared to that of without particles. However, the slight decrease of toughness was found

  7. Biomechanical study of posterior wall acetabular fracture fixation using acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-wei, Liu; Shuo-gui, Xu; Chun-cai, Zhang; Qing-ge, Fu; Pan-feng, Wang

    2010-05-01

    We developed the acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS), which is made of NiTi shape memory alloy, according to the specific mechanical properties of biological memory material, nitinol alloy and measured distribution of contact area and pressure between the acetabulum and the femoral head of cadaveric pelvis. Six formalin-preserved cadaveric pelvis were used for this investigation. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure contact area and pressure within the anterior, superior, and posterior regions of the acetabulum. The pelvis were loaded under the following four conditions: (1) intact; (2) following a creation posterior wall fracture defect; (3) following reduction and standard internal fixation with reconstruction plate; (4) following reduction and internal fixation with a new shape memory alloy device named ATMFS. A posterior wall fracture was created along an arc of 40-90 degrees about the acetabular rim. Creation of a posterior wall defect resulted in increased load in the superior acetabulum (1422N) as compared to the intact condition (762N, P=0.007). Following reduction and internal fixation, the load distributed to the superior acetabulum (1486N) was not statistically different from the defect condition. Following the fixation with ATMFS, the load seen at the superior region of the actabulum (936N) was less than fixation with reconstruction plate and was not different from intact state (P=0.4). These data indicate that the use of ATMFS as a fracture internal fixation device resulted a partial restoration of joint loading parameters toward the intact state. ATMFS fixation may result in a clinical benefit. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Are pedicle screw perforation rates influenced by distance from the reference frame in multilevel registration using a computed tomography-based navigation system in the setting of scoliosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masashi; Takahashi, Jun; Ikegami, Shota; Kuraishi, Shugo; Shimizu, Masayuki; Futatsugi, Toshimasa; Oba, Hiroki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Pedicle screw fixation is commonly employed for the surgical correction of scoliosis but carries a risk of serious neurovascular or visceral structure events during screw insertion. To avoid these complications, we have been using a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system during pedicle screw placement. As this could also prolong operation time, multilevel registration for pedicle screw insertion for posterior scoliosis surgery was developed to register three consecutive vertebrae in a single time with CT-based navigation. The reference frame was set either at the caudal end of three consecutive vertebrae or at one or two vertebrae inferior to the most caudal registered vertebra, and then pedicle screws were inserted into the three consecutive registered vertebrae and into the one or two adjacent vertebrae. This study investigated the perforation rates of vertebrae at zero, one, two, three, or four or more levels above or below the vertebra at which the reference frame was set. This is a retrospective, single-center, single-surgeon study. One hundred sixty-one scoliosis patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation were reviewed. Screw perforation rates were evaluated by postoperative CT. We evaluated 161 scoliosis patients (34 boys and 127 girls; mean±standard deviation age: 14.6±2.8 years) who underwent pedicle screw fixation guided by a CT-based navigation system between March 2006 and December 2015. A total of 2,203 pedicle screws were inserted into T2-L5 using multilevel registration with CT-based navigation. The overall perforation rates for Grade 1, 2, or 3, Grade 2 or 3 (major perforations), and Grade 3 perforations (violations) were as follows: vertebrae at which the reference frame was set: 15.9%, 6.1%, and 2.5%; one vertebra above or below the reference frame vertebra: 16.5%, 4.0%, and 1.2%; two vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 20.7%, 8.7%, and 2.3%; three vertebrae above or below the reference frame vertebra: 23

  9. System for temperature and power flux measurements on the RFX first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Pugno, R.; Sonato, P.; Valisa, M.; Zaccaria, P.

    1999-01-01

    A thermal imaging system has been installed on the RFX at Consorzio RFX to investigate the phenomenology of the plasma wall interactions. The infrared camera, model Amber AE4128, is based on a 128×128 InSb focal plane array detector and operates in the range of 4.5-5 μm with an acquisition rate of 217 Hz and 12 bit of dynamic range. The system, absolutely calibrated, is sensitive from room temperature up to 3000 °C, with different setups. The experimental data are compared with the numerical results obtained by means of transient thermal analyses carried out on analytical and finite element models of a graphite tile.

  10. Dynamics of Peregrine combs and Peregrine walls in an inhomogeneous Hirota and Maxwell-Bloch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zi-Qi; Sun, Wen-Rong; Shi, Yu-Ying; Li, Min; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (IHMB) system which can describe the propagation of optical solitons in an erbium-doped optical fiber. The breather multiple births (BMBs) are derived with periodically varying group velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficients. Under large periodic modulations in the GVD coefficient of IHMB system, the Peregrine comb (PC) solution is produced, which can be viewed as the limiting case of the BMBs. When the amplitude of the modulation satisfies a special condition, the Peregrine wall (PW) that can be regarded as an intermediate state between rogue wave and PC is obtained. The effects of the third-order dispersion on the spatiotemporal characteristics of PCs and PWs are studied. Our results may be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in inhomogeneous erbium-doped optical fiber.

  11. Chapter 3.03 - Multifunctional Enzyme Systems for Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qi; Luo, Yonghua; Ding, Shi-You; Himmel, Michael E.; Bu, Lintao; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A.

    2011-10-14

    Multifunctional enzymes refer to proteins that consist of two or more catalytic modules. Many microorganisms use multifunctional enzymes to efficiently break down the recalcitrant polymeric networks that constitute plant cell walls. Future applications of multifunctional enzymes may represent a potential solution to the problem of high enzyme cost for processing lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Currently, commercial enzyme mixtures used in simultaneous saccharification fermentation process for biofuel production are derived primarily from free enzyme systems produced by fungi. In this context, we have analyzed the modular structures of 16 937 genes corresponding to 34 glycoside hydrolase families putatively related to the degradation of lignocellulose in the Carbohydrate Active enZyme (CAZy) database. Among these genes, 64 gene sequences have been identified to putatively encode multifunctional enzymes, and up to five catalytic modules have been found in a single polypeptide. Based on their deduced polypeptide sequences, they can be classified into four types, that is, cellulase-cellulase, cellulase-hemicellulase, hemicellulase-hemicellulase, and hemicellulase-carbohydrate esterase. The compositional modules and architectural structures of these enzymes are analyzed here, and their putative activities on breaking down cell walls are discussed. We further discuss the predicted intramolecular synergistic mechanisms between the catalytic modules, including substrate channeling, which is a mechanism often proposed for carbohydrate-binding modules residing in multifunctional enzymes. Furthermore, the potential applications of native and engineered multifunctional enzymes for biomass conversion technology are also reviewed.

  12. A suitable system of reconstruction with titanium rib prosthesis after chest wall resection for Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billè, Andrea; Gisabella, Mara; Errico, Luca; Borasio, Piero

    2011-02-01

    The recent improvements in chemotherapy and surgical resection in Ewing sarcoma (ES) increased the overall survival as well as the importance of chest wall reconstruction. These improvements are in order to avoid asymmetrical growth, functional and cosmetic compromise after surgery. Chest wall reconstruction still remains a big issue in young patients with ES. We present a case of ES of the left chest wall, arising from a rib, in a 14-year-old patient. He was admitted after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient underwent a chest wall resection of three ribs and a wedge lung resection of the upper lobe followed by chest wall reconstruction with Stratos™ rib titanium prostheses. This new device is suitable for reconstruction after major chest wall resection with good cosmetic and functional results. During the follow-up, there was no evidence of local and distant recurrence, the pain was under control and there were no functional alterations in the chest wall.

  13. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  14. Mechanical Energy Change in Inertial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical energy change of a system in an inertial frame of reference equals work done by the total nonconservative force in the same frame. This relation is covariant under the Galilean transformations from inertial frame S to S', where S' moves with constant velocity relative to S. In the presence of nonconservative forces, such as normal…

  15. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  16. Split-screen display system and standardized methods for ultrasound image acquisition and multi-frame data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Robert H. (Inventor); Hodis, Howard N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A standardized acquisition methodology assists operators to accurately replicate high resolution B-mode ultrasound images obtained over several spaced-apart examinations utilizing a split-screen display in which the arterial ultrasound image from an earlier examination is displayed on one side of the screen while a real-time "live" ultrasound image from a current examination is displayed next to the earlier image on the opposite side of the screen. By viewing both images, whether simultaneously or alternately, while manually adjusting the ultrasound transducer, an operator is able to bring into view the real-time image that best matches a selected image from the earlier ultrasound examination. Utilizing this methodology, dynamic material properties of arterial structures, such as IMT and diameter, are measured in a standard region over successive image frames. Each frame of the sequence has its echo edge boundaries automatically determined by using the immediately prior frame's true echo edge coordinates as initial boundary conditions. Computerized echo edge recognition and tracking over multiple successive image frames enhances measurement of arterial diameter and IMT and allows for improved vascular dimension measurements, including vascular stiffness and IMT determinations.

  17. Design of reinforced concrete walls casted in place for the maximum normal stress of compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Braguim

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate which designing models are safe and appropriate to structural analysis of buildings constructed in Concrete Wall system. In this work it is evaluated, through comparison of maximum normal stress of compression, a simple numerical model, which represents the walls with frame elements, with another much more robust and refined, which represents the walls with shells elements. The designing of the normal stress of compression it is done for both cases, based on NBR 16055, to conclude if the wall thickness initially adopted, it is enough or not.

  18. Systems Level Engineering of Plant Cell Wall Biosynthesis to Improve Biofuel Feedstock Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Samuel

    2013-09-27

    Our new regulatory model of cell wall biosynthesis proposes original network architecture with several newly incorporated components. The mapped set of protein-DNA interactions will serve as a foundation for 1) understanding the regulation of a complex and integral plant component and 2) the manipulation of crop species for biofuel and biotechnology purposes. This study revealed interesting and novel aspects of grass growth and development and further enforce the importance of a grass model system. By functionally characterizing a suite of genes, we have begun to improve the sparse model for transcription regulation of biomass accumulation in grasses. In the process, we have advanced methodology and brachy molecular genetic tools that will serve as valuable community resource.

  19. Single walled carbon nanotubes: a model system for excitons in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, J.; Finnie, P.

    2011-03-01

    The semiconducting single walled carbon nanotube (s-SWNTs) with its direct bandgap and its strong 1D character absorbs and emits light efficiently. In contrast with other nanomaterials, the structure of an SWNT is uniquely defined and is set by a discrete number of carbon rings along its tubular section. Experimentally, optical spectroscopy has recently revealed this remarkable quantization. In our group, we focus primarily on the luminescence properties of individual s-SWNTs. Using imaging techniques, we reveal unambiguously that each s-SWNT with its quantized structure is characterized by a specific manifold of excitonic states. With the large diameter tunability achieved in SWNTs, we show that the material represents a model system for 1D photophysics. This proceeding is meant to be a review of past work and includes complementary data that have been presented at conferences but otherwise have never been published. Some emphasis is given on experimental details for luminescence imaging and spectroscopy.

  20. Benchmarking LES with wall-functions and RANS for fatigue problems in thermal–hydraulics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunstall, R., E-mail: ryan.tunstall@manchester.ac.uk [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Laurence, D.; Prosser, R. [School of MACE, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Skillen, A. [Scientific Computing Department, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We benchmark LES with blended wall-functions and low-Re RANS for a pipe bend and T-Junction. • Blended wall-laws allow the first cell from the wall to be placed anywhere in the boundary layer. • In both cases LES predictions improve as the first cell wall spacing is reduced. • Near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction are overpredicted by wall-modelled LES. • The EBRSM outperforms other RANS models for the pipe bend. - Abstract: In assessing whether nuclear plant components such as T-Junctions are likely to suffer thermal fatigue problems in service, CFD techniques need to provide accurate predictions for wall temperature fluctuations. Though it has been established that this is within the capabilities of wall-resolved LES, its high computational cost has prevented widespread usage in industry. In the present paper the suitability of LES with blended wall-functions, that allow the first cell to be placed in any part of the boundary layer, is assessed. Numerical results for the flows through a 90° pipe bend and a T-Junction are compared against experimental data. Both test cases contain areas where equilibrium laws are violated in practice. It is shown that reducing the first cell wall spacing improves agreement with experimental data by limiting the extent from the wall in which the solution is constrained to an equilibrium law. The LES with wall-function approach consistently overpredicts the near-wall temperature fluctuations in the T-Junction, suggesting that it can be considered as a conservative approach. We also benchmark a range of low-Re RANS models. EBRSM predictions for the 90° pipe bend are in significantly better agreement with experimental data than those from the other models. There are discrepancies from all RANS models in the case of the T-Junction.

  1. Phosphorous adsorption and precipitation in a permeable reactive wall: Applications for wastewater disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.J.; Blowes, D.W.; Placek, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable reactive mixture has been developed using low cost, readily available materials that is capable of providing effective, long-term phosphorous treatment in areas impacted by on-land wastewater disposal. The reactive mixture creates a geochemical environment suitable for P-attenuation by both adsorption and precipitation reactions. Potential benefits include significant reductions in phosphorous loading to receiving groundwater and surface water systems, and the accumulation of P-mass in a finite and accessible volume of material. The mixture may be applied as a component within surface treatment systems or in subsurface applications such as horizontal or vertical permeable reactive walls. The mixture averaged > 90% treatment efficiency over 3.6 years of continuous-flow laboratory column experiments. The mixture was further evaluated at the pilot-scale to treat municipal wastewater, and the field-scale to treat a well-characterized septic system plume using an in situ funnel and gate system. Average PO 4 -P concentrations in effluent exiting the reactive mixture range between 0 - 0.3 mg/L. Mineralogical analyses have isolated the phases responsible for phosphorous uptake, and discrete phosphate precipitates have been identified

  2. Reply to "Domain-growth kinetics of systems with soft walls''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Præstgaard, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of computer-simulation results for three different models with soft domain walls it is argued that the zero-temperature domain-growth kinetics falls in a separate universality class characterized by a kinetic growth exponent n≃0.25. However, for finite temperatures there is a distinct...... crossover to Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn kinetics n=0.50, thus suggesting that the soft-wall and hard-wall universality classes become identical at finite temperatures....

  3. Analysis of three loss-of-flow accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall cooling system of the Next European Torus (NET) design or the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design. The LOFAs considered result from a loss of the forced coolant flow caused by a loss of electrical power for the recirculation pump in the primary circuit. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analyses, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall. In the LOFA case without plasma shutdown, melting starts in the first wall about 150 s after accident initiation. In the LOFA case with delayed plasma shutdown, melting starts in the first wall when the plasma shutdown is initiated later than about 110 s after accident initiation. Melting does not occur in the first wall during a LOFA with prompt plasma scram. (orig.)

  4. Thinking out of the box : a green and social climate fund comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames"

    OpenAIRE

    Ooms, Gorik; van de Pas, Remco; Decoster, Kristof; Hammonds, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Solomon Benatar's paper "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames" examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality re...

  5. Reciprocal frame architecture in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    POPOVIC LARSEN, Olga

    2010-01-01

    p. 1866-1876 Reciprocal Frame Structures (RF) are a form of a three-dimensional grillage structure. In their simplest configuration they are formed by placing beams in a closed circuit in which each beam is supported by the preceding beam at the inner end, and by an external wall or ring beam on the outer end. In their more complex configurations gridshell-like structures with a double curvature can be formed. Although RFs have been used in many countries throughout history and are k...

  6. Loss-of-Coolant and Loss-of-Flow Accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic analysis of three Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs) and three Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the SEAFP reactor design. The analyses deal with the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour inside the cooling systems and the temperature development inside the nuclear components. As it appears, the temperature increase in the first wall Be-coating is limited to 30 K when an emergency plasma shutdown is initiated within 10 s following pump trip. (orig.)

  7. A predictive model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Trachtenberg, I.; Edgar, T.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon from thermally activated silane in a cold wall, single-wafer rapid thermal system was studied by experimentation at a variety of low pressure conditions, including very high temperatures. The effect of diluent gas on polysilicon deposition rates was examined using hydrogen, helium, and krypton. A mass-transfer model for the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall, rapid thermal system was developed. This model was used to produce an empirical rate expression for silicon deposition from silane by regressing kinetic parameters to fit experimental data. The resulting model provided accurate predictions over widely varying conditions in the experimental data.

  8. The effect of loss framing on the perceived difference of CO2 amounts: Implications for advanced travel information systems (ATIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Waygood, O.; Avineri, E.

    2011-01-01

    The provision of information on carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by transport to the traveller can be seen as an instrument to increase the likelihood of more sustainable choices being made by individuals. However, little attention has been paid to the design of such information. Loss framing is one technique that could potentially highlight desirable choices, and affect motivation, intention and travel choice behaviour, but its application has not been studied in the context of CO2 information...

  9. Effects of torus wall flexibility on forces in the Mark I Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Suppression System. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-09-01

    The authors investigated the effects of torus wall flexibility in the pressure suppression system of a Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) when the torus wall is subjected to hydrodynamic loadings. Using hypothetical models, they examined these flexibility effects under two hydrodynamic loading conditions: (1) a steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, and (2) a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse. In the analyses of these events they used a recently developed two-dimensional finite element computer code. Taking the basic geometry and dimensions of the Monticello Mark I BWR nuclear power plant (in Monticello, Minnesota, U.S.A.), they assessed the effects of flexibility in the torus wall by changing values of the inside-diameter-to-wall-thickness ratio. Varying the torus wall thickness (t) with respect to the inside diameter (D) of the torus, they assigned values to the ratio D/t ranging from 0 (infinitely rigid) to 600 (highly flexible). In the case of a modeled steam relief valve (SRV) discharge pulse, they found the peak vertical reaction force on the torus was reduced from that of a rigid wall response by a factor of 3 for the most highly flexible, plant-simulated wall (D/t = 600). The reduction factor for a modeled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) chugging pulse was shown to be 1.5. The two-dimensional analyses employed overestimate these reduction factors but have provided, as intended, definition of the effect of torus boundary stiffness. In the work planned for FY79, improved modeling of the structure and of the source is expected to result in factors more directly applicable to actual pressure suppression systems

  10. Wood-framed houses for earthquake zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Wood-framed houses with a sheathing are suitable for use in earthquake zones. The Direction describes a method of determining the earthquake forces in a house and shows how these forces can be resisted by diaphragm action in the walls, floors, and roof, of the house. An appendix explains how...

  11. The role of the hemicelluloses in the nanobiology of wood cell walls : a systems theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    The hemicelluloses have not received adequate attention in studies of wood cell walls because the complexity of their structures does not admit easy interpretation within the paradigms of polymer science. Two-phase composite models of the cell wall have led many to view their primary function as one of coupling cellulose and lignin to enhance the mechanical properties...

  12. Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls With Membrane Catcher Systems Subjected to Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    is the lateral displacement at the height-wise center of the wall, y is the crack depth through the thickness, and α is the degree of fixity at the...unreinforced masonry wall are assumed to be fully fixed. Eq. (4) accounts for partial end fixities ( ) of the top and bottom interfaces of the

  13. Gypsum plasterboard walls: inspection, pathological characterization and statistical survey using an expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaião, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an expert system to support the inspection and diagnosis of partition walls or wall coverings mounted using the Drywall (DW construction method. This system includes a classification of anomalies in DW and their probable causes. This inspection system was used in a field work that included the observation of 121 DWs. This paper includes a statistical analysis of the anomalies observed during these inspections and their probable causes. The correlation between anomalies and causes in the sample is also thoroughly analyzed. Anomalies are also evaluated for area affected, size, repair urgency and aesthetic value of the affected area. The conclusions of the statistical analysis allowed the creation of an inventory of preventive measures to be implemented in the design, execution and use phases in order to lessen the magnitude or eradicate the occurrence of anomalies in DW. These measures could directly help improve the quality of construction.

    Este trabajo presenta un sistema experto de apoyo a la inspección y diagnóstico de tabiques o revestimientos de yeso laminado. Dicho sistema, que permite la clasificación de las anomalías del yeso laminado y sus causas probables, se empleó en un trabajo de campo en el que se estudiaron 121 elementos construidos con este material. El trabajo incluye el análisis estadístico de las anomalías detectadas durante las inspecciones y sus motivos probables. También se analizó en detalle la correlación entre las anomalías y sus causas, evaluándose aquellas en función de la superficie afectada, la urgencia de las reparaciones y el valor estético de la zona implicada. Las conclusiones del análisis estadístico permitieron la elaboración de un inventario de medidas preventivas que deberían implantarse en las fases de proyecto, ejecución y utilización de estos elementos a fin de erradicar la aparición de anomalías en el yeso laminado o reducir su frecuencia. Dichas

  14. The development of a under-water robot system for inspection of the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Byung Man; Cho, Hyung Suk; Park, Ki Yong; Park, Young Soo; Yoon, Ji Sup; Lee, Byung Jik

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, an under-water robot system is developed in order to inspect the radiation level and decontaminate the contaminated inner wall of nuclear research reactor, TRIGA MARK III. This system is composed of the mobile robot which navigates autonomously under the water and the ground control unit which monitors and commands the motion of mobile robot. The mobile robot can move on the wall surface with five thruster systems and is composed of three parts, i.e., mechanical, control, and sensory parts. The five thruster system is configured such as one main thruster, two wall adhesion thruster, and two turning/buoyancy compensation thruster. The control part has 4 CPU boards and each board is configured such that one is in charge of supervisory control mode which controls the position of mobile robot and communicates with the ground control unit and the other board is designed to have motor control mode which drives two motors simultaneously. In secondary part, the laser scanner and fluorescent reflectors and the incilinometer are designed. The laser scanner with fluorescent reflectors provides the current position of the mobile robot on the wall surface and by incilinometer, the moving direction can be obtained. This paper describes the design and configuration procedures of under-water robot in detail and presents the experimental results for characteristic test of the thruster system. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept. Keywords. Bounded operator; Hilbert space; continuous frame; atomic resolution of identity. 1. Introduction and preliminaries. As we know frames are more flexible tools to convey information than bases, ...

  16. Making students' frames explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul Henrik Kyvsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Framing is a vital part of the design and innovation process. Frames are cognitive shortcuts (i.e. metaphors) that enable designers to connect insights about i.e. market opportunities and users needs with a set of solution principles and to test if this connection makes sense. Until now, framing...

  17. Decisions with endogenous frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model of decision-making with endogenous frames and contrast the normative implications of our model to those of choice theoretic models in which observed choices are determined by exogenous frames or ancillary conditions. We argue that, frames, though they may be taken as given by the

  18. Fusion frames and G-frames in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fusion frames and -frames in Hilbert spaces are generalizations of frames, and frames were extended to Banach spaces. In this article we introduce fusion frames, -frames, Banach -frames in Banach spaces and we show that they share many useful properties with their corresponding notions in Hilbert spaces. We also ...

  19. Design of the PDX Tokamak wall armor and inner limiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Ulrickson, M.

    1981-08-01

    The inner wall protective plates for the PDX Tokamak are designed to absorb 8 MW of neutral deuterium beam power at maximum power densities of 3 kW/cm 2 for pulse lengths of 0.5 sec. Preliminary studies indicate that the design could survive several pulses of 1 sec duration. The design consists of a tile and mounting plate structure. The mounting plates are water cooled to allow short duty cycles and beam calorimetry. The temperature and flow of the coolant is measured to obtain the injected power. A thermocouple array on the tiles provides beam position and power density profiles. Several material combinations for the tiles were subjected to thermal tests using both electron and neutral beams, and titanium carbide coated graphite was selected as the tile material. The heat transfer coefficient of the tile backing plate structure was measured to determine the maximum pulse rate allowable. The design of the armor system allows the structure to be used as a neutral beam power diagnostic and as an inner plasma limiter. The electrical and cooling systems external to the vacuum vessel are discussed

  20. Abdominal wall injuries occurring after blunt trauma: incidence and grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ryan W; Marshall, Andre; Deshmukh, Harshal; Bender, Jeffrey S; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Lees, Jason S; Albrecht, Roxie M

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic abdominal wall injuries (AWIs) are being increasingly recognized after blunt force injury. All available abdominal/pelvic computed axial tomography (CAT) scans of blunt trauma patients evaluated at our level I trauma center from January 2005 to August 2006 were reviewed for the presence of AWI. AWI was graded using a severity-based numeric system. AWI grade was then compared with variables from a prospectively maintained trauma registry. Of 1,549 reviewed CAT scans, 9% showed AWI (grade I = 53%, grade II = 28%, grade III = 9%, grade IV = 8%, and grade V = 2%). There was no association between AWI and seatbelt use, Injury Severity Score, weight, or need for abdominal surgery. AWI occurs in 9% of blunt trauma patients undergoing abdominal/pelvic CAT scans. The incidence of herniation on CAT at presentation after blunt trauma is .2%, and the incidence of patients at risk of future hernia formation is 1.5%. AWI can be effectively cataloged using a straightforward numeric grading system.

  1. Frame-to-frame coherent GPU splatting

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Carrion, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several improvements of the classical splatting volume rendering technique have been proposed, specifically, GPU implementations that considerably speed it up. However, splatting time-varying data, even using the GPU, is still slow and not very suitable for interactive data exploration through time. In this paper, we propose a GPU-based viewaligned splatting algorithm that exploits frame-to-frame coherence to render time-varying volume datasets. Our method run-length enc...

  2. Bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along pipe wall in chlorinated drinking water distribution system of East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingqing; Ren, Hongxing; Ye, Xianbei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Hu, Baolan

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms in the pipe wall may lead to water quality deterioration and biological instability in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). In this study, bacterial community radial-spatial distribution in biofilms along the pipe wall in a chlorinated DWDS of East China was investigated. Three pipes of large diameter (300, 600, and 600 mm) were sampled in this DWDS, including a ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP) with pipe age of 11 years and two gray cast iron pipes (GCIP) with pipe ages of 17 and 19 years, and biofilms in the upper, middle, and lower parts of each pipe wall were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the biofilm density and total solid (TS) and volatile solid (VS) contents increased gradually from the top to the bottom along the pipe wall. Microorganisms were concentrated in the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, together accounting for more than 80 % of the total biomass in the biofilms. The bacterial communities in biofilms were significantly different in different areas of the pipe wall and had no strong interaction. Compared with the upper and lower parts of the pipe wall, the bacterial community in the middle of the pipe wall was distributed evenly and had the highest diversity. The 16S rRNA genes of various possible pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica, were detected in the biofilms, and the abundances of these possible pathogens were highest in the middle of the pipe wall among three areas. The detachment of the biofilms is the main reason for the deterioration of the water quality in DWDSs. The results of this study suggest that the biofilms in the middle of the pipe wall have highly potential risk for drinking water safety, which provides new ideas for the study of the microbial ecology in

  3. Post-trial anatomical frame alignment procedure for comparison of 3D joint angle measurement from magnetic/inertial measurement units and camera-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingguo; Zhang, Jun-Tian

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and inertial measurement units (MIMUs) have been widely used as an alternative to traditional camera-based motion capture systems for 3D joint kinematics measurement. Since these sensors do not directly measure position, a pre-trial anatomical calibration, either with the assistance of a special protocol/apparatus or with another motion capture system is required to establish the transformation matrices between the local sensor frame and the anatomical frame (AF) of each body segment on which the sensors are attached. Because the axes of AFs are often used as the rotational axes in the joint angle calculation, any difference in the AF determination will cause discrepancies in the calculated joint angles. Therefore, a direct comparison of joint angles between MIMU systems and camera-based systems is less meaningful because the calculated joint angles contain a systemic error due to the differences in the AF determination. To solve this problem a new post-trial AF alignment procedure is proposed. By correcting the AF misalignments, the joint angle differences caused by the difference in AF determination are eliminated and the remaining discrepancies are mainly from the measurement accuracy of the systems themselves. Lower limb joint angles from 30 walking trials were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed AF alignment procedure. This technique could serve as a new means for calibrating magnetic/inertial sensor-based motion capture systems and correcting for AF misalignment in scenarios where joint angles are compared directly. (paper)

  4. Carotid intima-medial thickness measured on multiple ultrasound frames: evaluation of a DICOM-based software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuillan Brendan M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT measured by B-mode ultrasonography is a marker of atherosclerosis and is commonly used as an outcome in intervention trials. We have developed DICOM-based software that measures CIMT rapidly on multiple end-diastolic image frames. The aims of this study were to compare the performance of our new software with older bitmap-based CIMT measurement software and to determine whether a ten-fold increase in the number of measurements used to calculate mean CIMT would improve reproducibility. Methods Two independent sonographers recorded replicate carotid scans in thirty volunteers and two blinded observers measured CIMT off-line using the new DICOM-based software and older bitmap-based software. A Bland-Altman plot was used to compare CIMT results from the two software programs and t-tests were used to compare analysis times. F-tests were used to compare the co-efficients of variation (CVs from a standard six-frame measurement protocol with CVs from a sixty-frame measurement protocol. Ordinary least products (OLP regression was used to test for sonographer and observer biases. Results The new DICOM-based software was much faster than older bitmap-based software (average measurement time for one scan 3.4 ± 0.6 minutes versus 8.4 ± 1.8 minutes, p Conclusion While the use of DICOM-based software significantly reduced analysis time, a ten-fold increase in the number of measurements used to calculate CIMT did not improve reproducibility. In addition, we found that observer biases caused differences in mean CIMT of a magnitude commonly reported as significant in intervention trials. Our results highlight the importance of good study design with concurrent controls and the need to ensure that no observer drift occurs between baseline and follow-up measurements when CIMT is used to monitor the effect of an intervention.

  5. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  6. Seismic capacity evaluation of post-tensioned concrete slab-column frame buildings by pushover analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttawut Intaboot

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic capacity evaluation of post-tensioned concrete slab-column frame buildings designed only for gravity loads and wind load is presented. The series of nonlinear pushover analyses are carried out by using the computer program SAP2000. An equivalent frame model with explicit transverse torsional members is introduced for modeling slab-column connections. The analyses are carried out by ollowingguidelines in ATC-40 and FEMA-273/274, where several important factors such as P-Delta effects, strength and stiffness contributions from masonry infill walls, and foundation flexibility are well taken into account. The pushover analysis results, presented in the form of capacity curves, are compared with the seismic demand from the expected earthquake ground motion for Bangkok and then the seismic performance can be evaluated. Numerical examples are performed on the 9- and 30-storey post-tension flat-plate buildings in Bangkok. The results show that in general post-tensioned concrete slab-column frame buildings without shear wall possess relatively low lateral stiffness, low lateral strength capacity, and poor inelastic response characteristics. The evaluation also shows that the slab-column frame combined with the shear wall system and drop panel can increase the strength and stiffness significantly.

  7. Development of serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itamoto, Masaharu; Kuwabara, Kazumichi; Tanno, Takeo; Nakayama, Yoshiki; Mizuta, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    In order to determine the three-dimensional stress state in serial order, the authors developed the serial measurement system for three-dimensional stress determination by over-coring the strains on the borehole wall. The serial stress measurements give the value of the stresses with high accuracy and bring the regional stress variations. In this paper, the authors describe the studies through FEM analysis on the effect of over-coring diameter, the influence of strain gauge length and the behavior of strain on the borehole wall, induced by biaxial external loading. We developed the multi-strain gauge mounted packer and examined it by measuring the strains on the borehole wall through biaxial loading test. The Laboratory tests showed its applicability to practical use. (author)

  8. Intensive care unit without walls: seeking patient safety by improving the efficiency of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, F; Abella, A

    2014-10-01

    The term "ICU without walls" refers to innovative management in Intensive Care, based on two key elements: (1) collaboration of all medical and nursing staff involved in patient care during hospitalization and (2) technological support for severity early detection protocols by identifying patients at risk of deterioration throughout the hospital, based on the assessment of vital signs and/or laboratory test values, with the clear aim of improving critical patient safety in the hospitalization process. At present, it can be affirmed that there is important work to be done in the detection of severity and early intervention in patients at risk of organ dysfunction. Such work must be adapted to the circumstances of each center and should include training in the detection of severity, multidisciplinary work in the complete patient clinical process, and the use of technological systems allowing intervention on the basis of monitored laboratory and physiological parameters, with effective and efficient use of the information generated. Not only must information be generated, but also efficient management of such information must also be achieved. It is necessary to improve our activity through innovation in management procedures that facilitate the work of the intensivist, in collaboration with other specialists, throughout the hospital environment. Innovation is furthermore required in the efficient management of the information generated in hospitals, through intelligent and directed usage of the new available technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Concrete Open-Wall Systems Wrapped with FRP under Torsional Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino P. Berardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The static behavior of reinforced concrete (RC beams plated with layers of fiber-reinforced composite material (FRP is widely investigated in current literature, which deals with both its numerical modeling as well as experiments. Scientific interest in this topic is explained by the increasing widespread use of composite materials in retrofitting techniques, as well as the consolidation and upgrading of existing reinforced concrete elements to new service conditions. The effectiveness of these techniques is typically influenced by the debonding of the FRP at the interface with concrete, where the transfer of stresses occurs from one element (RC member to the other (FRP strengthening. In fact, the activation of the well-known premature failure modes can be regarded as a consequence of high peak values of the interfacial interactions. Until now, typical applications of FRP structural plating have included cases of flexural or shear-flexural strengthening. Within this context, the present study aims at extending the investigation to the case of wall-systems with open cross-section under torsional loads. It includes the results of some numerical analyses carried out by means of a finite element approximation.

  10. Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Retrofitted with Elastomeric Systems for Blast Loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, C. F; Slawson, T. R; Cummins, T. K; Davis, J. L

    2004-01-01

    Concrete masonry units (CMU), commonly referred to as concrete blocks, are the most common construction material utilized throughout the United States and the world for exterior walls of conventional structures...

  11. EFFECTS OF COLUMN FAILURES ON THE INTERNAL FORCES OF ORTHOGONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDING FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay KAYA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of column failures which may take place due to the special causes such as blast, vehicle impact, insufficient or deficient design, on the internal forces of orthogonal reinforced concrete building frames have been investigated. Calculations have been performed with SAP2000 structural analysis program, under static conditions. For a typical frame system, firstly, various column failure scenarios have been considered for uninfilled case and internal forces have been calculated and compared with those in the intact case. Then, similar calculations have been implemented for the case of presence of infill walls. The results of analyses have shown that the effects of column failures had condensed on the neighbor columns and beams of orthogonal frames on which the columns had been failed. Moreover, it has been determined that, while the bending moment capacities of the connected beams to the failed columns had exceeded in the bare frames, in the masonry infilled frames, walls give substantial support to the structural elements of the building, and capacities of the beams had not exceeded.

  12. Changing climate, changing frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Martinus J.; Boezeman, Daan; Dewulf, Art; Termeer, Catrien J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show development of flood policy frames in context of climate change attention. ► Rising attention on climate change influences traditional flood policy framing. ► The new framing employs global-scale scientific climate change knowledge. ► With declining attention, framing disregards climate change, using local knowledge. ► We conclude that frames function as sensemaking devices selectively using knowledge. -- Abstract: Water management and particularly flood defence have a long history of collective action in low-lying countries like the Netherlands. The uncertain but potentially severe impacts of the recent climate change issue (e.g. sea level rise, extreme river discharges, salinisation) amplify the wicked and controversial character of flood safety policy issues. Policy proposals in this area generally involve drastic infrastructural works and long-term investments. They face the difficult challenge of framing problems and solutions in a publicly acceptable manner in ever changing circumstances. In this paper, we analyse and compare (1) how three key policy proposals publicly frame the flood safety issue, (2) the knowledge referred to in the framing and (3) how these frames are rhetorically connected or disconnected as statements in a long-term conversation. We find that (1) framings of policy proposals differ in the way they depict the importance of climate change, the relevant timeframe and the appropriate governance mode; (2) knowledge is selectively mobilised to underpin the different frames and (3) the frames about these proposals position themselves against the background of the previous proposals through rhetorical connections and disconnections. Finally, we discuss how this analysis hints at the importance of processes of powering and puzzling that lead to particular framings towards the public at different historical junctures

  13. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  14. Framing Failures in Wood-Frame Hip Roofs under Extreme Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Stevenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood-frame residential roof failures are among the most common and expensive types of wind damage. Hip roofs are commonly understood to be more resilient during extreme wind in relation to gable roofs. However, inspection of damage survey data from recent tornadoes has revealed a previously unstudied failure mode in which hip roofs suffer partial failure of the framing structure. In the current study, evidence of partial framing failures and statistics of their occurrence are explored and discussed, while the common roof design and construction practice are reviewed. Two-dimensional finite element models are developed to estimate the element-level load effects on hip roof trusses and stick-frame components. The likelihood of failure in each member is defined based on relative demand-to-capacity ratios. Trussed and stick-frame structures are compared to assess the relative performance of the two types of construction. The present analyses verify the common understanding that toenailed roof-to-wall connections are likely to be the most vulnerable elements in the structure of a wood-frame hip roof. However, the results also indicate that certain framing members and connections display significant vulnerability under the same wind uplift, and the possibility of framing failure is not to be discounted. Furthermore, in the case where the roof-to-wall connection uses hurricane straps, certain framing members and joints become the likely points of failure initiation. The analysis results and damage survey observations are used to expand the understanding of wood-frame residential roof failures, as they relate to the Enhanced Fujita Scale and provide assessment of potential gaps in residential design codes.

  15. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  16. Cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differentially modulated innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushansingh Baurhoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella causes acute systemic inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium. But, prolonged inflammation may provoke severe body catabolism and immunological diseases. Salmonella has become more life-threatening due to emergence of multiple-antibiotic resistant strains. Mannose-rich oligosaccharides (MOS from cells walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown to bind mannose-specific lectin of Gram-negative bacteria including Salmonella, and prevent their adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. However, whether MOS may potentially mitigate systemic inflammation is not investigated yet. Moreover, molecular events underlying innate immune responses and metabolic activities during late inflammation, in presence or absence of MOS, are unknown. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a Salmonella LPS-induced systemic inflammation chicken model and microarray analysis, we investigated the effects of MOS and virginiamycin (VIRG, a sub-therapeutic antibiotic on innate immunity and glucose metabolism during late inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that MOS and VIRG modulated innate immunity and metabolic genes differently. Innate immune responses were principally mediated by intestinal IL-3, but not TNF-α, IL-1 or IL-6, whereas glucose mobilization occurred through intestinal gluconeogenesis only. MOS inherently induced IL-3 expression in control hosts. Consequent to LPS challenge, IL-3 induction in VIRG hosts but not differentially expressed in MOS hosts revealed that MOS counteracted LPS's detrimental inflammatory effects. Metabolic pathways are built to elucidate the mechanisms by which VIRG host's higher energy requirements were met: including gene up-regulations for intestinal gluconeogenesis (PEPCK and liver glycolysis (ENO2, and intriguingly liver fatty acid synthesis through ATP citrate synthase (CS down-regulation and ATP citrate lyase (ACLY and malic enzyme (ME up-regulations. However, MOS host

  17. Does the international trade-system help promote peace? : a critical study of WTO's first benefit within the theoretical frames of peace- and development studies

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Lars Martin

    2009-01-01

    The World Trade Organization claims to help keep peace in their declaration Ten Benefits of the WTO trading system (WTO 2008a). This thesis is a critical study of this peace claim within the frames of both peace- and development studies. The main argument of the thesis is that the peace claim of WTO is exaggerated. When adopting peace studies own definitions of peace and view it together with WTO’s narrow peace definition, the peace claim of WTO is up for debate. Current globalization and tra...

  18. Robust inertial frame-based alignment of fiber-optic gyro strapdown inertial navigation systems using a generalized proportional-integral-derivative filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahgoshay, Mohammad Ali; Karimaghaie, Paknoosh; Shabaninia, Fereidoon

    2017-09-01

    Initial alignment is one of the most prominent and vital issues in fiber-optic gyro strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). In most research, the standard Kalman filter (KF) and its various versions have been used to accomplish the initial alignment of SINSs. A robust alignment approach is presented based on a generalized proportional-integral-derivative filter. The proposed inertial frame-based alignment approach outperforms the standard KF-based alignment methods and achieves a robust and accurate solution for marine fiber-optic SISN alignment. Experimental results also verify the prominent performance of the presented approach compared to the conventional standard KF-based alignment method.

  19. Evaluation of Three Cases Using a Novel Titanium Mesh System-Skull-Fit with Orbital Wall (Skull-Fit WOW)-For Cranial Base Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Noriko; Nakajima, Hideo; Tamada, Ikkei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kawase, Takeshi; Kishi, Kazuo

    2011-09-01

    Cranial base reconstructions associated with tumor resections around the orbital wall often require that both the upper and lateral orbital walls be reconstructed during a single procedure. Previously, we used titanium mesh plates that were preoperatively fabricated based on three-dimensional models. Although these plates are precise and do not increase the probability of infection, we still had to use autologous bones to reconstruct the orbital walls. Recently, we developed a new titanium mesh plate-called Skull-Fit(®)-with orbital wall (Skull-Fit WOW(®)), enabling us to reconstruct the cranial base and orbital walls without bone grafts. Here, we report on three reconstruction cases in which the novel titanium mesh-orbital wall system was used. In all three cases, the customized titanium mesh system performed satisfactorily with little, if any, complications.

  20. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2 inches...

  1. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians’ head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians’ size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  2. Far-Infrared Based Pedestrian Detection for Driver-Assistance Systems Based on Candidate Filters, Gradient-Based Feature and Multi-Frame Approval Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong

    2015-12-21

    Far-infrared pedestrian detection approaches for advanced driver-assistance systems based on high-dimensional features fail to simultaneously achieve robust and real-time detection. We propose a robust and real-time pedestrian detection system characterized by novel candidate filters, novel pedestrian features and multi-frame approval matching in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Firstly, we design two filters based on the pedestrians' head and the road to select the candidates after applying a pedestrian segmentation algorithm to reduce false alarms. Secondly, we propose a novel feature encapsulating both the relationship of oriented gradient distribution and the code of oriented gradient to deal with the enormous variance in pedestrians' size and appearance. Thirdly, we introduce a multi-frame approval matching approach utilizing the spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians to increase the detection rate. Large-scale experiments indicate that the system works in real time and the accuracy has improved about 9% compared with approaches based on high-dimensional features only.

  3. On Λ-Type Duality of Frames in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Chugh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Frames are redundant system which are useful in the reconstruction of certain classes of spaces. The dual of a frame (Hilbert always exists and can be obtained in a natural way. Due to the presence of three Banach spaces in the definition of retro Banach frames (or Banach frames duality of frames in Banach spaces is not similar to frames for Hilbert spaces. In this paper we introduce the notion of Λ-type duality of retro Banach frames. This can be generalized to Banach frames in Banach spaces. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the dual of retro Banach frames are obtained. A special class of retro Banach frames which always admit a dual frame is discussed.

  4. The near infrared imaging system for the real-time protection of the JET ITER-like wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, A.; Kinna, D.; Huber, V.; Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balorin, C.; Carman, P.; Carvalho, P.; Collins, S.; Conway, N.; McCullen, P.; Jachmich, S.; Jouve, M.; Linsmeier, Ch; Lomanowski, B.; Lomas, P. J.; Lowry, C. G.; Maggi, C. F.; Matthews, G. F.; May-Smith, T.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph; Nunes, I.; Price, M.; Puglia, P.; Riccardo, V.; Rimini, F. G.; Sergienko, G.; Tsalas, M.; Zastrow, K.-D.; contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and operation of the near infrared (NIR) imaging diagnostic system of the JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) plasma experiment and its integration into the existing JET protection architecture. The imaging system comprises four wide-angle views, four tangential divertor views, and two top views of the divertor covering 66% of the first wall and up to 43% of the divertor. The operation temperature ranges which must be observed by the NIR protection cameras are, for the materials used on JET: Be 700 °C–1400 °C W coating 700 °C–1370 °C W bulk 700 °C–1400 °C. The Real-Time Protection system operates routinely since 2011 and successfully demonstrated its capability to avoid the overheating of the main chamber beryllium wall as well as of the divertor W and W-coated carbon fibre composite (CFC) tiles. During this period, less than 0.5% of the terminated discharges were aborted by a malfunction of the system. About 2%–3% of the discharges were terminated due to the detection of actual hot spots.

  5. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and Ni-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (Ni-MWCNT) Repair Patches for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brienne; Caraccio, Anne; Tate, LaNetra; Jackson, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/epoxy and nickel-coated multi-walled carbon nanotube (Ni-MWCNT)/epoxy systems were fabricated into carbon fiber composite repair patches via vacuum resin infusion. Two 4 ply patches were manufactured with fiber orientations of [90/ 90/ 4590] and [0/90/ +45/ -45]. Prior to resin infusion, the MWCNT/Epoxy system and NiMWCNT/ epoxy systems were optimized for dispersion quality. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to determine the presence ofcarbon nanotubes and assess dispersion quality. Decomposition temperatures were determined via thermogravametric analysis (TGA). SEM and TGA were also used to evaluate the composite repair patches.

  7. Electrical conduction and photoresponses of gamma-ray-irradiated single-stranded DNA/single-walled carbon nanotube composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, D.W.; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. •Barrier for thermally activated conduction in the composite systems modified by the gamma-ray irradiation. •Photoresponses reveal photoexcitation and oxygen photodesorption modified by gamma-ray irradiation. -- Abstract: Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity and photoresponse have been studied for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) composite films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of the ssDNA/SWNT composite films, well described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicated modification of the barrier for thermally activated conduction by the gamma-ray irradiation. Besides, the photoresponse measurements indicated modified photoexcited charge carrier generation and oxygen photodesorption in the composite systems due to the gamma-ray irradiation.

  8. Motion control in double-walled carbon nanotube systems using a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Zhang Yongwei

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the motion of a single molecule will have an important impact in nano-mechanical systems. Multi-walled carbon nanotube systems, which have extremely low intertube friction and strong motion confinement, can form the basis for mechanically based motion control. We devise two molecular motion control units based on double-walled carbon nanotubes embedded with a Stone-Thrower-Wales defect cluster, and perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the characteristics of these two control units. We show that one of the molecular control units is able to perform a logic operation on one logic input and produce three logic outputs, while the other is able to produce two logic outputs. Potential applications of the motion control units include molecular switches, shuttles and mechanically based logic devices.

  9. A GPR system for the high-resolution inspection of walls and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Barsacchi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays GPR systems are used in a broad range of applications, including the non-destructive inspection of man-made concrete structures such as pillars and bridge decks. Concrete inspection involves several aspects including: location of reinforced bars in walls and floors, concrete condition assessment, concrete cover detection, etc. These surveys are very demanding as far as the system is concerned, because of the strict requirements in terms of resolution and accuracy. Specifically, a key GPR application concerns the condition assessment of a structure that has undergone rehabilitation (e.g. for the removal of architectural barriers or new openings); in this case, the current practice requires to re-check the stability of the entire structure that includes the identification of the number of rebars in reinforced concrete beams location of pre-tensioned cables and early detection of corrosion. This can be done by verification holes (coring) that is costly and intrusive practice or by using a pachometer, but this tool has a limited field of investigation (up to 7-8 cm from the surface). GPR can instead be a useful investigative tool especially when the surface of the beam is not accessible because it is covered by screed or floor. The need of detecting rebars with diameter in the millimeter range as well as the identification of small cavities and cracks, require the development of GPR antennas featuring linear phase and constant polarization, and capable to radiate a very short pulse (i.e. with a duration in the order of few hundreds of picosecond) with no ring-down in order to achieve a high range resolution. A novel 3 GHz center frequency antenna has been recently developed and tested; it has been found capable of providing a very clear image of the concrete internal structure that helps in locating targets and enables an early detection of damages, thus providing a fast and efficient maintenance of the structure itself. The Authors thank COST for funding COST

  10. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  11. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 2 ... In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space H which has a countable reconstruction formula.

  12. The Frame Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael Todd; Cox, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore framing, a non-multiplicative technique commonly employed by students as they construct similar shapes. When students frame, they add (or subtract) a "border" of fixed width about a geometric object. Although the approach does not yield similar shapes in general, the mathematical underpinnings of…

  13. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  14. Thinking inside the frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    The humanities, the natural and social sciences all represent advanced and systematic knowledge production—and they all receive public funding for doing so. However, although the field of public understanding of science has been well established for decades, similar research attention has not been...... directed at the humanities. The purpose of this study is to argue the case for further research of public understanding of the humanities and to take a first step in that direction by presenting a study of the framing of the humanities in Danish print news media. Different framings of the humanities...... are analyzed. Despite the differences in the issue-specific frames, the generic framing of the humanities shared by most articles is as follows: 75% explicitly frame the humanities as deficit, while the remaining 25% are more neutral. Consequently, if newspapers constitute the only source of information...

  15. Semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping vibrations of the wall, wall or panel provided with such semimanufacture, system provided with a semimanufacture and a control unit, wall or panel provided with a control unit and method for damping audible vibrations of a wall or panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeje, Marius; van Overbeek, Michiel Wilbert R.M.; van der Waal, Adri; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nederveen, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    A semimanufacture intended to be mounted on a vibrating wall or a vibrating panel for actively damping the vibrations in the wall or the panel with frequencies which are at least partly audible, wherein the semimanufacture is provided with a plate wherein the plate is integrated with: at least one

  16. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...

  17. Parametrizing Finite Frames and Optimal Frame Completions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    n = n ′( ∫ ∞ −∞ n pn(n)dn )( ∫ ∞ −∞ n′ pn′(n′)dn′ ) n , n′ =  var (n) n = n′ 0 n , n′ . (6.3) Substituting (6.3) into (6.2) gives...frames,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Conference on Wavelets : Applications in Signal and Image Processing X, 371-380 (November 2003). [10] Casazza, P. G

  18. The wavelength frame multiplication chopper system for the ESS test beamline at the BER II reactor—A concept study of a fundamental ESS instrument principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Bulat, M.; Habicht, K.

    2013-01-01

    Contributing to the design update phase of the European Spallation Source ESS–scheduled to start operation in 2019–a test beamline is under construction at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB). This beamline offers experimental test capabilities of instrument concepts viable for the ESS. The experiments envisaged at this dedicated beamline comprise testing of components as well as of novel experimental approaches and methods taking advantage of the long pulse characteristic of the ESS source. Therefore the test beamline will be equipped with a sophisticated chopper system that provides the specific time structure of the ESS and enables variable wavelength resolutions via wavelength frame multiplication (WFM), a fundamental instrument concept beneficial for a number of instruments at ESS. We describe the unique chopper system developed for these purposes, which allows constant wavelength resolution for a wide wavelength band. Furthermore we discuss the implications for the conceptual design for related instrumentation at the ESS

  19. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  20. Maintenance and Durability of the Concrete External Layer of Curtain Walls in Prefabricated Technological Poznan Large Panel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiczak, Józef; Girus, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The issue of usability and durability of large-panel building constructed several decades ago is a subject of an in-depth analysis of many domestic and foreign investments. When considering the durability of specific large-panel system, one should consider, among others, the process of making external walls. The long-term and direct impact of weather conditions on the external layer of curtain walls is significant for the durability of large-panel buildings. For the needs of the presented paper, in 2016, the survey of cracks and a series of other tests of large-panel façade, residential building constructed in 1986, in Poland, in the PLP process system - Rataje was executed. Several hundred large-size, triple-layer curtain-wall slab with a 6-cm, concrete exterior cladding layer anchored using pins and hangers with the load-bearing layer, a 9-cm insulation layer made of mineral wool, and a 21-cm structural layer were surveyed. Significant deviations in thicknesses of particular wall layers were proven. Other significant damages and defects of external layers were found. At the second stage, many tests, both nondestructive and destructive, were conducted. They involved determining mechanical properties of an external layer. The concrete thickness was measured using with a type N Schmidt sclerometer and core samples were taken from this layer in order to mark concrete’s compressive strength. The range of carbonation (by phenolphthalein method) and the actual location and condition of reinforcement were estimated using a ferromagnetic device to determine the condition of the external layer. The diagnosis conducted in such a manner was the verification of necessary repair of the walls and their thermal efficiency improvement while ensuring safe conditions of their operation and modern functional and utility requirements. It should be also emphasized that the method of diagnosing the external walls presented in this paper may be popularized when evaluating such

  1. [Application of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system in treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liehu; Bao, Guangquan; Zhang, Chuncai; Liu, Xinwei; Niu, Yunfei; Xu, Shuogui; Su, Jiacan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS) combined with autologous iliac bone in the treatment of old acetabular posterior wall fracture with bone defect. Between January 2002 and February 2009, 17 patients with old acetabular posterior wall fracture and bone defect were treated, including 11 males and 6 females with an average age of 41.7 years (range, 20-60 years). The time from fracture to admission was 14-180 days (mean, 63 days). The displacement of the acetabular articular surface was more than or equal to 3 mm. According to the America Association of Orthopedic Surgeon (AAOS) acetabular fracture and defect classification standard, there were 4 cases of type I, 6 cases of type II, 5 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. After the residual fracture fragments of the acetabular posterior wall and soft tissue hyperplasia were removed, the femoral head was reduced, and posterior wall defect was repaired with autologous iliac bone graft; ATMFS was used to fix acetabular posterior wall and artificial capsular ligament to reconstruct the hip so as to prevent re-dislocation of the femoral head. According to Matta imaging assessment standard, the results were excellent in 8 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 2 cases, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 82.3%. All incisions healed by first intention, and no sciatic nerve injury occurred. All patients were followed up 1-8 years (mean, 3.9 years). The mean time of fracture union was 3.6 months (range, 2-6 months). Avascular necrosis of femoral head occurred in 1 case, heterotopic ossification around the acetabulum in 1 case. According to Merle d'Aubigné-Postel scoring system evaluation, the clinical results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 6 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case with an excellent and good rate of 88.2%. ATMFS combined with autologous iliac bone graft and artificial ligament reconstruction of the hip joint capsule is a good

  2. Integration of a capacitive pressure sensing system into the outer catheter wall for coronary artery FFR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Frank; Kuisma, Heikki; Gao, Feng; Saarilahti, Jaakko; Gomes Martins, David; Kärkkäinen, Anu; Marrinan, Brendan; Pintal, Sebastian

    2017-05-01

    The deadliest disease in the world is coronary artery disease (CAD), which is related to a narrowing (stenosis) of blood vessels due to fatty deposits, plaque, on the arterial walls. The level of stenosis in the coronary arteries can be assessed by Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) measurements. This involves determining the ratio between the maximum achievable blood flow in a diseased coronary artery and the theoretical maximum flow in a normal coronary artery. The blood flow is represented by a pressure drop, thus a pressure wire or pressure sensor integrated in a catheter can be used to calculate the ratio between the coronary pressure distal to the stenosis and the normal coronary pressure. A 2 Fr (0.67mm) outer diameter catheter was used, which required a high level of microelectronics miniaturisation to fit a pressure sensing system into the outer wall. The catheter has an eccentric guidewire lumen with a diameter of 0.43mm, which implies that the thickest catheter wall section provides less than 210 microns height for flex assembly integration consisting of two dies, a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor and an ASIC. In order to achieve this a very thin circuit flex was used, and the two chips were thinned down to 75 microns and flip chip mounted face down on the flex. Many challenges were involved in obtaining a flex layout that could wrap into a small tube without getting the dies damaged, while still maintaining enough flexibility for the catheter to navigate the arterial system.

  3. Modeling of gas-phase chemistry in the chemical vapor deposition of polysilicon in a cold wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toprac, A.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Trachtenberg, I. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    The relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to deposition processes is an important issue both from the standpoint of operation and modeling of these processes. In polysilicon deposition from thermally activated silane in a cold wall rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) system, the relative contribution of gas-phase chemistry to the overall deposition rate was examined by a mass-balance model. Evaluating the process at conditions examined experimentally, the model indicated that gas-phase reactions may be neglected to good accuracy in predicting polysilicon deposition rate. The model also provided estimates of the level of gas-phase generated SiH[sub 2] associated with deposition on the cold-process chamber walls.

  4. Framing (implicitly) matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit...... and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...

  5. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, September (2014), 1077546314548910 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 4.355, year: 2013 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/09/17/1077546314548910

  6. Wall-plug efficiency analysis of semi-active piezoelectric shunt damping systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Kodejška, M.; Mokrý, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2016), s. 2582-2590 ISSN 1077-5463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR GA13-10365S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Piezoelectric shunt damping * vibration isolation * negative capacitor * wall-plug efficiency * mechanical power measurement * power supply optimization Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.101, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077546314548910

  7. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  8. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Franklin D., Jr.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2004-01-01

    Maternal and child health practitioners often approach systemic change in a very practical manner: fostering a collaborative vision, engaging critical stakeholders, working with policymakers on reform, and bringing the data and experience to inform the process. Systems are often maintained at a status quo due to deep, ingrained structures,…

  9. An introduction to frames and Riesz bases

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This revised and expanded monograph presents the general theory for frames and Riesz bases in Hilbert spaces as well as its concrete realizations within Gabor analysis, wavelet analysis, and generalized shift-invariant systems.  Compared with the first edition, more emphasis is put on explicit constructions with attractive properties.  Based on the exiting development of frame theory over the last decade, this second edition now includes new sections on the rapidly growing fields of LCA groups, generalized shift-invariant systems, duality theory for as well Gabor frames as wavelet frames, and open problems in the field.   Key features include: *Elementary introduction to frame theory in finite-dimensional spaces * Basic results presented in an accessible way for both pure and applied mathematicians * Extensive exercises make the work suitable as a textbook for use in graduate courses * Full proofs includ ed in introductory chapters; only basic knowledge of functional analysis required * Explicit constructi...

  10. On transforms between Gabor frames and wavelet frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2013-01-01

    We describe a procedure that enables us to construct dual pairs of wavelet frames from certain dual pairs of Gabor frames. Applying the construction to Gabor frames generated by appropriate exponential Bsplines gives wavelet frames generated by functions whose Fourier transforms are compactly...... supported splines with geometrically distributed knot sequences. There is also a reverse transform, which yields pairs of dual Gabor frames when applied to certain wavelet frames....

  11. Detection of heat abduction on the walls by artificial neural network and selection of materials with decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Tekkanat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy conservation is a very important issue in the world and Turkey. The aim of this study is to minimize the heat abduction, thus to save energy by utilizing the factors to prevent the heat abduction on the walls of buildings. First of all, a back-propagation network model with artificial neural network model was used for the factors that can cause heat loss on the walls. Whether the walls have insulation were considered. After that, Decision Support Systems were used for heat insulation to select the appropriate materials. A Decision Support Model with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was recommended to meet the needs of a customer best and to make better decisions for the selection of the materials. The method was used by construction firms for their decision processes for the best materials and the results were evaluated. After the evaluations were done, the factors that cause heat loss were considered and it became clear which factors were more important for the prevention of heat loss.

  12. Analysis of the response of a reinforced concrete shear wall structure during earthquakes using the transfer matrix method of multibody systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although reinforced concrete shear wall structures are widely used in high-rise buildings, the methods used to analyze the seismic response of such a structure during an earthquake generally have low calculation efficiencies. In this article, the transfer matrix method of multibody systems is first established as a mechanical model of a regular reinforced concrete shear wall structure with both bifurcated and closed transfer paths to analyze the seismic responses of structures. By separating the shear wall legs, establishing a state vector relationship between the two endpoints of the coupling beams, and combining all state vectors of the inputs or outputs of each shear wall leg, the total transfer between shear wall legs is realized, and the overall transfer equation and overall transfer matrix of a shear wall structure are obtained. Applying the transfer matrix method of multibody systems, a 15-story shear wall structure is used as an engineering example to analyze seismic responses for frequent and rare earthquakes using MATLAB software. The findings show that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems provides similar results to ANSYS but that the transfer matrix method of multibody systems greatly increases calculation efficiency while maintaining accuracy.

  13. Variance based OFDM frame synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fedra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new frame synchronization scheme for OFDM systems and calculates the complexity of this scheme. The scheme is based on the computing of the detection window variance. The variance is computed in two delayed times, so a modified Early-Late loop is used for the frame position detection. The proposed algorithm deals with different variants of OFDM parameters including guard interval, cyclic prefix, and has good properties regarding the choice of the algorithm's parameters since the parameters may be chosen within a wide range without having a high influence on system performance. The verification of the proposed algorithm functionality has been performed on a development environment using universal software radio peripheral (USRP hardware.

  14. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  15. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Constant-phase descriptions of canine lung, chest wall, and total respiratory system viscoelasticity: effects of distending pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Smallwood, Jennifer L

    2012-08-15

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in 12 dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cm H(2)O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η=G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H(2)O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H(2)O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CONSTANT-PHASE DESCRIPTIONS OF CANINE LUNG, CHEST WALL, AND TOTAL RESPIRATORY SYSTEM VISCOELASTICITY: EFFECTS OF DISTENDING PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W.; Smallwood, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of the respiratory system reflect the ensemble behavior of its constituent structural elements. This study assessed the appropriateness of constant-phase descriptions of respiratory tissue viscoelasticity at various distending pressures. We measured the mechanical input impedance (Z) of the lungs, chest wall and total respiratory system in twelve dogs at mean airway pressures from 5 to 30 cmH2O. Each Z was fitted with a constant-phase model which provided estimates tissue damping (G), elastance (H), and hysteresivity (η = G/H). Both G and H sharply increased with increasing distending pressure for the lungs and chest wall, while η attained a minimum near 15-20 cm H2O. Model fitting errors for the lungs and total respiratory system increased for distending pressures greater than 20 cm H2O, indicating that constant-phase descriptions of parenchymal and respiratory system viscoelasticty may be inappropriate at volumes closer to total lung capacity. Such behavior may reflect alterations in load distribution across various parenchymal stress-bearing elements. PMID:22691447

  18. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  19. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...

  20. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  1. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  2. A neuroimaging investigation of attribute framing and individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate the neural basis of framing effects. We tested the reflexive and reflective systems model of social cognition as it relates to framing. We also examined the relationships among frame susceptibility, intelligence and personality measures. Participants evaluated whether personal attributes applied to themselves from multiple perspectives and in positive and negative frames. Participants rated whether each statement was descriptive or not and endorsed positive frames more than negative frames. Individual differences on frame decisions enabled us to form high and low frame susceptibility groups. Endorsement of frame-consistent attributes was associated with personality factors, cognitive reflection and intelligence. Reflexive brain regions were associated with positive frames while reflective areas were associated with negative frames. Region of Interest analyses showed that frame-inconsistent responses were associated with increased activation within reflective cognitive control regions including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC and left ventrolateral PFC. Frame-consistent responses were associated with increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that individual differences in frame susceptibility influence personal attribute evaluations. Overall, this study clarifies the neural correlates of the reflective and reflexive systems of social cognition as applied to decisions about social attributions. PMID:23988759

  3. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  4. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  5. In-Frame and Unmarked Gene Deletions in Burkholderia cenocepacia via an Allelic Exchange System Compatible with Gateway Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazli, Mustafa; Harrison, Joe J.; Gambino, Michela; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis, which are often difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Understanding the genetic basis of virulence in this emerging pathogen is important for the development of novel treatment regimes. Generation of deletion mutations in genes predicted to encode virulence determinants is fundamental to investigating the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, there is a lack of appropriate selectable and counterselectable markers for use in B. cenocepacia, making its genetic manipulation problematic. Here we describe a Gateway-compatible allelic exchange system based on the counterselectable pheS gene and the I-SceI homing endonuclease. This system provides efficiency in cloning homology regions of target genes and allows the generation of precise and unmarked gene deletions in B. cenocepacia. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its utility by deleting the Bcam1349 gene, encoding a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-responsive regulator protein important for biofilm formation. PMID:25795676

  6. What's in a Frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present or frame itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision...... in the information given. However, in this process the organisation is not operating in a social vacuum but is continuously interacting with various players, such as the media, for its textual and discursive creation (Gunnarsson 2009). In this presentation, I will focus on the role of this interaction in framing...... an organisation, and hence in shaping the image projected to the public. Framing is here understood as the selection of ‘some aspects of perceived reality … [making] them more salient in the communication text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation...

  7. Framing the Newspaper Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggemann, Michael; Humprecht, Edda; Kleis, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that discourses of a newspaper crisis should not be regarded simply as descriptions of the actual state of the press but also as a means by which strategic actors frame the situation. The emerging frames can have substantial consequences for media policy making. The study...... as well as a qualitative analysis of policy documents and relevant media coverage. The study demonstrates that debates on the newspaper crisis are only partly influenced by (1) economic realities and (2) media policy traditions in the six countries but also reflect (3) the strategic motives of powerful...... actors and (4) the diffusion of frames across borders, particularly those coming from the United States. A transnationally uniform paradigm emerges according to which the state is expected to play the role of a benevolent but mostly passive bystander, while media companies are expected to tackle...

  8. [Evaluation of antibiotic resistance in the frame of the surveillance system for nosocomial infections. Strong and weak points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Roxana; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005 a sentinel system for surveillance of nosocomial diseases has been introduced in Romania which had, among other objectives, the evaluation of antibiotic resistance. The surveillance methodology was shared annually, the number of participants varying between 12 and 40 hospitals. During 2005-2008 the Reference Laboratory for Nosocomial Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in the "Cantacusino" NIRDMI received 1481 bacterial strains, comprising 531 S. aureus, 486 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 439 enterobacteria and 25 enterococci strains. The resistance percents widely differred for some species, especially regarding the type of hospital unit that sent the strains (ex., Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated form patients with burns). A great variability was noted concerning the manner in which nominalized hospitals responded to the solicitations in the methodology that was shared. especially regarding participation to a national bank for bacterial strains. Only for 5 out of the 40 hospitals that participated along the 4 years in the sentinel programme the annual comparative evaluations of antibiotic resistance were achieved. for a small number of microorganisms that underwent surveillance (S. aureus, E. coli). Among the strong points of the system we can point out: unity in methodology; working protocols for microbiological investigation given to all the participants; special forms for reporting. Among the weak points, we consider: modification in the number of participant hospitals during the program: unequal participation of hospitals, with unwanted effects on the sample representativity of analysed microbial strains; difficulties in stocking and processing laboratory data. In order to increase the quality of data provided, we consider the following as useful: harmonization of the objectives regarding integrated surveillance of nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance in hospital environment, correlated with the ECDC demands and recommendations; inclusion in

  9. New Characterizations of Fusion Frames (Frames of Subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we give new characterizations of fusion frames, on the properties of their synthesis operators, on the behavior of fusion frames under bounded operators with closed range, and on erasures of subspaces of fusion frames. Furthermore we show that every fusion frame is the image of an orthonormal fusion basis ...

  10. New characterizations of fusion frames (frames of subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this article, we give new characterizations of fusion frames, on the properties of their synthesis operators, on the behavior of fusion frames under bounded operators with closed range, and on erasures of subspaces of fusion frames. Furthermore we show that every fusion frame is the image of an orthonormal ...

  11. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  12. Ethical considerations for a better collaboration between architects and structural engineers: design of buildings with reinforced concrete frame systems in earthquake zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurol, Yonca

    2014-06-01

    Architects design building structures, although structural design is the profession of structural engineers. Thus, it is better for architects and structural engineers to collaborate starting from the initial phases of the architectural design. However, this is not very common because of the contradictory design processes and value systems held within the two professions. This article provides a platform upon which architects and structural engineers can resolve the value conflicts between them by analysing phases of the structural design of reinforced concrete frame systems in architecture, the criteria of the structural design for each phase and determining the conflicting values for each criterion. The results shown in the article demonstrate that the architectural design of structures is a complex process, which is based on contradictory values and value systems. Finally, the article suggests to architects and structural engineers to use Value Sensitive Design and to choose an appropriate team leader in order to resolve the unethical conflict between them and to avoid any unreasonable decision making.

  13. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, M. S.; Andrade, V. A.; Gomes, E. R. M.; Aguiar, C. J.; Moraes, E. R.; Soares, J. S.; Silva, E. E.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ladeira, L. O.; Jorio, A.; Lima, P.; Leite, M. Fatima; Resende, R. R.; Guatimosim, S.

    2010-09-01

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  14. Highly efficient siRNA delivery system into human and murine cells using single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, M S; Andrade, V A; Gomes, E R M; Aguiar, C J; Moraes, E R; Fatima Leite, M; Guatimosim, S [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Soares, J S; Silva, E E; Lacerda, R G; Ladeira, L O; Jorio, A; Resende, R R [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Lima, P, E-mail: rrresende@hotmail.com, E-mail: guatimosim@icb.ufmg.br [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, Sao Joao Del Rei, MG, 36307-352 (Brazil)

    2010-09-24

    Development of RNA interference (RNAi) technology utilizing short interfering RNA sequences (siRNA) has focused on creating methods for delivering siRNAs to cells and for enhancing siRNA stability in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a novel approach for siRNA cellular delivery using siRNA coiling into carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The CNT-siRNA delivery system successfully demonstrates nonspecific toxicity and transfection efficiency greater than 95%. This approach offers the potential for siRNA delivery into different types of cells, including hard-to-transfect cells, such as neuronal cells and cardiomyocytes. We also tested the CNT-siRNA system in a non-metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (SKHep1). In all types of cells used in this work the CNT-siRNA delivery system showed high efficiency and apparent no side effects for various in vitro applications.

  15. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  16. Video frame processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, V.M.; Agashe, Alok; Bairi, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report provides technical description regarding the Video Frame Processor (VFP) developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The instrument provides capture of video images available in CCIR format. Two memory planes each with a capacity of 512 x 512 x 8 bit data enable storage of two video image frames. The stored image can be processed on-line and on-line image subtraction can also be carried out for image comparisons. The VFP is a PC Add-on board and is I/O mapped within the host IBM PC/AT compatible computer. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 19 photographs

  17. Fast mean and variance computation of the diffuse sound transmission through finite-sized thick and layered wall and floor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decraene, Carolina; Dijckmans, Arne; Reynders, Edwin P. B.

    2018-05-01

    A method is developed for computing the mean and variance of the diffuse field sound transmission loss of finite-sized layered wall and floor systems that consist of solid, fluid and/or poroelastic layers. This is achieved by coupling a transfer matrix model of the wall or floor to statistical energy analysis subsystem models of the adjacent room volumes. The modal behavior of the wall is approximately accounted for by projecting the wall displacement onto a set of sinusoidal lateral basis functions. This hybrid modal transfer matrix-statistical energy analysis method is validated on multiple wall systems: a thin steel plate, a polymethyl methacrylate panel, a thick brick wall, a sandwich panel, a double-leaf wall with poro-elastic material in the cavity, and a double glazing. The predictions are compared with experimental data and with results obtained using alternative prediction methods such as the transfer matrix method with spatial windowing, the hybrid wave based-transfer matrix method, and the hybrid finite element-statistical energy analysis method. These comparisons confirm the prediction accuracy of the proposed method and the computational efficiency against the conventional hybrid finite element-statistical energy analysis method.

  18. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  19. Frame scaling function sets and frame wavelet sets in Rd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhanwei; Hu Guoen; Wu Guochang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we classify frame wavelet sets and frame scaling function sets in higher dimensions. Firstly, we obtain a necessary condition for a set to be the frame wavelet sets. Then, we present a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be a frame scaling function set. We give a property of frame scaling function sets, too. Some corresponding examples are given to prove our theory in each section.

  20. Through-the-Wall Localization of a Moving Target by Two Independent Ultra Wideband (UWB Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Rovňáková

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  1. Through-the-wall localization of a moving target by two independent ultra wideband (UWB) radar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Dušan; Svecová, Mária; Rovňáková, Jana

    2013-09-09

    In the case of through-the-wall localization of moving targets by ultra wideband (UWB) radars, there are applications in which handheld sensors equipped only with one transmitting and two receiving antennas are applied. Sometimes, the radar using such a small antenna array is not able to localize the target with the required accuracy. With a view to improve through-the-wall target localization, cooperative positioning based on a fusion of data retrieved from two independent radar systems can be used. In this paper, the novel method of the cooperative localization referred to as joining intersections of the ellipses is introduced. This method is based on a geometrical interpretation of target localization where the target position is estimated using a properly created cluster of the ellipse intersections representing potential positions of the target. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the direct calculation method and two alternative methods of cooperative localization using data obtained by measurements with the M-sequence UWB radars. The direct calculation method is applied for the target localization by particular radar systems. As alternative methods of cooperative localization, the arithmetic average of the target coordinates estimated by two single independent UWB radars and the Taylor series method is considered.

  2. Free convection in parallelogram-shaped enclosures with isothermal active walls: viscous shear stress in active systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieri, A; Zarco-Pernia, E; Laraqi, N [Laboratoire de Thermique Interfaces Environnement, LTIE-GTE EA 4415, Universite Paris Ouest, 50 Rue de Sevres, F-92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Garcia de Maria, J-M, E-mail: abairi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: e.zarcopernia@yahoo.fr, E-mail: nlaraqi@u-paris10.fr, E-mail: juanmario.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, E-28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    Thermocouples are often used for thermoregulation of active thermal systems. When the junctions of these sensors are under a natural convection flow, it is necessary to take into account the viscous stress that can affect the measurement of temperature and therefore the regulation set points. The main objective of this work is to study the viscous shear stress taking place close to the active hot wall in closed air-filled cavities of parallelogrammic shape. The influence of shear stress is examined for different inclination angles of the cavity and large Rayleigh numbers which are usual in thermal applications. The local stress distributions are presented for the steady state for all the geometric configurations considered. The Nusselt number at the hot wall as well as the temperature and stream function distributions in the cavities are also included. The findings obtained from the numerical simulation using the finite volume method are validated by thermal measurements on an experimental cavity. This study confirms the need to properly choose the location of thermocouples in the reference cell used for controlling the active system. (paper)

  3. A Wearable and Wireless Gas-Sensing System Using Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated flexible gas sensor was developed based on a polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film by using Bluetooth wireless communication/interface technology. Polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite films were deposited over a polyimide flexible substrate for building a gas sensor array by using a drop-casting method. Sensor response was acquired through interdigitated electrodes and multi-channel sensor boards, which were linked to a Bluetooth wireless transceiver. Additionally, a double-spiral-shaped heater was built into the backside of the gas sensor array as a thermostat to protect it from the influence of ambient temperature. Multi-channel sensing responses were read on a display screen via a smartphone application (app. The advantages of this system include light weight, low cost, highly integrated sensors, wireless telecommunication, and real-time functioning. Thus, it is a promising candidate for deployment in a wearable gas-sensing system used to study air pollution.

  4. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  5. Entropy generation impact on peristaltic motion in a rotating frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zahir

    Full Text Available Outcome of entropy generation in peristalsis of Casson fluid in a rotating frame is intended. Formulation is based upon thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and slip conditions of velocity and temperature. Lubrication approach is followed. The velocity components, temperature and trapping are examined. Specifically the outcomes of Taylor number, fluid parameter, slip parameters, Brinkman, radiation and compliant wall effects are focused. In addition entropy generation and Bejan numbers are examined. It is observed that entropy is controlled through slip effects. Keywords: Casson fluid, Radiative heat flux, Entropy generation, Rotating frame, Slip conditions, Wall properties

  6. The Cage; Framing Dad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...

  7. Framing ‘fracking’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public

  8. Framing the Oscars live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Helle Kannik

    2016-01-01

    How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer...

  9. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process...

  10. Framing the Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    ). In this process, framing (Evans & Green 2006; Fillmore 1982; Kövecses 2006; Lakoff 1987, 1996) plays a salient role in conceptualising the profile and qualities of the preferred candidate, drawing on established cultural models of what constitutes the perfect leader. Thus, in a Danish setting we may talk of two...

  11. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    Crises – such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) – are moments in which conventional interpretations break down. This paper analyzes the dynamics of the re-construction and stabilization of meaning in the public debate and assesses how BP’s strategic framing affected the emerging...

  13. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  14. The welded CNC machine tool frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boral Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine tools are built based on cast-iron bodies. Cast iron well dumps down vibrations and is dimensionally stable. Therefore, many conventional machine tools are modernized and modified into CNC machine tools based on the seasoned old bodies of those machine tools. Nevertheless, CNC machine tools are also manufactured based on polymer concrete, which vibration damping ability is even better. On the other hand, attempts made in the past by leading machine tool manufacturers to use welded frames in CNC machine tools failed. The revival of interest in welded frames was spurred by economic considerations, as steel systems are much thinner compared to cast-iron ones. They are able to carry the same loads. The construction of CNC machine tools with a welded steel frame undertaken at the Institute of Mechanical Technologies (ITM of the Czestochowa University of Technology is an attempt to solve this constructional problem. The machine tool frame was designed with use of CAD solid works system. The ultimate success of using the welded frame is determined not only by the frame itself, but also generally the design of the machine tool and its operation parameters. The welded frame was used for a high-accuracy three-axis milling machine. In this respect, it is equal of professional machine tools manufactured by reputed companies. It can be either a production machine tool or a test stand.

  15. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  16. Conforming to the Dominant Discourse: Framing Distance and Multiparty Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a measure of framing distance, capturing the degree of frame overlap among parties. Additionally, it provides a causal mechanism explaining differences between parties in framing distance. Parties within PR systems have to take coalition considerations in their stride, and

  17. Size response of an SMPS-APS system to commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Bok; Lee, Jun-Hyun; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are representative-engineered nanomaterials with unique properties. The safe production of CNTs urgently requires reliable tools to assess inhalation exposure. In this study, on-line aerosol instruments were employed to detect the release of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) in workplace environments. The size responses of aerosol instruments consisting of both a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were examined using five types of commercial MWCNTs. A MWCNT solution and powder were aerosolized using atomizing and shaking methods, respectively. Regardless of the phase and purity, the aerosolized MWCNTs showed consistent size distributions with both SMPS and APS. The SMPS and APS measurements revealed a dominant broad peak at approximately 200-400 nm and a distinct narrow peak at approximately 2 μm, respectively. Comparing with field application of the two aerosol instruments, the APS response could be a fingerprint of the MWCNTs in a real workplace environment. A modification of the atomizing method is recommended for the long-term inhalation toxicity studies.

  18. RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF WALL-MOUNTED BOILERS WITH SEALED CHAMBERS USED AS FLAT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khavanov Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    the heating system analysis and to define the area of application of various systems of heat supply. The principal decision based on the basis of the above analysis is the decision to install an independent or a centralized system of heat supply.

  19. Some relationship between G-frames and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space $H$ with respect to $K$ by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert $B(K$-module $B(H,K$. This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh,M. A. Dehghan, {em G-frames as special frames}, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.

  20. Contaminant Interactions and Biological Effects of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in a Benthic Estuarine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Ashley Nicole

    The fate, bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have not been extensively studied to date. Pristine SWNT are highly hydrophobic and have been shown to strongly associate with natural particulate matter in aquatic environments. In light of this, I have focused my research to examine the influence of sediment and food exposure routes on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of structurally diverse SWNT in several ecologically-important marine invertebrate species. No significant mortality was observed in any organism at concentrations up to 1000 mg/kg. Evidence of biouptake after ingestion was observed for pristine semiconducting SWNT using NIRF spectroscopy and for oxidized 14C-SWNT using liquid scintillation counting. After a 24 hour depuration period, the pristine semiconducting SWNT were eliminated from organisms to below the method detection limit (5 microg/mL), and the 14C-SWNT body burden was decreased by an order of magnitude to a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Trametes versicolor, the natural bacterial communities present in NBH sediment, and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge could degrade or mineralize oxidized 14C-SWNT. Over a six month time period, no significant degradation or mineralization was observed. In all treatments, approximately 99% of the 14C-SWNT remained associated with the solid phase, with only approximately 0.8% of added 14C present as dissolved species and only 0.1% present as 14CO2. These small pools of non-SWNT 14C were likely due to trace impurities, as no differences in production were observed between treatments and abiotic (killed) controls. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. Thinking Out of the Box: A Green and Social Climate Fund Comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Pas, Remco van de; Decoster, Kristof; Hammonds, Rachel

    2016-12-28

    Solomon Benatar's paper "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames" examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality reducing post World War II European welfare model, if implemented state-by-state, is unfit for reducing global inequality and respecting environmental boundaries. Second, we argue that to advance beyond the 'Westphalian,' human centric thinking integral to global inequality and climate change requires challenging the logic of global economic integration and exploring the politically infeasible. In conclusion, we propose social policy focused changes to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and a Green and Social Climate Fund, financed by new global greenhouse gas charges, both of which could advance human and planetary health. Recent global political developments may offer a small window of opportunity for out of the box proposals that could be advanced by concerted and united advocacy by global health activists, environmental activists, human rights activists, and trade unions. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Comparison of designing simple steel frame & coaxial brace systems by contrast of blast, using two methods of load & resistance coefficients & performance surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hassanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the increasing terrorist attacks around the urban areas, designing buildings by contrast of resulted loads of blast came into consideration particularly in some sensitive buildings & vital arteries. When a blast occurs, the resulted emissions in environment leads to appearance of several penalties and endangers to the human life. Steel structures generally are designed on the basis of standard seismic and gravity loads, it is necessary to investigate the implantation of these structures under the impact of the loads originated from blast. This article presents numerical studies of two-dimensional structural models with 2 and 5 stories which are including simple steel frame system in addition to CBF. The models were analyzed by nonlinear dynamic analysis method using the instruction UFC 3-340-02 in two adverse levels of blast loads by SAP 2000 software. In this study structural models are designed and analyzed using two designing methods: the basic performance design, and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD. Finally, two set of results are compared in detail.

  3. 'I expected just to walk in, get my tablets and then walk out': on framing new community pharmacy services in the English healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Waring, Justin; Watmough, Deborah; Boyd, Matthew J; Elliott, Rachel A

    2018-04-19

    Reconfiguration of the healthcare division of labour is becoming increasingly attractive in the context of increased patient demand and resource constraints. One example is the introduction of extended roles for pharmacists to provide patients additional support to manage their medicines, while also reducing work pressures experienced by other health professionals. Understanding how such policies are framed by those delivering and receiving care has been under-theorised. Using Goffman's frame theory, we examine one newly introduced community pharmacy service (New Medicines Service (NMS)) to illustrate how a policy intended to support patient medicine-taking through the extended roles of pharmacists is framed and where this deviates from its proposed aims. Three themes emerged: (i) the spatial-material artefacts; (ii) existing discursive culture and practice around medicine-taking; and (iii) the NMS interactions that shape and govern framing and subsequent interpretation of the NMS. Our study offers an explanatory and dynamic view of the framing process with important lessons for reconfiguring medicine management policy and practice. As well as illustrating framing as being variegated, complementary or conflicting, it also shows how this plurality and fragility had consequences for patient engagement and sense-making. The consequences for engagement and recommendations for implementing future initiatives are discussed. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  4. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... for fixed reoccurring tasks like assessment working groups, data are often late and the quality can be unsatisfactory. The current situation of this “semi-manual distributed datawarehouse” can be improved technically. Methods for quality control, raising and calculation can be discussed and unified...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  5. On Fourier frames

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Cerda, Joaquim; Seip, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    We solve the problem of Duffin and Schaeffer (1952) of characterizing those sequences of real frequencies which generate Fourier frames. Equivalently, we characterize the sampling sequences for the Paley-Wiener space. The key step is to connect the problem with de Branges' theory of Hilbert spaces of entire functions. We show that our description of sampling sequences permits us to obtain a classical inequality of H. Landau as a consequence of Pavlov's description of Riesz bases of complex ex...

  6. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...

  7. Attenuation of external elements in the calculation frame less radiosurgery system from Varian (Zmed); Atenuacion de elementos externos al calculo en el sistema frameless de radiocirugia de varian (ZMED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, J.; Ordonez Marquez, J.; Molina Lopez, Y.

    2011-07-01

    Zmed frame less system, marketed by Varian, is based on infrared detection of a localised with reflective spheres is fixed by a dental mold to the patient's head. In this work we have studied the dosimetric differences would be found if an arc radiosurgery pierced plastic bar overhang used for the treatment main difference between the two media. (Author)

  8. Experience using an automated fault location system with a time-of-flight wall detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.; Greiman, W.; Hall, D.; Balaban, D.; Day, C.

    1990-01-01

    We describe the architecture of a general purpose monitoring system and give examples of it use with a 300 element detector array in a relativistic heavy ion experiment. The system has a simple and well defined interface between the detector specific parts of the system and those which are independent of any detector specific features. Tracking simple statistics on the fundamental data items (ADC and TDC values) are sufficient to diagnose the higher level components in the system. The monitoring of one-line beam data provides a sensitive monitor of global parameters of the experiment. 5 figs

  9. Pseudo-set framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I

    2017-10-01

    Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Bistability in a self-assembling system confined by elastic walls: Exact results in a one-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pȩkalski, J.; Ciach, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Almarza, N. G. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-07

    The impact of confinement on self-assembly of particles interacting with short-range attraction and long-range repulsion potential is studied for thermodynamic states corresponding to local ordering of clusters or layers in the bulk. Exact and asymptotic expressions for the local density and for the effective potential between the confining surfaces are obtained for a one-dimensional lattice model introduced by J. Pȩkalski et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 144903 (2013)]. The simple asymptotic formulas are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with exact results for slits containing at least 5 layers. We observe that the incommensurability of the system size and the average distance between the clusters or layers in the bulk leads to structural deformations that are different for different values of the chemical potential μ. The change of the type of defects is reflected in the dependence of density on μ that has a shape characteristic for phase transitions. Our results may help to avoid misinterpretation of the change of the type of defects as a phase transition in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. Finally, we show that a system confined by soft elastic walls may exhibit bistability such that two system sizes that differ approximately by the average distance between the clusters or layers are almost equally probable. This may happen when the equilibrium separation between the soft boundaries of an empty slit corresponds to the largest stress in the confined self-assembling system.

  11. Evaluation of a platelet lysate bilayered system for periodontal regeneration in a rat intrabony three-wall periodontal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2018-02-01

    With currently available therapies, full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues after periodontitis cannot be achieved. In this study, a combined compartmentalized system was tested, composed of (a) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct, which was placed along the root aiming to regenerate the root cementum and periodontal ligament, and (b) a calcium phosphate cement composite incorporated with hyaluronic acid microspheres loaded with PL, aiming to promote the regeneration of alveolar bone. This bilayered system was assessed in a 3-wall periodontal defect in Wistar rats. The periodontal healing and the inflammatory response of the materials were scored for a period up to 6 weeks after implantation. Furthermore, histomorphometrical measurements were performed to assess the epithelial downgrowth, the formation of alveolar bone, and the formation of new connective tissue attachment. Our data showed that the stabilization of platelet-origin proteins on the root surface increased the overall periodontal healing score and restricted the formation of long epithelial junctions. Nevertheless, the faster degradation of the cement component with incorporated hyaluronic acid microspheres compromised the stability of the system, which hampered the periodontal regeneration. Overall, in this work, we proved the positive therapeutic effect of the immobilization of a PL-based construct over the root surface in a combined compartmentalized system to assist predictable healing of functional periodontium. Therefore, after optimization of the hard tissue analogue, the system should be further elaborated in (pre)clinical validation studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Response Modification Factor of Coupled Steel Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza abdollahzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research is concerned with the determination of ductility, over-strength and response modification factors of coupled steel shear wall frames. Three structural models with various numbers of stories, bay width and coupling beam height were analyzed using static pushover and incremental nonlinear dynamic analyses. The ductility, over-strength and response modification factors for the three models are determined. Tentative values of 11.1, 11.6 and 10.6 are suggested for the response modification factor of coupled steel shear wall frames with deep and medium depth coupling beams, and uncoupled steel shear wall frames, respectively in the allowable stress design method.

  13. Proton injector acceptance tests for a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA):characterisation of Advanced Injection System of Light Ions (AISLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H.T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, A.L.; Guo, Z.Y.; Chen, J.E.

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the acceleration capability of a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a proton injector has been developed at Peking University (PKU). It is composed of a compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (PKU PMECRIS) associated with a LEBT of two electrostatic Einzel lenses [1]. This injector is named as Advanced Injector System of Light Ions (AISLI). The acceptance tests have been performed with a 40 keV–55 mA hydrogen beam successfully passing through a ϕ 10 mm aperture diaphragm. This diaphragm is located 200 mm downstream the plasma emission hole at the location of the future DWA entrance flange. The beam rms emittance reached about 0.10 π mm mrad in pulsed mode. This article describes the AISLI experimental setup, the measurement principle and the obtained beam characteristics.

  14. Amperometric Detection of Sub-ppm Formaldehyde Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydroxylamines: A Referenced Chemiresistive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Shinsuke; Labuta, Jan; Nakanishi, Takashi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kataura, Hiromichi

    2017-10-27

    We report amperometric detection of formaldehyde (HCHO) using hydroxylamine hydrochloride and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with HCHO to emit HCl vapor, which injects a hole carrier into semiconducting SWCNTs. The increase of conductivity in SWCNTs is easily monitored using an ohmmeter. The debundling of SWCNTs with a metallo-supramolecular polymer (MSP) increased the active surface area in the SWCNTs network, leading to excellent sensitivity to HCHO with a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.016 ppm. The response of sensor is reversible, and the sensor is reusable. The selectivity to HCHO is 10 5 -10 6 times higher than interferences with other volatiles such as water, methanol, and toluene. Moreover, false-positive responses caused by a significant variation of humidity and/or temperature are successfully discriminated from true-positive responses by using two sensors, one with and the other without hydroxylamine hydrochloride, in a referenced system.

  15. serialising languages: satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Saad

    Ghana Journal of Linguistics 2.1: 19-38 (2013). 19. SERIALISING LANGUAGES: SATELLITE-FRAMED, VERB-FRAMED OR NEITHER. Felix K. Ameka and James Essegbey. Abstract. The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and ...

  16. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Springer, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dakin, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  17. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  19. A tale of two neglected systems-structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C E J

    2013-01-01

    There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However, there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate, and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled) and late (thick-walled) sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma (VP) cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes (TSTs) that lack companion cells. TSTs are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube (ST) -companion cell complexes, TSTs are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the STs. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5-7 million years old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer.

  20. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  1. The PgaFrame - a frame for parallel genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Petit Silvestre, Jordi

    1997-01-01

    The PgaFrame offers to non-expert users the possibility to solve optimization problems via genetic algorithms on parallel computers. This frame has appeared as the natural fusion of two different projects: PgaPack and Frames. The PgaFrame combines the major features of these projects: it integrates the capabilities to specify genetic algorithms offered by the PgaPack library and the support of Frames to the easy and portable programming of parallel machines. In this way, a complex fra...

  2. Numerical study on lateral wall displacement of deep excavation supported by IPS earth retention system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugen Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the 3D behavior characteristics of an excavation supported by an innovative prestressed support (IPS earth retention system. A numerical simulation was conducted in order to provide insight into the IPS system behavior by using the FLAC3D package. Prior to the parametric study, validation work was conducted by means of a comparison of the deformation between the field test data and numerical analysis results, and strong agreement was obtained. The reasonable excavation location, layered excavation thickness, and blocked excavation sequence are presented according to variable parameter analysis. In view of the previous findings, certain measurements are proposed in order to control the foundation pit deformation. The results indicate that prestress compensation has a significant effect on the IPS system behavior, while an optimized excavation sequence slightly improves its behavior. With the conclusion proposed based on the numerical results, the aim is to provide reference data for optimization design and the construction sequence. Keywords: FLAC3D, IPS system, Prestress compensation, Layered excavation, Blocked excavation, Deformation control

  3. [Localization of catalysis enzyme systems that degrade higher plants' cell wall polysaccharides. Pectinases (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N A; Bezborodov, A M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews recent data on the locations and compositions of enzyme systems catalyzing the cleavage of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin polysaccharides in higher plants. The physiological functions and physicochemical properties of certain enzymes degrading pectin polymers in higher plants, fungi, and bacteria are described.

  4. Thinking Fast Increases Framing Effects in Risky Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lisa; Trueblood, Jennifer S; Diederich, Adele

    2017-04-01

    Every day, people face snap decisions when time is a limiting factor. In addition, the way a problem is presented can influence people's choices, which creates what are known as framing effects. In this research, we explored how time pressure interacts with framing effects in risky decision making. Specifically, does time pressure strengthen or weaken framing effects? On one hand, research has suggested that framing effects evolve through the deliberation process, growing larger with time. On the other hand, dual-process theory attributes framing effects to an intuitive, emotional system that responds automatically to stimuli. In our experiments, participants made decisions about gambles framed in terms of either gains or losses, and time pressure was manipulated across blocks. Results showed increased framing effects under time pressure in both hypothetical and incentivized choices, which supports the dual-process hypothesis that these effects arise from a fast, intuitive system.

  5. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  6. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Stereotactic Body Frame in Reducing Respiratory Intrafractional Organ Motion Using the Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengua, Gerard; Ishikawa, Masayori; Sutherland, Kenneth; Horita, Kenji; Yamazaki, Rie; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Noriwo; Inoue, Tetsuya; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the stereotactic body frame (SBF), with or without a diaphragm press or a breathing cycle monitoring device (Abches), in controlling the range of lung tumor motion, by tracking the real-time position of fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: The trajectories of gold markers in the lung were tracked with the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The SBF was used for patient immobilization and the diaphragm press and Abches were used to actively control breathing and for self-controlled respiration, respectively. Tracking was performed in five setups, with and without immobilization and respiration control. The results were evaluated using the effective range, which was defined as the range that includes 95% of all the recorded marker positions in each setup. Results: The SBF, with or without a diaphragm press or Abches, did not yield effective ranges of marker motion which were significantly different from setups that did not use these materials. The differences in the effective marker ranges in the upper lobes for all the patient setups were less than 1mm. Larger effective ranges were obtained for the markers in the middle or lower lobes. Conclusion: The effectiveness of controlling respiratory-induced organ motion by using the SBF+diaphragm press or SBF + Abches patient setups were highly dependent on the individual patient reaction to the use of these materials and the location of the markers. They may be considered for lung tumors in the lower lobes, but are not necessary for tumors in the upper lobes.

  7. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  8. Authentication of Surveillance Videos: Detecting Frame Duplication Based on Residual Frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl, Sondos M; Han, Qi; Li, Qiong

    2017-10-16

    Nowadays, surveillance systems are used to control crimes. Therefore, the authenticity of digital video increases the accuracy of deciding to admit the digital video as legal evidence or not. Inter-frame duplication forgery is the most common type of video forgery methods. However, many existing methods have been proposed for detecting this type of forgery and these methods require high computational time and impractical. In this study, we propose an efficient inter-frame duplication detection algorithm based on standard deviation of residual frames. Standard deviation of residual frame is applied to select some frames and ignore others, which represent a static scene. Then, the entropy of discrete cosine transform coefficients is calculated for each selected residual frame to represent its discriminating feature. Duplicated frames are then detected exactly using subsequence feature analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is effective to identify inter-frame duplication forgery with localization and acceptable running time. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a reference frame for configuration. The reference frame is established by review of existing literature, and consequently it is a theoretical frame of reference. The review of literature shows a deterioration of the understanding of configuration. Most recent literature reports...

  10. New avenues for framing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the studies in this special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. It is a strong collection of articles reporting findings from an integrated project that looks at frame building, frames, and effects of frames. The project is part of an exciting large-scale

  11. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  12. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  13. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  14. Claims, Frames, and Blame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C. Freeman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As economies in Southeast Asia develop, there is renewed interest in the impact such growth has on nature. This study seeks to investigate how environmental issues have been covered in the English-language press of the region. Are some countries providing greater print news coverage versus others? Are there detectable patterns or noticeable biases in the coverage? What sources are relied upon in the print media stories? And what frames do we see in the coverage? This study identified general coverage patterns of the environment over a 10-year period (2002-2012, in several of the region’s English-language newspapers. News stories were analyzed to discern the nature of the coverage, coding for several variables as indicated by previous literature. Results indicate that use of the term climate change became preferred over that of global warming. In addition, coverage increased greatly starting in 2006. Government officials were most often the sources quoted within stories (Claims. Articles contained more “judgments” about the issue than “solutions” (Frames. Finally, though most articles eschewed mentioning a specific actor as causing climate change, “man” was implicated in a number of stories more often than simply “nature” (Blame.

  15. Mapping in inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) [i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)] is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., [M,L] = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs

  16. Advanced Insulation for High Performance Cost-Effective Wall, Roof, and Foundation Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costeux, Stephane [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Bunker, Shanon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The objective of this project was to explore and potentially develop high performing insulation with increased R/inch and low impact on climate change that would help design highly insulating building envelope systems with more durable performance and lower overall system cost than envelopes with equivalent performance made with materials available today. The proposed technical approach relied on insulation foams with nanoscale pores (about 100 nm in size) in which heat transfer will be decreased. Through the development of new foaming methods, of new polymer formulations and new analytical techniques, and by advancing the understanding of how cells nucleate, expand and stabilize at the nanoscale, Dow successfully invented and developed methods to produce foams with 100 nm cells and 80% porosity by batch foaming at the laboratory scale. Measurements of the gas conductivity on small nanofoam specimen confirmed quantitatively the benefit of nanoscale cells (Knudsen effect) to increase insulation value, which was the key technical hypotheses of the program. In order to bring this technology closer to a viable semi-continuous/continuous process, the project team modified an existing continuous extrusion foaming process as well as designed and built a custom system to produce 6" x 6" foam panels. Dow demonstrated for the first time that nanofoams can be produced in a both processes. However, due to technical delays, foam characteristics achieved so far fall short of the 100 nm target set for optimal insulation foams. In parallel with the technology development, effort was directed to the determination of most promising applications for nanocellular insulation foam. Voice of Customer (VOC) exercise confirmed that demand for high-R value product will rise due to building code increased requirements in the near future, but that acceptance for novel products by building industry may be slow. Partnerships with green builders, initial launches in smaller markets (e.g. EIFS

  17. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  18. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  19. Responses of retaining wall and surrounding ground to pre-excavation dewatering in an alternated multi-aquifer-aquitard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chao-Feng; Xue, Xiu-Li; Zheng, Gang; Xue, Teng-Yun; Mei, Guo-Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Pre-excavation dewatering (PED) is an important construction stage in deep excavation. Field measurements show that retaining walls can develop obvious deflections during PED, which has been rarely considered in the past. The characteristics of PED-induced wall deflection, and the relationship of this deflection to surrounding ground deformation are still unclear. In this study, a PED test is simulated by a numerical model. The model is verified by field observations and used to investigate the responses of retaining wall and surrounding ground to PED. Results indicate that the maximum wall defection (δhm) and surface settlement (δvm) can all reach centimeter level under common conditions of PED. The ratio of δvm to δhm varies at the range of 0.45-0.67. Wall and soil deformations will be more obvious if the soils within the dewatering depth (Hd) have better permeability. The relative positions between Hd and strata (i.e., aquifer or aquitard) have great influence on the PED-induced deformations. If an aquifer appears below Hd, further increasing Hd can induce a rapid growth of wall and soil deformations. If thick aquitard appears below Hd, the deformation increments by further increasing Hd are not apparent. However, once Hd exceeds the center of the thick aquitard and reaches a thick confined aquifer, the wall deflections and soil deformation zones behind the wall will enlarge significantly. Meanwhile, a large bending moment in the retaining wall will arise around the bottom of the confined aquifer. The designers should consider this condition and allocate enough steel rebars there, preventing the appearance of wall cracks in the confined aquifer.

  20. Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...

  1. Methods for Expanding Rotary Wing Aircraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems to the Rotating Frame through Real-time Rotor Blade Kinematics Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charles Jefferson

    Since the advent of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) in the early 1990's, there has been a steady decrease in the number of component failure related helicopter accidents. Additionally, measurable cost benefits due to improved maintenance practices based on HUMS data has led to a desire to expand HUMS from its traditional area of helicopter drive train monitoring. One of the areas of greatest interest for this expansion of HUMS is monitoring of the helicopter rotor head loads. Studies of rotor head load and blade motions have primarily focused on wind tunnel testing with technology which would not be applicable for production helicopter HUMS deployment, or measuring bending along the blade, rather than where it is attached to the rotor head and the location through which all the helicopter loads pass. This dissertation details research into finding methods for real time methods of estimating rotor blade motion which could be applied across helicopter fleets as an expansion of current HUMS technology. First, there is a brief exploration of supporting technologies which will be crucial in enabling the expansion of HUMS from the fuselage of helicopters to the rotor head: wireless data transmission and energy harvesting. A brief overview of the commercially available low power wireless technology selected for this research is presented. The development of a relatively high-powered energy harvester specific to the motion of helicopter rotor blades is presented and two different prototypes of the device are shown. Following the overview of supporting technologies, two novel methods of monitoring rotor blade motion in real time are developed. The first method employs linear displacement sensors embedded in the elastomer layers of a high-capacity laminate bearing of the type commonly used in fully articulated rotors throughout the helicopter industry. The configuration of these displacement sensors allows modeling of the sensing system as a robotic parallel

  2. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  3. A New Design Method for Industrial Portal Frames in Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Song

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial portal frames near to other buildings must keep their vertical walls standing in fire in order to prevent fire spread.  A recently developed analysis, implemented in the program Vulcan, using a combination of static and dynamic solvers, has shown that the strong base connections recommended by the current design method may not always lead to conservative design. A second-phase failure mechanism observed in numerical modelling, and the critical temperature at which final run-away collapse occurs, may be higher than the temperature at which the roof frame initially loses its stability, because a re-stabilisation often happens.  A new method for estimating critical temperatures of portal frames in fire, using these two failure mechanisms, is presented. Numerical tests on typical industrial frames are used to calibrate this new method. 

  4. What's in a frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    with the attitudes of readers and customers. The data for the analysis consist of newspaper articles from the Danish broadsheet press in the period of October 2008 to November 2009 as well as communication material from the Bank’s website. References Charteris-Black, Jonathan. 2004. Corpus Approaches to Critical....... Professional Discourse. London/NY: Continuum. Hallahan, Kirk. 1999. Seven models of framing: Implications for public relations. Journal of Public Relations Research 11 (3): 205-242. Kövecses, Zoltán. 1986. Metaphors of Anger, Pride and Love. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Kövecses, Zoltán. 2006. Language, Mind...... how conservatives use language to dominate politics. UC Berkeley News, October 23 2003. Available at http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2003/10/27_lakoff.shtml Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. [1980] 2003. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press....

  5. Quotation and Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    . In Black Angels the composer – among other well-known pieces of music – quotes the medieval dies irae sequence and the second movement of Schubert’s string quartet in D minor (D. 810). The musical and intermedial references are framed with striking modernistic sounds exploring instrumental possibilities...... far beyond the traditional, thus creating a framework of extreme contrasts. The paper will contextualize, analyze and interpret Black Angels – which the composer explicitly linked to the Vietnam War – in a broad context of music, intermediality, religious symbolism, and cultural memory, pointing......The purpose of this article is to discuss Crumb’s musical and intermedial intertextuality mainly through his Black Angels: Thirteen Images from the Dark Land for Electric String Quartet (1970), as an individually original but also representative compositional practice for the twentieth century...

  6. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  7. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  8. Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this is gratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculation requires inversion of an operator on . The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem. The basic idea is to consider finite subfamilies {f i } i=1 n of the frame and the orthogonal...... projection Pn onto its span. For has a representation as a linear combination of fi, i=1,2,..., n and the corresponding coefficients can be calculated using finite dimensional methods. We find conditions implying that those coefficients converge to the correct frame coefficients as n→∞, in which case we have...

  9. Effect of hydrogen on the growth and morphology of single wall carbon nanotubes synthesized on a Fe-Mo/MgO catalytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biris, Alexandru R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj Napoca, RO-3400 (Romania)], E-mail: biris@oc1.itim-cj.ro; Li Zhongrui; Dervishi, Enkeleda [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Lupu, Dan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj Napoca, RO-3400 (Romania); Xu Yang; Saini, Viney [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Watanabe, Fumiya [Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Biris, Alexandru S. [Applied Science Department, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Nanotechnology Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 S. University Ave, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)], E-mail: asbiris@ualr.edu

    2008-04-21

    Single wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from thermal pyrolysis of methane on a Fe-Mo/MgO catalyst by radio frequency catalytic chemical vapor deposition (RF-CVD) using argon as a carrier gas. Controlled amounts of hydrogen (H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}=0-1 v/v) were introduced in separate experiments along with the carbon source. The properties and morphology of the synthesized single wall carbon nanotubes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. The nanotubes with the highest crystallinity were obtained with H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}=0.6. By monitoring the Radial Breathing Modes present in the Raman spectra of the single-wall carbon nanotube samples, the variation of the structural and morphological properties of the carbon nanotubes with the flow level of hydrogen, reflect changes of the catalyst systems induced by the presence of hydrogen.

  10. Fusion frames and G-frames in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amir Khosravi and Behrooz Khosravi. DEFINITION 1.2. Let X be a Banach space with dual space X. ∗ and Xd be a BK-space. A countable family. {gi } in X. ∗ is called an Xd-frame ... In §2 we study g-frames in Banach spaces and in §3 we study fusion frames in Banach spaces. ..... Soc., Providence, RI) (1999). [4] Casazza ...

  11. Collective coordinate models of domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized systems under the spin hall effect and longitudinal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, S. Ali, E-mail: ali.nasseri@isi.it [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Politecnico di Torino - Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Moretti, Simone; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca - Cardenal Plá y Deniel, 22, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Serpico, Claudio [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); University of Naples Federico II - Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Durin, Gianfranco [ISI Foundation - Via Alassio 11/c –10126 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) - Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Recent studies on heterostructures of ultrathin ferromagnets sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and an oxide have highlighted the importance of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and broken inversion symmetry in domain wall (DW) motion. Specifically, chiral DWs are stabilized in these systems due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). SOC can also lead to enhanced current induced DW motion, with the Spin Hall effect (SHE) suggested as the dominant mechanism for this observation. The efficiency of SHE driven DW motion depends on the internal magnetic structure of the DW, which could be controlled using externally applied longitudinal in-plane fields. In this work, micromagnetic simulations and collective coordinate models are used to study current-driven DW motion under longitudinal in-plane fields in perpendicularly magnetized samples with strong DMI. Several extended collective coordinate models are developed to reproduce the micromagnetic results. While these extended models show improvements over traditional models of this kind, there are still discrepancies between them and micromagnetic simulations which require further work. - Highlights: • Moving DWs in PMA material maintain their structure under longitudinal in-plane fields. • As a result of longitudinal fields, magnetization in the domains becomes canted. • A critical longitudinal field was identified and correlated with the DMI strength. • A canted collective coordinate model was developed for DW motion under in-plane fields.

  12. Characterization of storage cell wall polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds and the formation of aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, T T; Rodrigues, N R; Serra, G E; Panegassi, V R; Buckeridge, M S

    1996-05-17

    Cell wall storage polysaccharides from Brazilian legume seeds of Dimorphandra mollis, Schizolobium parahybum (galactomannans), Copaifera langsdorffii, Hymenaea courbaril (xyloglucans) and the galactan from cotyledons of the Mediterranean species Lupinus angustifolius were extracted and their apparent molecular masses were determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography analysis. They were, to a large degree, polydisperse, showing molecular masses that varied from 100,000 to 2,000,000. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1500, 4000, 6000 and 8000), sodium citrate and dextran (73,000, 60,000-90,000, 505,000 and 2,000,000) were used for investigating phase formation with the seed polysaccharides. Galactomannans and xyloglucans demonstrated phase formation with sodium citrate concentrations lower than 30%, as well as dextrans and polyethylene glycol, and formed gels in the presence of high concentrations of sodium citrate (above 30%). Galactan did not promote phase formation with any of the reagents used. On the basis of the results obtained, the possibility of using legume seed polysaccharides for the partitioning and purification of polysaccharide enzymes in aqueous two-phase systems is suggested.

  13. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database ( https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database ( Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes: biodegradation by gastric agents in vitro and effect on murine intestinal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masyutin, A.; Erokhina, M.; Sychevskaya, K.; Gusev, A.; Vasyukova, I.; Smirnova, E.; Onishchenko, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main questions limiting application of fibrous carbon nanomaterials (CNM) in medicine and food industry concerns presumptive degradation of CNM in living organisms. In this study, we have investigated biodegradation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by gastric agents in vitro and influence of ingested MWCNTs on murine intestine. Using scanning, conventional transmission and analytical electron microscopy, we demonstrated that industrial MWCNTs treated in vitro by 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (pH=1) and gastric juice (pH=2-3) isolated from murine stomach, are subjected to incomplete degradation. After 30 days of oral administration to experimental mice, we did find MWCNTs in the cells of small intestine, and it may indicate that agglomerates of MWCNTs do not penetrate into colon epithelia and do not accumulate in enterocytes. However, we observed local areas of necrotic damages of intestinal villi. It seems likely, therefore, that MWCNTs end up leaving gastrointestinal tract by excretion with the feces. Our results suggest that MWCNTs do not undergo complete degradation in gastrointestinal tract of mice, and passing through non-degraded particles may negatively affect intestinal system.

  15. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with

  16. Analysis of three ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents in the first wall cooling system of NET/ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komen, E.M.J.; Koning, H.

    1993-01-01

    An ex-vessel LOCA may be caused by a rupture of a cooling pipe located outside the vacuum vessel. No plasma shutdown and no other counteractions have been assumed in order to study the worst case conditions of the accidents. The next three ex-vessel LOCAs in the primary cooling system of the first wall have been analysed: 1. a large break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the cold leg (inner diameter 0.314 m) of the main circuit; 2. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of a sector inlet feeder (inner diameter 0.158 m); 3. an intermediate break ex-vessel LOCA caused by a rupture of the surge line (inner diameter 0.180 m) of the pressurizer. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the first two scenarios, melting in the first wall starts about 90 s after break initiation. In the third scenario, melting in the first wall start about 323 s after break initiation. Special emphasis has been paid to the characteristics of the break flows, the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system, and the temperature development in the first wall. (orig.)

  17. eWALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Mihaylov, Mihail; Anggorojati, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    challenge with impact in multiple sectors. In this paper we present an innovative ICT solution, named eWALL, that aims to address these challenges by means of an advanced ICT infrastructure and home sensing environment; thus differentiating from existing eHealth and eCare solutions. The system of e...

  18. Significance of Shear Wall in Multi-Storey Structure With Seismic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongilwar, Rajat; Harne, V. R.; Chopade, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    In past decades, shear walls are one of the most appropriate and important structural component in multi-storied building. Therefore, it would be very interesting to study the structural response and their systems in multi-storied structure. Shear walls contribute the stiffness and strength during earthquakes which are often neglected during design of structure and construction. This study shows the effect of shear walls which significantly affect the vulnerability of structures. In order to test this hypothesis, G+8 storey building was considered with and without shear walls and analyzed for various parameters like base shear, storey drift ratio, lateral displacement, bending moment and shear force. Significance of shear wall has been studied with the help of two models. First model is without shear wall i.e. bare frame and other another model is with shear wall considering opening also in it. For modeling and analysis of both the models, FEM based software ETABS 2016 were used. The analysis of all models was done using Equivalent static method. The comparison of results has been done based on same parameters like base shear, storey drift ratio, lateral displacement, bending moment and shear force.

  19. Development of a new test system to determine penetration of multi-walled carbon nanotubes through filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2013-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently used in numerous industrial and biomedical applications. Recent studies suggest that workers may be at risk of adverse health effects if they are exposed to CNTs. A National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) survey of the carbonaceous nanomaterial industry found that 77% of the companies used respiratory protection. Elastomeric half-mask respirators and filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are commonly used. Although numerous respirator filtration studies have been done with surrogate engineered nanoparticles, such as sodium chloride, penetration data from engineered nanoparticles such as CNTs are lacking. The aims of this study were to develop a new CNT aerosol respirator testing system and to determine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) penetration through FFRs. A custom-designed CNT aerosol respirator testing system (CNT-ARTS) was developed which was capable of producing a sufficient amount of airborne MWCNTs for testing of high efficiency FFRs. The size distribution of airborne MWCNTs was 20-10,000 nm, with 99% of the particles between 25 and 2840 nm. The count median diameter (CMD) was 209 nm with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.98. This particle size range is similar to those found in some work environments (particles ≤6000 nm). The penetration of MWCNTs through six tested FFR models at two constant flow rates of 30 and 85 LPM was determined. Penetration at 85 LPM (0.58-2.04% for N95, 0.15-0.32% for N99, and 0.007-0.009% for P100 FFRs) was greater compared with the values at 30 LPM (0.28-1.79% for N95, 0.10-0.24% for N99, and 0.005-0.006% for P100 FFRs). The most penetrating particle size through all six tested FFR models was found to be in the range of 25-130 nm and 35-200 nm for the 30-LPM and 85-LPM flow rates, respectively.

  20. Measurement of cavitation induced wall shear stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkink, R.J.; Ohl, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    The wall shear stress from cavitation bubbles collapsing close to a rigid boundary is measured with a constant temperature anemometer. The bubble is created with focused laser light, and its dynamics is observed with high-speed photography. By correlating the frames, a hydrophone signal, and the

  1. Frames, agency and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Jensen, Per Langaa; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    This study examines change and the sources influencing the formulation and diffusion of policies in construction. The change examined is the introduction of a benchmarking policy initiative in the Danish construction industry. Using institutional theory with emphasis on the concepts of frames...... and framings, we show how strategically motivated actors are able to frame policy problems in ways that disclose the mixture of motives, interests and institutional mechanisms at play in change processes. In doing so, we contribute to the literature on the role of agency in institutional change and the framing...

  2. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  3. Forced Transverse Vibration of a Closed Double Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube System Containing a Fluid with Effect of Compressive Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nasirshoaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Rayleigh beam theory, the forced transverse vibrations of a closed double single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT system containing a fluid with a Pasternak layer in-between are investigated. It is assumed that the two single-walled carbon nanotubes of the system are continuously joined by a Pasternak layer and both sides of SWCNTs containing a fluid are closed. The dynamic responses of the system caused by arbitrarily distributed continuous loads are obtained. The effect of compressive axial load on the forced vibrations of the double single-walled carbon nanotube system is discussed for one case of particular excitation loading. The properties of the forced transverse vibrations of the system are found to be significantly dependent on the compressive axial load. The steady-state vibration amplitudes of the SWCNT decrease with increasing of length of SWCNT. Vibrations caused by the harmonic exciting forces are discussed, and conditions of resonance and dynamic vibration absorption are formulated. The SWCNT-type dynamic absorber is a new concept of a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which can be applied to suppress excessive vibrations of corresponding SWCNT systems.

  4. Power to the frame: bringing sociology back to frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; van Zoonen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically reviews current frame and framing research in media and communication studies. It is first argued that most authors fail to distinguish between ‘frame’ and ‘framing’ and therewith produce a conceptual confusion and imprecision that is not conducive to the field. Second, it is

  5. New characterizations of fusion frames (frames of subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory (College Park, MD, 2003) Contemp. Math. 345, Amer. Math. Soc. (RI: Provi- dence) (2004) 87–113. [4] Casazza P G and Kutyniok G, Robustness of Fusion Frames under Erasures of sub- spaces and of Local Frame Vectors, Radon transforms, geometry, and wavelets (LA: New Orleans) (2006) Contemp. Math., Amer.

  6. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Linking to the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) RT3D and MT3DMS Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-08

    Linkages to the Groundwater Modeling System have been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to more realistically assess the risk to the public of radioactive contaminants at NRC-licensed sites. Common software tools presently in use are limited in that they cannot assess contaminant migration through complex natural environments. The purpose of this initiative is to provide NRC with a licensing safety-analysis tool with sufficient power, flexibility, and utility that it can serve as the primary software platform for analyzing the hazards associated with licensing actions at those “complex” sites at which the traditional tools are inappropriate. As a tool designed to realistically approximate prospective doses to the public, this initiative addresses NRC’s safety-performance goal by confirming that licensing actions do not result in undue risk to the public.

  7. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-01-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  8. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented...... in this paper. The proposed strengthening technique aims at increasing the lateral strength of infilled RC frames and maintaining the integrity of masonry infills during loading, which is an important seismic parameter for these elements. Material tests were conducted first for ECC in order to assess its...

  9. Ancient engineering geology projects in China; A canal system in Ganzu province and trenches along the Great Wall in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Hanks, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    Two major construction projects of ancient times in China involved what today would be considered engineering geology. We describe an ancient canal system in Gaotai County, Gansu province that was possibly begun in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD). The canal system heads at the Dasha River and extends northwestward for about 55 km to the City of Camels and Xusanwan village. Four parallel canals are present at the local site we examined. The canals were likely built primarily to transport water but may also have served as defensive military barriers. A second project involves trenches and berms along the north side of the Great Wall, clearly part of the Great Wall defensive system. This site is in Ningxia Autonomous Region near the town of Shizuishan. ?? 1994.

  10. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, Alea [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  11. Domain wall diffusion and domain wall softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W T; Salje, E K H; Bismayer, U

    2003-01-01

    A number of experimental and computational studies of materials have shown that transport rates in domain walls may significantly differ from those in the bulk. One possible explanation for enhanced transport in a domain wall is that the domain wall is elastically soft with respect to the bulk. We investigate the softening of a ferroelastic domain wall in a simple, generic model. We calculate saddle point energies of solute atoms in the bulk and domain wall, using a geometry such that variation in the saddle point energy cannot be attributed to the structural differences of the bulk and the wall, but must instead be attributed to softening of the wall. Our results show a reduction of the saddle point energy in the wall, thus indicating that, in this model at least, domain walls are elastically soft compared with the bulk. A simple analysis based on an Einstein model allows us to explain the observed softening of the wall

  12. FRAME CATAGORIZATION OF CONVERSATIONAL INTIMACY

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  13. Frame Catagorization of Conversational Intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov Kit

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the notion of intimacy. The frame of intimacy is studied on the basis of the linguistic parameters, analysis of text extracts and universal knowledge about intimacy. Frame analysis helped to establish the catagorization of types and nominators of intimate speech genres, their construction in static and dynamic aspects.

  14. On Definition of Skew Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruml, David

    2010-12-01

    Skew frames represent a common generalization of frames and orthomodular lattices. They could serve as Lindenbaum algebras of quantum intuitionistic logic as well as invariants of noncommutative C*-algebras. It is shown that lattices of open projections with skew (partial) operations are complete invariants of C*-algebras and that these operations are preserved by morphims of C*-algebras.

  15. Full-scale shear wall tests for force transfer around openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Frank Lam; Douglas Rammer; James Wacker

    2010-01-01

    Wood structural panel sheathed shear walls and diaphragms are the primary lateral-load resisting elements in wood-frame construction. The historical performance of light-frame structures in North America are very good due, in part, to model building codes that are designed to preserve life safety, as well as the inherent redundancy of wood-frame construction using wood...

  16. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  17. Robotically-adjustable microstereotactic frames for image-guided neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2013-03-01

    Stereotactic frames are a standard tool for neurosurgical targeting, but are uncomfortable for patients and obstruct the surgical field. Microstereotactic frames are more comfortable for patients, provide better access to the surgical site, and have grown in popularity as an alternative to traditional stereotactic devices. However, clinically available microstereotactic frames require either lengthy manufacturing delays or expensive image guidance systems. We introduce a robotically-adjusted, disposable microstereotactic frame for deep brain stimulation surgery that eliminates the drawbacks of existing microstereotactic frames. Our frame can be automatically adjusted in the operating room using a preoperative plan in less than five minutes. A validation study on phantoms shows that our approach provides a target positioning error of 0.14 mm, which exceeds the required accuracy for deep brain stimulation surgery.

  18. Framing Political Change: Can a Left Populism Disrupt the Rise of the Reactionary Right?; Comment on “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Labonté

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Benatar offers an important critique of the limited frame that sets the boundaries of much of what is referred to as ‘global health.’ In placing his comments within a criticism of increasing poverty (or certainly income and wealth inequalities and the decline in our environmental commons, he locates our health inequities within the pathology of our present global economy. In that respect it is a companion piece to an editorial I published around the same time. Both Benatar’s and my paralleling arguments take on a new urgency in the wake of the US presidential election. Although not a uniquely American event (the xenophobic right has been making inroads in many parts of the world, the degree of vitriol expressed by the President-elect of the world’s (still most powerful and militarized country is being used to further legitimate the policies of right-extremist parties in Europe while providing additional justification for the increasingly autocratic politics of leaders (elected or otherwise in many other of the world’s nations. To challenge right-populism’s rejection of the predatory inequalities that 4 years of (neo-liberal globalization have created demands strong and sustained left populism built, in part, on the ecocentric frame advocated by Benatar.

  19. Experimental investigation of the seismic performance of the R/C frames with reinforced masonry infills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Jafril; Maidiawati, Nugroho, Fajar

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies regarding the investigation of seismic performance of reinforced concrete (R/C) frames which are infilled with brick masonry walls have been carried out by several researchers within the last three-decades. According to authors' field and experimentally experiences conclude that the unreinforced brick masonry infills significantly contributes to increase the seismic performance of the R/C frame structure. Unfortunately, the presence of brick masonry infill walls causes several undesirable effects such as short column, soft-storey, torsion and out of plane collapse. In this study, a strengthening technique for the brick masonry infills were experimentally investigated to improve the seismic performance of the R/C frame structures. For this purpose, four experimental specimens have been prepared, i.e. one of bare R/C frame (BF), one of R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall (IFUM) and two of R/C frames were infilled with reinforced brick-masonry wall (IFRM-1 and IFRM-2). The bare frame and R/C frame infilled with unreinforced brick-masonry wall represents the typical R/C buildings' construction in Indonesia assuming the brick-masonry wall as the non-structural elements. The brick-masonry wall infills in specimens IFRM-1 and IFRM-2 were strengthened by using embedded ϕ4 plain steel bar on their diagonal and center of brick-masonry wall, respectively. All specimens were laterally pushed-over. The lateral loading and its lateral displacement, failure mechanism and their crack pattern were recorded during experimental works. Comparison of the experimental results of these four specimens conclude that the strengthening of the brick-masonry infills wall gave the significantly increasing of the seismic performance of the R/C frame. The seismic performance was evaluated based on the lateral strength of the R/C specimen. The embedded plain steel bar on brick-masonry also reduces the diagonal crack on the brick-masonry wall. It seems that

  20. The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail