Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Bi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS theory has opened up new paths for the development of signal processing applications. Based on this theory, a novel single pixel camera architecture has been introduced to overcome the current limitations and challenges of traditional focal plane arrays. However, video quality based on this method is limited by existing acquisition and recovery methods, and the method also suffers from being time-consuming. In this paper, a multi-frame motion estimation algorithm is proposed in CS video to enhance the video quality. The proposed algorithm uses multiple frames to implement motion estimation. Experimental results show that using multi-frame motion estimation can improve the quality of recovered videos. To further reduce the motion estimation time, a block match algorithm is used to process motion estimation. Experiments demonstrate that using the block match algorithm can reduce motion estimation time by 30%.
A CODING SCHEME USING GLOBAL MOTION ESTIMATION FOR AVS P-FRAME
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Block matching has been used for motion estimation and motion compensation in the Audio and Video Standard (AVS) for years. While having an acceptable performance in describing motion between frames, it requires quite a few bits to represent the motion vectors. In certain circumstances, the use of global motion estimation and compensation would perform equally well or even better than the block matching in terms of motion accuracy, while it results in the coding of global motion model parameters. In this letter, we modify an AVS coder by adding (1) six global motion model parameters to the frame header, and (2) mode selection among INTRA, SKIP, INTER-16×16,INTER-16×8, INTER-8×16, INTER-8×8, and Global Motion Compensation (GMC) modes by Lagrange optimal rate-distortion criteria. Simulation results demonstrate that over 0.1dB improvement in PSNR is obtained compared to the AVS coder for an average coded P-frame with the same bitrate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tang Guowei; Gu Guochang
2009-01-01
Aiming at the higher bit-rate occupation of motion vector encoding and more time load of full-searching strategies,a multi-resolution motion estimation and compensation algorithm based on adjacent prediction of frame difference was proposed.Differential motion detection was employed to image sequences and proper threshold was adopted to identify the connected region.Then the motion region was extracted to carry out motion estimation and motion compensation on it.The experiment results show that the encoding efficiency of motion vector is promoted,the complexity of motion es timation is reduced and the quality of the reconstruction image at the same bit-rate as Multi-Reso lution Motion Estimation (MRME) is improved.
Motion compensated frame interpolation with a symmetric optical flow constraint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Roholm, Lars; Bruhn, Andrés;
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of interpolating frames in an image sequence. For this purpose accurate motion estimation can be very helpful. We propose to move the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function such that ......We consider the problem of interpolating frames in an image sequence. For this purpose accurate motion estimation can be very helpful. We propose to move the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function...... such that the interpolation assumption is directly modeled. This reparametrization is a powerful trick that results in a number of appealing properties, in particular the motion estimation becomes more robust to noise and large displacements, and the computational workload is more than halved compared to usual bidirectional...... methods. The proposed reparametrization is generic and can be applied to almost every existing algorithm. In this paper we illustrate its advantages by considering the classic TV-L1 optical flow algorithm as a prototype. We demonstrate that this widely used method can produce results that are competitive...
Kedar, S.; Bock, Y.; Moore, A. W.; Argus, D. F.; Fang, P.; Liu, Z.; Haase, J. S.; Su, L.; Owen, S. E.; Goldberg, D.; Squibb, M. B.; Geng, J.
2015-12-01
Postseismic deformation indicates a viscoelastic response of the lithosphere. It is critical, then, to identify and estimate the extent of postseismic deformation in both space and time, not only for its inherent information on crustal rheology and earthquake physics, but also since it must considered for plate motion models that are derived geodetically from the "steady-state" interseismic velocities, models of the earthquake cycle that provide interseismic strain accumulation and earthquake probability forecasts, as well as terrestrial reference frame definition that is the basis for space geodetic positioning. As part of the Solid Earth Science ESDR System) SESES project under a NASA MEaSUREs grant, JPL and SIO estimate combined daily position time series for over 1800 GNSS stations, both globally and at plate boundaries, independently using the GIPSY and GAMIT software packages, but with a consistent set of a prior epoch-date coordinates and metadata. The longest time series began in 1992, and many of them contain postseismic signals. For example, about 90 of the global GNSS stations out of more than 400 that define the ITRF have experienced one or more major earthquakes and 36 have had multiple earthquakes; as expected, most plate boundary stations have as well. We quantify the spatial (distance from rupture) and temporal (decay time) extent of postseismic deformation. We examine parametric models (log, exponential) and a physical model (rate- and state-dependent friction) to fit the time series. Using a PCA analysis, we determine whether or not a particular earthquake can be uniformly fit by a single underlying postseismic process - otherwise we fit individual stations. Then we investigate whether the estimated time series velocities can be directly used as input to plate motion models, rather than arbitrarily removing the apparent postseismic portion of a time series and/or eliminating stations closest to earthquake epicenters.
Motion estimation techniques for digital video coding
Metkar, Shilpa
2013-01-01
The book deals with the development of a methodology to estimate the motion field between two frames for video coding applications. This book proposes an exhaustive study of the motion estimation process in the framework of a general video coder. The conceptual explanations are discussed in a simple language and with the use of suitable figures. The book will serve as a guide for new researchers working in the field of motion estimation techniques.
Li, Fubing; He, Qiong; Huang, Chengwu; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen
2016-04-01
Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method to visualize the propagation of pulse wave and to quantitatively estimate regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arteries within the imaging field of view (FOV). To guarantee the reliability of PWV measurement, high frame rate imaging is required, which can be achieved by reducing the line density of ultrasound imaging or transmitting plane wave at the expense of spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a composite, full-view imaging method using motion matching was proposed with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data of 4 sub-sectors, each with 34 beams, including a common beam, were acquired successively to achieve a frame rate of ∼507 Hz at an imaging depth of 35 mm. The acceleration profiles of the vessel wall estimated from the common beam were used to reconstruct the full-view (38-mm width, 128-beam) image sequence. The feasibility of mapping local PWV variation along the artery using PWI technique was preliminarily validated on both homogeneous and inhomogeneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel vessel phantoms. Regional PWVs for the three homogeneous phantoms measured by the proposed method were in accordance with the sparse imaging method (38-mm width, 32-beam) and plane wave imaging method. Local PWV was estimated using the above-mentioned three methods on 3 inhomogeneous phantoms, and good agreement was obtained in both the softer (1.91±0.24 m/s, 1.97±0.27 m/s and 1.78±0.28 m/s) and the stiffer region (4.17±0.46 m/s, 3.99±0.53 m/s and 4.27±0.49 m/s) of the phantoms. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, higher precision of local PWV estimation in low SNR circumstances was also obtained by the proposed method as compared with the sparse imaging method. The proposed method might be helpful in disease detections through mapping the local PWV of the vascular wall.
Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation
Gasek, Tom
2011-01-01
In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation
Robust global motion estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A global motion estimation method based on robust statistics is presented in this paper. By using tracked feature points instead of whole image pixels to estimate parameters the process speeds up. To further speed up the process and avoid numerical instability, an alterative description of the problem is given, and three types of solution to the problem are compared. By using a two step process, the robustness of the estimator is also improved. Automatic initial value selection is an advantage of this method. The proposed approach is illustrated by a set of examples, which shows good results with high speed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cremy, C.
1996-12-01
With the constant development of new communication technologies like, digital TV, teleconference, and the development of image analysis applications, there is a growing volume of data to manage. Compression techniques are required for the transmission and storage of these data. Dealing with original images would require the use of expansive high bandwidth communication devices and huge storage media. Image sequence compression can be achieved by means of inter frame estimation that consists in retrieving redundant information relative to zones where there is little motion between two frames. This paper is an introduction to some motion estimation techniques like gradient techniques, pel-recursive, block-matching, and its application to image sequence compression. (Author)
Fast and Simple Motion Tracking Unit with Motion Estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hyeon-cheol YANG; Yoon-sup KIM; Seong-soo LEE; Sang-keun OH; Sung-hwa KIM; Doo-won CHOI
2010-01-01
Surveillance system using active tracking camera has no distance limitation of surveillance range compared to supersonic or sound sensors. However, complex motion tracking algorithm requires huge amount of computation, and it often requires expensive DSPs or embedded processors. This paper proposes a novel motion tracking unit based on different image for fast and simple motion tracking. It uses configuration factor to avoid noise and inaccuracy. It reduces the required computation significantly, so as to be implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGAs) instead of expensive Digital Signal Processing(DSPs). It also performs calculation for motion estimation in video compression, so it can be easily combined with surveillance system with video recording functionality based on video compression. The proposed motion tracking system implemented on Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGA can process 48 frames per second, and operating frequency of motion tracking unit is 100 MHz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cremy, C.
1996-07-01
With the constant development of new communication technologies like, digital TV, teleconference, and the development of image analysis applications, there is a growing volume of data to manage. Compression techniques are required for the transmission and storage of these data. Dealing with original images would require the use of expansive high bandwidth communication devices and huge storage media. Image sequence compression can be achieved by means of interframe estimation that consists in retrieving redundant information relative to zones where there is little motion between two frames. This paper is an introduction to some motion estimation techniques like gradient techniques, pel-recursive, block-matching, and its application to image sequence compression. (Author) 17 refs.
Restoration of nonlinear motion-distorted composite frame
Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Stern, Adrian; Kopeika, Norman S.
2000-12-01
A composite frame image is an interlaced composition of two sub-image odd and even fields. Such image type is common in many imaging systems that produce video sequences. When relative motion between the camera and the scene occurs during the imaging process, two types of distortion degrade the image: the edge 'staircase effect' due to the shifted appearances of the objects in successive fields, and blur due to the scene motion during each field exposure. This paper deals with restoration of composite frame images degraded by motion. In contrast to other previous works that dealt with only uniform velocity motion, here we consider a more general case of nonlinear motion. Since conventional motion identification techniques used in other works can not be employed in the case of nonlinear motion, a new method for identification of the motion from each field is used. Results of motion identification and image restoration for various motion types are presented.
Reconstructed key frame and object motion based video retrieval
Hu, Shuangyan; Li, Junshan; Li, Kun; Wang, Rui; Yang, Weijun
2007-11-01
This paper proposes a video retrieval scheme which can retrieve desired video clips from video databases using color and object motion. The retrieval method includes two steps. In the first step, get the Intra picture frames (I-frames) set from the query MPEG video and reconstruct the key frame of the video based on the set. Then, the video retrieval equals to the retrieval of the reconstructed key frame(R-key frame) and can be easily performed according the methods of content based image retrieval. The second step, the local object motion information that is local motion vector field, is extracted from the video clips set which is the result of the first step, and the final similarity of videos is measured based on the constructed directional histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed two-step retrieval method performed excellently for video retrieval.
Key frame extraction based on spatiotemporal motion trajectory
Zhang, Yunzuo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Feng
2015-05-01
Spatiotemporal motion trajectory can accurately reflect the changes of motion state. Motivated by this observation, this letter proposes a method for key frame extraction based on motion trajectory on the spatiotemporal slice. Different from the well-known motion related methods, the proposed method utilizes the inflexions of the motion trajectory on the spatiotemporal slice of all the moving objects. Experimental results show that although a similar performance is achieved in the single-objective screen, by comparing the proposed method to that achieved with the state-of-the-art methods based on motion energy or acceleration, the proposed method shows a better performance in a multiobjective video.
Flexible synthesis of video frames based on motion hints.
Naman, Aous Thabit; Taubman, David
2014-09-01
In this paper, we propose the use of "motion hints" to produce interframe predictions. A motion hint is a loose and global description of motion that can be communicated using metadata; it describes a continuous and invertible motion model over multiple frames, spatially overlapping other motion hints. A motion hint provides a reasonably accurate description of motion but only a loose description of where it is applicable; it is the task of the client to identify the exact locations where this motion model is applicable. The focus of this paper is a probabilistic multiscale approach to identifying these locations of applicability; the method is robust to noise, quantization, and contrast changes. The proposed approach employs the Laplacian pyramid; it generates motion hint probabilities from observations at each scale of the pyramid. These probabilities are then combined across the scales of the pyramid starting from the coarsest scale. The computational cost of the approach is reasonable, and only the neighborhood of a pixel is employed to determine a motion hint probability, which makes parallel implementation feasible. This paper also elaborates on how motion hint probabilities are exploited in generating interframe predictions. The scheme of this paper is applicable to closed-loop prediction, but it is more useful in open-loop prediction scenarios, such as using prediction in conjunction with remote browsing of surveillance footage, communicated by a JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) server. We show that the interframe predictions obtained using the proposed approach are good both visually and in terms of PSNR.
Ground motion estimation and nonlinear seismic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCallen, D.B.; Hutchings, L.J.
1995-08-14
Site specific predictions of the dynamic response of structures to extreme earthquake ground motions are a critical component of seismic design for important structures. With the rapid development of computationally based methodologies and powerful computers over the past few years, engineers and scientists now have the capability to perform numerical simulations of many of the physical processes associated with the generation of earthquake ground motions and dynamic structural response. This paper describes application of a physics based, deterministic, computational approach for estimation of earthquake ground motions which relies on site measurements of frequently occurring small (i.e. M < 3 ) earthquakes. Case studies are presented which illustrate application of this methodology for two different sites, and nonlinear analyses of a typical six story steel frame office building are performed to illustrate the potential sensitivity of nonlinear response to site conditions and proximity to the causative fault.
Summarizing motion contents of the video clip using moving edge overlaid frame (MEOF)
Yu, Tianli; Zhang, Yujin
2001-12-01
How to quickly and effectively exchange video information with the user is a major task for video searching engine's user interface. In this paper, we proposed to use Moving Edge Overlaid Frame (MEOF) image to summarize both the local object motion and global camera motion information of the video clip into a single image. MEOF will supplement the motion information that is generally dropped by the key frame representation, and it will enable faster perception for the user than viewing the actual video. The key technology of our MEOF generating algorithm involves the global motion estimation (GME). In order to extract the precise global motion model from general video, our GME module takes two stages, the match based initial GME and the gradient based GME refinement. The GME module also maintains a sprite image that will be aligned with the new input frame in the background after the global motion compensation transform. The difference between the aligned sprite and the new frame will be used to extract the masks that will help to pick out the moving objects' edges. The sprite is updated with each input frame and the moving edges are extracted at a constant interval. After all the frames are processed, the extracted moving edges are overlaid to the sprite according to there global motion displacement with the sprite and the temporal distance with the last frame, thus create our MEOF image. Experiments show that the MEOF representation of the video clip helps the user acquire the motion knowledge much faster and also be compact enough to serve the needs of online applications.
A Motion Estimation Algorithm Using DTCWT and ARPS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Unan Y. Oktiawati
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid motion estimation algorithm utilizing the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT and the Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS block is presented. The proposed algorithm first transforms each video sequence with DTCWT. The frame n of the video sequence is used as a reference input and the frame n+2 is used to find the motion vector. Next, the ARPS block search algorithm is carried out and followed by an inverse DTCWT. The motion compensation is then carried out on each inversed frame n and motion vector. The results show that PSNR can be improved for mobile device without depriving its quality. The proposed algorithm also takes less memory usage compared to the DCT-based algorithm. The main contribution of this work is a hybrid wavelet-based motion estimation algorithm for mobile devices. Other contribution is the visual quality scoring system as used in section 6.
Variable type framing in Spanish constructions of directed motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan
2014-01-01
demonstrate in this article that this construction type tends to be acceptable whenever the lexical meaning of the verb implies an element of directed motion. Drawing on Goldberg (2006) and Pedersen (2009, 2013), I suggest that schematicity is a typological parameter, and, more specifically, that the term...... variable type framing may accommodate the case of variation under scrutiny here....
Automatic Key-Frame Extraction from Optical Motion Capture Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Qiang; YU Shao-pei; ZHOU Dong-sheng; WEI Xiao-peng
2013-01-01
Optical motion capture is an increasingly popular animation technique. In the last few years, plenty of methods have been proposed for key-frame extraction of motion capture data, and it is a common method to extract key-frame using quaternion. Here, one main difficulty is due to the fact that previous algorithms often need to manually set various parameters. In addition, it is problematic to predefine the appropriate threshold without knowing the data content. In this paper, we present a novel adaptive threshold-based extraction method. Key-frame can be found according to quaternion distance. We propose a simple and efficient algorithm to extract key-frame from a motion sequence based on adaptive threshold. It is convenient with no need to predefine parameters to meet certain compression ratio. Experimental results of many motion captures with different traits demonstrate good performance of the proposed algorithm. Our experiments show that one can typically cut down the process of extraction from several minutes to a couple of seconds.
Estimation of Motion Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus
1993-01-01
This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...
Trajectory models and reference frames for crustal motion geodesy
Bevis, Michael; Brown, Abel
2014-03-01
We sketch the evolution of station trajectory models used in crustal motion geodesy over the last several decades, and describe some recent generalizations of these models that allow geodesists and geophysicists to parameterize accelerating patterns of displacement in general, and postseismic transient deformation in particular. Modern trajectory models are composed of three sub-models that represent secular trends, annual oscillations, and instantaneous jumps in coordinate time series. Traditionally the trend model invoked constant station velocity. This can be generalized by assuming that position is a polynomial function of time. The trajectory model can also be augmented as needed, by including one or more logarithmic transients in order to account for typical multi-year patterns of postseismic transient motion. Many geodetic and geophysical research groups are using general classes of trajectory model to characterize their crustal displacement time series, but few if any of them are using these trajectory models to define and realize the terrestrial reference frames (RFs) in which their time series are expressed. We describe a global GPS reanalysis program in which we use two general classes of trajectory model, tuned on a station by station basis. We define the network trajectory model as the set of station trajectory models encompassing every station in the network. We use the network trajectory model from the each global analysis to assign prior position estimates for the next round of GPS data processing. We allow our daily orbital solutions to relax so as to maintain their consistency with the network polyhedron. After several iterations we produce GPS time series expressed in a RF similar to, but not identical with ITRF2008. We find that each iteration produces an improvement in the daily repeatability of our global time series and in the predictive power of our trajectory models.
FPGA-Based Embedded Motion Estimation Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaoyi Wei
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate real-time motion estimation is very critical to many computer vision tasks. However, because of its computational power and processing speed requirements, it is rarely used for real-time applications, especially for micro unmanned vehicles. In our previous work, a FPGA system was built to process optical flow vectors of 64 frames of 640×480 image per second. Compared to software-based algorithms, this system achieved much higher frame rate but marginal accuracy. In this paper, a more accurate optical flow algorithm is proposed. Temporal smoothing is incorporated in the hardware structure which significantly improves the algorithm accuracy. To accommodate temporal smoothing, the hardware structure is composed of two parts: the derivative (DER module produces intermediate results and the optical flow computation (OFC module calculates the final optical flow vectors. Software running on a built-in processor on the FPGA chip is used in the design to direct the data flow and manage hardware components. This new design has been implemented on a compact, low power, high performance hardware platform for micro UV applications. It is able to process 15 frames of 640×480 image per second and with much improved accuracy. Higher frame rate can be achieved with further optimization and additional memory space.
Motion-compensated coding and frame rate up-conversion: models and analysis.
Dar, Yehuda; Bruckstein, Alfred M
2015-07-01
Block-based motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) techniques are widely used in modern video processing algorithms and compression systems. The great variety of video applications and devices results in diverse compression specifications, such as frame rates and bit rates. In this paper, we study the effect of frame rate and compression bit rate on block-based ME and MC as commonly utilized in inter-frame coding and frame rate up-conversion (FRUC). This joint examination yields a theoretical foundation for comparing MC procedures in coding and FRUC. First, the video signal is locally modeled as a noisy translational motion of an image. Then, we theoretically model the motion-compensated prediction of available and absent frames as in coding and FRUC applications, respectively. The theoretic MC-prediction error is studied further and its autocorrelation function is calculated, yielding useful separable-simplifications for the coding application. We argue that a linear relation exists between the variance of the MC-prediction error and temporal distance. While the relevant distance in MC coding is between the predicted and reference frames, MC-FRUC is affected by the distance between the frames available for interpolation. We compare our estimates with experimental results and show that the theory explains qualitatively the empirical behavior. Then, we use the models proposed to analyze a system for improving of video coding at low bit rates, using a spatio-temporal scaling. Although this concept is practically employed in various forms, so far it lacked a theoretical justification. We here harness the proposed MC models and present a comprehensive analysis of the system, to qualitatively predict the experimental results.
Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-07-01
Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.
Estimation of visual motion in image sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus
1994-01-01
The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....
Human motion estimation from a single view
Sun, Yi; An, Hongjie; Cui, Chengyi
2000-10-01
Human motion analysis is receiving increasing attention from biomedical image processing researchers. In order to reflect the human motion in reality, the body's structure is recovered using its 2D model. This paper proposes a practical system which tracks human motion automatically. The major processing units are as follows: 1) coarse matching between real image and 2D model, 2) fine matching between real image and 2D model, 3) the formation of body structure from 2D model sequence. We first segment a human body from stationary background. Then prior posture database is established, and the primary posture in image sequence can be estimated coarsely by comparing posture in database and real image series. After this, in the precise adjustment stage, precise matching can be obtained by the criterion of region overlay between image sequence and 2D model. Finally, structure of human body is recovered by adjusting parameters of 2D model series, in the above process, the sizes of the body parts are measured manually from one of the picture of real images. Finally, 2D model can be established, and skeleton or frame representation of human body movement is given. In the end of this paper, future directions are suggested for further improvement.
The reference frame of visual motion priming depends on underlying motion mechanisms.
Yoshimoto, Sanae; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Takeuchi, Tatsuto
2014-01-10
Several different types of motion mechanisms function in the human visual system. The purpose of this study was to clarify the type of reference frame, such as retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference, at which those different motion mechanisms function. To achieve this, we used a phenomenon called visual motion priming, in which the perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous test stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a preceding stimulus. Previous studies have indicated that negative motion priming is induced by a low-level motion mechanism, such as a first-order motion sensor, whereas positive motion priming is induced by a high-level motion mechanism, such as a feature-tracking system. In the experiments, subjects made a saccade after the termination of a smoothly drifting priming stimulus and judged the perceived direction of a 180° phase-shifted sine-wave grating presented subsequently in retinotopic or screen-based spatiotopic coordinates. By manipulating the stimulus parameters, such as primer duration, velocity, and contrast, both positive and negative priming were observed. We found that positive priming was observed in spatiotopic coordinates, whereas negative priming was observed in retinotopic coordinates. Prominent positive priming in spatiotopic coordinates was observed only when the interval between the priming and test stimuli was longer than around 600 ms. This delayed priming effect was not caused by saccadic eye movements. These results suggest that a low-level motion mechanism functions in retinotopic coordinates, whereas a high-level motion mechanism functions in spatiotopic coordinates, in which the representation builds up slowly.
Complexity scalable motion estimation for H.264/AVC
Kim, Changsung; Xin, Jun; Vetro, Anthony; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
2006-01-01
A new complexity-scalable framework for motion estimation is proposed to efficiently reduce the motioncomplexity of encoding process, with focus on long term memory motion-compensated prediction of the H.264 video coding standard in this work. The objective is to provide a complexity scalable scheme for the given motion estimation algorithm such that it reduces the encoding complexity to the desired level with insignificant penalty in rate-distortion performance. In principle, the proposed algorithm adaptively allocates available motion-complexity budget to macroblock based on estimated impact towards overall rate-distortion (RD) performance subject to the given encoding time limit. To estimate macroblock-wise tradeoff between RD coding gain (J) and motion-complexity (C), the correlation of J-C curve between current macroblock and collocated macroblock in previous frame is exploited to predict initial motion-complexity budget of current macroblock. The initial budget is adaptively assigned to each blocksize and block-partition successively and motion-complexity budget is updated at the end of every encoding unit for remaining ones. Based on experiment, proposed J-C slope based allocation is better than uniform motion-complexity allocation scheme in terms of RDC tradeoff. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed algorithm can reduce the H.264 motion estimation complexity to the desired level with little degradation in the rate distortion performance.
6-DOF MOTION AND CENTER OF ROTATION ESTIMATION BASED ON STEREO VISION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Wanpeng; BI Wei; CHE Rensheng; GUO Wenbo; YE Dong
2008-01-01
A new motion model and estimation algorithm is proposed to compute the general rigid motion object's 6-DOF motion parameters and center of rotation based on stereo vision. The object's 6-DOF motion model is designed from the rigid object's motion character under the two defined reference frames. According to the rigid object's motion model and motion dynamics knowledge, the corresponding motion algorithm to compute the 6-DOF motion parameters is worked out. By the rigid object pure rotation motion model and space sphere geometry knowledge, the center of rotation may be calculated after eliminating the translation motion out of the 6-DOF motion. The motion equations are educed based on the motion model and the closed-form solutions are figured out. To heighten the motion estimation algorithm's robust, RANSAC algorithm is applied to delete the outliers. Simulation and real experiments are conducted and the experiment results are analyzed. The results prove the motion model's correction and algorithm's validity.
Remo Dance Motion Estimation with Markerless Motion Capture Using The Optical Flow Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neny Kurniati
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Motion capture has been developed and applied in various fields, one of them is dancing. Remo dance is a dance from East Java that tells the struggle of a prince who fought on the battlefield. Remo dancer does not use body-tight costume. He wears a few costume pieces and accessories, so required a motion detection method that can detect limb motion which does not damage the beauty of the costumes and does not interfere motion of the dancer. The method is Markerless Motion Capture. Limbs motions are partial behavior. This means that all limbs do not move simultaneously, but alternately. It required motion tracking to detect parts of the body moving and where the direction of motion. Optical flow is a method that is suitable for the above conditions. Moving body parts will be detected by the bounding box. A bounding box differential value between frames can determine the direction of the motion and how far the object is moving. The optical flow method is simple and does not require a monochrome background. This method does not use complex feature extraction process so it can be applied to real-time motion capture. Performance of motion detection with optical flow method is determined by the value of the ratio between the area of the blob and the area of the bounding box. Estimate coordinates are not necessarily like original coordinates, but if the chart of estimate motion similar to the chart of the original motion, it means motion estimation it can be said to have the same motion with the original. Keywords: Motion Capture, Markerless, Remo Dance, Optical Flow
Evaluation and Comparison of Motion Estimation Algorithms for Video Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avinash Nayak
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Video compression has become an essential component of broadcast and entertainment media. Motion Estimation and compensation techniques, which can eliminate temporal redundancy between adjacent frames effectively, have been widely applied to popular video compression coding standards such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4. Traditional fast block matching algorithms are easily trapped into the local minima resulting in degradation on video quality to some extent after decoding. In this paper various computing techniques are evaluated in video compression for achieving global optimal solution for motion estimation. Zero motion prejudgment is implemented for finding static macro blocks (MB which do not need to perform remaining search thus reduces the computational cost. Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS motion estimation algorithm is also adapted to reduce the motion vector overhead in frame prediction. The simulation results showed that the ARPS algorithm is very effective in reducing the computations overhead and achieves very good Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR values. This method significantly reduces the computational complexity involved in the frame prediction and also least prediction error in all video sequences. Thus ARPS technique is more efficient than the conventional searching algorithms in video compression.
Motion, frames of reference, dead horses, and metaphysics (comment on Stoffregen & Bardy, 2001)
Wertheim, A.H.
2001-01-01
Various annoyingly incorrect statements of Stoffregen & Bardy are corrected, for example, that perception researchers commonly use the term "absolute motion" to denote motion without any frame of reference, confuse earth-relative and gravity-relative motion, err with respect to the frame of
Motion, frames of reference, dead horses, and metaphysics (comment on Stoffregen & Bardy, 2001)
Wertheim, A.H.
2001-01-01
Various annoyingly incorrect statements of Stoffregen & Bardy are corrected, for example, that perception researchers commonly use the term "absolute motion" to denote motion without any frame of reference, confuse earth-relative and gravity-relative motion, err with respect to the frame of referenc
Estimation of visual motion in image sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus
1994-01-01
The problem of estimation of visual motion from sequences of images has been considered within a framework consisting of three stages of processing. First the extraction of motion invariants, secondly a local measurement of visual motion, and third integration of local measurements in conjunction...... with a priori knowledge. We have surveyed a series of attempts to extract motion invariants. Specifically we have illustrate the use of local Fourier phase. The Fourier phase is shown to define the local shape of the signal, thus accurately localizing an event. Different strategies for local measurement...... satellite images based on the estimated motion field is shown....
Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome
2009-01-01
We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....
Global motion estimation with Gabor wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
A novel algorithm of global motion estimation is proposed. First, through Gabor wavelet transform (GWT), a kind of energy distribution of image is obtained and checkpoints are selected according to a probability decision approach proposed. Then, the initialized motion vectors are obtained via a hierarchal block-matching based on these checkpoints.Finally, by employing a 3-parameter motion model, precise parameters of global motion are found. From the experiment, the algorithm is reliable and robust.
Pei, Shiling; van de Lindt, John W.; Hartzell, Stephen; Luco, Nicolas
2014-01-01
Earthquake damage to light-frame wood buildings is a major concern for North America because of the volume of this construction type. In order to estimate wood building damage using synthetic ground motions, we need to verify the ability of synthetically generated ground motions to simulate realistic damage for this structure type. Through a calibrated damage potential indicator, four different synthetic ground motion models are compared with the historically recorded ground motions at corresponding sites. We conclude that damage for sites farther from the fault (>20 km) is under-predicted on average and damage at closer sites is sometimes over-predicted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.V.MANJUNATHA
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In Digital video communication it is not practical, to store the full digital video without processing, because of the problems encountered in storage and transmission, so the processing technique called videocompression is essential. In video compression, one of the computationally expensive and resource hungry key element is the Motion Estimation. The Motion estimation is a process which determines the motion between two or more frames of video. In this paper, Four block matching motion estimation algorithms, namely Exhaustive Search (ES, Three Step Search (TSS, New Three Step Search (NTSS, and Diamond Search (DS algorithms are compared and implemented for different distances between the frames of the video by exploiting the temporal correlation between successive frames of mristack and foreman slow motion videos and proved that Diamond Search (DS algorithm is the best matching motion estimation algorithm that achieve best tradeoff between search speed (number of computations and reconstructed picture quality with extensive simulation results and comparative analysis.
Probabilistic Motion Estimation Based on Temporal Coherence
Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Grzywacz, Norberto M; 10.1162/089976600300015169
2012-01-01
We develop a theory for the temporal integration of visual motion motivated by psychophysical experiments. The theory proposes that input data are temporally grouped and used to predict and estimate the motion flows in the image sequence. This temporal grouping can be considered a generalization of the data association techniques used by engineers to study motion sequences. Our temporal-grouping theory is expressed in terms of the Bayesian generalization of standard Kalman filtering. To implement the theory we derive a parallel network which shares some properties of cortical networks. Computer simulations of this network demonstrate that our theory qualitatively accounts for psychophysical experiments on motion occlusion and motion outliers.
Evaluation and Comparison of Motion Estimation Algorithms for Video Compression
Avinash Nayak; Bijayinee Biswal; S. K. Sabut
2013-01-01
Video compression has become an essential component of broadcast and entertainment media. Motion Estimation and compensation techniques, which can eliminate temporal redundancy between adjacent frames effectively, have been widely applied to popular video compression coding standards such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4. Traditional fast block matching algorithms are easily trapped into the local minima resulting in degradation on video quality to some extent after decoding. In this paper various computing...
Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Metz, Coert; Baka, Nora; Kirisli, Hortense
2010-01-01
We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic...
Repurposing video recordings for structure motion estimations
Khaloo, Ali; Lattanzi, David
2016-04-01
Video monitoring of public spaces is becoming increasingly ubiquitous, particularly near essential structures and facilities. During any hazard event that dynamically excites a structure, such as an earthquake or hurricane, proximal video cameras may inadvertently capture the motion time-history of the structure during the event. If this dynamic time-history could be extracted from the repurposed video recording it would become a valuable forensic analysis tool for engineers performing post-disaster structural evaluations. The diﬃculty is that almost all potential video cameras are not installed to monitor structure motions, leading to camera perspective distortions and other associated challenges. This paper presents a method for extracting structure motions from videos using a combination of computer vision techniques. Images from a video recording are first reprojected into synthetic images that eliminate perspective distortion, using as-built knowledge of a structure for calibration. The motion of the camera itself during an event is also considered. Optical flow, a technique for tracking per-pixel motion, is then applied to these synthetic images to estimate the building motion. The developed method was validated using the experimental records of the NEESHub earthquake database. The results indicate that the technique is capable of estimating structural motions, particularly the frequency content of the response. Further work will evaluate variants and alternatives to the optical flow algorithm, as well as study the impact of video encoding artifacts on motion estimates.
A computational model for reference-frame synthesis with applications to motion perception.
Clarke, Aaron M; Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H
2016-09-01
As discovered by the Gestaltists, in particular by Duncker, we often perceive motion to be within a non-retinotopic reference frame. For example, the motion of a reflector on a bicycle appears to be circular, whereas, it traces out a cycloidal path with respect to external world coordinates. The reflector motion appears to be circular because the human brain subtracts the horizontal motion of the bicycle from the reflector motion. The bicycle serves as a reference frame for the reflector motion. Here, we present a general mathematical framework, based on vector fields, to explain non-retinotopic motion processing. Using four types of non-retinotopic motion paradigms, we show how the theory works in detail. For example, we show how non-retinotopic motion in the Ternus-Pikler display can be computed.
Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction
Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.
1999-01-01
Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.
Object-centered reference frames in depth as revealed by induced motion.
Léveillé, Jasmin; Myers, Emma; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash
2014-03-11
An object-centric reference frame is a spatial representation in which objects or their parts are coded relative to others. The existence of object-centric representations is supported by the phenomenon of induced motion, in which the motion of an inducer frame in a particular direction induces motion in the opposite direction in a target dot. We report on an experiment made with an induced motion display where a degree of slant is imparted to the inducer frame using either perspective or binocular disparity depth cues. Critically, the inducer frame oscillates perpendicularly to the line of sight, rather than moving in depth. Participants matched the perceived induced motion of the target dot in depth using a 3D rotatable rod. Although the frame did not move in depth, we found that subjects perceived the dot as moving in depth, either along the slanted frame or against it, when depth was given by perspective and disparity, respectively. The presence of induced motion is thus not only due to the competition among populations of planar motion filters, but rather incorporates 3D scene constraints. We also discuss this finding in the context of the uncertainty related to various depth cues, and to the locality of representation of reference frames.
Kalantari, Faraz; Li, Tianfang; Jin, Mingwu; Wang, Jing
2016-08-01
In conventional 4D positron emission tomography (4D-PET), images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues that arise with this approach are as follows: (1) the reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of projection statistics; and (2) the registration between noisy images can result in poor alignment. In this study, we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) methods for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. A modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM-TV) was used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data, using Demons derived deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial motion vectors. A motion model update was performed to obtain an optimal set of DVFs in the pmc-PET and other phases, by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET with measured projections from other phases. The OSEM-TV image reconstruction was repeated using updated DVFs, and new DVFs were estimated based on updated images. A 4D-XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution was generated to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm in lung and liver tumors with different contrasts and different diameters (10-40 mm). The image quality of the 4D-PET was greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections were used to reconstruct 3D-PET without motion compensation, motion blurring artifacts were present, leading up to 150% tumor size overestimation and significant quantitative errors, including 50% underestimation of tumor contrast and 59% underestimation of tumor uptake. Errors were reduced to less than 10% in most images by using the SMEIR algorithm, showing its potential in motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET.
Bit Serial Architecture for Variable Block Size Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishna Kaveri Devarinti
2013-06-01
Full Text Available H.264/AVC is the latest video coding standard adopting variable block size, quarter-pixel accuracy and motion vector prediction and multi-reference frames for motion estimations. These new features result in higher computation requirements than that for previous coding standards.The computational complexity of motion estimation is about 60% in the H.264/AVC encoder. In this paper most significant bit (MSB first arithmetic based bit serial Variable Block Size Motion Estimation (VBSME hardware architecture is proposed. MSB first bit serial architecture main feature is, its early termination SAD computation compared to normal bit serial architectures. With this early termination technique, number computations are reduced drastically. Hence power consumption is also less compared to parallel architectures. An efficient bit serial processing element is proposed and developed 2D architecture for processing of 4x4 block in parallel .Inter connect structure is developed in such way that data reusability is achieved between PEs. Two types of adder trees are employed for variable block size SAD calculation with less number of adders. The proposed architecture can generate up to 41 motion vectors (MVs for each macroblock. The inter connection complexity between PEs reduced drastically compared to parallel architectures. The architecture supports processing of SDTV (640x480 with 30fps at 172.8 MHz for search range [+8, -7]. We could reduce 14% of computations by using early termination technique.
An Algorithm for Motion Parameter Direct Estimate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Caldelli
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation in image sequences is undoubtedly one of the most studied research fields, given that motion estimation is a basic tool for disparate applications, ranging from video coding to pattern recognition. In this paper a new methodology which, by minimizing a specific potential function, directly determines for each image pixel the motion parameters of the object the pixel belongs to is presented. The approach is based on Markov random fields modelling, acting on a first-order neighborhood of each point and on a simple motion model that accounts for rotations and translations. Experimental results both on synthetic (noiseless and noisy and real world sequences have been carried out and they demonstrate the good performance of the adopted technique. Furthermore a quantitative and qualitative comparison with other well-known approaches has confirmed the goodness of the proposed methodology.
Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.
Feasibility of pulse wave velocity estimation from low frame rate US sequences in vivo
Zontak, Maria; Bruce, Matthew; Hippke, Michelle; Schwartz, Alan; O'Donnell, Matthew
2017-03-01
The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered one of the most important clinical parameters to evaluate CV risk, vascular adaptation, etc. There has been substantial work attempting to measure the PWV in peripheral vessels using ultrasound (US). This paper presents a fully automatic algorithm for PWV estimation from the human carotid using US sequences acquired with a Logic E9 scanner (modified for RF data capture) and a 9L probe. Our algorithm samples the pressure wave in time by tracking wall displacements over the sequence, and estimates the PWV by calculating the temporal shift between two sampled waves at two distinct locations. Several recent studies have utilized similar ideas along with speckle tracking tools and high frame rate (above 1 KHz) sequences to estimate the PWV. To explore PWV estimation in a more typical clinical setting, we used focused-beam scanning, which yields relatively low frame rates and small fields of view (e.g., 200 Hz for 16.7 mm filed of view). For our application, a 200 Hz frame rate is low. In particular, the sub-frame temporal accuracy required for PWV estimation between locations 16.7 mm apart, ranges from 0.82 of a frame for 4m/s, to 0.33 for 10m/s. When the distance is further reduced (to 0.28 mm between two beams), the sub-frame precision is in parts per thousand (ppt) of the frame (5 ppt for 10m/s). As such, the contributions of our algorithm and this paper are: 1. Ability to work with low frame-rate ( 200Hz) and decreased lateral field of view. 2. Fully automatic segmentation of the wall intima (using raw RF images). 3. Collaborative Speckle Tracking of 2D axial and lateral carotid wall motion. 4. Outlier robust PWV calculation from multiple votes using RANSAC. 5. Algorithm evaluation on volunteers of different ages and health conditions.
SLR Station Recovery, Center of Frame Motion, and Time Varying Gravity
Zelensky, Nikita P.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Melachroinos, Stavros; Wiser Beall, Jennifer; Larson, Jordan D.
2012-01-01
Weekly station position estimates, beginning with 1993, are derived from the ITRF2008-based SLR processing of up to four satellites: Lageos 1, Lageos2, Starlette, and Stella. Helmert parameters obtained from c omparison of weekly SLR station positions and the a-priori SLRF2008 station complement are evaluated for geocenter motion and scale. Two me thods for modeling time varying gravity are employed in the SLR satel lite POD processing, with GGM03S serving as the static gravity field. Both methods forward model atmosphere gravity derived from 6-hour ECM WF pressure data. The standard approach applies an annual 20x20 field estimated from 4 years of GRACE data, and the IERS2003 recommended linear rates for C20, C30, C40, C21, and S21. The alternate approach us es a new set of low-order/degree 4x4 coefficients estimated weekly fr om SLR & DORIS processing to 10 satellites from 1993-2012. This exper imental tvg4x4 model has been shown to improve the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 altimeter satellite orbits,. In this paper we apply the more detailed time-variable gravity modeling to the SLR satellite POD pro cessing and subsequent reference frame analyses. For this study we will evaluate the orbit differences (periodic and secular) for the satel lites concerned, characterize the impact on the station coordinate solutions, and the impact on reference frame parameters (geocenter and s cale).
Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.
2001-10-01
We describe a video summarization technique that uses motion descriptors computed in the compressed domain. It can either speed up conventional color-based video summarization techniques, or rapidly generate a key-frame based summary by itself. The basic hypothesis of the work is that the intensity of motion activity of a video segment is a direct indication of its `summarizability,' which we experimentally verify using the MPEG-7 motion activity descriptor and the fidelity measure proposed in H. S. Chang, S. Sull, and S. U. Lee, `Efficient video indexing scheme for content-based retrieval,' IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 9(8), (1999). Note that the compressed domain extraction of motion activity intensity is much simpler than the color-based calculations. We are thus able to quickly identify easy to summarize segments of a video sequence since they have a low intensity of motion activity. We are able to easily summarize these segments by simply choosing their first frames. We can then apply conventional color-based summarization techniques to the remaining segments. We thus speed up color-based summarization by reducing the number of segments processed. Our results also motivate a simple and novel key-frame extraction technique that relies on a motion activity based nonuniform sampling of the frames. Our results indicate that it can either be used by itself or to speed up color-based techniques as explained earlier.
Accuracy of estimations of body-frame size as a function of sex and actual frame size.
Hearns, J F; Broida, J P; Gayton, W F
1988-02-01
Body-frame size is an important factor in determining an optimal body weight for a given height. Previous studies have indicated that many individuals incorrectly estimate their body-frame size, and, as a result, incorrectly assess their ideal weight. The present study investigated the accuracy of estimation of body-frame size as a function of sex and actual frame size. The subjects were 66 men and 52 women participating in a community adult fitness program. Data indicated that medium-framed individuals were the most accurate in their estimations of body-frame size. Also, women were twice as likely to be accurate as were men. These results are interpreted to mean that most people assume they are medium-framed and that there is a sex difference in the way body-frame size is estimated.
Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Stein, Seth
2017-01-01
Geoscientists infer past plate motions, which serve as fundamental constraints for a range of studies, from observations of magnetic isochrons as well as hotspots tracks on the ocean floor and, for stages older than the Cretaceous, from paleomagnetic data. These observations effectively represent time-integrals of past plate motions but, because they are made at present, yield plate kinematics naturally tied to a present-day reference-frame, which may be another plate or a hotspots system. These kinematics are therefore different than those occurred at the time when the rocks acquired their magnetisation or when hotspot-related marine volcanism took place, and are normally corrected for the reference-frame absolute motion (RFAM) that occurred since then. The impact of true-polar-wander events on paleomagnetic data and the challenge of inferring hotspot drifts result in RFAMs being less resolved - in a temporal sense - and prone to noise. This limitation is commonly perceived to hamper the correction of plate kinematic reconstructions for RFAMs, but the extent to which this may be the case has not been explored. Here we assess the impact of uncertain RFAMs on kinematic reconstructions using synthetic models of plate motions over 100 million years. We use randomly-drawn models for the kinematics of two plates separated by a spreading ridge to generate a synthetic magnetisation pattern of the ocean floor. The kinematics we infer from such a pattern are outputs that we correct for synthetic RFAMs using two equivalent methods (a classical one as well as another that we propose and test here) and then compare to the 'true' motions input. We assess the misfits between true and inferred kinematics by exploring a statistically-significant number of models where we systematically downgrade the temporal resolution of RFAM synthetic data and add noise to them. We show that even poorly-resolved, noisy RFAMs are sufficient to retrieve reliable plate kinematic reconstructions
Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.
Motion Key-Frame Extraction by Using Optimized t-Stochastic Neighbor Embedding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Key-frame extracting technology has been widely used in the field of human motion synthesis. Efficient and accurate key frames extraction methods can improve the accuracy of motion synthesis. In this paper, we use an optimized t-Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE for short algorithm to reduce the data and on this basis extract the key frames. The experimental results show that the validity of this method is better than the existing methods under the same experimental data.
Target rotation parameter estimation for ISAR imaging via frame processing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xuezhi Wang; Yajing Huang; Weiping Yang; Bill Moran
2016-01-01
Frame processing method offers a model-based approach to Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging. It also provides a way to estimate the rotation rate of a non-cooperative target from radar returns via the frame operator properties. In this paper, the relationship between the best achievable ISAR image and the reconstructed image from radar returns was derived in the framework of Finite Frame Processing theory. We show that image defocusing caused by the use of an incorrect target rotation rate is interpreted under the FP method as a frame operator mismatch problem which causes energy dispersion. The unknown target rotation rate may be computed by optimizing the frame operator via a prominent point. Consequently, a prominent intensity maximization method in FP framework was proposed to estimate the underlying target rotation rate from radar returns. In addition, an image filtering technique was implemented to assist searching for a prominent point in practice. The proposed method is justified via a simulation analysis on the performance of FP imaging versus target rotation rate error. Effectiveness of the proposed method is also confirmed from real ISAR data experiments.
Variable type framing in Spanish constructions of directed motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan
2014-01-01
Spanish constructions of telic motion with manner verbs are somewhat problematic for the Talmian typology, while also posing a challenge for constructionist frameworks anchored in English grammar. In response to Talmy (2000), Aske (1989), Morimoto (2008), and Beavers et al. (2010) among others, I...
Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Métivier, Laurent; Collilieux, Xavier
2016-08-01
For the first time in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) history, the ITRF2014 is generated with an enhanced modeling of nonlinear station motions, including seasonal (annual and semiannual) signals of station positions and postseismic deformation for sites that were subject to major earthquakes. Using the full observation history of the four space geodetic techniques (very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS)), the corresponding international services provided reprocessed time series (weekly from SLR and DORIS, daily from GNSS, and 24 h session-wise from VLBI) of station positions and daily Earth Orientation Parameters. ITRF2014 is demonstrated to be superior to past ITRF releases, as it precisely models the actual station trajectories leading to a more robust secular frame and site velocities. The ITRF2014 long-term origin coincides with the Earth system center of mass as sensed by SLR observations collected on the two LAGEOS satellites over the time span between 1993.0 and 2015.0. The estimated accuracy of the ITRF2014 origin, as reflected by the level of agreement with the ITRF2008 (both origins are defined by SLR), is at the level of less than 3 mm at epoch 2010.0 and less than 0.2 mm/yr in time evolution. The ITRF2014 scale is defined by the arithmetic average of the implicit scales of SLR and VLBI solutions as obtained by the stacking of their respective time series. The resulting scale and scale rate differences between the two solutions are 1.37 (±0.10) ppb at epoch 2010.0 and 0.02 (±0.02) ppb/yr. While the postseismic deformation models were estimated using GNSS/GPS data, the resulting parametric models at earthquake colocation sites were applied to the station position time series of the three other techniques, showing a very high level of consistency which enforces more the link
Neuromorphic Configurable Architecture for Robust Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Botella
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The robustness of the human visual system recovering motion estimation in almost any visual situation is enviable, performing enormous calculation tasks continuously, robustly, efficiently, and effortlessly. There is obviously a great deal we can learn from our own visual system. Currently, there are several optical flow algorithms, although none of them deals efficiently with noise, illumination changes, second-order motion, occlusions, and so on. The main contribution of this work is the efficient implementation of a biologically inspired motion algorithm that borrows nature templates as inspiration in the design of architectures and makes use of a specific model of human visual motion perception: Multichannel Gradient Model (McGM. This novel customizable architecture of a neuromorphic robust optical flow can be constructed with FPGA or ASIC device using properties of the cortical motion pathway, constituting a useful framework for building future complex bioinspired systems running in real time with high computational complexity. This work includes the resource usage and performance data, and the comparison with actual systems. This hardware has many application fields like object recognition, navigation, or tracking in difficult environments due to its bioinspired and robustness properties.
High-frame-rate, motion-compensated 25.4 megapixel image sensor
Kamasz, Stacy R.; Farrier, Michael G.; Ma, Shing-Fat F.; Sabila, Robert W.; Chamberlain, Savvas G.
1994-05-01
The applicability of large-area full-frame CCD image sensor technology to large optical format aerial reconnaissance applications has been recently demonstrated. The requirements of low-contrast, high-resolution imaging at high frame rates have generated the need for a manufacturable, multitap, small-pitch, wafer-scale CCD image sensor technology. The added requirement of incorporation of electronic motion compensation at the focal plane has generated the need for multisegmented full-frame area array architectures. Characterization results from the newly developed 5040 X 5040 element, eight-tap, full-frame image sensor with multisegmentation for electronic motion compensation are discussed. Experimental determination of resistive-capacitive time constants for metal strapped vertical clock busses on wafer-scale sensors is discussed.
SAD PROCESSOR FOR MULTIPLE MACROBLOCK MATCHING IN FAST SEARCH VIDEO MOTION ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nehal N. Shah
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation is a very important but computationally complex task in video coding. Process of determining motion vectors based on the temporal correlation of consecutive frame is used for video compression. In order to reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation and maintain the quality of encoding during motion compensation, different fast search techniques are available. These block based motion estimation algorithms use the sum of absolute difference (SAD between corresponding macroblock in current frame and all the candidate macroblocks in the reference frame to identify best match. Existing implementations can perform SAD between two blocks using sequential or pipeline approach but performing multi operand SAD in single clock cycle with optimized recourses is state of art. In this paper various parallel architectures for computation of the fixed block size SAD is evaluated and fast parallel SAD architecture is proposed with optimized resources. Further SAD processor is described with 9 processing elements which can be configured for any existing fast search block matching algorithm. Proposed SAD processor consumes 7% fewer adders compared to existing implementation for one processing elements. Using nine PE it can process 84 HD frames per second in worse case which is good outcome for real time implementation. In average case architecture process 325 HD frames per second.
Flexible body dynamics in a local frame with explicitly predicted motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kawamoto, A.; Krenk, Steen; Suzuki, A.
2010-01-01
by Cartesian coordinates and Euler angles or Euler parameters, respectively. The elastic degrees of freedom are expressed by, e.g. nodal coordinates in a finite element analysis, modal coordinates, etc. However, the choice of these variables as the generalized coordinates makes the resulting equations...... the body motions and regularly updating the local frame. First, the motion of the local frame is assumed to explicitly follow the associated moving body. Then, the equations of motion are derived in a set of generalized coordinates that express both rigid-body and elastic degrees of freedom in the local...... corrected by the obtained responses in the rigid-body motions so that the gap should remain within an imposed tolerance....
Tracking using motion estimation with physically motivated inter-region constraints
Arif, Omar
2014-09-01
We propose a method for tracking structures (e.g., ventricles and myocardium) in cardiac images (e.g., magnetic resonance) by propagating forward in time a previous estimate of the structures using a new physically motivated motion estimation scheme. Our method estimates motion by regularizing only within structures so that differing motions among different structures are not mixed. It simultaneously satisfies the physical constraints at the interface between a fluid and a medium that the normal component of the fluid\\'s motion must match the normal component of the medium\\'s motion and the No-Slip condition, which states that the tangential velocity approaches zero near the interface. We show that these conditions lead to partial differential equations with Robin boundary conditions at the interface, which couple the motion between structures. We show that propagating a segmentation across frames using our motion estimation scheme leads to more accurate segmentation than traditional motion estimation that does not use physical constraints. Our method is suited to interactive segmentation, prominently used in commercial applications for cardiac analysis, where segmentation propagation is used to predict a segmentation in the next frame. We show that our method leads to more accurate predictions than a popular and recent interactive method used in cardiac segmentation. © 2014 IEEE.
Chupeau, Bertrand
1993-10-01
There is no doubt that in a near future a large number of image processing techniques will be based on motion compensation, making thus very common the cascading of several 'motion compensated' devices in the same image chain. A reference scheme for the optimum use of motion compensation in future image communication networks is presented. Motion estimation is performed once only, at a very early stage of the process chain, then motion information is encoded, transmitted in a separate data channel and distributed to the cascaded motion compensated processes. The distribution scenario must take into consideration the various transformations performed on the image signal since its origination so that the motion information distributed is always consistent with the pictures to process. The problems of the representation of motion relatively to a given source image signal and of its adjustment to new frame rate environments are especially addressed.
High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weizhi Xu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.
Xie, Yi
2009-01-01
We construct a set of reference frames for description of the orbital and rotational motion of the Moon. We use a scalar-tensor theory of gravity depending on two parameters of the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism and utilize the concepts of the relativistic resolutions on reference frames adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 2000. We assume that the solar system is isolated and space-time is asymptotically flat. The primary reference frame has the origin at the solar-system barycenter (SSB) and spatial axes are going to infinity. The SSB frame is not rotating with respect to distant quasars. The secondary reference frame has the origin at the Earth-Moon barycenter (EMB). The EMB frame is local with its spatial axes spreading out to the orbits of Venus and Mars and not rotating dynamically in the sense that both the Coriolis and centripetal forces acting on a free-falling test particle, moving with respect to the EMB frame, are excluded. Two other local frames, the geocentric (GRF) an...
MotionEstimation Technique forReal Time Compressed Video Transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prof. D. S. Maind
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Motion Estimation is one of the most critical modules in a typical digital video encoder. many implementation tradeoffs should be considered while designing such a module. It candefine ME as a part of inter coding technique.Inter coding refers to a mechanism of finding co-relation between two frames (stillimages, which are not far away from each other as far as the order of occurrence is concerned, one frame is called the reference frameand the other frame called the current frame, and then encoding the information which is a function of this co-relation‟ instead of the frame itself. This paper focuses more on block matching algorithms which comes under feature/region matching. Block motion estimation algorithms are widely adopted by video coding standards, mainly due to their simplicity and good distortion performance In FS every candidate points will be evaluated and more time will be taken for predicting the suitable motion vectors. based on the above noted drawback, the above said adaptive pattern is proposed Optimization is proposed at algorithm/code-level for both encoder and decoder to make it feasible to perform real-time H.264/AVC video encoding/decoding on mobile device for mobile multimedia applications. For encoder an improved motion estimation algorithm based on hexagonal pattern search is proposed exploiting the temporal redundancy of a video sequence. For decoder, at code level memory access minimization scheme is proposed and at algorithm level a fast interpolation scheme is proposed.
The Gaia reference frame amid quasar variability and proper motion patterns in the data
Bachchan, R K; Lindegren, L
2015-01-01
Gaia's very accurate astrometric measurements will allow the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to be improved by a few orders of magnitude in the optical. Several sets of quasars are used to define a kinematically stable non-rotating reference frame with the barycentre of the Solar System as its origin. Gaia will also observe a large number of galaxies which could obtain accurate positions and proper motions although they are not point-like. The optical stability of the quasars is critical and we investigate how accurately the reference frame can be recovered. Various proper motion patterns are also present in the data, the best known is caused by the acceleration of the Solar System Barycentre, presumably, towards the Galactic centre. We review some other less-well-known effects that are not part of standard astrometric models. We model quasars and galaxies using realistic sky distributions, magnitudes and redshifts. Position variability is introduced using a Markov chain model. The reference fr...
Wang, Liang; Basarab, Adrian; Girard, Patrick R; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; Delachartre, Philippe
2015-08-01
Different mathematical tools, such as multidimensional analytic signals, allow for the calculation of 2D spatial phases of real-value images. The motion estimation method proposed in this paper is based on two spatial phases of the 2D analytic signal applied to cardiac sequences. By combining the information of these phases issued from analytic signals of two successive frames, we propose an analytical estimator for 2D local displacements. To improve the accuracy of the motion estimation, a local bilinear deformation model is used within an iterative estimation scheme. The main advantages of our method are: (1) The phase-based method allows the displacement to be estimated with subpixel accuracy and is robust to image intensity variation in time; (2) Preliminary filtering is not required due to the bilinear model. The proposed algorithm, integrating phase-based optical flow motion estimation and the combination of global motion compensation with local bilinear transform, allows spatio-temporal cardiac motion analysis, e.g. strain and dense trajectory estimation over the cardiac cycle. Results from 7 realistic simulated tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences show that our method is more accurate compared with state-of-the-art method for cardiac motion analysis and with another differential approach from the literature. The motion estimation errors (end point error) of the proposed method are reduced by about 33% compared with that of the two methods. In our work, the frame-to-frame displacements are further accumulated in time, to allow for the calculation of myocardial Lagrangian cardiac strains and point trajectories. Indeed, from the estimated trajectories in time on 11 in vivo data sets (9 patients and 2 healthy volunteers), the shape of myocardial point trajectories belonging to pathological regions are clearly reduced in magnitude compared with the ones from normal regions. Myocardial point trajectories, estimated from our phase-based analytic
Fixing the Reference Frame for PPMXL Proper Motions Using Extragalactic Sources
Grabowski, Kathleen; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Beers, Timothy C; Chen, Li; Deng, Licai; Grillmair, Carl J; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hou, Jinliang; Lepine, Sebastien; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xiaowei; Luo, A-Li; Smith, Martin C; Yanny, Brian; Zhang, Haotong; Zheng, Zheng
2014-01-01
We quantify and correct systematic errors in PPMXL proper motions using extragalactic sources from the first two LAMOST data releases and the Veron-Cetty & Veron Catalog of Quasars. Although the majority of the sources are from the Veron catalog, LAMOST makes important contributions in regions that are not well-sampled by previous catalogs, particularly at low Galactic latitudes and in the south Galactic cap. We show that quasars in PPMXL have measureable and significant proper motions, which reflect the systematic zero-point offsets present in the catalog. We confirm the global proper motion shifts seen by Wu, Ma, & Zhou (2011), and additionally find smaller-scale fluctuations of the QSO-derived corrections to an absolute frame. We average the proper motions of 158,106 extragalactic objects in bins of 3x3 degrees and present a table of proper motion corrections.
Estimation of 3D myocardial motion from tagged MRI using LDDMM
Kotamraju, Vinay; McVeigh, Elliot; Beg, Mirza Faisal
2007-03-01
Non-invasive estimation of regional cardiac function is important for assessment of myocardial contractility. The use of MR tagging technique enables acquisition of intra-myocardial tissue motion by placing a spatially modulated pattern of magnetization whose deformation with the myocardium over the cardiac cycle can be imaged. Quantitative computation of parameters such as wall thickening, shearing, rotation, torsion and strain within the myocardium is traditionally achieved by processing the tag-marked MR image frames to 1) segment the tag lines and 2) detect the correspondence between points across the time-indexed frames. In this paper, we describe our approach to solving this problem using the Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM) algorithm in which tag-line segmentation and motion reconstruction occur simultaneously. Our method differs from earlier proposed non rigid registration based cardiac motion estimation methods in that our matching cost incorporates image intensity overlap via the L2 norm and the estimated tranformations are diffeomorphic. We also present a novel method of generating synthetic tag line images with known ground truth and motion characteristics that closely follow those in the original data; these can be used for validation of motion estimation algorithms. Initial validation shows that our method is able to accurately segment tag-lines and estimate a dense 3D motion field describing the motion of the myocardium in both the left and the right ventricle.
Frame rate of motion picture and its influence on speech perception
Nakazono, Kaoru
1996-03-01
The preservation of QoS for multimedia traffic through a data network is a difficult problem. We focus our attention on video frame rate and study its influence on speech perception. When sound and picture are discrepant (e.g., acoustic `ba' combined with visual `ga'), subjects perceive a different sound (such as `da'). This phenomenon is known as the McGurk effect. In this paper, the influence of degraded video frame rate on speech perception was studied. It was shown that when frame rate decreases, correct hearing is improved for discrepant stimuli and is degraded for congruent (voice and picture are the same) stimuli. Furthermore, we studied the case where lip closure was always captured by the synchronization of sampling time and lip position. In this case, frame rate has little effect on mishearing for congruent stimuli. For discrepant stimuli, mishearing is decreased with degraded frame rate. These results indicate that stiff motion of lips resulting from low frame rate cannot give enough labial information for speech perception. In addition, the effect of delaying the picture to correct for low frame rate was studied. The results, however, were not as definitive as expected because of compound effects related to the synchronization of sound and picture.
MR-guided data framing for PET motion correction in simultaneous MR–PET: A preliminary evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ullisch, M.G., E-mail: m.ullisch@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Scheins, J.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Celik, A.; Tellmann, L.; Stöcker, T.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany)
2013-02-21
Head motion can significantly degrade image quality of static and dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of the human brain. One method to regain acceptable image quality in the presence of motion is to include the correction for motion in the reconstruction process. When applying motion correction, the PET data can be segmented into discrete parts of similar head position, referred to as frames. This framing of the data can reduce the computational overhead necessary for motion correction during the reconstruction process by reducing the number of discrete head positions which have to be accounted for. Here a framing algorithm is presented which minimises residual motion in the framed data, while taking full advantage of the additional information provided by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in a simultaneous MR–PET acquisition. In the work presented here information on motion is derived from EPI sequences acquired simultaneously with the PET data. A comparison to images reconstructed with regular framing show a more clearly delineated cortex due to increased contrast between grey matter and white matter. This improvement in image quality is achieved as well as a reduction in the number of frames, thereby reducing the reconstruction time. Preliminary data indicates an efficient reduction of residual intra-frame motion compared to regular framing.
Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Image Sequence Using Multiple Motion Estimation Fusion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Wang; Run-Sheng Wang
2004-01-01
Super-resolution reconstruction algorithm produces a high-resolution image from a low-resolution image sequence. The accuracy and the stability of the motion estimation (ME) are essential for the whole restoration. In this paper, a new super-resolution reconstruction algorithm is developed using a robust ME method, which fuses multiple estimated motion vectors within the sequence. The new algorithm has two major improvements compared with the previous research. First, instead of only two frames, the whole sequence is used to obtain a more accurate and stable estimation of the motion vector of each frame; second, the reliability of the ME is quantitatively measured and introduced into the cost function of the reconstruction algorithm. The algorithm is applied to both synthetic and real sequences, and the results are presented in the paper.
Frequency-locked pulse sequencer for high-frame-rate monochromatic tissue motion imaging.
Azar, Reza Zahiri; Baghani, Ali; Salcudean, Septimiu E; Rohling, Robert
2011-04-01
To overcome the inherent low frame rate of conventional ultrasound, we have previously presented a system that can be implemented on conventional ultrasound scanners for high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic tissue motion. The system employs a sector subdivision technique in the sequencer to increase the acquisition rate. To eliminate the delays introduced during data acquisition, a motion phase correction algorithm has also been introduced to create in-phase displacement images. Previous experimental results from tissue- mimicking phantoms showed that the system can achieve effective frame rates of up to a few kilohertz on conventional ultrasound systems. In this short communication, we present a new pulse sequencing strategy that facilitates high-frame-rate imaging of monochromatic motion such that the acquired echo signals are inherently in-phase. The sequencer uses the knowledge of the excitation frequency to synchronize the acquisition of the entire imaging plane to that of an external exciter. This sequencing approach eliminates any need for synchronization or phase correction and has applications in tissue elastography, which we demonstrate with tissue-mimicking phantoms.
Simplified Block Matching Algorithm for Fast Motion Estimation in Video Compression
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M. Ezhilarasan
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Block matching motion estimation was one of the most important modules in the design of any video encoder. It consumed more than 85% of video encoding time due to searching of a candidate block in the search window of the reference frame. To minimize the search time on block matching, a simplified and efficient Block Matching Algorithm for Fast Motion Estimation was proposed. It had two steps such as prediction and refinement. The temporal correlation among successive frames and the direction of the previously processed frame for predicting the motion vector of the candidate block was considered during prediction step. Different combination of search points was considered in the refinement step of the algorithm which subsequently minimize the search time. Experiments were conducted on various SIF and CIF video sequences. The performance of the algorithm was compared with existing fast block matching motion estimation algorithms which were used in recent video coding standards. The experimental results were shown that the algorithm provided a faster search with minimum distortion when compared to the optimal fast block matching motion estimation algorithms.
Estimating the Celestial Reference Frame via Intra-Technique Combination
Iddink, Andreas; Artz, Thomas; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel
2016-12-01
One of the primary goals of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the determination of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). Currently the third realization of the internationally adopted CRF, the ICRF3, is under preparation. In this process, various optimizations are planned to realize a CRF that does not benefit only from the increased number of observations since the ICRF2 was published. The new ICRF can also benefit from an intra-technique combination as is done for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF). Here, we aim at estimating an optimized CRF by means of an intra-technique combination. The solutions are based on the input to the official combined product of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), also providing the radio source parameters. We discuss the differences in the setup using a different number of contributions and investigate the impact on TRF and CRF as well as on the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs). Here, we investigate the differences between the combined CRF and the individual CRFs from the different analysis centers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Talat Körpınar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study spacelike biharmonic slant helices according to Bishop frame in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1. We characterize the spacelike biharmonic slant helices in terms of their curvatures in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1. Finally, we obtain parametric equations of spacelike biharmonic slant helices according to Bishop frame in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1.
Control grid motion estimation for efficient application of optical flow
Zwart, Christine M
2012-01-01
Motion estimation is a long-standing cornerstone of image and video processing. Most notably, motion estimation serves as the foundation for many of today's ubiquitous video coding standards including H.264. Motion estimators also play key roles in countless other applications that serve the consumer, industrial, biomedical, and military sectors. Of the many available motion estimation techniques, optical flow is widely regarded as most flexible. The flexibility offered by optical flow is particularly useful for complex registration and interpolation problems, but comes at a considerable compu
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat
2013-01-01
the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphics Turing Test could not be passed with frame rates of 30 and 20 frames per second. Our results suggest......A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass...
Estimating the Video Registration Using Image Motions
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N.Kannaiya Raja
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this research, we consider the problems of registering multiple video sequences dynamic scenes which are not limited non rigid objects such as fireworks, blasting, high speed car moving taken from different vantage points. In this paper we propose a simple algorithm we can create different frames on particular videos moving for matching such complex scenes. Our algorithm does not require the cameras to be synchronized, and is not based on frame-by-frame or volume-by-volume registration. Instead, we model each video as the output of a linear dynamical system and transform the task of registering the video sequences to that of registering the parameters of the corresponding dynamical models. In this paper we use of a joint frame together to form distinct frame concurrently. The joint identification and the Jordan canonical form are not only applicable to the case of registering video sequences, but also to the entire genre of algorithms based on the dynamic texture model. We have also shown that out of all the possible choices for the method of identification and canonical form, the JID using JCF performs the best.
a computational modeling for image motion velocity on focal plane of aerial & aerospace frame camera
Zhang, X.; Jin, G.; Li, Z. Y.
As the resolving power and geometric accuracy of aerial aerospace imaging is demanded to be higher the researches in technology of IMC become very important In order to compensate the image motion on focal plane the rule of FPIMV Focal Plane Image Motion Velocity should be grasped while the posture of aircraft and the modes of imaging are under changing In this paper a reasonable computational modeling scheme to the problem is introduced Coordinates transformation method is utilized for calculation of forward FPIMV under different condition of vertical and sloped imaging meanwhile integrated with three axes posture and angle velocity of aircraft Forward FPIMV combine with pitch roll and yaw FPIMV is considered simultaneously and the derivation calculating expressions of frame camera FPIMV under different conditions is presented in detail The solution is applied to computational simulation and has been confirmed to be effective based on the calculation result and it lays the foundation for our farther researches on frame camera IMC technology Key words IMC FPIMV Focal Plane Image Motion Velocity Coordinates transformation method
ToF camera ego-motion estimation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ratshidaho, T
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We present three approaches for ego-motion estimation using Time-of-Flight (ToF) camera data. Ego-motion is defined as a process of estimating a camera’s pose (position and orientation) relative to some initial pose using the camera’s image...
Supercontinent Pangea, Mantle Dynamics, and Reference Frame of Global Plate Motions
Zhong, S.; Rudolph, M. L.; Liu, X.
2014-12-01
Arguably the most important and challenging goal in geodynamics is to understand the two-way dynamics between tectonic plates and mantle convection. While it has long been recognized that the present-day degree-2 mantle structure as imaged seismically is closely related to the plate motions (Hager and O'Connell, 1981) and their history (500 Ma (Torsvik et al., 2014), although its statistical significance has been challenged (Austermann et al., 2013). The proposals of the spatially stable Africa and Pacific LLSVPs and of the LIP eruptions along their edges have also been exploited in attempts to build global plate motion models since the Pangea assembly by providing a plate motion reference frame or inferring true polar wander (TPW) corrections to the plate motions (Torsvik et al., 2014). Second, mantle dynamics studies indicate that degree-1 mantle convection, which is expected with realistic lithospheric and mantle viscosity, may be needed for assembly of a supercontinent (e.g., Pangea) (Zhong et al., 2007). This suggests that the present degree-2 mantle structure may have been formed only after the Pangea assembly from an initially degree-1 structure - a scenario that is consistent with convection calculations with a proxy plate motion model that considers Pangea process (Zhang et al., 2010). In this presentation, in addition to critically reviewing these arguments, we will discuss calculations of long-wavelength geoid for the mantle with thermochemical piles and LLSVPs and their potential effects on TPW determinations and hence reconstruction of plate motion (i.e., net lithospheric rotation). We will also present additional calculations of mantle structure evolution using different plate motion history models.
A Gauge-generalized Solution for Non-Keplerian Motion in the Frenet-Serret Frame
Garber, Darren D.
2009-05-01
The customary modeling of perturbed planetary and spacecraft motion as a continuous sequence of unperturbed two-body orbits (instantaneous ellipses) is conveniently assigned a physical interpretation through the Keplerian and Delaunay elements and complemented mathematically by the Lagrange-type equations which describe the evolution of these variables. If however the actual motion is very non-Keplerian (i.e. the perturbed orbit varies greatly from a two-body orbit), then its modeling by a sequence of conics is not necessarily optimal in terms of its mathematical description and its resulting physical interpretation. Since, in principle a curve of any type can be represented as a sequence of points from a family of curves of any other type (Efroimsky 2005), alternate non-conic curves can be utilized to better describe the perturbed non-Keplerian motion of the body both mathematically and with a physically relevant interpretation. Non-Keplerian motion exists in both celestial mechanics and astrodynamics as evident by the complex interactions within star clusters and also as the result of a spacecraft accelerating via ion propulsion, solar sails and electro-dynamic tethers. For these cases, the sequence of simple orbits to describe the motion is not based on conics, but instead a family of spirals. The selection of spirals as the underlying simple motion is supported by the fact that it is unnecessary to describe the motion in terms of instantaneous orbits tangent to the actual trajectory (Efroimsky 2002, Newman & Efroimsky 2003) and at times there is an advantage to deviate from osculation, in order to greatly simplify the resulting mathematics via gauge freedom (Efroimsky & Goldreich 2003, Slabinski 2003, Gurfil 2004). From these two principles, (1) spirals as instantaneous orbits, and (2) controlled deviation from osculation, new planetary equations are derived for new non-osculating elements in the Frenet-Serret frame with the gauge function as a measure of non-osculation.
Taki, Hirofumi; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Toru
2015-07-01
High-accuracy ultrasound motion estimation has become an essential technique in blood flow imaging, elastography, and motion imaging of the heart wall. Speckle tracking has been one of the best motion estimators; however, conventional speckle-tracking methods neglect the effect of out-of-plane motion and deformation. Our proposed method assumes that the cross-correlation between a reference signal and a comparison signal depends on the spatio-temporal distance between the two signals. The proposed method uses the decrease in the cross-correlation value in a reference frame to compensate for the intrinsic error caused by out-of-plane motion and deformation without a priori information. The root-mean-square error of the estimated lateral tissue motion velocity calculated by the proposed method ranged from 6.4 to 34% of that using a conventional speckle-tracking method. This study demonstrates the high potential of the proposed method for improving the estimation of tissue motion using an ultrasound speckle-tracking method in medical diagnosis.
A new adaptive fast motion estimation algorithm based on local motion similarity degree (LMSD)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Long; HAN Chongzhao; BAI Yan
2005-01-01
In the motion vector field adaptive search technique (MVFAST) and the predictive motion vector field adaptive search technique (PMVFAST), the size of the largest motion vector from the three adjacent blocks (left, top, top-right) is compared with the threshold to select different search scheme. But a suitable search center and search pattern will not be selected in the adaptive search technique when the adjacent motion vectors are not coherent in local region. This paper presents an efficient adaptive search algorithm. The motion vector variation degree (MVVD) is considered a reasonable factor for adaptive search selection. By the relationship between local motion similarity degree (LMSD) and the variation degree of motion vector (MVVD), the motion vectors are classified as three categories according to corresponding LMSD; then different proposed search schemes are adopted for motion estimation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant computational speedup compared with MVFAST and PMVFAST algorithms, and offers a similar, even better performance.
Bojórquez, Edén; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Ruiz, Sonia E; Terán-Gilmore, Amador
2014-01-01
Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF) steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edén Bojórquez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Several studies have been devoted to calibrate damage indices for steel and reinforced concrete members with the purpose of overcoming some of the shortcomings of the parameters currently used during seismic design. Nevertheless, there is a challenge to study and calibrate the use of such indices for the practical structural evaluation of complex structures. In this paper, an energy-based damage model for multidegree-of-freedom (MDOF steel framed structures that accounts explicitly for the effects of cumulative plastic deformation demands is used to estimate the cyclic drift capacity of steel structures. To achieve this, seismic hazard curves are used to discuss the limitations of the maximum interstory drift demand as a performance parameter to achieve adequate damage control. Then the concept of cyclic drift capacity, which incorporates information of the influence of cumulative plastic deformation demands, is introduced as an alternative for future applications of seismic design of structures subjected to long duration ground motions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prof. Nar Singh
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In area of video compression, Motion Estimation is one of the most important modules and play an important role to design and implementation of any the video encoder. It consumes more than 85% of video encoding time due to searching of a candidate block in the search window of the reference frame. Various block matching methods have been developed to minimize the search time. In this context, Adaptive Rood Pattern Search is one of the less expensive block matching methods, which is widely acceptable for better Motion Estimation in video data processing. In this paper we have proposed to optimize the macro block size used in adaptive rood pattern search method for improvement in motion estimation.
Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters
Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos
2017-09-01
This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.
Effectiveness of external respiratory surrogates for in vivo liver motion estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Kai-Hsiang; Ho, Ming-Chih; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Chien; Lian, Feng-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Yen, Jia-Yush; Chen, Yung-Yaw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10041, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2012-08-15
Purpose: Due to low frame rate of MRI and high radiation damage from fluoroscopy and CT, liver motion estimation using external respiratory surrogate signals seems to be a better approach to track liver motion in real-time for liver tumor treatments in radiotherapy and thermotherapy. This work proposes a liver motion estimation method based on external respiratory surrogate signals. Animal experiments are also conducted to investigate related issues, such as the sensor arrangement, multisensor fusion, and the effective time period. Methods: Liver motion and abdominal motion are both induced by respiration and are proved to be highly correlated. Contrary to the difficult direct measurement of the liver motion, the abdominal motion can be easily accessed. Based on this idea, our study is split into the model-fitting stage and the motion estimation stage. In the first stage, the correlation between the surrogates and the liver motion is studied and established via linear regression method. In the second stage, the liver motion is estimated by the surrogate signals with the correlation model. Animal experiments on cases of single surrogate signal, multisurrogate signals, and long-term surrogate signals are conducted and discussed to verify the practical use of this approach. Results: The results show that the best single sensor location is at the middle of the upper abdomen, while multisurrogate models are generally better than the single ones. The estimation error is reduced from 0.6 mm for the single surrogate models to 0.4 mm for the multisurrogate models. The long-term validity of the estimation models is quite satisfactory within the period of 10 min with the estimation error less than 1.4 mm. Conclusions: External respiratory surrogate signals from the abdomen motion produces good performance for liver motion estimation in real-time. Multisurrogate signals enhance estimation accuracy, and the estimation model can maintain its accuracy for at least 10 min. This
Application of genetic algorithm to hexagon-based motion estimation.
Kung, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Wan-Shu; Jeng, Jyh-Horng
2014-01-01
With the improvement of science and technology, the development of the network, and the exploitation of the HDTV, the demands of audio and video become more and more important. Depending on the video coding technology would be the solution for achieving these requirements. Motion estimation, which removes the redundancy in video frames, plays an important role in the video coding. Therefore, many experts devote themselves to the issues. The existing fast algorithms rely on the assumption that the matching error decreases monotonically as the searched point moves closer to the global optimum. However, genetic algorithm is not fundamentally limited to this restriction. The character would help the proposed scheme to search the mean square error closer to the algorithm of full search than those fast algorithms. The aim of this paper is to propose a new technique which focuses on combing the hexagon-based search algorithm, which is faster than diamond search, and genetic algorithm. Experiments are performed to demonstrate the encoding speed and accuracy of hexagon-based search pattern method and proposed method.
Variational Optical Flow Algorithms for Motion Estimation
Tu, Z.
2015-01-01
Motion is an intrinsic character of the world and an inherent part of our visual experience, which gives essential source of information to a wide variety of visual tasks, and directly affects the subsequent image processing and other related applications. Since Horn and Schunck (HS) proposed the op
Variational Optical Flow Algorithms for Motion Estimation
Tu, Z.
2015-01-01
Motion is an intrinsic character of the world and an inherent part of our visual experience, which gives essential source of information to a wide variety of visual tasks, and directly affects the subsequent image processing and other related applications. Since Horn and Schunck (HS) proposed the
Development of a web-based simulator for estimating motion errors in linear motion stages
Khim, G.; Oh, J.-S.; Park, C.-H.
2017-08-01
This paper presents a web-based simulator for estimating 5-DOF motion errors in the linear motion stages. The main calculation modules of the simulator are stored on the server computer. The clients uses the client software to send the input parameters to the server and receive the computed results from the server. By using the simulator, we can predict performances such as 5-DOF motion errors, bearing and table stiffness by entering the design parameters in a design step before fabricating the stages. Motion errors are calculated using the transfer function method from the rail form errors which is the most dominant factor on the motion errors. To verify the simulator, the predicted motion errors are compared to the actually measured motion errors in the linear motion stage.
Rate control algorithm based on frame complexity estimation for MVC
Yan, Tao; An, Ping; Shen, Liquan; Zhang, Zhaoyang
2010-07-01
Rate control has not been well studied for multi-view video coding (MVC). In this paper, we propose an efficient rate control algorithm for MVC by improving the quadratic rate-distortion (R-D) model, which reasonably allocate bit-rate among views based on correlation analysis. The proposed algorithm consists of four levels for rate bits control more accurately, of which the frame layer allocates bits according to frame complexity and temporal activity. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently implement bit allocation and rate control according to coding parameters.
Human joint motion estimation for electromyography (EMG)-based dynamic motion control.
Zhang, Qin; Hosoda, Ryo; Venture, Gentiane
2013-01-01
This study aims to investigate a joint motion estimation method from Electromyography (EMG) signals during dynamic movement. In most EMG-based humanoid or prosthetics control systems, EMG features were directly or indirectly used to trigger intended motions. However, both physiological and nonphysiological factors can influence EMG characteristics during dynamic movements, resulting in subject-specific, non-stationary and crosstalk problems. Particularly, when motion velocity and/or joint torque are not constrained, joint motion estimation from EMG signals are more challenging. In this paper, we propose a joint motion estimation method based on muscle activation recorded from a pair of agonist and antagonist muscles of the joint. A linear state-space model with multi input single output is proposed to map the muscle activity to joint motion. An adaptive estimation method is proposed to train the model. The estimation performance is evaluated in performing a single elbow flexion-extension movement in two subjects. All the results in two subjects at two load levels indicate the feasibility and suitability of the proposed method in joint motion estimation. The estimation root-mean-square error is within 8.3% ∼ 10.6%, which is lower than that being reported in several previous studies. Moreover, this method is able to overcome subject-specific problem and compensate non-stationary EMG properties.
Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame
Møller, Christoffer B.; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Balabas, Mikhail; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S.
2017-07-01
Quantum mechanics dictates that a continuous measurement of the position of an object imposes a random quantum back-action (QBA) perturbation on its momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. As a consequence of this randomness, and in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the QBA puts a limitation—the so-called standard quantum limit—on the precision of sensing of position, velocity and acceleration. Here we show that QBA on a macroscopic mechanical oscillator can be evaded if the measurement of motion is conducted in the reference frame of an atomic spin oscillator. The collective quantum measurement on this hybrid system of two distant and disparate oscillators is performed with light. The mechanical oscillator is a vibrational ‘drum’ mode of a millimetre-sized dielectric membrane, and the spin oscillator is an atomic ensemble in a magnetic field. The spin oriented along the field corresponds to an energetically inverted spin population and realizes a negative-effective-mass oscillator, while the opposite orientation corresponds to an oscillator with positive effective mass. The QBA is suppressed by -1.8 decibels in the negative-mass setting and enhanced by 2.4 decibels in the positive-mass case. This hybrid quantum system paves the way to entanglement generation and distant quantum communication between mechanical and spin systems and to sensing of force, motion and gravity beyond the standard quantum limit.
Extraction of Motion Key-frame Based on Inter-frame Pitch%基于帧间距的运动关键帧提取
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李顺意; 侯进; 甘凌云
2015-01-01
运动捕获数据中有大量的冗余数据，不利于运动数据的压缩、存储、检索以及进一步重用。为此，提出一种基于帧间距的运动关键帧提取方法，提取代表运动捕获数据内容的关键姿势。利用四元数之间的距离表示人体姿态差异，将人体各个关节上的总变化作为帧间距，以运动数据首帧作为第一个关键帧。通过不断计算当前帧同最后一个关键帧之间的差异，消除差异小于阈值的帧，差异超过阈值的帧被当作为新关键帧。对提取关键帧集合采用四元数球面插值方法重构。为表现人体运动特征，在重构误差中引入关节速度分量，用人体姿势误差位置与人体关节运动速率之和表示原始运动与重建运动序列之间的重构误差。实验结果表明，该方法对原始运动既有较高的压缩率，又有较强的视觉概括效果。%To solve the problem that the motion capture data has a large number of data redundancy,this paper proposes a key frame extraction method based on inter-frame pitch. In order to compress, storage, reconstruct and further reuse motion data,key-frame is needed to be extracted which represents the content of the motion. Quaternion is introduced to represent the difference between two rotations. The distance between two frames is defined by the total rotation differences and first frame is regarded as the first key frame. Then,calculate the difference between the current frame and the last key frame continuously. The frame is eliminated when the difference is smaller than the set threshold or the opposite is reserved for the new key frame. Spherical linear interpolation is used to reconstruct the sequence. To express the characteristics of human motion, the joint velocity is introduced. Reconstruction error is defined by the human body posture error of position and the motion speed error between the original frame and the reconstructed frame. Experimental
Wang, Chao; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Wentao; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jiaoying; Yang, Heng
2016-01-01
The electronic image stabilization technology based on improved optical-flow motion vector estimation technique can effectively improve the non normal shift, such as jitter, rotation and so on. Firstly, the ORB features are extracted from the image, a set of regions are built on these features; Secondly, the optical-flow vector is computed in the feature regions, in order to reduce the computational complexity, the multi resolution strategy of Pyramid is used to calculate the motion vector of the frame; Finally, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the effect of the algorithm is carried out. The results show that the proposed algorithm has better stability compared with image stabilization based on the traditional optical-flow motion vector estimation method.
2007-08-01
A VARIATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SIMULTANEOUS MOTION ESTIMATION AND RESTORATION OF MOTION-BLURRED VIDEO By Leah Bar Benjamin Berkels Martin Rumpf and...Numerical Simulation University of Bonn, Germany benjamin.berkels@ins.uni-bonn.de Martin Rumpf Institute for Numerical Simulation University of Bonn...Image Processing, 10, no. 2:266 – 277, 2001. 6, 7 [6]D. Cremers and S. Soatto. Motion competition: A variotional approach to piecewiese parametric
Estimation of the global regularity of a multifractional Brownian motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebovits, Joachim; Podolskij, Mark
This paper presents a new estimator of the global regularity index of a multifractional Brownian motion. Our estimation method is based upon a ratio statistic, which compares the realized global quadratic variation of a multifractional Brownian motion at two different frequencies. We show...... that a logarithmic transformation of this statistic converges in probability to the minimum of the Hurst functional parameter, which is, under weak assumptions, identical to the global regularity index of the path....
SLIMMER: SLIce MRI motion estimation and reconstruction tool for studies of fetal anatomy
Kim, Kio; Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin
2011-03-01
We describe a free software tool which combines a set of algorithms that provide a framework for building 3D volumetric images of regions of moving anatomy using multiple fast multi-slice MRI studies. It is specifically motivated by the clinical application of unsedated fetal brain imaging, which has emerged as an important area for image analysis. The tool reads multiple DICOM image stacks acquired in any angulation into a consistent patient coordinate frame and allows the user to select regions to be locally motion corrected. It combines algorithms for slice motion estimation, bias field inconsistency correction and 3D volume reconstruction from multiple scattered slice stacks. The tool is built onto the RView (http://rview.colin-studholme.net) medical image display software and allows the user to inspect slice stacks, and apply both stack and slice level motion estimation that incorporates temporal constraints based on slice timing and interleave information read from the DICOM data. Following motion estimation an algorithm for bias field inconsistency correction provides the user with the ability to remove artifacts arising from the motion of the local anatomy relative to the imaging coils. Full 3D visualization of the slice stacks and individual slice orientations is provided to assist in evaluating the quality of the motion correction and final image reconstruction. The tool has been evaluated on a range of clinical data acquired on GE, Siemens and Philips MRI scanners.
Ubiquitous human upper-limb motion estimation using wearable sensors.
Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wong, Wai-Choong; Wu, Jian-Kang
2011-07-01
Human motion capture technologies have been widely used in a wide spectrum of applications, including interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, navigation, and so on. The existing human motion capture techniques, which use structured multiple high-resolution cameras in a dedicated studio, are complicated and expensive. With the rapid development of microsensors-on-chip, human motion capture using wearable microsensors has become an active research topic. Because of the agility in movement, upper-limb motion estimation has been regarded as the most difficult problem in human motion capture. In this paper, we take the upper limb as our research subject and propose a novel ubiquitous upper-limb motion estimation algorithm, which concentrates on modeling the relationship between upper-arm movement and forearm movement. A link structure with 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) is proposed to model the human upper-limb skeleton structure. Parameters are defined according to Denavit-Hartenberg convention, forward kinematics equations are derived, and an unscented Kalman filter is deployed to estimate the defined parameters. The experimental results have shown that the proposed upper-limb motion capture and analysis algorithm outperforms other fusion methods and provides accurate results in comparison to the BTS optical motion tracker.
Motion Estimation and Correction in Photoacoustic Tomographic Reconstruction
Chung, Julianne
2016-01-01
Motion, e.g., due to patient movement or improper device calibration, is inevitable in many imaging modalities such as photoacoustic tomography (PAT) by a rotating system and can lead to undesirable motion artifacts in image reconstructions, if ignored. In this paper, we establish a hybrid-type model for PAT that incorporates motion in the model. We first introduce an approximate continuous model and establish two uniqueness results for simple parameterized motion models. Then we formulate the discrete problem of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction as a separable nonlinear least squares problem and describe an automatic approach to detect and eliminate motion artifacts during the reconstruction process. Numerical examples validate our methods.
Back action evading quantum measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame
Møller, Christoffer B; Vasilakis, Georgios; Zeuthen, Emil; Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Jensen, Kasper; Schliesser, Albert; Hammerer, Klemens; Polzik, Eugene S
2016-01-01
Quantum mechanics dictates that a measurement without perturbation is not possible. A textbook example is the observation of the position of an object, which imposes a random back action perturbation on the momentum. This randomness translates with time into position uncertainty, thus leading to the well known uncertainty on the measurement of motion. Here we demonstrate that the back action on an oscillator measured in a reference frame of another oscillator with an effective negative mass can be evaded in both position and momentum variables simultaneously. The mechanical oscillator is a millimeter-sized membrane and the reference negative mass oscillator is the collective spin of an atomic ensemble precessing in a magnetic field. Laser light transmitted through the hybrid system of these two disparate oscillators serves as the meter. We first observe the quantum measurement back action on each oscillator. We then demonstrate that back action at the single noise photon level is efficiently suppressed or enh...
Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Krog, Kim Srirat; Thomsen, Dennis Lundgaard; Kraus, Martin
2013-01-01
A limited Graphics Turing Test is used to determine the frame rate that is required to achieve telepresence of an animated object. For low object velocities of 2.25 and 4.5 degrees of visual angle per second at 60 frames per second a rotating object with no added motion blur is able to pass the test. The results of the experiments confirm previous results in psychophysics and show that the Graphics Turing Test is a useful tool in computer graphics. Even with simulated motion blur, our Graphic...
Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Fleischhauer, A.; Müller, A.
2015-01-01
The selection and application of coordinate systems is an important issue in physics. However, considering different frames of references in a given problem sometimes seems un-intuitive and is difficult for students. We present a concrete problem of projectile motion which vividly demonstrates the value of considering different frames of references. We use this example to explore the effectiveness of video-based motion analysis (VBMA) as an instructional technique at university level in enhancing students’ understanding of the abstract concept of coordinate systems. A pilot study with 47 undergraduate students indicates that VBMA instruction improves conceptual understanding of this issue.
Adapting the Streaming Video Based on the Estimated Motion Position
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussein Muzahim Aziz
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In real time video streaming, the frames must meet their timing constraints, typically specified as their deadlines. Wireless networks may suffer from bandwidth limitations. To reduce the data transmission over the wireless networks, we propose an adaption technique in the server side by extracting a part of the video frames that considered as a Region Of Interest (ROI, and drop the part outside the ROI from the frames that are between reference frames. The estimated position of the selection of the ROI is computed by using the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD between consecutive frames. The reconstruction mechanism to the region outside the ROI is implemented in the mobile side by using linear interpolation between reference frames. We evaluate the proposed approach by using Mean Opinion Score (MOS measurements. MOS are used to evaluate two scenarios with equivalent encoding size, where the users observe the first scenario with low bit rate for the original videos, while for the second scenario the users observe our proposed approach with high bit rate. The results show that our technique significantly reduces the amounts of data are streamed over wireless networks, while the reconstruction mechanism will provides acceptable video quality.
Estimating joint kinematics from skin motion observation: modelling and validation.
Wolf, Alon; Senesh, Merav
2011-11-01
Modelling of soft tissue motion is required in many areas, such as computer animation, surgical simulation, 3D motion analysis and gait analysis. In this paper, we will focus on the use of modelling of skin deformation during 3D motion analysis. The most frequently used method in 3D human motion analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analysed segment which is composed of the rigid bone and the surrounding soft tissues. Skin and soft tissue deformations introduce a significant artefact which strongly influences the resulting bone position, orientation and joint kinematics. For this study, we used a statistical solid dynamics approach which is a combination of several previously reported tools: the point cluster technique (PCT) and a Kalman filter which was added to the PCT. The methods were tested and evaluated on controlled human-arm motions, using an optical motion capture system (Vicon(TM)). The addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT for rigid body motion estimation results in a smoother signal that better represents the joint motion. Calculations indicate less signal distortion than when using a digital low-pass filter. Furthermore, adding a Kalman filter to the PCT substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal instantaneous frequencies. For controlled human movements, the result indicated that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT produced a more accurate signal. However, it could not be concluded that the proposed Kalman filter is better than a low-pass filter for estimation of the motion. We suggest that implementation of a Kalman filter with a better biomechanical motion model will be more likely to improve the results.
Adaptive Motion Estimation Processor for Autonomous Video Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Dias
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation is the most demanding operation of a video encoder, corresponding to at least 80% of the overall computational cost. As a consequence, with the proliferation of autonomous and portable handheld devices that support digital video coding, data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms have been required to dynamically configure the search pattern not only to avoid unnecessary computations and memory accesses but also to save energy. This paper proposes an application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP to implement data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms that is characterized by a specialized datapath and a minimum and optimized instruction set. Due to its low-power nature, this architecture is highly suitable to develop motion estimators for portable, mobile, and battery-supplied devices. Based on the proposed architecture and the considered adaptive algorithms, several motion estimators were synthesized both for a Virtex-II Pro XC2VP30 FPGA from Xilinx, integrated within an ML310 development platform, and using a StdCell library based on a 0.18 ÃŽÂ¼m CMOS process. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is able to estimate motion vectors in real time for QCIF and CIF video sequences with a very low-power consumption. Moreover, it is also able to adapt the operation to the available energy level in runtime. By adjusting the search pattern and setting up a more convenient operating frequency, it can change the power consumption in the interval between 1.6 mW and 15 mW.
Adaptive Motion Estimation Processor for Autonomous Video Devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dias T
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation is the most demanding operation of a video encoder, corresponding to at least 80% of the overall computational cost. As a consequence, with the proliferation of autonomous and portable handheld devices that support digital video coding, data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms have been required to dynamically configure the search pattern not only to avoid unnecessary computations and memory accesses but also to save energy. This paper proposes an application-specific instruction set processor (ASIP to implement data-adaptive motion estimation algorithms that is characterized by a specialized datapath and a minimum and optimized instruction set. Due to its low-power nature, this architecture is highly suitable to develop motion estimators for portable, mobile, and battery-supplied devices. Based on the proposed architecture and the considered adaptive algorithms, several motion estimators were synthesized both for a Virtex-II Pro XC2VP30 FPGA from Xilinx, integrated within an ML310 development platform, and using a StdCell library based on a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is able to estimate motion vectors in real time for QCIF and CIF video sequences with a very low-power consumption. Moreover, it is also able to adapt the operation to the available energy level in runtime. By adjusting the search pattern and setting up a more convenient operating frequency, it can change the power consumption in the interval between 1.6 mW and 15 mW.
H.264 MOTION ESTIMATION ALGORITHM BASED ON VIDEO SEQUENCES ACTIVITY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Motion estimation is an important part of H.264/AVC encoding progress, with high computational complexity. Therefore, it is quite necessary to find a fast motion estimation algorithm for real-time applications. The algorithm proposed in this letter adjudges the macroblocks activity degree first; then classifies different video sequences, and applies different search strategies according to the result. Experiments show that this method obtains almost the same video quality with the Full Search (FS) algorithm but with reduced more than 95% computation cost.
Vision System for Relative Motion Estimation from Optical Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey M. Sokolov
2010-08-01
Full Text Available For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2003-01-01
, and with no force feed back from any of the three masses to masses situated below it. The first mass from the ground is force excited by stationary Gaussian white noise as specified in the Clough-Penzien filter definition. The study includes comparisons between plastic displacement results for the same three story...... for a single story shear frame excited by stationary Gaussian ground motion defined by the output of a Clough-Penzien filter with Gaussian white noise input. This is equivalent to considering an artificial three story elasto-plastic shear frame with possible yielding solely in the third column connection...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...
Fast Global Motion Estimation in Two Sampling Steps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adel Ahmadi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available An important technique in image and video processing is global motion estimation (GME. The common GME methods can be classified in direct and indirect categories. Whereas the direct global motion estimation techniques boast reasonable precision they tend to suffer from high complexity. As with indirect methods, though presenting lower complexity, they mostly exhibit lower accuracy than their direct counterparts. In this paper, the authors introduce a robust algorithm for GME with near identical accuracy and almost 50-times faster than MPEG-4 verification model (VM. This approach entails two stages in which, first, motion vector of sampled block is employed to obtain initial GME then Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to the subsampled pixels to optimize the initial GME values. As will be shown, the proposed solution exhibits remarkable accuracy and speed features with experimental results distinctively bearing them out.
Motion estimation based on an improved block matching technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tangfei Tao; Chongzhao Han; Yanqi Wu; Xin Kang
2006-01-01
@@ An improved block-matching algorithm for fast motion estimation is proposed. The matching criterion is the sum of absolute difference. The basic idea is to obtain the best estimation of motion vectors by an optimization of the search process which can terminate the time-consuming computation of matching evaluation between the current block and the ineligible candidate block as early as possible and eliminate the search positions as many as possible in the search area. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated by theoretic analysis and compared with the full search algorithm (FSA). The simulation results demonstrate that the computation load of this algorithm is much less than that of FSA, and the motion vectors obtained by this algorithm are identical to those of FSA.
Cardiac motion estimation by using high-dimensional features and K-means clustering method
Oubel, Estanislao; Hero, Alfred O.; Frangi, Alejandro F.
2006-03-01
Tagged Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently the reference modality for myocardial motion and strain analysis. Mutual Information (MI) based non rigid registration has proven to be an accurate method to retrieve cardiac motion and overcome many drawbacks present on previous approaches. In a previous work1, we used Wavelet-based Attribute Vectors (WAVs) instead of pixel intensity to measure similarity between frames. Since the curse of dimensionality forbids the use of histograms to estimate MI of high dimensional features, k-Nearest Neighbors Graphs (kNNG) were applied to calculate α-MI. Results showed that cardiac motion estimation was feasible with that approach. In this paper, K-Means clustering method is applied to compute MI from the same set of WAVs. The proposed method was applied to four tagging MRI sequences, and the resulting displacements were compared with respect to manual measurements made by two observers. Results show that more accurate motion estimation is obtained with respect to the use of pixel intensity.
Motion estimation using point cluster method and Kalman filter.
Senesh, M; Wolf, A
2009-05-01
The most frequently used method in a three dimensional human gait analysis involves placing markers on the skin of the analyzed segment. This introduces a significant artifact, which strongly influences the bone position and orientation and joint kinematic estimates. In this study, we tested and evaluated the effect of adding a Kalman filter procedure to the previously reported point cluster technique (PCT) in the estimation of a rigid body motion. We demonstrated the procedures by motion analysis of a compound planar pendulum from indirect opto-electronic measurements of markers attached to an elastic appendage that is restrained to slide along the rigid body long axis. The elastic frequency is close to the pendulum frequency, as in the biomechanical problem, where the soft tissue frequency content is similar to the actual movement of the bones. Comparison of the real pendulum angle to that obtained by several estimation procedures--PCT, Kalman filter followed by PCT, and low pass filter followed by PCT--enables evaluation of the accuracy of the procedures. When comparing the maximal amplitude, no effect was noted by adding the Kalman filter; however, a closer look at the signal revealed that the estimated angle based only on the PCT method was very noisy with fluctuation, while the estimated angle based on the Kalman filter followed by the PCT was a smooth signal. It was also noted that the instantaneous frequencies obtained from the estimated angle based on the PCT method is more dispersed than those obtained from the estimated angle based on Kalman filter followed by the PCT method. Addition of a Kalman filter to the PCT method in the estimation procedure of rigid body motion results in a smoother signal that better represents the real motion, with less signal distortion than when using a digital low pass filter. Furthermore, it can be concluded that adding a Kalman filter to the PCT procedure substantially reduces the dispersion of the maximal and minimal
Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars
Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.
2010-01-01
Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time m
Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars
Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.
2010-01-01
Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time
Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer
2016-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the ex...
Center of Mass-Based Adaptive Fast Block Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeh Kuo-Liang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents an efficient adaptive algorithm based on center of mass (CEM for fast block motion estimation. Binary transform, subsampling, and horizontal/vertical projection techniques are also proposed. As the conventional CEM calculation is computationally intensive, binary transform and subsampling approaches are proposed to simplify CEM calculation; the binary transform center of mass (BITCEM is then derived. The BITCEM motion types are classified by percentage of (0,0 BITCEM motion vectors. Adaptive search patterns are allocated according to the BITCEM moving direction and the BITCEM motion type. Moreover, the BITCEM motion vector is utilized as the initial search point for near-still or slow BITCEM motion types. To support the variable block sizes, the horizontal/vertical projections of a binary transformed macroblock are utilized to determine whether the block requires segmentation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is better than the five conventional algorithms, that is, three-step search (TSS, new three-step search (N3SS, four three-step search (4SS, block-based gradient decent search (BBGDS, and diamond search (DS, in terms of speed or picture quality for eight benchmark sequences.
Center of Mass-Based Adaptive Fast Block Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po-Hung Chen
2007-03-01
Full Text Available This work presents an efficient adaptive algorithm based on center of mass (CEM for fast block motion estimation. Binary transform, subsampling, and horizontal/vertical projection techniques are also proposed. As the conventional CEM calculation is computationally intensive, binary transform and subsampling approaches are proposed to simplify CEM calculation; the binary transform center of mass (BITCEM is then derived. The BITCEM motion types are classified by percentage of (0,0 BITCEM motion vectors. Adaptive search patterns are allocated according to the BITCEM moving direction and the BITCEM motion type. Moreover, the BITCEM motion vector is utilized as the initial search point for near-still or slow BITCEM motion types. To support the variable block sizes, the horizontal/vertical projections of a binary transformed macroblock are utilized to determine whether the block requires segmentation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is better than the five conventional algorithms, that is, three-step search (TSS, new three-step search (N3SS, four three-step search (4SS, block-based gradient decent search (BBGDS, and diamond search (DS, in terms of speed or picture quality for eight benchmark sequences.
Estimation of Ship Motions Using Closed-Form Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A.E.; Olsen, Anders Smærup
2004-01-01
A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions for the wave-induced motions for monohull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block co...... coefficient together with speed and heading. The formulas make it simple to obtain quick estimates of the wave-induced motions and accelerations in the conceptual design phase and to perform a sensitivity study of the variation with main dimensions and operational profile....
Onboard sea state estimation based on measured ship motions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Stredulinsky, David C.
2011-01-01
It is possible to obtain estimates of the sea state at the specific position of an advancing vessel by processing measurements of the vessel’s wave-induced responses. The analogy to a wave rider buoy is clear, although the situation of an advancing ship is more complex due to forward speed....... The paper studies the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and a large set of full-scale motion measurements is considered. It is shown that the wave buoy analogy gives fairly accurate estimates of sea state parameters when compared to estimates from real wave rider buoys....
Automated Motion Estimation for 2D Cine DENSE MRI
Gilliam, Andrew D.; Epstein, Frederick H.
2013-01-01
Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) is a magnetic resonance (MR) method that directly encodes tissue displacement into MR phase images. This technique has successfully interrogated many forms of tissue motion, but is most commonly used to evaluate cardiac mechanics. Currently, motion analysis from cine DENSE images requires manually delineated anatomical structures. An automated analysis would improve measurement throughput, simplify data interpretation, and potentially access important physiological information during the MR exam. In this article, we present the first fully automated solution for the estimation of tissue motion and strain from 2D cine DENSE data. Results using both simulated and human cardiac cine DENSE data indicate good agreement between the automated algorithm and the standard semi-manual analysis method. PMID:22575669
Memory bandwidth-scalable motion estimation for mobile video coding
Hsieh, Jui-Hung; Tai, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Tian-Sheuan
2011-12-01
The heavy memory access of motion estimation (ME) execution consumes significant power and could limit ME execution when the available memory bandwidth (BW) is reduced because of access congestion or changes in the dynamics of the power environment of modern mobile devices. In order to adapt to the changing BW while maintaining the rate-distortion (R-D) performance, this article proposes a novel data BW-scalable algorithm for ME with mobile multimedia chips. The available BW is modeled in a R-D sense and allocated to fit the dynamic contents. The simulation result shows 70% BW savings while keeping equivalent R-D performance compared with H.264 reference software for low-motion CIF-sized video. For high-motion sequences, the result shows our algorithm can better use the available BW to save an average bit rate of up to 13% with up to 0.1-dB PSNR increase for similar BW usage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reeba Korah
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a low power and high speed architecture for motion estimation with Candidate Block and Pixel Subsampling (CBPS Algorithm. Coarse-to-fine search approach is employed to find the motion vector so that the local minima problem is totally eliminated. Pixel subsampling is performed in the selected candidate blocks which significantly reduces computational cost with low quality degradation. The architecture developed is a fully pipelined parallel design with 9 processing elements. Two different methods are deployed to reduce the power consumption, parallel and pipelined implementation and parallel accessing to memory. For processing 30 CIF frames per second our architecture requires a clock frequency of 4.5 MHz.
4D-CT motion estimation using deformable image registration and 5D respiratory motion modeling
2008-01-01
Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) imaging technology has been developed for radiation therapy to provide tumor and organ images at the different breathing phases. In this work, a procedure is proposed for estimating and modeling the respiratory motion field from acquired 4D-CT imaging data and predicting tissue motion at the different breathing phases. The 4D-CT image data consist of series of multislice CT volume segments acquired in ciné mode. A modified optical flow deformable i...
Parameter Estimation for Generalized Brownian Motion with Autoregressive Increments
Fendick, Kerry
2011-01-01
This paper develops methods for estimating parameters for a generalization of Brownian motion with autoregressive increments called a Brownian ray with drift. We show that a superposition of Brownian rays with drift depends on three types of parameters - a drift coefficient, autoregressive coefficients, and volatility matrix elements, and we introduce methods for estimating each of these types of parameters using multidimensional times series data. We also cover parameter estimation in the contexts of two applications of Brownian rays in the financial sphere: queuing analysis and option valuation. For queuing analysis, we show how samples of queue lengths can be used to estimate the conditional expectation functions for the length of the queue and for increments in its net input and lost potential output. For option valuation, we show how the Black-Scholes-Merton formula depends on the price of the security on which the option is written through estimates not only of its volatility, but also of a coefficient ...
A Fast quarter-pixel motion estimation algorithm for H.264/AVC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A fast quarter-pixel motion estimation algorithm is proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm based on mathematical models of the motion compensated prediction errors. Unlike conventional quarter-pixel accurate motion estimation algorithm,proposed algorithm can avoid fractional-pixel interpolation and subsequent fractional-pixel search after integer-precision motion estimation. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm greatly reduces the computational complexity of quarterpixel motion estimation, while keeping the nearly equal quality of the image.
Intensity-Based Registration for Lung Motion Estimation
Cao, Kunlin; Ding, Kai; Amelon, Ryan E.; Du, Kaifang; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Raghavan, Madhavan L.; Christensen, Gary E.
Image registration plays an important role within pulmonary image analysis. The task of registration is to find the spatial mapping that brings two images into alignment. Registration algorithms designed for matching 4D lung scans or two 3D scans acquired at different inflation levels can catch the temporal changes in position and shape of the region of interest. Accurate registration is critical to post-analysis of lung mechanics and motion estimation. In this chapter, we discuss lung-specific adaptations of intensity-based registration methods for 3D/4D lung images and review approaches for assessing registration accuracy. Then we introduce methods for estimating tissue motion and studying lung mechanics. Finally, we discuss methods for assessing and quantifying specific volume change, specific ventilation, strain/ stretch information and lobar sliding.
Orbital Motions and the Conservation-Law/Preferred-Frame α_3 Parameter
Iorio, Lorenzo
2014-09-01
We analytically calculate some orbital effects induced by the Lorentz-invariance/ momentum-conservation parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter α_3 in a gravitationally bound binary system made of a primary orbited by a test particle. We neither restrict ourselves to any particular orbital configuration nor to specific orientations of the primary's spin axis ψ. We use our results to put preliminary upper bounds on α_3 in the weak-field regime by using the latest data from Solar System's planetary dynamics. By linearly combining the supplementary perihelion precessions Δw of the Earth, Mars and Saturn, determined by astronomers with the Ephemerides of Planets and the Moon (EPM) 2011 ephemerides for the general relativistic values of the PPN parameters β = γ = 1, we infer |α_3| ;5 6 × 10^-10. Our result is about three orders of magnitude better than the previous weak-field constraints existing in the literature and of the same order of magnitude of the constraint expected from the future BepiColombo mission to Mercury. It is, by construction, independent of the other preferred-frame PPN parameters α1, α2, both preliminarily constrained down to a ≈ 10^-6 level. Future analyses should be performed by explicitly including α3 and a selection of other PPN parameters in the models fitted by the astronomers to the observations and estimating them in dedicated covariance analyses.
New FPSoC-based architecture for efficient FSBM motion estimation processing in video standards
Canals, J. A.; Martínez, M. A.; Ballester, F. J.; Mora, A.
2007-05-01
Due to the timing constraints in real time video encoding, hardware accelerator cores are used for video compression. System on Chip (SoC) designing tools offer a complex microprocessor system designing methodologies with an easy Intellectual Property (IP) core integration. This paper presents a PowerPC-based SoC with a motion-estimation accelerator core attached to the system bus. Motion-estimation (ME) algorithms are the most critical part in video compression due to the huge amount of data transfers and processing time. The main goal of our proposed architecture is to minimize the amount of memory accesses, thus exploiting the bandwidth of a direct memory connection. This architecture has been developed using Xilinx XPS, a SoC platforms design tool. The results show that our system is able to process the integer pixel full search block matching (FSBM) motion-estimation process and interframe mode decision of a QCIF frame (176*144 pixels), using a 48*48 pixel searching window, with an embedded PPC in a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA running at 100 MHz, in 1.5 ms, 4.5 % of the total processing time at 30 fps.
3D Motion Estimation and Motion Fusion by Affine Region Matching
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏国庆; 马颂德
1993-01-01
In this paper,a new method is presented for 3D motion estimation by image region correspondences using stereo cameras.Under the weak perspectivity assumption.we first employ the moment tensor theory (Cyganski and Orr[11]) to compute the monocular affine transformations relating images taken by the same camera at different time instants and the binocular affine transformations relating images taken by different cameras at the same time instant.We then show that 3D motion can be recovered from these 2D transformations.A space-time fusion strategy is proposed to aim at robust results.No knowledge of point correspondences if requred in the above processes and the computations involved are linear.To find corresponding image regions,new affine invariants,which show stronger invariance,are derived in term of tensor contraction theory.Experiments on real motion images are conducted to verify the proposed method.
Fast motion vector estimation by using spatiotemporal correlation of motion field
Kim, Sungook; Chalidabhongse, Junavit; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
1995-04-01
Motion vector (MV) estimation plays an important role in motion compensated video coding. In this research, we first examine a stochastic MV model which enables us to exploit the strong correlation of MVs in both spatial and temporal domains in a given image sequence. Then, a new fast stochastic block matching algorithm (SBMA) is proposed. The basic idea is to select a set of good MV candidates and choose from them the one which satisfies a certain spatio-temporal correlation rule. The proposed algorithm reduces matching operations to about 2% of that of the full block matching algorithm (FBMA) with only 2% increase of the sum of absolute difference (SAD) in motion compensated residuals. The excellent performance of the new algorithm is supported by extensive experimental results.
Dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment
Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.; Kistemaker, C.
1999-01-01
Food chemical risk management needs, among other things, assessment of exposure. For dietary intake food consumption surveys are the data source to be used. One complicating factor in the usage of these data is the dependence of dietary intake estimates on the time frame of assessment. Central to th
Hybrid-Empirical Ground Motion Estimations for Georgia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsereteli Nino
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Ground motion prediction equations are essential for several purposes ranging from seismic design and analysis to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. In seismically active regions without sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models, hybrid models become vital. Georgia does not have sufficiently strong ground motion data to build empirical models. In this study, we have applied the host-to-target method in two regions in Georgia with different source mechanisms. According to the tectonic regime of the target areas, two different regions are chosen as host regions. One of them is in Turkey with the dominant strike-slip source mechanism, while the other is in Iran with the prevalence of reverse-mechanism events. We performed stochastic finite-fault simulations in both host and target areas and employed the hybrid-empirical method as introduced in Campbell (2003. An initial set of hybrid empirical ground motion estimates is obtained for PGA and SA at selected periods for Georgia.
Motion visualization and estimation for flapping wing systems
Hsu, Tzu-Sheng Shane; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Nguyen, Vincent Phuc; Patel, Trisha; Balachandran, Balakumar
2017-02-01
Studies of fluid-structure interactions associated with flexible structures such as flapping wings require the capture and quantification of large motions of bodies that may be opaque. As a case study, motion capture of a free flying Manduca sexta, also known as hawkmoth, is considered by using three synchronized high-speed cameras. A solid finite element (FE) representation is used as a reference body and successive snapshots in time of the displacement fields are reconstructed via an optimization procedure. One of the original aspects of this work is the formulation of an objective function and the use of shadow matching and strain-energy regularization. With this objective function, the authors penalize the projection differences between silhouettes of the captured images and the FE representation of the deformed body. The process and procedures undertaken to go from high-speed videography to motion estimation are discussed, and snapshots of representative results are presented. Finally, the captured free-flight motion is also characterized and quantified.
Directionality based fast fractional pel motion estimation for H.264
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wei; Fan Fen; Wang Xiaoyang; Zhu Weile
2009-01-01
Motion estimation is an important and intensive task in video coding applications. Since the complex-ity of integer pixel search has been greatly reduced by the numerous fast ME algorithm, the computation overhead required by fractional pixel ME has become relatively significant. To reduce the complexity of the fractional pixel ME algorithm, a directionality-based fractional pixel ME algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm efficiently explores the neighborhood positions which with high probability to be the best matching around the minimum one and skips over other unlikely ones. Thus, the proposed algorithm can complete the search by examining only 3 points on appropriate condition instead of 17 search points in the search algorithm of reference software. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm successfully optimizes the fractional-pixel motion search on both half and quarter-pixel accuracy and improves the processing speed with low PSNR penalty.
A fast motion estimation algorithm for mobile communications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Guo-bin
2006-01-01
The limitation of processing power, battery life and memory capacity of portable terminals requires reducing encoding complexity in mobile communications. Motion estimation (ME) is the most computationally intensive module in a typical video codec, which determines not only the encoder's performance but also the reconstructed video quality. In this paper, a fast ME algorithm for H.264/AVC baseline profile coding is proposed based on the analysis of motion vector field and error surface, and the statistical distributions of different type macroblocks (MBs). Simulation results showed that: in comparison with MVFAST,the proposed algorithm can decrease the computational load over 7.2% with no requirement of expanding memory capacity while maintaining the same video quality as MVFAST. Furthermore, its simplicity makes it easy to be implemented on hardware.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kraszewska Katarzyna
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper concerns an analysis of the accuracy of estimated parameters Ω(Φ, Λ, ω which define the tectonic plate motions. The study is based on the velocities of station positions published by ITRF2008 for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR technique. The Eurasian, African, North American and Australian plates were used in the analysis. Influence of the number and location of stations on the plate surface on estimation accuracy of the tectonic plate motion parameters was discussed. The results were compared with the APKIM 2005 IGN model. In general, a remarkable concurrence agreement between our solutions and the APKIM 2005 model was found.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacobello, Daniele; Murthi, Manohar N.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;
2010-01-01
In this paper, we describe a new approach to cope with packet loss in speech coders. The idea is to split the information present in each speech packet into two components, one to independently decode the given speech frame and one to enhance it by exploiting interframe dependencies. The scheme...... is based on sparse linear prediction and a redeﬁnition of the analysis-by-synthesis process. We present Mean Opinion Scores for the presented coder with different degrees of packet loss and show that it performs similarly to frame dependent coders for low packet loss probability and similarly to frame...... independent coders for high packet loss probability. We also present ideas on how to make the coder work synergistically with the channel loss estimate....
Video compression using lapped transforms for motion estimation/compensation and coding
Young, Robert W.; Kingsbury, Nick G.
1992-11-01
Many conventional video coding schemes, such as the CCITT H.261 recommendation, are based on the independent processing of non-overlapping image blocks. An important disadvantage with this approach is that blocking artifacts may be visible in the decoded frames. In this paper, we propose a coding scheme based entirely on the processing of overlapping, windowed data blocks, thus eliminating blocking effects. Motion estimation and compensation are both performed in the frequency domain using a complex lapped transform (CLT), which may be viewed as a complex extension of the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT). The motion compensation algorithm is equivalent to overlapped compensation in the spatial domain, but also allows image interpolation for sub-pel displacements and sophisticated loop filters to be conveniently applied in the frequency domain. For inter- and intra-frame coding, we define the modified fast lapped transform (MFLT). This is a modified form of the LOT, which entirely eliminates blocking artifacts in the reconstructed data. The transform is applied in a hierarchical structure, and performs better than the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for both coding modes. The proposed coder is compared with the H.261 scheme, and is found to have significantly improved performance.
A Content-Based Search Algorithm for Motion Estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The basic search algorithm toimplement Motion Estimation (ME) in the H. 263 encoder is a full search.It is simple but time-consuming. Traditional search algorithms are fast, but may cause a fall in image quality or an increase in bit-rate in low bit-rate applications. A fast search algorithm for ME with consideration on image content is proposed in this paper. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm can offer up to 70 percent savings in execution time with almost no sacrifice in PSNR and bit-rate, compared with the full search.
Olsen, Anna
2008-01-01
This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...
Optimized dynamic framing for PET-based myocardial blood flow estimation
Kolthammer, Jeffrey A.; Muzic, Raymond F.
2013-08-01
An optimal experiment design methodology was developed to select the framing schedule to be used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) for estimation of myocardial blood flow using 82Rb. A compartment model and an arterial input function based on measured data were used to calculate a D-optimality criterion for a wide range of candidate framing schedules. To validate the optimality calculation, noisy time-activity curves were simulated, from which parameter values were estimated using an efficient and robust decomposition of the estimation problem. D-optimized schedules improved estimate precision compared to non-optimized schedules, including previously published schedules. To assess robustness, a range of physiologic conditions were simulated. Schedules that were optimal for one condition were nearly-optimal for others. The effect of infusion duration was investigated. Optimality was better for shorter than for longer tracer infusion durations, with the optimal schedule for the shortest infusion duration being nearly optimal for other durations. Together this suggests that a framing schedule optimized for one set of conditions will also work well for others and it is not necessary to use different schedules for different infusion durations or for rest and stress studies. The method for optimizing schedules is general and could be applied in other dynamic PET imaging studies.
National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: f indings from a dual‐frame omnibus survey
Youssef, G. J.; Jackson, A. C.; Pennay, D. W.; Francis, K. L.; Pennay, A.; Lubman, D. I.
2016-01-01
Abstract Background, aims and design The increase in mobile telephone‐only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: (1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual‐frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer‐assisted telephone interviewing methodology; (2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and (3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling. Setting and participants A total of 2000 adult respondents residing in Australia were interviewed from March to April 2013. Measurements Participation in multiple gambling activities and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Findings Estimates were: gambling participation [63.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.4–66.3], problem gambling (0.4%, 95% CI = 0.2–0.8), moderate‐risk gambling (1.9%, 95% CI = 1.3–2.6) and low‐risk gambling (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.2–4.0). Relative to the landline frame, the mobile frame was more likely to gamble on horse/greyhound races [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4], casino table games (OR = 5.0), sporting events (OR = 2.2), private games (OR = 1.9) and the internet (OR = 6.5); less likely to gamble on lotteries (OR = 0.6); and more likely to gamble on five or more activities (OR = 2.4), display problem gambling (OR = 6.4) and endorse PGSI items (OR = 2.4‐6.1). Only casino table gambling (OR = 2.9) and internet gambling (OR = 3.5) independently predicted mobile frame membership. Telephone status (landline frame versus mobile dual users and mobile‐only users) displayed similar findings. Finally, sample frame and/or telephone status moderated the relationship between gender, relationship status, health and problem gambling (OR = 2.9–7.6). Conclusion Given expected future increases in the
Wearable sensors for 3D upper limb motion modeling and ubiquitous estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Human motion capture technologies are widely used in interactive game and learning, animation, film special effects, health care, and navigation. Because of the agility, upper limb motion estimation is the most difficult problem in human motion capture. Traditional methods always assume that the movements of upper arm and forearm are independent and then estimate their movements separately; therefore, the estimated motion are always with serious distortion. In this paper, we propose a novel ubiquitous upper...
Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Xie, Mengdi
2016-04-07
Video stabilization is an important technology for removing undesired motion in videos. This paper presents a comprehensive motion estimation method for electronic image stabilization techniques, integrating the speeded up robust features (SURF) algorithm, modified random sample consensus (RANSAC), and the Kalman filter, and also taking camera scaling and conventional camera translation and rotation into full consideration. Using SURF in sub-pixel space, feature points were located and then matched. The false matched points were removed by modified RANSAC. Global motion was estimated by using the feature points and modified cascading parameters, which reduced the accumulated errors in a series of frames and improved the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) by 8.2 dB. A specific Kalman filter model was established by considering the movement and scaling of scenes. Finally, video stabilization was achieved with filtered motion parameters using the modified adjacent frame compensation. The experimental results proved that the target images were stabilized even when the vibrating amplitudes of the video become increasingly large.
Pose and Motion Estimation from Vision Based on the First-Order Interpolation Filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WUXuedong; WANGYaonan
2004-01-01
Determination of relative threedimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry. A solution to this problem that uses Two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images, a nonlinear transformation. Modeling the 3D transformation as a nonlinear stochastic system, and using a new set of filtering which are based on the first-order interpolation approximations of the nonlinear transformations as estimator, this paper presents solutions to the remote measurement problem given a sequence of 2D intensity images of an object. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and the simulation result has shown that the proposed method has good convergence.
AR modeling and low-bit-rate encoding of motion-compensated frame differences
Bruenig, Michael; Niehsen, Wolfgang
1998-01-01
The hybrid coding scheme is modified. The discrete cosine transform used for encoding displaced frame differences is replaced by a predefined set of transform matrices based on autoregressive models up to the fourth order. The autoregressive models are parameterized using reflection coefficients. It is shown that the coding efficiency can be improved though side information for the chosen transform has to be transmitted to the decoder.
Framing visual roll-motion affects postural sway and the subjective visual vertical
Lubeck, A.J.A.; Bos, J.E.; Stins, J.F.
2016-01-01
Effects of visual roll-motion on postural sway and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) often is studied using mechanical devices, whereas electronic displays offer cheaper and more flexible alternatives. These devices typically emit and reflect light scattered by the edges of the screen, providing
Miyajima, Saori; Tanaka, Takayuki; Imamura, Yumeko; Kusaka, Takashi
2015-01-01
We estimate lumbar torque based on motion measurement using only three inertial sensors. First, human motion is measured by a 6-axis motion tracking device that combines a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope placed on the shank, thigh, and back. Next, the lumbar joint torque during the motion is estimated by kinematic musculoskeletal simulation. The conventional method for estimating joint torque uses full body motion data measured by an optical motion capture system. However, in this research, joint torque is estimated by using only three link angles of the body, thigh, and shank. The utility of our method was verified by experiments. We measured motion of bendung knee and waist simultaneously. As the result, we were able to estimate the lumbar joint torque from measured motion.
Interferometric estimation of ice sheet motion and topography
Joughlin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, Mark; Winebrenner, Dale; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Gogenini, Prasad
1997-01-01
With ERS-1/2 satellite radar interferometry, it is possible to make measurements of glacier motion with high accuracy and fine spatial resolution. Interferometric techniques were applied to map velocity and topography for several outlet glaciers in Greenland. For the Humboldt and Petermann glaciers, data from several adjacent tracks were combined to make a wide-area map that includes the enhanced flow regions of both glaciers. The discharge flux of the Petermann glacier upstream of the grounding line was estimated, thereby establishing the potential use of ERS-1/2 interferometric data for monitoring ice-sheet discharge. Interferograms collected along a single track are sensitive to only one component of motion. By utilizing data from ascending and descending passes and by making a surface-parallel flow assumption, it is possible to measure the full three-dimensional vector flow field. The application of this technique for an area on the Ryder glacier is demonstrated. Finally, ERS-1/2 interferograms were used to observe a mini-surge on the Ryder glacier that occurred in autumn of 1995.
Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures
Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar
2015-01-01
The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.
Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz
2010-09-01
This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan eEhrenfeld
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of how the brain may maintain a probabilistic body state estimate over time from a modeling perspective.The neural Modular Modality Frame (nMMF model simulates such a body state estimation process by continuously integrating redundant, multimodal body state information sources.The body state estimate itself is distributed over separate, but bidirectionally interacting modules.nMMF compares the incoming sensory and present body state information across the interacting modules and fuses the information sources accordingly. At the same time, nMMF enforces body state estimation consistency across the modules.nMMF is able to detect conflicting sensory information and to consequently decrease the influence of implausible sensor sources on the fly. In contrast to the previously published Modular Modality Frame (MMF model, nMMF offers a biologically plausible neural implementation based on distributed, probabilistic population codes. Besides its neural plausibility, the neural encoding has the advantage of enabling (a additional probabilistic information flow across the separate body state estimation modules and (b the representation of arbitrary probability distributions of a body state.The results show that the neural estimates can detect and decrease the impact of false sensory information, can propagate conflicting information across modules, and can improve overal estimation accuracy due to additional module interactions. Even bodily illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, can be simulated with nMMF. We conclude with an outlook on the potential of modeling human data and of invoking goal-directed behavioral control.
Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrilla, D.M.
2009-01-01
We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis generat
Hofmann, K.M.; Gavrila, D.M.
2009-01-01
We present a system for the estimation of unconstrained 3D human upper body movement from multiple cameras. Its main novelty lies in the integration of three components: single-frame pose recovery, temporal integration and model adaptation. Single-frame pose recovery consists of a hypothesis generat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinith Chauhan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Compression basically means reducing image data. As mentioned previously, a digitized analog video sequence can comprise of up to 165 Mbps of data. To reduce the media overheads for distributing these sequences, the following techniques are commonly employed to achieve desirable reductions in image data Reduce color nuances within the image, reduce the color resolution with respect to the prevailing light intensity, Remove small, invisible parts, of the picture, Compare adjacent images and remove details that are unchanged between two images. The first three are image based compression techniques, where only one frame is evaluated and compressed at a time. The last one is or video compression technique where different adjacent frames are compared as a way to further reduced the image data. All of these techniques are based on an accurate understanding of how the human brain and eyes work together to form a complex visual system. As a result of these subtle reductions, a significant reduction in the resultant files size for the image sequences is achievable with little or no adverse effect in their visual quality. The extent, to which these image modifications are humanly visible, is typically dependent upon the degree to which the chosen compression technique is used. Often 50% to 90% compression can be achieved with no visible difference, and in some scenarios even beyond 95%. In this paper variable block sizes in motion estimation process is used for video compression.
Gorpas, Dimitris; Ma, Dinglong; Bec, Julien; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Marcu, Laura
2016-03-01
Fluorescence lifetime imaging has been shown to be a robust technique for biochemical and functional characterization of tissues and to present great potential for intraoperative tissue diagnosis and guidance of surgical procedures. We report a technique for real-time mapping of fluorescence parameters (i.e. lifetime values) onto the location from where the fluorescence measurements were taken. This is achieved by merging a 450 nm aiming beam generated by a diode laser with the excitation light in a single delivery/collection fiber and by continuously imaging the region of interest with a color CMOS camera. The interrogated locations are then extracted from the acquired frames via color-based segmentation of the aiming beam. Assuming a Gaussian profile of the imaged aiming beam, the segmentation results are fitted to ellipses that are dynamically scaled at the full width of three automatically estimated thresholds (50%, 75%, 90%) of the Gaussian distribution's maximum value. This enables the dynamic augmentation of the white-light video frames with the corresponding fluorescence decay parameters. A fluorescence phantom and fresh tissue samples were used to evaluate this method with motorized and hand-held scanning measurements. At 640x512 pixels resolution the area of interest augmented with fluorescence decay parameters can be imaged at an average 34 frames per second. The developed method has the potential to become a valuable tool for real-time display of optical spectroscopy data during continuous scanning applications that subsequently can be used for tissue characterization and diagnosis.
Krásná, Hana; Malkin, Zinovy; Böhm, Johannes
The increasing accuracy and growing time span of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations allow the determination of seasonal signals in station positions which still remain unmodelled in conventional analysis approaches. In this study we focus on the impact of the neglected seasonal signals in the station displacement on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters. We estimate empirical harmonic models for selected stations within a global solution of all suitable VLBI sessions and create mean annual models by stacking yearly time series of station positions which are then entered a priori in the analysis of VLBI observations. Our results reveal that there is no systematic propagation of the seasonal signal into the orientation of celestial reference frame but position changes occur for radio sources observed non-evenly over the year. On the other hand, the omitted seasonal harmonic signal in horizontal station coordinates propagates directly into the Earth rotation parameters causing differences of several tens of microarcseconds.
Reference trajectory generation for rehabilitation robots: complementary limb motion estimation.
Vallery, Heike; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Buss, Martin; van der Kooij, Herman
2009-02-01
For gait rehabilitation robots, an important question is how to ensure stable gait, while avoiding any interaction forces between robot and human in case the patient walks correctly. To achieve this, the definition of "correct" gait needs to adapted both to the individual patient and to the situation. Recently, we proposed a method for online trajectory generation that can be applied for hemiparetic subjects. Desired states for one (disabled) leg are generated online based on the movements of the other (sound) leg. An instantaneous mapping between legs is performed by exploiting physiological interjoint couplings. This way, the patient generates the reference motion for the affected leg autonomously. The approach, called Complementary Limb Motion Estimation (CLME), is implemented on the LOPES gait rehabilitation robot and evaluated with healthy subjects in two different experiments. In a previously described study, subjects walk only with one leg, while the robot's other leg acts as a fake prosthesis, to simulate complete loss of function in one leg. This study showed that CLME ensures stable gait. In a second study, to be presented in this paper, healthy subjects walk with both their own legs to assess the interference with self-determined walking. Evaluation criteria are: Power delivered to the joints by the robot, electromyography (EMG) distortions, and kinematic distortions, all compared to zero torque control, which is the baseline of minimum achievable interference. Results indicate that interference of the robot is lower with CLME than with a fixed reference trajectory, mainly in terms of lowered exchanged power and less alteration of EMG. This implies that subjects can walk more naturally with CLME, and they are assisted less by the robot when it is not needed. Future studies with patients are yet to show whether these properties of CLME transfer to the clinical domain.
Estimation of Antenna Pose in the Earth Frame Using Camera and IMU Data from Mobile Phones
Wang, Zhen; Jin, Bingwen; Geng, Weidong
2017-01-01
The poses of base station antennas play an important role in cellular network optimization. Existing methods of pose estimation are based on physical measurements performed either by tower climbers or using additional sensors attached to antennas. In this paper, we present a novel non-contact method of antenna pose measurement based on multi-view images of the antenna and inertial measurement unit (IMU) data captured by a mobile phone. Given a known 3D model of the antenna, we first estimate the antenna pose relative to the phone camera from the multi-view images and then employ the corresponding IMU data to transform the pose from the camera coordinate frame into the Earth coordinate frame. To enhance the resulting accuracy, we improve existing camera-IMU calibration models by introducing additional degrees of freedom between the IMU sensors and defining a new error metric based on both the downtilt and azimuth angles, instead of a unified rotational error metric, to refine the calibration. In comparison with existing camera-IMU calibration methods, our method achieves an improvement in azimuth accuracy of approximately 1.0 degree on average while maintaining the same level of downtilt accuracy. For the pose estimation in the camera coordinate frame, we propose an automatic method of initializing the optimization solver and generating bounding constraints on the resulting pose to achieve better accuracy. With this initialization, state-of-the-art visual pose estimation methods yield satisfactory results in more than 75% of cases when plugged into our pipeline, and our solution, which takes advantage of the constraints, achieves even lower estimation errors on the downtilt and azimuth angles, both on average (0.13 and 0.3 degrees lower, respectively) and in the worst case (0.15 and 7.3 degrees lower, respectively), according to an evaluation conducted on a dataset consisting of 65 groups of data. We show that both of our enhancements contribute to the performance
A rotational and axial motion system load frame insert for in situ high energy x-ray studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shade, Paul A., E-mail: paul.shade.1@us.af.mil; Schuren, Jay C.; Turner, Todd J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Blank, Basil [PulseRay, Beaver Dams, New York 14812 (United States); Kenesei, Peter; Goetze, Kurt; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Suter, Robert M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Bernier, Joel V.; Li, Shiu Fai [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lind, Jonathan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2015-09-15
High energy x-ray characterization methods hold great potential for gaining insight into the behavior of materials and providing comparison datasets for the validation and development of mesoscale modeling tools. A suite of techniques have been developed by the x-ray community for characterizing the 3D structure and micromechanical state of polycrystalline materials; however, combining these techniques with in situ mechanical testing under well characterized and controlled boundary conditions has been challenging due to experimental design requirements, which demand new high-precision hardware as well as access to high-energy x-ray beamlines. We describe the design and performance of a load frame insert with a rotational and axial motion system that has been developed to meet these requirements. An example dataset from a deforming titanium alloy demonstrates the new capability.
Video compression using lapped transforms for motion estimation compensation and coding
Young, Robert W.; Kingsbury, Nick G.
1993-07-01
Many conventional video coding schemes, such as the CCITT H.261 recommendation, are based on the independent processing of nonoverlapping image blocks. An important disadvantage with this approach is that blocking artifacts may be visible in the decoded frames. We propose a coding scheme based entirely on the processing of overlapping, windowed data blocks, thus eliminating blocking effects. Motion estimation and, in part, compensation are performed in the frequency domain using a complex lapped transform (CLT), which can be viewed as a complex extension of the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT). The motion compensation algorithm is equivalent to overlapped compensation in the spatial domain, but also allows image interpolation for subpixel displacements and sophisticated loop filters to be conveniently applied in the frequency domain. For inter- and intraframe coding, we define the modified fast lapped transform (MFLT). This is a modified form of the LOT that entirely eliminates blocking artifacts in the reconstructed data. The transform is applied in a hierarchical structure, and performs better than the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for both coding modes. The proposed coder is compared with the H.261 scheme and is found to have significantly improved performance.
Single-Dimension Perturbation Glowworm Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Block Motion Estimation
Xiangpin Liu; Shibin Xuan; Feng Liu
2013-01-01
In view of the fact that the classical fast motion estimation methods are easy to fall into local optimum and suffer the high computational cost, the convergence of the motion estimation method based on the swarm intelligence algorithm is very slow. A new block motion estimation method based on single-dimension perturbation glowworm swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. Single-dimension perturbation is a local search strategy which can improve the ability of local optimization. The propos...
Xin, Tiantian; Zhao, Hongying; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Lu
2015-03-01
Videos from a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are always unstable because of the wobble of the vehicle and the impact of surroundings, especially when the motion has a large drifting. Electronic image stabilization aims at removing the unwanted wobble and obtaining the stable video. Then estimation of intended motion, which represents the tendency of global motion, becomes the key to image stabilization. It is usually impossible for general methods of intended motion estimation to obtain stable intended motion remaining as much information of video images and getting a path as much close to the real flying path at the same time. This paper proposed a fuzzy Kalman filtering method to estimate the intended motion to solve these problems. Comparing with traditional methods, the fuzzy Kalman filtering method can achieve better effect to estimate the intended motion.
Ohteru, Shoko; Kishine, Keiji
The Burst ACK scheme enhances effective throughput by reducing ACK overhead when a transmitter sends sequentially multiple data frames to a destination. IEEE 802.11e is one such example. The size of the data frame body and the number of burst data frames are important burst transmission parameters that affect throughput. The larger the burst transmission parameters are, the better the throughput under error-free conditions becomes. However, large data frame could reduce throughput under error-prone conditions caused by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration. If the throughput can be calculated from the burst transmission parameters and error rate, the appropriate ranges of the burst transmission parameters could be narrowed down, and the necessary buffer size for storing transmit data or received data temporarily could be estimated. In this paper, we present a method that features a simple algorithm for estimating the effective throughput from the burst transmission parameters and error rate. The calculated throughput values agree well with the measured ones for actual wireless boards based on the IEEE 802.11-based original MAC protocol. We also calculate throughput values for larger values of the burst transmission parameters outside the assignable values of the wireless boards and find the appropriate values of the burst transmission parameters.
Image-based motion estimation for cardiac CT via image registration
Cammin, J.; Taguchi, K.
2010-03-01
Images reconstructed from tomographic projection data are subject to motion artifacts from organs that move during the duration of the scan. The effect can be reduced by taking the motion into account in the reconstruction algorithm if an estimate of the deformation exists. This paper presents the estimation of the three-dimensional cardiac motion by registering reconstructed images from cardiac quiet phases as a first step towards motion-compensated cardiac image reconstruction. The non-rigid deformations of the heart are parametrized on a coarse grid on the image volume and are interpolated with cubic b-splines. The optimization problem of finding b-spline coefficients that best describe the observed deformations is ill-posed due to the large number of parameters and the resulting motion vector field is sensitive to the choice of initial parameters. Particularly challenging is the task to capture the twisting motion of the heart. The motion vector field from a dynamic computer phantom of the human heart is used to initialize the transformation parameters for the optimization process with realistic starting values. The results are evaluated by comparing the registered images and the obtained motion vector field to the case when the registration is performed without using prior knowledge about the expected cardiac motion. We find that the registered images are similar for both approaches, but the motion vector field obtained from motion estimation initialized with the phantom describes the cardiac contraction and twisting motion more accurately.
Wilms, Matthias; Werner, René; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Handels, Heinz; Ehrhardt, Jan
2017-06-26
Correspondence modelling between low-dimensional breathing signals and internal organ motion is a prerequisite for application of advanced techniques in radiotherapy of moving targets. Patient-specific correspondence models can, for example, be built prior to treatment based on a planning 4D CT and simultaneously acquired breathing signals. Reliability of pre-treatment-built models depends, however, on the degree of patient-specific inter-fraction motion variations. This study investigates whether motion estimation accuracy in the presence of inter-fraction motion variations can be improved using correspondence models that incorporate motion information from different patients. The underlying assumption is that inter-patient motion variations resemble patient-specific inter-fraction motion variations for subpopulations of patients with similar breathing characteristics. The hypothesis is tested by integrating a sparse manifold clustering approach into a regression-based correspondence modelling framework that allows for automated identification of patient subpopulations. The evaluation is based on a total of 73 lung 4D CT data sets, including two cohorts of patients with repeat 4D CT scans (cohort 1: 14 patients; cohort 2: ten patients). The results are consistent for both cohorts: The subpopulation-based modelling approach outperforms general population modelling (models built on all data sets available) as well as pre-treatment-built models trained on only the patient-specific motion information. The results thereby support the hypothesis and illustrate the potential of subpopulation-based correspondence modelling.
A method for segmentation and motion estimation of multiple independently moving objects
Willemink, G.H.; Heijden, van der F.
2006-01-01
The aim of this work is to design a robust method for online estimation of object motion and structure in a dynamic scene. A method for segmentation and estimation of object motion and structure from 3-d points in a dynamic scene, observed by a sequence of stereo images, is proposed. The proposed me
Korsten, Maarten J.; Houkes, Z.
1989-01-01
Presents a method combining shape, shading and motion models in order to obtain estimations of 3D shape and motion parameters directly from image grey values. The problem is considered as an application of optimal parameter estimation theory, according to Liebelt (1967)
Brouard, Olivier; Delannay, Fabrice; Ricordel, Vincent; Barba, Dominique
2007-01-01
4 pages; International audience; Motion segmentation methods are effective for tracking video objects. However, objects segmentation methods based on motion need to know the global motion of the video in order to back-compensate it before computing the segmentation. In this paper, we propose a method which estimates the global motion of a High Definition (HD) video shot and then segments it using the remaining motion information. First, we develop a fast method for multi-resolution motion est...
ESTIMATING LONG GRB JET OPENING ANGLES AND REST-FRAME ENERGETICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric, E-mail: adam.m.goldstein@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2016-02-10
We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.
Robust Manhattan Frame Estimation From a Single RGB-D Image
Bernard Ghanem
2015-06-02
This paper proposes a new framework for estimating the Manhattan Frame (MF) of an indoor scene from a single RGB-D image. Our technique formulates this problem as the estimation of a rotation matrix that best aligns the normals of the captured scene to a canonical world axes. By introducing sparsity constraints, our method can simultaneously estimate the scene MF, the surfaces in the scene that are best aligned to one of three coordinate axes, and the outlier surfaces that do not align with any of the axes. To test our approach, we contribute a new set of annotations to determine ground truth MFs in each image of the popular NYUv2 dataset. We use this new benchmark to experimentally demonstrate that our method is more accurate, faster, more reliable and more robust than the methods used in the literature. We further motivate our technique by showing how it can be used to address the RGB-D SLAM problem in indoor scenes by incorporating it into and improving the performance of a popular RGB-D SLAM method.
Method and system for non-linear motion estimation
Lu, Ligang (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.
WearDY: Wearable dynamics. A prototype for human whole-body force and motion estimation
Latella, Claudia; Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Nori, Francesco
2016-06-01
Motion capture is a powerful tool used in a large range of applications towards human movement analysis. Although it is a well-established technique, its main limitation is the lack of dynamic information such as forces and torques during the motion capture. In this paper, we present a novel approach for human wearable dynamic (WearDY) motion capture for the simultaneous estimation of whole-body forces along with the motion. Our conceptual framework encompasses traditional passive markers based methods, inertial and contact force sensor modalities and harnesses a probabilistic computational framework for estimating dynamic quantities originally proposed in the domain of humanoid robot control. We present preliminary experimental analysis of our framework on subjects performing a two Degrees-of-Freedom bowing task and we estimate the motion and dynamic quantities. We discuss the implication of our proposal towards the design of a novel wearable force and motion capture suit and its applications.
Guerra, André G. C.; Simeão Carvalho, Paulo
2016-09-01
The motion of astronomical bodies and the centre of mass of the system is not always well perceived by students. One of the struggles is the conceptual change of reference frame, which is the same that held back the acceptance of the Heliocentric model over the Geocentric one. To address the question, the notion of centre of mass, motion equations (and their numerical solution for a system of multiple bodies), and change of frame of reference is introduced. The discussion is done based on conceptual and real world examples, using the solar system. Consequently, through the use of simple ‘do it yourself’ methods and basic equations, students can debate complex motions, and have a wider and potentially effective understanding of physics.
Test suite for image-based motion estimation of the brain and tongue
Ramsey, Jordan; Prince, Jerry L.; Gomez, Arnold D.
2017-03-01
Noninvasive analysis of motion has important uses as qualitative markers for organ function and to validate biomechanical computer simulations relative to experimental observations. Tagged MRI is considered the gold standard for noninvasive tissue motion estimation in the heart, and this has inspired multiple studies focusing on other organs, including the brain under mild acceleration and the tongue during speech. As with other motion estimation approaches, using tagged MRI to measure 3D motion includes several preprocessing steps that affect the quality and accuracy of estimation. Benchmarks, or test suites, are datasets of known geometries and displacements that act as tools to tune tracking parameters or to compare different motion estimation approaches. Because motion estimation was originally developed to study the heart, existing test suites focus on cardiac motion. However, many fundamental differences exist between the heart and other organs, such that parameter tuning (or other optimization) with respect to a cardiac database may not be appropriate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design and construct motion benchmarks by adopting an "image synthesis" test suite to study brain deformation due to mild rotational accelerations, and a benchmark to model motion of the tongue during speech. To obtain a realistic representation of mechanical behavior, kinematics were obtained from finite-element (FE) models. These results were combined with an approximation of the acquisition process of tagged MRI (including tag generation, slice thickness, and inconsistent motion repetition). To demonstrate an application of the presented methodology, the effect of motion inconsistency on synthetic measurements of head- brain rotation and deformation was evaluated. The results indicated that acquisition inconsistency is roughly proportional to head rotation estimation error. Furthermore, when evaluating non-rigid deformation, the results suggest that
Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Gerr, Fred
2015-05-01
The performance of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring thoracolumbar trunk motion was compared to that of the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM). Thirty-six male participants completed a simulated material handling task with both systems deployed simultaneously. Estimates of thoracolumbar trunk motion obtained with the IMU system were processed using five common methods for estimating trunk motion characteristics. Results of measurements obtained from IMUs secured to the sternum and pelvis had smaller root-mean-square differences and mean bias estimates in comparison to results obtained with the LMM than results of measurements obtained solely from a sternum mounted IMU. Fusion of IMU accelerometer measurements with IMU gyroscope and/or magnetometer measurements was observed to increase comparability to the LMM. Results suggest investigators should consider computing thoracolumbar trunk motion as a function of estimates from multiple IMUs using fusion algorithms rather than using a single accelerometer secured to the sternum in field-based studies.
Fast Sub-Pixel Motion Estimation Algorithm For H.264
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A novel fast sub-pixel search algorithm is proposed to accelerate sub-pixel search. Based on the features of predicted motion vector (PMV) and texture direction observed, the proposed method effectively filters out impossible points and thus decreases 11 searched points in average during the sub-pixel search stage. A threshold is also adopted to early terminate the sub-pixel search. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve up to 4.8 times faster than full sub-pixel motion search scheme (FSPS) with less than 0.025 dB PSNR losses and 2.2% bitlength increases.
Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.
2011-12-01
In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.
Low-Cost MEMS sensors and vision system for motion and position estimation of a scooter.
Guarnieri, Alberto; Pirotti, Francesco; Vettore, Antonio
2013-01-24
The possibility to identify with significant accuracy the position of a vehicle in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is a topic which is attracting a lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate position, orientation and velocity of the system with high measurement rates. In this work we test a system which uses low-cost sensors, based on Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, coupled with information derived from a video camera placed on a two-wheel motor vehicle (scooter). In comparison to a four-wheel vehicle; the dynamics of a two-wheel vehicle feature a higher level of complexity given that more degrees of freedom must be taken into account. For example a motorcycle can twist sideways; thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well; since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion compared to four-wheel motor vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a "Vespa" scooter; which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on GPS/INS sensor integration. Position and orientation of the scooter are obtained by integrating MEMS-based orientation sensor data with digital images through a cascade of a Kalman filter and a Bayesian particle filter.
Key frames extraction of motion video based on prior knowledge%基于先验的动作视频关键帧提取
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
庞亚俊
2016-01-01
针对运动视频关键帧提取结果运动表达能力差的问题,以健美操运动视频关键帧提取为例,将先验语义引入到视频片段分割和关键帧提取特征提取等过程中,提出基于先验的运动视频关键帧提取算法.该算法采用韵律特征和动作节拍连续性等先验知识,将健美操动作视频分解成不同长度的动作视频片段,并利用Hog人体分类器从每一帧图像中识别出人体边界框;通过人体模板将人体边界框分割为16个运动块,并采用光流法计算每个运动块的基本运动方向;通过比较运动块基本运动方向的差异实现了动作视频关键帧提取.实验证明,该方法在保证关键帧视频压缩的情况下,具有更好地动作概括力.%To enhance the motion express ability of key frame,the key frame extraction of calisthenics video as an example,the prior is applied to the video split and key frame feature extraction and an algorithm of key frames extraction of motion video binding prior knowledge is proposed.Based on music beat detection algorithms and rhythm constraints,the calisthenics video is broken down into continuous motion video clips.Then the bounding box of human is identified from the calisthenics video picture with HoG human classifier.And then,each bounding box of human is divided into 16 motion block by body template and the optical flow is adopted to set the basic direction of motion of each block.Finally,key frames of calisthenics video are gotten by comparing the differences of the basic direction of motion of each block.Experiments show that the proposed algorithm has better motion generalization ability while keeping motion video compression efficiency.
Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits
Bassa, Humairah; Konrad, Thomas; Diósi, Lajos; Uys, Hermann
2017-08-01
We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a single incremental step. If the oscillation frequency Ω is precisely known, the estimation fidelity converges exponentially fast to unity. For imprecise knowledge of Ω we derive the asymptotic estimation fidelity.
Savalia, Neil K; Agres, Phillip F; Chan, Micaela Y; Feczko, Eric J; Kennedy, Kristen M; Wig, Gagan S
2017-01-01
Motion-contaminated T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in misestimates of brain structure. Because conventional T1w scans are not collected with direct measures of head motion, a practical alternative is needed to identify potential motion-induced bias in measures of brain anatomy. Head movements during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning of 266 healthy adults (20-89 years) were analyzed to reveal stable features of in-scanner head motion. The magnitude of head motion increased with age and exhibited within-participant stability across different fMRI scans. fMRI head motion was then related to measurements of both quality control (QC) and brain anatomy derived from a T1w structural image from the same scan session. A procedure was adopted to "flag" individuals exhibiting excessive head movement during fMRI or poor T1w quality rating. The flagging procedure reliably reduced the influence of head motion on estimates of gray matter thickness across the cortical surface. Moreover, T1w images from flagged participants exhibited reduced estimates of gray matter thickness and volume in comparison to age- and gender-matched samples, resulting in inflated effect sizes in the relationships between regional anatomical measures and age. Gray matter thickness differences were noted in numerous regions previously reported to undergo prominent atrophy with age. Recommendations are provided for mitigating this potential confound, and highlight how the procedure may lead to more accurate measurement and comparison of anatomical features. Hum Brain Mapp 38:472-492, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Motion Vector Estimation Using Line-Square Search Block Matching Algorithm for Video Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Bao-long
2004-09-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation and compensation techniques are widely used for video coding applications but the real-time motion estimation is not easily achieved due to its enormous computations. In this paper, a new fast motion estimation algorithm based on line search is presented, in which computation complexity is greatly reduced by using the line search strategy and a parallel search pattern. Moreover, the accurate search is achieved because the small square search pattern is used. It has a best-case scenario of only 9 search points, which is 4 search points less than the diamond search algorithm. Simulation results show that, compared with the previous techniques, the LSPS algorithm significantly reduces the computational requirements for finding motion vectors, and also produces close performance in terms of motion compensation errors.
Recursive camera-motion estimation with the trifocal tensor.
Yu, Ying Kin; Wong, Kin Hong; Chang, Michael Ming Yuen; Or, Siu Hang
2006-10-01
In this paper, an innovative extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm for pose tracking using the trifocal tensor is proposed. In the EKF, a constant-velocity motion model is used as the dynamic system, and the trifocal-tensor constraint is incorporated into the measurement model. The proposed method has the advantages of those structure- and-motion-based approaches in that the pose sequence can be computed with no prior information on the scene structure. It also has the strengths of those model-based algorithms in which no updating of the three-dimensional (3-D) structure is necessary in the computation. This results in a stable, accurate, and efficient algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperformed other existing EKFs that tackle the same problem. An extension to the pose-tracking algorithm has been made to demonstrate the application of the trifocal constraint to fast recursive 3-D structure recovery.
Wireless realtime motion tracking system using localised orientation estimation
Young, Alexander D.
2010-01-01
A realtime wireless motion tracking system is developed. The system is capable of tracking the orientations of multiple wireless sensors, using a semi-distributed implementation to reduce network bandwidth and latency, to produce real-time animation of rigid body models, such as the human skeleton. The system has been demonstrated to be capable of full-body posture tracking of a human subject using fifteen devices communicating with a basestation over a single, low bandwidth, r...
Estimating displacement demand in reinforced concrete frames using some failure criteria
Monavari, Benyamin; Massumi, Ali
2012-12-01
Under seismic loads on structures, the maximum drift without total collapse is called target displacement. Most of low- and medium-rise building structures are seismically designed using equivalent static method. In equivalent static method, design forces are obtained from elastic spectra which are reduced using response modification factor. This coefficient represents the structures' inelastic performance and indicates strength and hidden ductility of structures in inelastic phase. The ultimate deformation of the structure to its deformation in yielding is called ductility coefficient which expresses the inelastic deformation capacity of structures. The larger this coefficient, the higher the level of energy absorption and the more the formation of plastic joints, so accurate determination of yielding points and ultimate displacements are very important. In this paper some failure criteria are used to estimate seismic demands for buildings. To investigate these criteria, pushover analysis is done on reinforced concrete frame buildings. Using a combination of these criteria will lead to displacements that are closed to the target displacement presented in FEMA-356.
Kukush, A.; Markovsky, I.; Van Huffel, S.
2002-01-01
Consistent estimators of the rank-deficient fundamental matrix yielding information on the relative orientation of two images in two-view motion analysis are derived. The estimators are derived by minimizing a corrected contrast function in a quadratic measurement error model. In addition, a consistent estimator for the measurement error variance is obtained. Simulation results show the improved accuracy of the newly proposed estimator compared to the ordinary total least-squares estimator.
Motion estimation using low-band-shift method for wavelet-based moving-picture coding.
Park, H W; Kim, H S
2000-01-01
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has several advantages of multiresolution analysis and subband decomposition, which has been successfully used in image processing. However, the shift-variant property is intrinsic due to the decimation process of the wavelet transform, and it makes the wavelet-domain motion estimation and compensation inefficient. To overcome the shift-variant property, a low-band-shift method is proposed and a motion estimation and compensation method in the wavelet-domain is presented. The proposed method has a superior performance to the conventional motion estimation methods in terms of the mean absolute difference (MAD) as well as the subjective quality. The proposed method can be a model method for the motion estimation in wavelet-domain just like the full-search block matching in the spatial domain.
A novel dynamic frame rate control algorithm for H.264 low-bit-rate video coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Jing; Fang Xiangzhong
2007-01-01
The goal of this paper is to improve human visual perceptual quality as well as coding efficiency of H.264 video at low bit rate conditions by adaptively adjusting the number of skipped frames. The encoding frames ale selected according to the motion activity of each frame and the motion accumulation of successive frames. The motion activity analysis is based on the statistics of motion vectors and with consideration of the characteristics of H. 264 coding standard. A prediction model of motion accumulation is proposed to reduce complex computation of motion estimation. The dynamic encoding frame rate control algorithm is applied to both the frame level and the GOB (Group of Macroblocks) level. Simulation is done to compare the performance of JM76 with the proposed frame level scheme and GOB level scheme.
Tissue motion in blood velocity estimation and its simulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schlaikjer, Malene; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;
1998-01-01
to the improvement of color flow imaging. Optimization based on in-vivo data is difficult since the blood and tissue signals cannot be accurately distinguished and the correct extend of the vessel under investigation is often unknown. This study introduces a model for the simulation of blood velocity data in which...... times to cover the whole cardiac cycle and a total of 400 independent RF measurements of 950 pulse echo lines were recorded. The motion of the tissue surrounding the hepatic vein from superficial breathing had a peak velocity of 6.2±3.4 mm/s over the cardiac cycle, when averaged over the 10 volunteers...
Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Monocular Optical Flow Field for Mobile Robot Ego-motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huajun Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized scheme of monocular ego-motion estimation to provide location and pose information for mobile robots with one fixed camera. First, a multi-scale hyper-complex wavelet phase-derived optical flow is applied to estimate micro motion of image blocks. Optical flow computation overcomes the difficulties of unreliable feature selection and feature matching of outdoor scenes; at the same time, the multi-scale strategy overcomes the problem of road surface self-similarity and local occlusions. Secondly, a support probability of flow vector is defined to evaluate the validity of the candidate image motions, and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE optical flow model is constructed based not only on image motion residuals but also their distribution of inliers and outliers, together with their support probabilities, to evaluate a given transform. This yields an optimized estimation of inlier parts of optical flow. Thirdly, a sampling and consensus strategy is designed to estimate the ego-motion parameters. Our model and algorithms are tested on real datasets collected from an intelligent vehicle. The experimental results demonstrate the estimated ego-motion parameters closely follow the GPS/INS ground truth in complex outdoor road scenarios.
Parallel Wire Driven System for Joint Torque Estimation of Human Leg in Passive Motion
Kino, Hitoshi; Saisho, Kenichi; Miyazoe, Tsutomu; Kawamura, Sadao
This paper presents a leg torque estimation system for a passive motion that uses an incompletely restrained parallel wire driven mechanism. After comparing completely and incompletely restrained parallel wire driven systems, we organize the characteristics of both systems for human torque estimation. Defining the work spaces of four kinds for the incompletely restrained mechanism, we analyze the realization of passive tracking for a leg. Then we demonstrate that the walking motion can be achieved using low-power actuators. A case example of design is introduced to manufacture a prototype for the leg torque estimation. Finally, the result of the leg torque estimation is presented through experiments conducted using a prototype system.
Modified Multi-Resolution Telescopic Search Algorithm for Block-Matching Motion Estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
This paper presents a modified multi-resolution telescopic search algorithm (MRTlcSA) for the blockmatching motion estimation. A novel inverse telescopic search is substituted for the conventional telescopic search, that reduces the on-chip memory size and memory bandwidth for VLSI implementation. In addition, strategies of motion track and adaptive search window are applied to reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation. Simulation results show that, compared with the MRTlcSA, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational load to only 30%while preserving almost the same image quality. Comparisons on hardware cost and power consumption of the VLSI implementations using the two algorithms are also presented in the paper.``
Motion Estimation Utilizing Range Detection-Enhanced Visual Odometry
Friend, Paul Russell (Inventor); Chen, Qi (Inventor); Chang, Hong (Inventor); Morris, Daniel Dale (Inventor); Graf, Jodi Seaborn (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A motion determination system is disclosed. The system may receive a first and a second camera image from a camera, the first camera image received earlier than the second camera image. The system may identify corresponding features in the first and second camera images. The system may receive range data comprising at least one of a first and a second range data from a range detection unit, corresponding to the first and second camera images, respectively. The system may determine first positions and the second positions of the corresponding features using the first camera image and the second camera image. The first positions or the second positions may be determined by also using the range data. The system may determine a change in position of the machine based on differences between the first and second positions, and a VO-based velocity of the machine based on the determined change in position.
Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter for Gait Rehabilitation Motion Estimation and Segmentation.
Joukov, Vladimir; Bonnet, Vincent; Karg, Michelle; Venture, Gentiane; Kulic, Dana
2017-01-26
This work proposes a method to enable the use of non-intrusive, small, wearable, wireless sensors to estimate the pose of the lower body during gait and other periodic motions and to extract objective performance measures useful for physiotherapy. The Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter (Rhythmic- EKF) algorithm is developed to estimate the pose, learn an individualized model of periodic movement over time, and use the learned model to improve pose estimation. The proposed approach learns a canonical dynamical system model of the movement during online observation, which is used to accurately model the acceleration during pose estimation. The canonical dynamical system models the motion as a periodic signal. The estimated phase and frequency of the motion also allow the proposed approach to segment the motion into repetitions and extract useful features such as gait symmetry, step length, and mean joint movement and variance. The algorithm is shown to outperform the extended Kalman filter in simulation, on healthy participant data, and stroke patient data. For the healthy participant marching dataset, the Rhythmic-EKF improves joint acceleration and velocity estimates over regular EKF by 40% and 37% respectively, estimates joint angles with 2.4° RMSE, and segments the motion into repetitions with 96% accuracy.
MOTION ERROR ESTIMATION OF5-AXIS MACHINING CENTER USING DBB METHOD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Huawei; ZHANG Dawei; TIAN Yanling; ICHIRO Hagiwara
2006-01-01
In order to estimate the motion errors of 5-axis machine center, the double ball bar (DBB)method is adopted to realize the diagnosis procedure. The motion error sources of rotary axes in 5-axis machining center comprise of the alignment error of rotary axes and the angular error due to various factors, e.g. the inclination of rotary axes. From sensitive viewpoints, each motion error is possible to have a particular sensitive direction in which deviation of DBB error trace arises from only some specific error sources. The model of the DBB error trace is established according to the spatial geometry theory. Accordingly, the sensitive direction of each motion error source is made clear through numerical simulation, which is used as the reference patterns for rotational error estimation.The estimation method is proposed to easily estimate the motion error sources of rotary axes in quantitative manner. To verify the proposed DBB method for rotational error estimation, the experimental tests are carried out on a 5-axis machining center M-400 (MORISEIKI). The effect of the mismatch of the DBB is also studied to guarantee the estimation accuracy. From the experimental data, it is noted that the proposed estimation method for 5-axis machining center is feasible and effective.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden, Sutton and London (United Kingdom)
2015-06-15
Purpose: In similarity-measure based motion estimation incremental tracking (or template update) is challenging due to quantization, bias and accumulation of tracking errors. A method is presented which aims to improve the accuracy of incrementally tracked liver feature motion in long ultrasound sequences. Methods: Liver ultrasound data from five healthy volunteers under free breathing were used (15 to 17 Hz imaging rate, 2.9 to 5.5 minutes in length). A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was implemented to estimate tissue motion. Blood vessel motion was manually annotated for comparison with three tracking code implementations: (i) naive incremental tracking (IT), (ii) IT plus a similarity threshold (ST) template-update method and (iii) ST coupled with a prediction-based state observer, known as the alpha-beta filter (ABST). Results: The ABST method produced substantial improvements in vessel tracking accuracy for two-dimensional vessel motion ranging from 7.9 mm to 40.4 mm (with mean respiratory period: 4.0 ± 1.1 s). The mean and 95% tracking errors were 1.6 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 mm and 9.1 mm, respectively for naive incremental tracking). Conclusions: High confidence in the output motion estimation data is required for ultrasound-based motion estimation for radiation therapy beam tracking and gating. The method presented has potential for monitoring liver vessel translational motion in high frame rate B-mode data with the required accuracy. This work is support by Cancer Research UK Programme Grant C33589/A19727.
Efficient probabilistic planar robot motion estimation given pairs of images
Booij, O.; Kröse, B.; Zivkovic, Z.
2010-01-01
Estimating the relative pose between two camera positions given image point correspondences is a vital task in most view based SLAM and robot navigation approaches. In order to improve the robustness to noise and false point correspondences it is common to incorporate the constraint that the robot m
Guerra, André G C
2016-01-01
The motion of astronomical bodies and the centre of mass of the system is not always well perceived by students. One of the struggles is the conceptual change of reference frame, which is the same that held back the acceptance of the Heliocentric model over the Geocentric one. To address the question, the notion of centre of mass, motion equations (and their numerical solution for a system of multiple bodies), and change of referential is introduced. The discussion is done based on conceptual and real world examples, using the solar system. Consequently, through the use of simple "do it yourself" methods and basic equations, students can debate complex motions, and have a wider and potentially effective understanding of physics.
Direct Parametric Reconstruction With Joint Motion Estimation/Correction for Dynamic Brain PET Data.
Jiao, Jieqing; Bousse, Alexandre; Thielemans, Kris; Burgos, Ninon; Weston, Philip S J; Schott, Jonathan M; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Markiewicz, Pawel; Ourselin, Sebastien
2017-01-01
Direct reconstruction of parametric images from raw photon counts has been shown to improve the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. However it suffers from subject motion which is inevitable during the typical acquisition time of 1-2 hours. In this work we propose a framework to jointly estimate subject head motion and reconstruct the motion-corrected parametric images directly from raw PET data, so that the effects of distorted tissue-to-voxel mapping due to subject motion can be reduced in reconstructing the parametric images with motion-compensated attenuation correction and spatially aligned temporal PET data. The proposed approach is formulated within the maximum likelihood framework, and efficient solutions are derived for estimating subject motion and kinetic parameters from raw PET photon count data. Results from evaluations on simulated [(11)C]raclopride data using the Zubal brain phantom and real clinical [(18)F]florbetapir data of a patient with Alzheimer's disease show that the proposed joint direct parametric reconstruction motion correction approach can improve the accuracy of quantifying dynamic PET data with large subject motion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov
2003-01-01
frame. A suitable number of the lower floors has been considered to represent the soil both as a filter of a white noise base rock excitation and as a simplified model for soil structure interaction. In the present paper the Slepian model is applied to obtain plastic displacement distributions...... frame with partial or full feed back from the movement of the top mass to the second and the first mass (top soil layer mass and base rock mass, respectively). Keywords: Clough-Penzien filtered white noise excitation, elasto-plastic shear frame oscillator, plastic displacement distributions, simplified...
Szalay, Viktor
2015-05-07
A new ro-vibrational Hamiltonian operator, named gateway Hamiltonian operator, with exact kinetic energy term, Tˆ, is presented. It is in the Eckart frame and it is of the same form as Watson's normal coordinate Hamiltonian. However, the vibrational coordinates employed are not normal coordinates. The new Hamiltonian is shown to provide easy access to Eckart frame ro-vibrational Hamiltonians with exact Tˆ given in terms of any desired set of vibrational coordinates. A general expression of the Eckart frame ro-vibrational Hamiltonian operator is given and some of its properties are discussed.
Interobserver reproducibility of the visual estimation of range of motion of the shoulder
Terwee, C.B.; Winter, de A.F.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Jans, M.P.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Schaardenburg, van D.; Bouter, L.M.
2005-01-01
Abstract Terwee CB, de Winter AF, Scholten RJ, Jans MP, Deville W, van Schaardenburg D, Bouter LM. Interobserver reproducibility of the visual estimation of range of motion of the shoulder. Objectives To assess interobserver reproducibility (agreement and reliability) of visually estimated shoulder
Single-Dimension Perturbation Glowworm Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Block Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangpin Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In view of the fact that the classical fast motion estimation methods are easy to fall into local optimum and suffer the high computational cost, the convergence of the motion estimation method based on the swarm intelligence algorithm is very slow. A new block motion estimation method based on single-dimension perturbation glowworm swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. Single-dimension perturbation is a local search strategy which can improve the ability of local optimization. The proposed method not only has overcome the defect of falling into local optimum easily by taking use of both the global search ability of glowworm swarm optimization algorithm and the local optimization ability of single-dimension perturbation but also has reduced the computation complexity by using motion vector predictor and terminating strategies in view of the characteristic of video images. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of other motion estimation methods for most video sequences, specifically for those video sequences with violent motion, and the searching precision has been improved obviously. Although the computational complexity of the proposed method is slightly higher than that of the classical methods, it is still far lower than that of full search method.
Recursive estimation of 3D motion and surface structure from local affine flow parameters.
Calway, Andrew
2005-04-01
A recursive structure from motion algorithm based on optical flow measurements taken from an image sequence is described. It provides estimates of surface normals in addition to 3D motion and depth. The measurements are affine motion parameters which approximate the local flow fields associated with near-planar surface patches in the scene. These are integrated over time to give estimates of the 3D parameters using an extended Kalman filter. This also estimates the camera focal length and, so, the 3D estimates are metric. The use of parametric measurements means that the algorithm is computationally less demanding than previous optical flow approaches and the recursive filter builds in a degree of noise robustness. Results of experiments on synthetic and real image sequences demonstrate that the algorithm performs well.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Peter Allan
1995-01-01
Full Text Available A common automatic seatbelt inertial sensor design, comprised of a constrained spherical pendulum, is modeled to study its motions and possible unintentional release during vehicle emergency maneuvers. The kinematics are derived for the system with the most general inputs: arbitrary pivot motions. The influence of forces due to gravity and constraint torque functions is developed. The equations of motion are then derived using Kane's method. The equations of motion are used in a numerical simulation with both actual and hypothetical automobile crash data.
Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL
2012-01-01
This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.
4D modeling and estimation of respiratory motion for radiation therapy
Lorenz, Cristian
2013-01-01
Respiratory motion causes an important uncertainty in radiotherapy planning of the thorax and upper abdomen. The main objective of radiation therapy is to eradicate or shrink tumor cells without damaging the surrounding tissue by delivering a high radiation dose to the tumor region and a dose as low as possible to healthy organ tissues. Meeting this demand remains a challenge especially in case of lung tumors due to breathing-induced tumor and organ motion where motion amplitudes can measure up to several centimeters. Therefore, modeling of respiratory motion has become increasingly important in radiation therapy. With 4D imaging techniques spatiotemporal image sequences can be acquired to investigate dynamic processes in the patient’s body. Furthermore, image registration enables the estimation of the breathing-induced motion and the description of the temporal change in position and shape of the structures of interest by establishing the correspondence between images acquired at different phases of the br...
Cuenca, Jacques; Göransson, Peter
2012-08-01
This paper presents a method for simultaneously identifying both the elastic and anelastic properties of the porous frame of anisotropic open-cell foams. The approach is based on an inverse estimation procedure of the complex stiffness matrix of the frame by performing a model fit of a set of transfer functions of a sample of material subjected to compression excitation in vacuo. The material elastic properties are assumed to have orthotropic symmetry and the anelastic properties are described using a fractional-derivative model within the framework of an augmented Hooke's law. The inverse estimation problem is formulated as a numerical optimization procedure and solved using the globally convergent method of moving asymptotes. To show the feasibility of the approach a numerically generated target material is used here as a benchmark. It is shown that the method provides the full frequency-dependent orthotropic complex stiffness matrix within a reasonable degree of accuracy.
Comparing C- and L-band SAR images for sea ice motion estimation
Lehtiranta, J.; Siiriä, S.; Karvonen, J.
2015-02-01
Pairs of consecutive C-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are routinely used for sea ice motion estimation. The L-band radar has a fundamentally different character, as its longer wavelength penetrates deeper into sea ice. L-band SAR provides information on the seasonal sea ice inner structure in addition to the surface roughness that dominates C-band images. This is especially useful in the Baltic Sea, which lacks multiyear ice and icebergs, known to be confusing targets for L-band sea ice classification. In this work, L-band SAR images are investigated for sea ice motion estimation using the well-established maximal cross-correlation (MCC) approach. This work provides the first comparison of L-band and C-band SAR images for the purpose of motion estimation. The cross-correlation calculations are hardware accelerated using new OpenCL-based source code, which is made available through the author's web site. It is found that L-band images are preferable for motion estimation over C-band images. It is also shown that motion estimation is possible between a C-band and an L-band image using the maximal cross-correlation technique.
Robust Parallel Motion Estimation and Mapping with Stereo Cameras in Underground Infrastructure
Liu, Chun; Li, Zhengning; Zhou, Yuan
2016-06-01
Presently, we developed a novel robust motion estimation method for localization and mapping in underground infrastructure using a pre-calibrated rigid stereo camera rig. Localization and mapping in underground infrastructure is important to safety. Yet it's also nontrivial since most underground infrastructures have poor lighting condition and featureless structure. Overcoming these difficulties, we discovered that parallel system is more efficient than the EKF-based SLAM approach since parallel system divides motion estimation and 3D mapping tasks into separate threads, eliminating data-association problem which is quite an issue in SLAM. Moreover, the motion estimation thread takes the advantage of state-of-art robust visual odometry algorithm which is highly functional under low illumination and provides accurate pose information. We designed and built an unmanned vehicle and used the vehicle to collect a dataset in an underground garage. The parallel system was evaluated by the actual dataset. Motion estimation results indicated a relative position error of 0.3%, and 3D mapping results showed a mean position error of 13cm. Off-line process reduced position error to 2cm. Performance evaluation by actual dataset showed that our system is capable of robust motion estimation and accurate 3D mapping in poor illumination and featureless underground environment.
ROBUST PARALLEL MOTION ESTIMATION AND MAPPING WITH STEREO CAMERAS IN UNDERGROUND INFRASTRUCTURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Liu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Presently, we developed a novel robust motion estimation method for localization and mapping in underground infrastructure using a pre-calibrated rigid stereo camera rig. Localization and mapping in underground infrastructure is important to safety. Yet it’s also nontrivial since most underground infrastructures have poor lighting condition and featureless structure. Overcoming these difficulties, we discovered that parallel system is more efficient than the EKF-based SLAM approach since parallel system divides motion estimation and 3D mapping tasks into separate threads, eliminating data-association problem which is quite an issue in SLAM. Moreover, the motion estimation thread takes the advantage of state-of-art robust visual odometry algorithm which is highly functional under low illumination and provides accurate pose information. We designed and built an unmanned vehicle and used the vehicle to collect a dataset in an underground garage. The parallel system was evaluated by the actual dataset. Motion estimation results indicated a relative position error of 0.3%, and 3D mapping results showed a mean position error of 13cm. Off-line process reduced position error to 2cm. Performance evaluation by actual dataset showed that our system is capable of robust motion estimation and accurate 3D mapping in poor illumination and featureless underground environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aagaard, B; Brocher, T; Dreger, D; Frankel, A; Graves, R; Harmsen, S; Hartzell, S; Larsen, S; McCandless, K; Nilsson, S; Petersson, N A; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Tkalcic, H; Zoback, M L
2007-02-09
We estimate the ground motions produced by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.
VO2 estimation using 6-axis motion sensor with sports activity classification.
Nagata, Takashi; Nakamura, Naoteru; Miyatake, Masato; Yuuki, Akira; Yomo, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Takashi; Hara, Shinsuke
2016-08-01
In this paper, we focus on oxygen consumption (VO2) estimation using 6-axis motion sensor (3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope) for people playing sports with diverse intensities. The VO2 estimated with a small motion sensor can be used to calculate the energy expenditure, however, its accuracy depends on the intensities of various types of activities. In order to achieve high accuracy over a wide range of intensities, we employ an estimation framework that first classifies activities with a simple machine-learning based classification algorithm. We prepare different coefficients of linear regression model for different types of activities, which are determined with training data obtained by experiments. The best-suited model is used for each type of activity when VO2 is estimated. The accuracy of the employed framework depends on the trade-off between the degradation due to classification errors and improvement brought by applying separate, optimum model to VO2 estimation. Taking this trade-off into account, we evaluate the accuracy of the employed estimation framework by using a set of experimental data consisting of VO2 and motion data of people with a wide range of intensities of exercises, which were measured by a VO2 meter and motion sensor, respectively. Our numerical results show that the employed framework can improve the estimation accuracy in comparison to a reference method that uses a common regression model for all types of activities.
Asano, K.; Iwata, T.
2016-12-01
The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence started with an MJMA 6.5 foreshock on April 14, 2016 occurring along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, central Kyushu, Japan, and the MJMA 7.3 mainshock occurred just 28 h after the foreshock. Both events brought severe ground motions to the near-source region. We analyzed the kinematic source rupture processes of the foreshock and mainshock by the multiple time window linear waveform inversion using strong motion data (e.g., Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). The foreshock (Mw 6.1) was characterized by right-lateral strike-slip occurring on a nearly vertical fault plane along the northern part of the Hinagu fault, and it had two large-slip areas: one near the hypocenter and another at a shallow depth. These two large-slip areas mainly contribute ground motions in the near-source area. For the analysis of the mainshock, we assumed a fault geometry changing strike and dip angles along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults in accordance with the surface ruptures mapped by emergency field surveys (Kumahara et al., 2016). We assigned point sources densely with an interval of 0.2 km on the assumed fault planes in order to reproduce appropriately near-fault ground motions, and estimated spatiotemporal slip history, which was discretized with an interval of 1.8 km on the fault planes. The estimated source model reveals that the rupture of the mainshock started at a northwest-dipping fault plane along the Hinagu fault, which is close to the vertical fault plane of the foreshock, and almost continuously propagated across the junction of the Hinagu and Futagawa faults. Then the rupture propagated northeastward along the Futagawa fault, and stopped to rupture in the western part of the Aso caldera. The significant slip with 3-5 m were observed on the Futagawa fault, and shallowest part has slip ranging from 1 to 2 m. We also tried to reproduce ground motions observed at some near-fault strong motion stations, which recorded significant coseismic
The Radiative Transfer Approach to Rotational Motions - Estimation of Crustal Scattering Parameters
Peter Gaebler; Christoph Sens-Schönfelder; Korn, M.
2013-01-01
Monte Carlo solutions to the Radiative Transfer Equations are used to model translational and rotational motion seismogram envelopes in random elastic media. Crustal attenuation and scattering parameters are estimated in a nonlinear inversion process. High amounts of rotational energy can be measured in the seismic wave-field excited by earthquakes or even by ambient seismic noise sources. The observation of these three additional components of rotational motions can provide independent infor...
A Novel Hexagonal Search Algorithm for Fast Block Matching Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasios Hamosfakidis
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Based on real-world image sequence characteristics of center-biased motion vector distribution, a Hexagonal (HS algorithm with center-biased checking point pattern for fast block motion estimation is proposed. The HS is compared with full search (FS, four-step search (4SS, new three-step search (NTSS, and recently proposed diamond search (DS methods. Experimental results show that the proposed technique provides competitive performance with reduced computational complexity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kijima, K.; Yukawa, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maekawa, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries
1996-04-10
Estimation of the maneuvering performance of ships is very important from the viewpoint of safe navigation. Using three types of VLCCs (SR221A, B, C) with locally different stern frame lines as computational models, the estimation method of hull hydrodynamic force in turning motion was studied theoretically taking frame line shapes into account. The unstable behavior of courses was also studied using linear differential coefficients obtained from the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force in oblique navigation and turning motion. As a result, the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force was slightly different quantitatively from model test results in a range of large drift angle or turning angular velocity, while that was relatively well agreed with test results in a range of small such angle and velocity. As the study result on the unstable behavior of courses by using linear differential coefficients obtained from the estimation result on hull hydrodynamic force, determination of a course stability was possible by considering local difference in hull shape. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
The Object Projection Feature Estimation Problem in Unsupervised Markerless 3D Motion Tracking
Quesada, Luis
2011-01-01
3D motion tracking is a critical task in many computer vision applications. Existing 3D motion tracking techniques require either a great amount of knowledge on the target object or specific hardware. These requirements discourage the wide spread of commercial applications based on 3D motion tracking. 3D motion tracking systems that require no knowledge on the target object and run on a single low-budget camera require estimations of the object projection features (namely, area and position). In this paper, we define the object projection feature estimation problem and we present a novel 3D motion tracking system that needs no knowledge on the target object and that only requires a single low-budget camera, as installed in most computers and smartphones. Our system estimates, in real time, the three-dimensional position of a non-modeled unmarked object that may be non-rigid, non-convex, partially occluded, self occluded, or motion blurred, given that it is opaque, evenly colored, and enough contrasting with t...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jingbin Liu
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The rapid advance in mobile communications has made information and services ubiquitously accessible. Location and context information have become essential for the effectiveness of services in the era of mobility. This paper proposes the concept of geo-context that is defined as an integral synthesis of geographical location, human motion state and mobility context. A geo-context computing solution consists of a positioning engine, a motion state recognition engine, and a context inference component. In the geo-context concept, the human motion states and mobility context are associated with the geographical location where they occur. A hybrid geo-context computing solution is implemented that runs on a smartphone, and it utilizes measurements of multiple sensors and signals of opportunity that are available within a smartphone. Pedestrian location and motion states are estimated jointly under the framework of hidden Markov models, and they are used in a reciprocal manner to improve their estimation performance of one another. It is demonstrated that pedestrian location estimation has better accuracy when its motion state is known, and in turn, the performance of motion state recognition can be improved with increasing reliability when the location is given. The geo-context inference is implemented simply with the expert system principle, and more sophisticated approaches will be developed.
Intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from CT imaging using the 3D optical flow method
Guerrero, Thomas; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping
2004-09-01
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an automated method for intrathoracic tumour motion estimation from breath-hold computed tomography (BH CT) imaging using the three-dimensional optical flow method (3D OFM). A modified 3D OFM algorithm provided 3D displacement vectors for each voxel which were used to map tumour voxels on expiration BH CT onto inspiration BH CT images. A thoracic phantom and simulated expiration/inspiration BH CT pairs were used for validation. The 3D OFM was applied to the measured inspiration and expiration BH CT images from one lung cancer and one oesophageal cancer patient. The resulting displacements were plotted in histogram format and analysed to provide insight regarding the tumour motion. The phantom tumour displacement was measured as 1.20 and 2.40 cm with full-width at tenth maximum (FWTM) for the distribution of displacement estimates of 0.008 and 0.006 cm, respectively. The maximum error of any single voxel's motion estimate was 1.1 mm along the z-dimension or approximately one-third of the z-dimension voxel size. The simulated BH CT pairs revealed an rms error of less than 0.25 mm. The displacement of the oesophageal tumours was nonuniform and up to 1.4 cm, this was a new finding. A lung tumour maximum displacement of 2.4 cm was found in the case evaluated. In conclusion, 3D OFM provided an accurate estimation of intrathoracic tumour motion, with estimated errors less than the voxel dimension in a simulated motion phantom study. Surprisingly, oesophageal tumour motion was large and nonuniform, with greatest motion occurring at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Presented at The IASTED Second International Conference on Biomedical Engineering (BioMED 2004), Innsbruck, Austria, 16-18 February 2004.
Kall, Tarmo; Oja, Tõnis; Kollo, Karin; Liibusk, Aive
2017-04-01
The Earth's crust is moving continuously due to the processes such as plate tectonics, Earth and ocean tides, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), local deformations, atmospheric and hydrological mass variations. Accordingly, the effect of those processes are expected on the measured coordinates of continuously operating GNSS stations. Simultaneously, the imperfections of GNSS such as clock and orbit errors, antenna phase center variations, atmospheric delay, shortcomings due to the site selection and construction, snow accumulation on the antenna radome, etc., generate spurious signals and noise in the observation data. In Estonia and its surrounding, the GIA process is the main cause of the long-term intra-continental deformations and the motion of the permanent GNSS stations. Therefore, the purpose of this contribution was to estimate the long-term velocities and GIA-related signal relied on the coordinate time series of Estonian GNSS stations. For the accurate estimation of GIA-related velocity, known signals were modelled and the properties of spurious signal and noise were analysed. Raw data from the GNSS stations were processed independently with programs GIPSY 6.4 (precise point positioning with fixing ambiguities) and Bernese 5.2 (double difference processing). Accordingly, for every GNSS station two solutions in IGb08 reference frame for the north, east, and up coordinates were computed to form 10 years long time series (from 2007 to 2016). The ITRF2008 velocity model was used to model and subtract the effect of Eurasian plate tectonic motion from data. For the estimation of long-term velocity, the linear trend model complemented with the sinusoidal and step functions (for annual, semi-annual signals and discontinuities in time series) was fitted separately to the north, east, and up coordinate series. Initially, power spectral density was plotted to assess and visualize the noise properties of the residual time series. Additionally, different stochastic
Graybill, George
2007-01-01
Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slamet Riyadi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The use of image processing technique for cardiac motion analysis has been an active research in the past decade. The estimation of myocardial motion eases the cardiologist in diagnosing cardiac abnormalities. In term of movement analysis, optical flow is the most popular technique that has been used by researchers. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of three optical flow computation techniques to estimate the myocardial motion using echocardiographic images. The three techniquesare the global smoothness method (GSM, the local smoothness method (LSM and warping technique (WT. Optical flow field is computed based on healthy cardiac video on parasternal short axes view. These techniques look promising since the optical flow fields can be utilized to estimate the myocardial movement and comply with its true movement. The performances of each technique in terms of the direction, homogeneity and computing time, are also discussed.
A Robust Subpixel Motion Estimation Algorithm Using HOS in the Parametric Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. M. Ismaili Aalaoui
2009-02-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation techniques are widely used in todays video processing systems. The most frequently used techniques are the optical flow method and phase correlation method. The vast majority of these algorithms consider noise-free data. Thus, in the case of the image sequences are severely corrupted by additive Gaussian (perhaps non-Gaussian noises of unknown covariance, the classical techniques will fail to work because they will also estimate the noise spatial correlation. In this paper, we have studied this topic from a viewpoint different from the above to explore the fundamental limits in image motion estimation. Our scheme is based on subpixel motion estimation algorithm using bispectrum in the parametric domain. The motion vector of a moving object is estimated by solving linear equations involving third-order hologram and the matrix containing Dirac delta function. Simulation results are presented and compared to the optical flow and phase correlation algorithms; this approach provides more reliable displacement estimates particularly for complex noisy image sequences. In our simulation, we used the database freely available on the web.
A Robust Subpixel Motion Estimation Algorithm Using HOS in the Parametric Domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibn-Elhaj E
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Motion estimation techniques are widely used in todays video processing systems. The most frequently used techniques are the optical flow method and phase correlation method. The vast majority of these algorithms consider noise-free data. Thus, in the case of the image sequences are severely corrupted by additive Gaussian (perhaps non-Gaussian noises of unknown covariance, the classical techniques will fail to work because they will also estimate the noise spatial correlation. In this paper, we have studied this topic from a viewpoint different from the above to explore the fundamental limits in image motion estimation. Our scheme is based on subpixel motion estimation algorithm using bispectrum in the parametric domain. The motion vector of a moving object is estimated by solving linear equations involving third-order hologram and the matrix containing Dirac delta function. Simulation results are presented and compared to the optical flow and phase correlation algorithms; this approach provides more reliable displacement estimates particularly for complex noisy image sequences. In our simulation, we used the database freely available on the web.
Mode extraction on wind turbine blades via phase-based video motion estimation
Sarrafi, Aral; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Mao, Zhu
2017-04-01
In recent years, image processing techniques are being applied more often for structural dynamics identification, characterization, and structural health monitoring. Although as a non-contact and full-field measurement method, image processing still has a long way to go to outperform other conventional sensing instruments (i.e. accelerometers, strain gauges, laser vibrometers, etc.,). However, the technologies associated with image processing are developing rapidly and gaining more attention in a variety of engineering applications including structural dynamics identification and modal analysis. Among numerous motion estimation and image-processing methods, phase-based video motion estimation is considered as one of the most efficient methods regarding computation consumption and noise robustness. In this paper, phase-based video motion estimation is adopted for structural dynamics characterization on a 2.3-meter long Skystream wind turbine blade, and the modal parameters (natural frequencies, operating deflection shapes) are extracted. Phase-based video processing adopted in this paper provides reliable full-field 2-D motion information, which is beneficial for manufacturing certification and model updating at the design stage. The phase-based video motion estimation approach is demonstrated through processing data on a full-scale commercial structure (i.e. a wind turbine blade) with complex geometry and properties, and the results obtained have a good correlation with the modal parameters extracted from accelerometer measurements, especially for the first four bending modes, which have significant importance in blade characterization.
Hierarchical Search Motion Estimation Algorithms for Real-time Video Coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1998-01-01
Data fetching and memory management are two factors as important as computation complexity in Motion Estimation(ME) implementation. In this paper, a new Large-scale Sampling Hierarchical Search motion estimation algorithm(LSHS) is proposed. The LSHS is suitable for real-time video coding with low computational complexity, reduced data fetching and simple memory access. The experiment results indicate the average decoding PSNR with LSHS is only about 0.2dB lower than that with Full Search (FS) scheme.
Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei
2013-10-01
Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.
Allred, Charles Jefferson
Since the advent of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) in the early 1990's, there has been a steady decrease in the number of component failure related helicopter accidents. Additionally, measurable cost benefits due to improved maintenance practices based on HUMS data has led to a desire to expand HUMS from its traditional area of helicopter drive train monitoring. One of the areas of greatest interest for this expansion of HUMS is monitoring of the helicopter rotor head loads. Studies of rotor head load and blade motions have primarily focused on wind tunnel testing with technology which would not be applicable for production helicopter HUMS deployment, or measuring bending along the blade, rather than where it is attached to the rotor head and the location through which all the helicopter loads pass. This dissertation details research into finding methods for real time methods of estimating rotor blade motion which could be applied across helicopter fleets as an expansion of current HUMS technology. First, there is a brief exploration of supporting technologies which will be crucial in enabling the expansion of HUMS from the fuselage of helicopters to the rotor head: wireless data transmission and energy harvesting. A brief overview of the commercially available low power wireless technology selected for this research is presented. The development of a relatively high-powered energy harvester specific to the motion of helicopter rotor blades is presented and two different prototypes of the device are shown. Following the overview of supporting technologies, two novel methods of monitoring rotor blade motion in real time are developed. The first method employs linear displacement sensors embedded in the elastomer layers of a high-capacity laminate bearing of the type commonly used in fully articulated rotors throughout the helicopter industry. The configuration of these displacement sensors allows modeling of the sensing system as a robotic parallel
ESTIMATION MODEL OF RESIDUAL LIFE-TIME OF LOCOMOTIVE FRAME BOGIE WITH ALLOWANCE FOR CREEP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. R. Skalskyi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The problem of determining the residual life of frame bogie elements of locomotives is a great importance for predicting their work safely and avoidance potential failures on the track. This especially concern cases when such elements have creep-fatigue cracks which grow under action of cyclic loading with excerpts T1 in the cycle and reach their critical size. Here the question of the propagation of such defects (cracks arises, their kinetics and about the period of subcritical cracks growth. The aim is to develop a calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in the bogies frames of electric locomotive. The model takes into account the basic parameters of load, geometry of the construction element and cracks. Methodology. The calculation model for determination the period of subcritical creep-fatigue cracks growth in structural elements of frame under conditions of variable load time has been formulated. It is based on the first law of thermodynamics concerning to mechanics of solids slow fracture at low temperature creep and variable loadings. It is assumed that the period of unsteady creep dominates here (the first section of the creep curve. Low-temperature creep is creep of materials at temperatures T0 < 0,5Tmp, where Tmp − the melting point of the material. Findings. The analytical formula for the determination of the stress intensity factor of truck bolster with technological hole has been obtained. It is shown that by experimentally established constants of the material using the proposed analytical relations can easily determine residual resource of the bogie frame elements. Originality. The new mathematical model for describing the kinetics of creep-fatigue cracks growth in the frames bogies of electric locomotive under variable in time loadings with various time excerpts and on this base the period determination of subcritical crack growth has been proposed. Practical value
Magnitude Estimation for the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake Based on Ground Motion Prediction Equations
Eshaghi, Attieh; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Ghofrani, Hadi; Atkinson, Gail M.
2015-08-01
This study investigates whether real-time strong ground motion data from seismic stations could have been used to provide an accurate estimate of the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan. Ultimately, such an estimate could be used as input data for a tsunami forecast and would lead to more robust earthquake and tsunami early warning. We collected the strong motion accelerograms recorded by borehole and free-field (surface) Kiban Kyoshin network stations that registered this mega-thrust earthquake in order to perform an off-line test to estimate the magnitude based on ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). GMPEs for peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity (PGV) from a previous study by Eshaghi et al. in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 103. (2013) derived using events with moment magnitude ( M) ≥ 5.0, 1998-2010, were used to estimate the magnitude of this event. We developed new GMPEs using a more complete database (1998-2011), which added only 1 year but approximately twice as much data to the initial catalog (including important large events), to improve the determination of attenuation parameters and magnitude scaling. These new GMPEs were used to estimate the magnitude of the Tohoku-Oki event. The estimates obtained were compared with real time magnitude estimates provided by the existing earthquake early warning system in Japan. Unlike the current operational magnitude estimation methods, our method did not saturate and can provide robust estimates of moment magnitude within ~100 s after earthquake onset for both catalogs. It was found that correcting for average shear-wave velocity in the uppermost 30 m () improved the accuracy of magnitude estimates from surface recordings, particularly for magnitude estimates of PGV (Mpgv). The new GMPEs also were used to estimate the magnitude of all earthquakes in the new catalog with at least 20 records. Results show that the magnitude estimate from PGV values using
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Representing earthquake ground motion as time varying ARMA model, the instantaneous spectrum can only be determined by the time varying coefficients of the corresponding ARMA model. In this paper, unscented Kalman filter is applied to estimate the time varying coefficients. The comparison between the estimation results of unscented Kalman filter and Kalman filter methods shows that unscented Kalman filter can more precisely represent the distribution of the spectral peaks in time-frequency plane than Kalman filter, and its time and frequency resolution is finer which ensures its better ability to track the local properties of earthquake ground motions and to identify the systems with nonlinearity or abruptness. Moreover, the estimation results of ARMA models with different orders indicate that the theoretical frequency resolving power ofARMA model which was usually ignored in former studies has great effect on the estimation precision of instantaneous spectrum and it should be taken as one of the key factors in order selection of ARMA model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emura, S. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tachi, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1998-05-31
Tactile sensing has received an increasing amount of attention since 1980s, and some works for the detection of a target shape through contact point sensing from tactile and proprioceptive information have been done. However, all of them are based on the assumption that the target is static and rigid. In this paper, we derive the relation between the motion of the target object and the changes of contact oval parameters, and analyze the conditions for estimating the motion of the target object. On the numerical verification of regularity of this relation for a target model, it is shown that the change of tactile images and the relative velocity on two sites are enough for estimating the motion, compliance, and curvature of the target object. 13 refs., 10 figs.
Video Image Block-matching Motion Estimation Algorithm Based on Two-step Search
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-qi JIN; Yan CHEN; Ling-xue WANG; Bin LIU; Chong-liang LIU; Ya-zhong SHEN; Gui-qing ZHANG
2010-01-01
Aiming at the shortcoming that certain existing blocking-matching algorithms, such as full search, three-step search, and diamond search algorithms, usually can not keep a good balance between high accuracy and low computational complexity, a block-matching motion estimation algorithm based on two-step search is proposed in this paper. According to the fact that the gray values of adjacent pixels will not vary fast, the algorithm employs an interlaced search pattern in the search window to estimate the motion vector of the object-block. Simulation and actual experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm greatly outperforms the well-known three-step search and diamond search algorithms, no matter the motion vector is large or small. Compared with the full search algorithm, the proposed one achieves similar performance but requires much less computation, therefore, the algorithm is well qualified for real-time video image processing.
Parameter Estimation for Blur Image Combining Defocus and Motion Blur using Cepstrum Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The degraded parameters recognition is very important for the restoration of blurred images. There are two common types of blurs for most camera systems. One is the defocus blur due to the optical system's defocus phenomenon and the other is the motion blur due to the relative movement between the objectives and the camera.Compared with the recognition for the blurred image with only one blur model, the parameter estimation for the picture combining defocus and motion blur models is a more complicated mission. A method was proposed for computer to estimate the parameters of defocus blur and motion blur in cepstrum area simultaneously. According to characters of both blur models in the frequency domain, an adjustment approach was suggested in the frequency area and then convert to the cepstrum field to increase the accuracy of measurement.
Efficient PU Mode Decision and Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC to HEVC Transcoder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zong-Yi Chen
2014-04-01
Full Text Available H.264/AVC has been widely applied to various applications. However, a new video compression standard, High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC, had been finalized in 2013. In this work, a fast transcoder from H.264/AVC to HEVC is proposed. The proposed algorithm includes the fast prediction unit (PU decision and the fast motion estimation. With the strong relation between H.264/AVC and HEVC, the modes, residuals, and variance of motion vectors (MVs extracted from H.264/AVC can be reused to predict the current encoding PU of HEVC. Furthermore, the MVs from H.264/AVC are used to decide the search range of PU during motion estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can save up to 53% of the encoding time and maintains the rate-distortion (R-D performance for HEVC.
Estimating the distribution of rest-frame time-scales for blazar jets: a statistical approach
Liodakis, I.; Blinov, D.; Papadakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.
2017-03-01
In any flux-density limited sample of blazars, the distribution of the time-scale modulation factor Δt΄/Δt, which quantifies the change in observed time-scales compared to the rest-frame ones due to redshift and relativistic compression follows an exponential distribution with a mean depending on the flux limit of the sample. In this work, we produce the mathematical formalism that allows us to use this information in order to uncover the underlining rest-frame probability density function of measurable time-scales of blazar jets. We extensively test our proposed methodology using a simulated Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar population with a 1.5 Jy flux-density limit in the simple case (where all blazars share the same intrinsic time-scale), in order to identify limits of applicability and potential biases due to observational systematics and sample selection. We find that for monitoring with time intervals between observations longer than ∼30 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale under investigation the method loses its ability to produce robust results. For time intervals of ∼3 per cent of the intrinsic time-scale, the error of the method is as low as 1 per cent in recovering the intrinsic rest-frame time-scale. We applied our method to rotations of the optical polarization angle of blazars observed by RoboPol. We found that the intrinsic time-scales of the longest duration rotation event in each blazar follows a narrow distribution, well described by a normal distribution with mean 87 d and standard deviation 5 d. We discuss possible interpretations of this result.
Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamal Atman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV’s navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.
Predictive-based cross line for fast motion estimation in MPEG-4 videos
Fang, Hui; Jiang, Jianmin
2004-05-01
Block-based motion estimation is widely used in the field of video compression due to its feature of high processing speed and competitive compression efficiency. In the chain of compression operations, however, motion estimation still remains to be the most time-consuming process. As a result, any improvement in fast motion estimation will enable practical applications of MPEG techniques more efficient and more sustainable in terms of both processing speed and computing cost. To meet the requirements of real-time compression of videos and image sequences, such as video conferencing, remote video surveillance and video phones etc., we propose a new search algorithm and achieve fast motion estimation for MPEG compression standards based on existing algorithm developments. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we adopted MPEG-4 and the prediction line search algorithm as the benchmarks to design the experiments. Their performances are measured by: (i) reconstructed video quality; (ii) processing time. The results reveal that the proposed algorithm provides a competitive alternative to the existing prediction line search algorithm. In comparison with MPEG-4, the proposed algorithm illustrates significant advantages in terms of processing speed and video quality.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berning, J; Rokkedal Nielsen, J; Launbjerg, J
1992-01-01
Echocardiographic estimates of left ventricular ejection fraction (ECHO-LVEF) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained by a new approach, using visual analysis of left ventricular wall motion in a nine-segment model. The method was validated in 41 patients using radionuclide...
Registration of Sub-Sequence and Multi-Camera Reconstructions for Camera Motion Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Wand
2010-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents different application scenarios for which the registration of sub-sequence reconstructions or multi-camera reconstructions is essential for successful camera motion estimation and 3D reconstruction from video. The registration is achieved by merging unconnected feature point tracks between the reconstructions. One application is drift removal for sequential camera motion estimation of long sequences. The state-of-the-art in drift removal is to apply a RANSAC approach to find unconnected feature point tracks. In this paper an alternative spectral algorithm for pairwise matching of unconnected feature point tracks is used. It is then shown that the algorithms can be combined and applied to novel scenarios where independent camera motion estimations must be registered into a common global coordinate system. In the first scenario multiple moving cameras, which capture the same scene simultaneously, are registered. A second new scenario occurs in situations where the tracking of feature points during sequential camera motion estimation fails completely, e.g., due to large occluding objects in the foreground, and the unconnected tracks of the independent reconstructions must be merged. In the third scenario image sequences of the same scene, which are captured under different illuminations, are registered. Several experiments with challenging real video sequences demonstrate that the presented techniques work in practice.
Preusser, T.; Droske, M.; Garbe, C. S.; Telea, A.; Rumpf, M.
2007-01-01
The estimation of optical flow fields from image sequences is incorporated in a Mumford-Shah approach for image denoising and edge detection. Possibly noisy image sequences are considered as input and a piecewise smooth image intensity, a piecewise smooth motion field, and a joint discontinuity set
Motion correction for improved estimation of heart rate using a visual spectrum camera
Tarbox, Elizabeth A.; Rios, Christian; Kaur, Balvinder; Meyer, Shaun; Hirt, Lauren; Tran, Vy; Scott, Kaitlyn; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki
2017-05-01
Heart rate measurement using a visual spectrum recording of the face has drawn interest over the last few years as a technology that can have various health and security applications. In our previous work, we have shown that it is possible to estimate the heart beat timing accurately enough to perform heart rate variability analysis for contactless stress detection. However, a major confounding factor in this approach is the presence of movement, which can interfere with the measurements. To mitigate the effects of movement, in this work we propose the use of face detection and tracking based on the Karhunen-Loewe algorithm in order to counteract measurement errors introduced by normal subject motion, as expected during a common seated conversation setting. We analyze the requirements on image acquisition for the algorithm to work, and its performance under different ranges of motion, changes of distance to the camera, as well and the effect of illumination changes due to different positioning with respect to light sources on the acquired signal. Our results suggest that the effect of face tracking on visual-spectrum based cardiac signal estimation depends on the amplitude of the motion. While for larger-scale conversation-induced motion it can significantly improve estimation accuracy, with smaller-scale movements, such as the ones caused by breathing or talking without major movement errors in facial tracking may interfere with signal estimation. Overall, employing facial tracking is a crucial step in adapting this technology to real-life situations with satisfactory results.
Amador Carrascal, Carolina; Chen, Shigao; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew
2017-01-11
Quantitative ultrasound elastography is increasingly being used in the assessment of chronic liver disease. Many studies have reported ranges of liver shear wave velocities values for healthy individuals and patients with different stages of liver fibrosis. Nonetheless, ongoing efforts exist to stabilize quantitative ultrasound elastography measurements by assessing factors that influence tissue shear wave velocity values, such as food intake, body mass index (BMI), ultrasound scanners, scanning protocols, ultrasound image quality, etc. Time-to-peak (TTP) methods have been routinely used to measure the shear wave velocity. However, there is still a need for methods that can provide robust shear wave velocity estimation in the presence of noisy motion data. The conventional TTP algorithm is limited to searching for the maximum motion in time profiles at different spatial locations. In this study, two modified shear wave speed estimation algorithms are proposed. The first method searches for the maximum motion in both space and time (spatiotemporal peak, STP); the second method applies an amplitude filter (spatiotemporal thresholding, STTH) to select points with motion amplitude higher than a threshold for shear wave group velocity estimation. The two proposed methods (STP and STTH) showed higher precision in shear wave velocity estimates compared to TTP in phantom. Moreover, in a cohort of 14 healthy subjects STP and STTH methods improved both the shear wave velocity measurement precision and the.
Navigation Aiding by a Hybrid Laser-Camera Motion Estimator for Micro Aerial Vehicles.
Atman, Jamal; Popp, Manuel; Ruppelt, Jan; Trommer, Gert F
2016-09-16
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches. The estimated ego-motion is then integrated in the MAV's navigation system. However, first, the knowledge about the pose between both sensors is obtained by proposing an improved calibration method. For both calibration and ego-motion estimation, 3D-to-2D correspondences are used and the Perspective-3-Point (P3P) problem is solved. Moreover, the covariance estimation of the relative motion is presented. The experiments show very accurate calibration and navigation results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcel M. Corrêa
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a high-performance hardware architecture for the H.264/AVC Half-Pixel Motion Estimation that targets high-definition videos. This design can process very high-definition videos like QHDTV (3840×2048 in real time (30 frames per second. It also presents an optimized arrangement of interpolated samples, which is the main key to achieve an efficient search. The interpolation process is interleaved with the SAD calculation and comparison, allowing the high throughput. The architecture was fully described in VHDL, synthesized for two different Xilinx FPGA devices, and it achieved very good results when compared to related works.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.
2000-06-06
This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design
Kurugol, Sila; Freiman, Moti; Afacan, Onur; Domachevsky, Liran; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Callahan, Michael J; Warfield, Simon K
2015-01-01
Non-invasive characterization of water molecule's mobility variations by quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) signal decay in the abdomen has the potential to serve as a biomarker in gastrointestinal and oncological applications. Accurate and reproducible estimation of the signal decay model parameters is challenging due to the presence of respiratory, cardiac, and peristalsis motion. Independent registration of each b-value image to the b-value=0 s/mm(2) image prior to parameter estimation might be sub-optimal because of the low SNR and contrast difference between images of varying b-value. In this work, we introduce a motion-compensated parameter estimation framework that simultaneously solves image registration and model estimation (SIR-ME) problems by utilizing the interdependence of acquired volumes along the diffusion weighting dimension. We evaluated the improvement in model parameters estimation accuracy using 16 in-vivo DW-MRI data sets of Crohn's disease patients by comparing parameter estimates obtained using the SIR-ME model to the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the signal decay model to the acquired DW-MRI images. The proposed SIR-ME model reduced the average root-mean-square error between the observed signal and the fitted model by more than 50%. Moreover, the SIR-ME model estimates discriminate between normal and abnormal bowel loops better than the standard parameter estimates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O’Shea, Tuathan P., E-mail: tuathan.oshea@icr.ac.uk; Bamber, Jeffrey C.; Harris, Emma J. [Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS foundation Trust, Sutton, London SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)
2016-01-15
Purpose: Ultrasound-based motion estimation is an expanding subfield of image-guided radiation therapy. Although ultrasound can detect tissue motion that is a fraction of a millimeter, its accuracy is variable. For controlling linear accelerator tracking and gating, ultrasound motion estimates must remain highly accurate throughout the imaging sequence. This study presents a temporal regularization method for correlation-based template matching which aims to improve the accuracy of motion estimates. Methods: Liver ultrasound sequences (15–23 Hz imaging rate, 2.5–5.5 min length) from ten healthy volunteers under free breathing were used. Anatomical features (blood vessels) in each sequence were manually annotated for comparison with normalized cross-correlation based template matching. Five sequences from a Siemens Acuson™ scanner were used for algorithm development (training set). Results from incremental tracking (IT) were compared with a temporal regularization method, which included a highly specific similarity metric and state observer, known as the α–β filter/similarity threshold (ABST). A further five sequences from an Elekta Clarity™ system were used for validation, without alteration of the tracking algorithm (validation set). Results: Overall, the ABST method produced marked improvements in vessel tracking accuracy. For the training set, the mean and 95th percentile (95%) errors (defined as the difference from manual annotations) were 1.6 and 1.4 mm, respectively (compared to 6.2 and 9.1 mm, respectively, for IT). For each sequence, the use of the state observer leads to improvement in the 95% error. For the validation set, the mean and 95% errors for the ABST method were 0.8 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Ultrasound-based motion estimation has potential to monitor liver translation over long time periods with high accuracy. Nonrigid motion (strain) and the quality of the ultrasound data are likely to have an impact on tracking
Yu, J.; Wang, G.
2015-11-01
This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS) stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF). Thirteen long-term (> 5 years) CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr-1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City). The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr-1 (2008-2014). Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0-6.0 mm yr-1) but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Yu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This study investigates current ground motions derived from the GPS geodesy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico region. The positions and velocity vectors of 161 continuous GPS (CGPS stations are presented with respect to a newly established local reference frame, the Stable Gulf of Mexico Reference Frame (SGOMRF. Thirteen long-term (> 5 years CGPS are used to realize the local reference frame. The root-mean-square (RMS of the velocities of the 13 SGOMRF reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr−1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr−1 in the vertical directions. GPS observations presented in this study indicate significant land subsidence in the coastal area of southeastern Louisiana, the greater Houston metropolitan area, and two cities in Mexico (Aguascalientes and Mexico City. The most rapid subsidence is recorded at the Mexico City International airport, which is up to 26.6 cm yr−1 (2008–2014. Significant spatial variation of subsidence rates is observed in both Mexico City and the Houston area. The overall subsidence rate in the Houston area is decreasing. GPS observations in southeastern Louisiana indicate minor (4.0–6.0 mm yr−1 but consistent subsidence over time and space. This poses a potential threat to the safety of costal infrastructure in the long-term.
Tuna, E. Erdem; Franke, Timothy J.; Bebek, Özkan; Shiose, Akira; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk
2013-01-01
Robotic assisted beating heart surgery aims to allow surgeons to operate on a beating heart without stabilizers as if the heart is stationary. The robot actively cancels heart motion by closely following a point of interest (POI) on the heart surface—a process called Active Relative Motion Canceling (ARMC). Due to the high bandwidth of the POI motion, it is necessary to supply the controller with an estimate of the immediate future of the POI motion over a prediction horizon in order to achieve sufficient tracking accuracy. In this paper, two least-square based prediction algorithms, using an adaptive filter to generate future position estimates, are implemented and studied. The first method assumes a linear system relation between the consecutive samples in the prediction horizon. On the contrary, the second method performs this parametrization independently for each point over the whole the horizon. The effects of predictor parameters and variations in heart rate on tracking performance are studied with constant and varying heart rate data. The predictors are evaluated using a 3 degrees of freedom test-bed and prerecorded in-vivo motion data. Then, the one-step prediction and tracking performances of the presented approaches are compared with an Extended Kalman Filter predictor. Finally, the essential features of the proposed prediction algorithms are summarized. PMID:23976889
Impact of ground motion characterization on conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sewell, R.T.; Toro, G.R.; McGuire, R.K.
1996-07-01
This study evaluates the impact, on estimates of seismic risk and its uncertainty, of alternative methods in treatment and characterization of earthquake ground motions. The objective of this study is to delineate specific procedures and characterizations that may lead to less biased and more precise seismic risk results. This report focuses on sources of conservatism and variability in risk that may be introduced through the analytical processes and ground-motion descriptions which are commonly implemented at the interface of seismic hazard and fragility assessments. In particular, implication of the common practice of using a single, composite spectral shape to characterize motions of different magnitudes is investigated. Also, the impact of parameterization of ground motion on fragility and hazard assessments is shown. Examination of these results demonstrates the following. (1) There exists significant conservatism in the review spectra (usually, spectra characteristic of western U.S. earthquakes) that have been used in conducting past seismic risk assessments and seismic margin assessments for eastern U.S. nuclear power plants. (2) There is a strong dependence of seismic fragility on earthquake magnitude when PGA is used as the ground-motion characterization. When, however, magnitude-dependent spectra are anchored to a common measure of elastic spectral acceleration averaged over the appropriate frequency range, seismic fragility shows no important nor consistent dependence on either magnitude or strong-motion duration. Use of inelastic spectral acceleration (at the proper frequency) as the ground spectrum anchor demonstrates a very similar result. This study concludes that a single, composite-magnitude spectrum can generally be used to characterize ground motion for fragility assessment without introducing significant bias or uncertainty in seismic risk estimates.
Wilms, M.; Werner, R.; Ehrhardt, J.; Schmidt-Richberg, A.; Schlemmer, H.-P.; Handels, H.
2014-03-01
Breathing-induced location uncertainties of internal structures are still a relevant issue in the radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Motion compensation approaches like gating or tumour tracking are usually driven by low-dimensional breathing signals, which are acquired in real-time during the treatment. These signals are only surrogates of the internal motion of target structures and organs at risk, and, consequently, appropriate models are needed to establish correspondence between the acquired signals and the sought internal motion patterns. In this work, we present a diffeomorphic framework for correspondence modelling based on the Log-Euclidean framework and multivariate regression. Within the framework, we systematically compare standard and subspace regression approaches (principal component regression, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis) for different types of common breathing signals (1D: spirometry, abdominal belt, diaphragm tracking; multi-dimensional: skin surface tracking). Experiments are based on 4D CT and 4D MRI data sets and cover intra- and inter-cycle as well as intra- and inter-session motion variations. Only small differences in internal motion estimation accuracy are observed between the 1D surrogates. Increasing the surrogate dimensionality, however, improved the accuracy significantly; this is shown for both 2D signals, which consist of a common 1D signal and its time derivative, and high-dimensional signals containing the motion of many skin surface points. Eventually, comparing the standard and subspace regression variants when applied to the high-dimensional breathing signals, only small differences in terms of motion estimation accuracy are found.
Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z
2002-05-07
The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling
Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.
2000-11-01
The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Jayaraj
2010-08-01
Full Text Available A Non-linear adaptive decision based algorithm with robust motion estimation technique is proposed for removal of impulse noise, Gaussian noise and mixed noise (impulse and Gaussian with edge and fine detail preservation in images and videos. The algorithm includes detection of corrupted pixels and the estimation of values for replacing the corrupted pixels. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that an appropriate filter is used for replacing the corrupted pixel based on the estimation of the noise variance present in the filtering window. This leads to reduced blurring and better fine detail preservation even at the high mixed noise density. It performs both spatial and temporal filtering for removal of the noises in the filter window of the videos. The Improved Cross Diamond Search Motion Estimation technique uses Least Median Square as a cost function, which shows improved performance than other motion estimation techniques with existing cost functions. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in the visual point of view and in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Mean Square Error and Image Enhancement Factor.
Quaternionic Spatiotemporal Filtering for Dense Motion Field Estimation in Ultrasound Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrien Marion
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Blood motion estimation provides fundamental clinical information to prevent and detect pathologies such as cancer. Ultrasound imaging associated with Doppler methods is often used for blood flow evaluation. However, Doppler methods suffer from shortcomings such as limited spatial resolution and the inability to estimate lateral motion. Numerous methods such as block matching and decorrelation-based techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an original method to estimate dense fields of vector velocity from ultrasound image sequences. Our proposal is based on a spatiotemporal approach and considers 2D+t data as a 3D volume. Orientation of the texture within this volume is related to velocity. Thus, we designed a bank of 3D quaternionic filters to estimate local orientation and then calculate local velocities. The method was applied to a large set of experimental and simulated flow sequences with low motion (≈1 mm/s within small vessels (≈1 mm. Evaluation was conducted with several quantitative criteria such as the normalized mean error or the estimated mean velocity. The results obtained show the good behaviour of our method, characterizing the flows studied.
Quaternionic Spatiotemporal Filtering for Dense Motion Field Estimation in Ultrasound Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marion Adrien
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Blood motion estimation provides fundamental clinical information to prevent and detect pathologies such as cancer. Ultrasound imaging associated with Doppler methods is often used for blood flow evaluation. However, Doppler methods suffer from shortcomings such as limited spatial resolution and the inability to estimate lateral motion. Numerous methods such as block matching and decorrelation-based techniques have been proposed to overcome these limitations. In this paper, we propose an original method to estimate dense fields of vector velocity from ultrasound image sequences. Our proposal is based on a spatiotemporal approach and considers 2D+t data as a 3D volume. Orientation of the texture within this volume is related to velocity. Thus, we designed a bank of 3D quaternionic filters to estimate local orientation and then calculate local velocities. The method was applied to a large set of experimental and simulated flow sequences with low motion ( 1 mm/s within small vessels ( 1 mm. Evaluation was conducted with several quantitative criteria such as the normalized mean error or the estimated mean velocity. The results obtained show the good behaviour of our method, characterizing the flows studied.
Depth interval estimates from motion parallax and binocular disparity beyond interaction space.
Gillam, Barbara; Palmisano, Stephen A; Govan, Donovan G
2011-01-01
Static and dynamic observers provided binocular and monocular estimates of the depths between real objects lying well beyond interaction space. On each trial, pairs of LEDs were presented inside a dark railway tunnel. The nearest LED was always 40 m from the observer, with the depth separation between LED pairs ranging from 0 up to 248 m. Dynamic binocular viewing was found to produce the greatest (ie most veridical) estimates of depth magnitude, followed next by static binocular viewing, and then by dynamic monocular viewing. (No significant depth was seen with static monocular viewing.) We found evidence that both binocular and monocular dynamic estimates of depth were scaled for the observation distance when the ground plane and walls of the tunnel were visible up to the nearest LED. We conclude that both motion parallax and stereopsis provide useful long-distance depth information and that motion-parallax information can enhance the degree of stereoscopic depth seen.
Sparse representation discretization errors in multi-sensor radar target motion estimation
Azodi, Hossein; Siart, Uwe; Eibert, Thomas F.
2017-09-01
In a multi-sensor radar for the estimation of the targets motion states, more than one module of transmitter and receiver are utilized to estimate the positions and velocities of targets, also known as motion states. By applying the compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction algorithms, the surveillance space needs to be discretized. The effect of the additive errors due to the discretization are studied in this paper. The errors are considered as an additive noise in the well-known under-determined CS problem. By employing properties of these errors, analytical models for its average and variance are derived. Numerous simulations are carried out to verify the analytical model empirically. Furthermore, the probability density functions of discretization errors are estimated. The analytical model is useful for the optimization of the performance, the efficiency and the success rate in CS reconstruction for radar as well as many other applications.
ON THE SINGULARITY OF LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATOR FOR MEAN-REVERTING Α-STABLE MOTIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Yaozhong; Long Hongwei
2009-01-01
We study the problem of parameter estimation for mean-reverting α-stable motion, dXt= (a0- θ0Xt)dt + dZt, observed at discrete time instants.A least squares estimator is obtained and its asymptotics is discussed in the singular case (a0, θ0)=(0,0).If a0=0, then the mean-reverting α-stable motion becomes Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and is studied in [7] in the ergodie case θ0 > 0.For the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, asymptoties of the least squares estimators for the singular case (θ0 = 0) and for ergodic case (θ0 > 0) are completely different.
A novel adjustable multiple cross-hexagonal search algorithm for fast block motion estimation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose a novel adjustable multiple cross-hexagonal search (AMCHS) algorithm for fast block motion estimation. It employs adjustable multiple cross search patterns (AMCSP) in the first step and then uses half-way-skip and half-way-stop technique to determine whether to employ two hexagonal search patterns (HSPs) subsequently. The AMCSP can be used to find small motion vectors efficiently while the HSPs can be used to find large ones accurately to ensure prediction quality.Simulation results showed that our proposed AMCHS achieves faster search speed, and provides better distortion performance than other popular fast search algorithms, such as CDS and CDHS.
On Drift Parameter Estimation in Models with Fractional Brownian Motion by Discrete Observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuliya Mishura
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We study a problem of an unknown drift parameter estimation in a stochastic differen- tial equation driven by fractional Brownian motion. We represent the likelihood ratio as a function of the observable process. The form of this representation is in general rather complicated. However, in the simplest case it can be simplified and we can discretize it to establish the a. s. convergence of the discretized version of maximum likelihood estimator to the true value of parameter. We also investigate a non-standard estimator of the drift parameter showing further its strong consistency.
Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the usage of dierent image features and their combination in the context of estimating the motion of rigid bodies (RBM estimation). From stereo image sequences, we extract line features at local edges (coded in so called multi-modal primitives) as well as point features (by...... evaluate and compare the results using line and point features as 3D-2D constraints and we discuss the qualitative advantages and disadvantages of both feature types for RBM estimation. We also demonstrate an improvement in robustness through the combination of these features on large data sets...
Bridge Influence Line Estimation for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System
Ieng, Sio Song
2015-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm that estimates the influence line (IL) of a bridge using data collected when trucks pass over the sensors installed in the bridge. The algorithm is tested with data collected from the Millau Viaduct in France using a bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) device. The algorithm uses the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and is compared with an old algorithm. The algorithm is more robust because it takes into account many signals for the estimation of the IL.
Tiberi, Lara; Costa, Giovanni
2017-04-01
The possibility to directly associate the damages to the ground motion parameters is always a great challenge, in particular for civil protections. Indeed a ground motion parameter, estimated in near real time that can express the damages occurred after an earthquake, is fundamental to arrange the first assistance after an event. The aim of this work is to contribute to the estimation of the ground motion parameter that better describes the observed intensity, immediately after an event. This can be done calculating for each ground motion parameter estimated in a near real time mode a regression law which correlates the above-mentioned parameter to the observed macro-seismic intensity. This estimation is done collecting high quality accelerometric data in near field, filtering them at different frequency steps. The regression laws are calculated using two different techniques: the non linear least-squares (NLLS) Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and the orthogonal distance methodology (ODR). The limits of the first methodology are the needed of initial values for the parameters a and b (set 1.0 in this study), and the constraint that the independent variable must be known with greater accuracy than the dependent variable. While the second algorithm is based on the estimation of the errors perpendicular to the line, rather than just vertically. The vertical errors are just the errors in the 'y' direction, so only for the dependent variable whereas the perpendicular errors take into account errors for both the variables, the dependent and the independent. This makes possible also to directly invert the relation, so the a and b values can be used also to express the gmps as function of I. For each law the standard deviation and R2 value are estimated in order to test the quality and the reliability of the found relation. The Amatrice earthquake of 24th August of 2016 is used as case of study to test the goodness of the calculated regression laws.
Song, Shiyan
In this thesis, we develop an efficient collapse prediction model, the PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) model, for buildings subjected to different types of ground motions. For the structural system, the PFA model covers modern steel and reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame buildings (potentially reinforced concrete shear wall buildings). For ground motions, the PFA model covers ramp-pulse-like ground motions, long-period ground motions, and short-period ground motions. To predict whether a building will collapse in response to a given ground motion, we first extract long-period components from the ground motion using a Butterworth low-pass filter with suggested order and cutoff frequency. The order depends on the type of ground motion, and the cutoff frequency depends on the building's natural frequency and ductility. We then compare the filtered acceleration time history with the capacity of the building. The capacity of the building is a constant for 2-dimentional buildings and a limit domain for 3-dimentional buildings. If the filtered acceleration exceeds the building's capacity, the building is predicted to collapse. Otherwise, it is expected to survive the ground motion. The parameters used in PFA model, which include fundamental period, global ductility and lateral capacity, can be obtained either from numerical analysis or interpolation based on the reference building system proposed in this thesis. The PFA collapse prediction model greatly reduces computational complexity while archiving good accuracy. It is verified by FEM simulations of 13 frame building models and 150 ground motion records. Based on the developed collapse prediction model, we propose to use PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) as a new ground motion intensity measure for collapse prediction. We compare PFA with traditional intensity measures PGA, PGV, PGD, and Sa in collapse prediction and find that PFA has the best performance among all the intensity measures. We also provide a
Angular Motion Estimation Using Dynamic Models in a Gyro-Free Inertial Measurement Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Otmar Loffeld
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of using dynamic models borrowed from tracking theory in describing the time evolution of the state vector to have an estimate of the angular motion in a gyro-free inertial measurement unit (GF-IMU. The GF-IMU is a special type inertial measurement unit (IMU that uses only a set of accelerometers in inferring the angular motion. Using distributed accelerometers, we get an angular information vector (AIV composed of angular acceleration and quadratic angular velocity terms. We use a Kalman filter approach to estimate the angular velocity vector since it is not expressed explicitly within the AIV. The bias parameters inherent in the accelerometers measurements’ produce a biased AIV and hence the AIV bias parameters are estimated within an augmented state vector. Using dynamic models, the appended bias parameters of the AIV become observable and hence we can have unbiased angular motion estimate. Moreover, a good model is required to extract the maximum amount of information from the observation. Observability analysis is done to determine the conditions for having an observable state space model. For higher grades of accelerometers and under relatively higher sampling frequency, the error of accelerometer measurements is dominated by the noise error. Consequently, simulations are conducted on two models, one has bias parameters appended in the state space model and the other is a reduced model without bias parameters.
Xu, Gang; Xing, Mengdao; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Qianqian; Bao, Zheng
2016-05-01
In the current scenario of high-resolution inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, the non-cooperative targets may have strong maneuverability, which tends to cause time-variant Doppler modulation and imaging plane in the echoed data. Furthermore, it is still a challenge to realize ISAR imaging of maneuvering targets from sparse aperture (SA) data. In this paper, we focus on the problem of 3D geometry and motion estimations of maneuvering targets for interferometric ISAR (InISAR) with SA. For a target of uniformly accelerated rotation, the rotational modulation in echo is formulated as chirp sensing code under a chirp-Fourier dictionary to represent the maneuverability. In particular, a joint multi-channel imaging approach is developed to incorporate the multi-channel data and treat the multi-channel ISAR image formation as a joint-sparsity constraint optimization. Then, a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem to produce high-resolution range-Doppler (RD) images and chirp parameter estimation. The 3D target geometry and the motion estimations are followed by using the acquired RD images and chirp parameters. Herein, a joint estimation approach of 3D geometry and rotation motion is presented to realize outlier removing and error reduction. In comparison with independent single-channel processing, the proposed joint multi-channel imaging approach performs better in 2D imaging, 3D imaging, and motion estimation. Finally, experiments using both simulated and measured data are performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Gabriel Vieira Neto
2016-04-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Widely disseminated in both national and international scenarios, greenhouses are agribusiness solutions which are designed to allow for greater efficiency and control of the cultivation of plants. Bearing this in mind, the construction of greenhouses should take into consideration the incidence of wind, and other such aspects of comfort and safety, and ensure they are factored into the design of structural elements. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pressure coefficients established by the European standard EN 13031-1 (2001 and the Brazilian standard ABNT (1988, which are applicable to the structures of greenhouses with flat roofs, taking into account the following variables: roof slope, external and internal pressure coefficients and height-span ratio of the structure. Using the ANSYSTM computer program, zones of columns and roof were discretized by the Beam44 finite element to identify the maximum and minimum stress portions connected to the aerodynamic coefficients. With this analysis, we found that, in the smallest roof slope (a equal to 20°, the frame stress was quite similar for standards adopted. On the other hand, for the greatest inclination (a equal to 26°, the stress was consistently lower under the Brazilian standard. In view of this, we came to the conclusion that the differences between stresses when applying both standards were more significant at the higher degrees of height-span ratio and roof slope.
Image-driven, model-based 3D abdominal motion estimation for MR-guided radiotherapy
Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, Rob H. N.; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; van den Berg, Cornelis A. T.
2016-07-01
Respiratory motion introduces substantial uncertainties in abdominal radiotherapy for which traditionally large margins are used. The MR-Linac will open up the opportunity to acquire high resolution MR images just prior to radiation and during treatment. However, volumetric MRI time series are not able to characterize 3D tumor and organ-at-risk motion with sufficient temporal resolution. In this study we propose a method to estimate 3D deformation vector fields (DVFs) with high spatial and temporal resolution based on fast 2D imaging and a subject-specific motion model based on respiratory correlated MRI. In a pre-beam phase, a retrospectively sorted 4D-MRI is acquired, from which the motion is parameterized using a principal component analysis. This motion model is used in combination with fast 2D cine-MR images, which are acquired during radiation, to generate full field-of-view 3D DVFs with a temporal resolution of 476 ms. The geometrical accuracies of the input data (4D-MRI and 2D multi-slice acquisitions) and the fitting procedure were determined using an MR-compatible motion phantom and found to be 1.0-1.5 mm on average. The framework was tested on seven healthy volunteers for both the pancreas and the kidney. The calculated motion was independently validated using one of the 2D slices, with an average error of 1.45 mm. The calculated 3D DVFs can be used retrospectively for treatment simulations, plan evaluations, or to determine the accumulated dose for both the tumor and organs-at-risk on a subject-specific basis in MR-guided radiotherapy.
Estimation of internal organ motion-induced variance in radiation dose in non-gated radiotherapy
Zhou, Sumin; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Mutian; Zheng, Dandan; Lei, Yu; Li, Sicong; Bennion, Nathan; Verma, Vivek; Zhen, Weining; Enke, Charles
2016-12-01
In the delivery of non-gated radiotherapy (RT), owing to intra-fraction organ motion, a certain degree of RT dose uncertainty is present. Herein, we propose a novel mathematical algorithm to estimate the mean and variance of RT dose that is delivered without gating. These parameters are specific to individual internal organ motion, dependent on individual treatment plans, and relevant to the RT delivery process. This algorithm uses images from a patient’s 4D simulation study to model the actual patient internal organ motion during RT delivery. All necessary dose rate calculations are performed in fixed patient internal organ motion states. The analytical and deterministic formulae of mean and variance in dose from non-gated RT were derived directly via statistical averaging of the calculated dose rate over possible random internal organ motion initial phases, and did not require constructing relevant histograms. All results are expressed in dose rate Fourier transform coefficients for computational efficiency. Exact solutions are provided to simplified, yet still clinically relevant, cases. Results from a volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient case are also presented. The results obtained from our mathematical algorithm can aid clinical decisions by providing information regarding both mean and variance of radiation dose to non-gated patients prior to RT delivery.
Complementary limb motion estimation for the control of active knee prostheses.
Vallery, Heike; Burgkart, Rainer; Hartmann, Cornelia; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Riener, Robert; Buss, Martin
2011-02-01
To restore walking after transfemoral amputation, various actuated exoprostheses have been developed, which control the knee torque actively or via variable damping. In both cases, an important issue is to find the appropriate control that enables user-dominated gait. Recently, we suggested a generic method to deduce intended motion of impaired or amputated limbs from residual human body motion. Based on interjoint coordination in physiological gait, statistical regression is used to estimate missing motion. In a pilot study, this complementary limb motion estimation (CLME) strategy is applied to control an active knee exoprosthesis. A motor-driven prosthetic knee with one degree of freedom has been realized, and one above-knee amputee has used it with CLME. Performed tasks are walking on a treadmill and alternating stair ascent and descent. The subject was able to walk on the treadmill at varying speeds, but needed assistance with the stairs, especially to descend. The promising results with CLME are compared with the subject's performance with her own prosthesis, the C-Leg from Otto Bock.
Rich, Margaret M; Schoenecker, Perry L
2013-03-01
Containment treatment is widely accepted in the management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Many reports indicate the need to regain hip motion before pelvic or femoral osteotomy, but have not indicated how osteotomy affected motion. Recent studies have suggested that osteotomy treatment of lateral pillar B hips may result in a higher proportion of spherical hips than those managed nonoperatively; however, outcomes for children older than 8 years of age or with pillar C involvement remain unsatisfactory. The records of all patients with a diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease seen at our facility from 1985 through 2001 were reviewed. Two hundred and thirteen patients (175 males, 38 females), average age 6.4 years (range, 2.6 to 11.3 y), with 240 involved hips in the necrotic or the fragmentation stage were managed under a protocol to restore and maintain satisfactory hip abduction with an adductor tenotomy and abduction cast, followed by daily hip range-of-motion exercises and an A-frame orthosis to facilitate the concentric position of the epiphysis within the acetabulum. Assessment included measurement of hip abduction, femoral head sphericity and congruence, presence of femoral neck deformity, limb-length inequality, and later reconstructive surgical procedures. Hips were grouped by lateral pillar class (12A, 113B, 115C) and evaluated at maturity using a modified Stulberg grade. All pillar A hips were spherically congruent. Of pillar B hips, 101 were spherically congruent, 8 were aspherical but congruent, and 4 were aspherical and incongruent. Of pillar C hips, 77 were spherically congruent, 26 were aspherical but congruent, and 12 were aspherical and incongruent. Age did not correlate with outcome. Hip abduction improved and was maintained in all groups. Treatment that restored and maintained hip range of motion along with the use of an A-frame orthosis resulted in a high proportion of spherically congruent hips for patients of all ages irrespective of the
Müller, K; Maier, A K; Schwemmer, C; Lauritsch, G; De Buck, S; Wielandts, J-Y; Hornegger, J; Fahrig, R
2014-06-21
The acquisition of data for cardiac imaging using a C-arm computed tomography system requires several seconds and multiple heartbeats. Hence, incorporation of motion correction in the reconstruction step may improve the resulting image quality. Cardiac motion can be estimated by deformable three-dimensional (3D)/3D registration performed on initial 3D images of different heart phases. This motion information can be used for a motion-compensated reconstruction allowing the use of all acquired data for image reconstruction. However, the result of the registration procedure and hence the estimated deformations are influenced by the quality of the initial 3D images. In this paper, the sensitivity of the 3D/3D registration step to the image quality of the initial images is studied. Different reconstruction algorithms are evaluated for a recently proposed cardiac C-arm CT acquisition protocol. The initial 3D images are all based on retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated data. ECG-gating of data from a single C-arm rotation provides only a few projections per heart phase for image reconstruction. This view sparsity leads to prominent streak artefacts and a poor signal to noise ratio. Five different initial image reconstructions are evaluated: (1) cone beam filtered-backprojection (FDK), (2) cone beam filtered-backprojection and an additional bilateral filter (FFDK), (3) removal of the shadow of dense objects (catheter, pacing electrode, etc) before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection (cathFDK), (4) removal of the shadow of dense objects before reconstruction with a cone beam filtered-backprojection and a bilateral filter (cathFFDK). The last method (5) is an iterative few-view reconstruction (FV), the prior image constrained compressed sensing combined with the improved total variation algorithm. All reconstructions are investigated with respect to the final motion-compensated reconstruction quality. The algorithms were tested on a mathematical
High Frame Rate Vector Velocity Estimation using Plane Waves and Transverse Oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2015-01-01
in a flow rig phantom is scanned at beam-to-flow angles of 90, 75, and 60◦ . The relative bias is between -1.4 % and -5.8 % and the relative std. between 5 % and 8.2 % for the lateral velocity component at the measured beam-to-flow angles. The estimated flow angle is 73.4◦± 3.6◦ for the measurement at 75...
Long Bone X-ray Image Stitching Using C-arm Motion Estimation
Wang, Lejing; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Benhimane, Selim; Euler, Ekkehard; Graumann, Rainer; Navab, Nassir
In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate panoramic X-ray images intra-operatively by using the previously introduced camera augmented mobile C-arm by Navab et al. [1]. This advanced mobile C-arm system acquires registered X-ray and optical images by construction, which facilitates the generation of panoramic X-ray images based on the motion estimation of the X-ray source. Visual marker tracking is employed to estimate the camera motion and this estimated motion is also applied to the X-ray source. Our proposed method is suitable and practical for intra-operative usage generating panoramic X-ray images without the requirement of a fronto-parallel setup and overlapping X-ray images. The results show that the panoramic X-ray images generated by our method are accurate enough (errors less than 1%) for metric measurements and promise suitability for intra-operative clinical applications in trauma surgery.
A GPS estimate of relative motion between North and South America
Dixon, Timothy H.; Mao, Ailin
GPS velocity data are used to estimate the Euler vector describing rigid body motion of North America relative to South America. Assuming the boundary between the North and South American plates is located near the Fifteen Twenty fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic, the Euler vector predicts extension across the Royal Trough up to 1 mm/yr, and convergence across the Barracuda Ridge at about 2 mm/yr, in agreement with geological estimates averaged over tens of millions of years. Further west, convergence between North and South America at rates up to 8 mm/yr may contribute to deformation of the Caribbean plate along its southwest boundary with South America.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nsiri Benayad
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This article investigates a new method of motion estimation based on block matching criterion through the modeling of image blocks by a mixture of two and three Gaussian distributions. Mixture parameters (weights, means vectors, and covariance matrices are estimated by the Expectation Maximization algorithm (EM which maximizes the log-likelihood criterion. The similarity between a block in the current image and the more resembling one in a search window on the reference image is measured by the minimization of Extended Mahalanobis distance between the clusters of mixture. Performed experiments on sequences of real images have given good results, and PSNR reached 3 dB.
Estimation of Joint types and Joint Limits from Motion capture data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny
2009-01-01
It is time-consuming for an animator to explicitly model joint types and joint limits of articulated figures. In this paper we describe a simple and fast approach to automated joint estimation from motion capture data of articulated figures. Our method will make the joint modeling more efficient...... and less time consuming for the animator by providing a good starting estimate that can be fine-tuned or extended by the animator if she wishes, without restricting her artistic freedom. Our method is simple, easy to implement and specific for the types of articulated figures used in interactive animation...
Extracting Key Frames Based on Color Features and Motion Information%基于颜色特征及运动信息提取关键帧
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓斌; 张基宏
2012-01-01
视频关键帧提取是视频信号处理中的一个重要内容。由于一个镜头中视觉内容的变化具有连续性,本文采用了距离累加的算法;同时,为了提高检测相邻帧间的相似度,本文将颜色特征与运动变化信息相结合,提出一种关键帧提取方法。实验证明,与过去的关键帧提取方法相比,本文算法提取的关键帧能较完整地表现序列图像的运动过程,更有利于对视频内容的理解。%Video key frame extraction is an important part of video signal processing. In this paper, we propose a new key frame extraction method. As the visual change in a shot is continuous, the method of cumulative distance is adopted; color features and motion information are integrated to improve the detection precision of adjoining frames＇ similarities and differences. Experiment resuhs show that the new method proposed in this paper is superior to traditional methods based on color histogram and particle equivalent in that the key frames extracted with the new method give a better picture of the movement of sequential images.
Effectiveness of Vehicle Weight Estimation from Bridge Weigh-in-Motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teerachai Deesomsuk
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The effectiveness of vehicle weight estimations from bridge weigh-in-motion system is studied. The measured bending moments of the instrumented bridge under a passage of vehicle are numerically simulated and are used as the input for the vehicle weight estimations. Two weight estimation methods assuming constant magnitudes and time-varying magnitudes of vehicle axle loads are investigated. The appropriate number of bridge elements and sampling frequency are considered. The effectiveness in term of the estimation accuracy is evaluated and compared under various parameters of vehicle-bridge system. The effects of vehicle speed, vehicle configuration, vehicle weight and bridge surface roughness on the accuracy of the estimated vehicle weights are intensively investigated. Based on the obtained results, vehicle speed, surface roughness level and measurement error seem to have stronger effects on the weight estimation accuracy than other parameters. In general, both methods can provide quite accurate weight estimation of the vehicle. Comparing between them, although the weight estimation method assuming constant magnitudes of axle loads is faster, the method assuming time-varying magnitudes of axle loads can provide axle load histories and exhibits more accurate weight estimations of the vehicle for almost of the considered cases.
Re-estimation of Motion and Reconstruction for Distributed Video Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van; Raket, Lars Lau; Forchhammer, Søren
2014-01-01
Transform domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding is an efficient approach to distributed video coding (DVC), which provides low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder side. The DVC coding efficiency depends mainly on side information and noise modeling. This paper...... re-estimation (MORE) are integrated in the SING TDWZ codec, which uses side information and noise learning. For Wyner-Ziv frames using GOP size 2, the MORE codec significantly improves the TDWZ coding efficiency with an average (Bjøntegaard) PSNR improvement of 2.5 dB and up to 6 dB improvement...
Středová, Hana; Chuchma, Filip
2014-09-01
Climatic variables defining climatic regions of estimated pedologic-ecological system (EPEU) were calculated based on fifty-year climatic data from 1961 to 2010. Obtained results were subsequently compared to intervals determining individual climatic regions defined by previous climatic data (1901-1950). In many agricultural intense areas sum of air temperature and mean air temperature exceeded upper limit. In terms of precipitation it is especially noticeable in the wet (higher) altitudes. Significant volatility was found for probability of dry periods from April to September. The values of the moisture certainty from April to September for the period 1961-2010 reached to several tens. In the final analysis, the only safe prediction is that the present and future are likely to be very different from the past. It is necessary to take it into account for actualization of EPEU methodology. Among the strongest arguments justifying the need of this actualization is in particular climate development since 1901, technological progress and improved measurement technology as well as automation and development of climate models coupled with simulations of complex characteristics and estimates of future climate. It is evident that the development of climate and other factors have an enormous impact on soil fertility. This should be also taken into consideration when fixing the official price. It is necessary to consider the possible replacement of the existing characteristics by more suitable (for example soil moisture balance). The findings might be summarized in few words: old climatic regions do not reflect actual climatic conditions.
Influence of ultrasound speckle tracking strategies for motion and strain estimation.
Curiale, Ariel H; Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo; Aja-Fernández, Santiago
2016-08-01
Speckle Tracking is one of the most prominent techniques used to estimate the regional movement of the heart based on ultrasound acquisitions. Many different approaches have been proposed, proving their suitability to obtain quantitative and qualitative information regarding myocardial deformation, motion and function assessment. New proposals to improve the basic algorithm usually focus on one of these three steps: (1) the similarity measure between images and the speckle model; (2) the transformation model, i.e. the type of motion considered between images; (3) the optimization strategies, such as the use of different optimization techniques in the transformation step or the inclusion of structural information. While many contributions have shown their good performance independently, it is not always clear how they perform when integrated in a whole pipeline. Every step will have a degree of influence over the following and hence over the final result. Thus, a Speckle Tracking pipeline must be analyzed as a whole when developing novel methods, since improvements in a particular step might be undermined by the choices taken in further steps. This work presents two main contributions: (1) We provide a complete analysis of the influence of the different steps in a Speckle Tracking pipeline over the motion and strain estimation accuracy. (2) The study proposes a methodology for the analysis of Speckle Tracking systems specifically designed to provide an easy and systematic way to include other strategies. We close the analysis with some conclusions and recommendations that can be used as an orientation of the degree of influence of the models for speckle, the transformation models, interpolation schemes and optimization strategies over the estimation of motion features. They can be further use to evaluate and design new strategy into a Speckle Tracking system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat
Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.
2012-06-01
A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj
Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Shukla
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs. The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002 to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the
Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Dobslaw, Henryk
2016-04-01
Estimating global barystatic sea-level variations from monthly mean gravity fields delivered by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission requires additional information about geocenter motion. These variations are not available directly due to the mission implementation in the CM-frame and are represented by the degree-1 terms of the spherical harmonics expansion. Global degree-1 estimates can be determined with the method of Swenson et al. (2008) from ocean mass variability, the geometry of the global land-sea distribution, and GRACE data of higher degrees and orders. Consequently, a recursive relation between the derivation of ocean mass variations from GRACE data and the introduction of geocenter motion into GRACE data exists. In this contribution, we will present a recent improvement to the processing strategy described in Bergmann-Wolf et al. (2014) by introducing a non-homogeneous distribution of global ocean mass variations in the geocenter motion determination strategy, which is due to the effects of loading and self-attraction induced by mass redistributions at the surface. A comparison of different GRACE-based oceanographic products (barystatic signal for both the global oceans and individual basins; barotropic transport variations of major ocean currents) with degree-1 terms estimated with a homogeneous and non-homogeneous ocean mass representation will be discussed, and differences in noise levels in most recent GRACE solutions from GFZ (RL05a), CSR, and JPL (both RL05) and their consequences for the application of this method will be discussed. Swenson, S., D. Chambers and J. Wahr (2008), Estimating geocenter variations from a combination of GRACE and ocean model output, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B08410 Bergmann-Wolf, I., L. Zhang and H. Dobslaw (2014), Global Eustatic Sea-Level Variations for the Approximation of Geocenter Motion from GRACE, J. Geod. Sci., 4, 37-48
Motion estimation accuracy for visible-light/gamma-ray imaging fusion for portable portal monitoring
Karnowski, Thomas P.; Cunningham, Mark F.; Goddard, James S.; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Hornback, Donald E.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Kerekes, Ryan A.; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Gee, Timothy F.
2010-01-01
The use of radiation sensors as portal monitors is increasing due to heightened concerns over the smuggling of fissile material. Portable systems that can detect significant quantities of fissile material that might be present in vehicular traffic are of particular interest. We have constructed a prototype, rapid-deployment portal gamma-ray imaging portal monitor that uses machine vision and gamma-ray imaging to monitor multiple lanes of traffic. Vehicles are detected and tracked by using point detection and optical flow methods as implemented in the OpenCV software library. Points are clustered together but imperfections in the detected points and tracks cause errors in the accuracy of the vehicle position estimates. The resulting errors cause a "blurring" effect in the gamma image of the vehicle. To minimize these errors, we have compared a variety of motion estimation techniques including an estimate using the median of the clustered points, a "best-track" filtering algorithm, and a constant velocity motion estimation model. The accuracy of these methods are contrasted and compared to a manually verified ground-truth measurement by quantifying the rootmean- square differences in the times the vehicles cross the gamma-ray image pixel boundaries compared with a groundtruth manual measurement.
3D motion and strain estimation of the heart: initial clinical findings
Barbosa, Daniel; Hristova, Krassimira; Loeckx, Dirk; Rademakers, Frank; Claus, Piet; D'hooge, Jan
2010-03-01
The quantitative assessment of regional myocardial function remains an important goal in clinical cardiology. As such, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking based methods have been introduced to estimate local myocardial strain. Recently, volumetric ultrasound has become more readily available, allowing therefore the 3D estimation of motion and myocardial deformation. Our lab has previously presented a method based on spatio-temporal elastic registration of ultrasound volumes to estimate myocardial motion and deformation in 3D, overcoming the spatial limitations of the existing methods. This method was optimized on simulated data sets in previous work and is currently tested in a clinical setting. In this manuscript, 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patient with myocardial infarction and 10 patients with arterial hypertension were included. The cardiac strain values extracted with the proposed method were compared with the ones estimated with 1D tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking in all patient groups. Although the absolute values of the 3D strain components assessed by this new methodology were not identical to the reference methods, the relationship between the different patient groups was similar.
Takahashi, Manami; Nonaka, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Kazuma
2016-09-01
The measurement using a motion capture camera is fluctuated by white noise and outliers. In addition, markers to be measured are frequently hidden from cameras by occlusion, then the position and heading angle of a vehicle cannot be uniquely determined because of failure to detect sufficient number of markers. Thus, robust estimation method is required which suppresses the influence of the white noise, the outlier and the occlusion. In this study, we introduce Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE) using partial marker information of motion capture system. It optimizes the objective function using both the marker information in the evaluation range and the constraints on the robot dynamics. By virtue of introduction of constraints, even if the cameras fail to measure the actual state of the robot, the estimated value is determined by MHE. It is the difference from our previous research which assumed that sufficient number of markers are available. In this paper, we estimate the position of the vehicle robot by MHE using the information of the measured markers on the robot, even if several markers are hidden. We will prove the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing MHE with EKF.
Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Park, Dawoo; Nagao, Tohru; Kim, Sang Chul
2015-12-01
The ability to accurately derive black hole (BH) masses at progressively higher redshifts and over a wide range of continuum luminosities has become indispensable in the era of large-area extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. In this paper, we present an extension of existing comparisons between rest-frame UV and optical virial BH mass estimators to intermediate redshifts and luminosities comparable to the local Hβ reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We focus on the Mg ii, C iv, and C iii] broad emission lines and compare them to both Hα and Hβ. We use newly acquired near-infrared spectra from the Fiber-fed Multi-object Spectrograph instrument on the Subaru telescope for 89 broad-lined AGNs at redshifts between 0.3 and 3.5, complemented by data from the AGES survey. We employ two different prescriptions for measuring the emission line widths and compare the results. We confirm that Mg ii shows a tight correlation with Hα and Hβ, with a scatter of ∼0.25 dex. The C iv and C iii] estimators, while showing larger scatter, are viable virial mass estimators after accounting for a trend with the UV-to-optical luminosity ratio. We find an intrinsic scatter of ∼0.37 dex between Balmer and carbon virial estimators by combining our data set with previous high redshift measurements. This updated comparison spans a total of three decades in BH mass. We calculate a virial factor for C iv/C iii] {log}{f}{{C}{{IV}}/{{C}}{{III}}]}=0.87 with an estimated systematic uncertainty of ∼0.4 dex and find excellent agreement between the local reverberation mapped AGN sample and our high-z sample.
Reconciling geodetic and geologic estimates of recent plate motion across the Southwest Indian Ridge
DeMets, C.; Calais, E.; Merkouriev, S.
2016-10-01
We use recently published, high-resolution reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge to test whether a previously described systematic difference between Global Positioning System (GPS) and 3.16-Myr-average estimates of seafloor spreading rates between Antarctica and Africa is evidence for a recent slowdown in Southwest Indian Ridge seafloor spreading rates. Along the Nubia-Antarctic segment of the ridge, seafloor opening rates that are estimated with the new, high-resolution reconstructions and corrected for outward displacement agree well with geodetic rate estimates and reduce previously reported, highly significant non-closure of the Nubia-Antarctic-Sur plate circuit. The observations are inconsistent with a slowdown in spreading rates and instead indicate that Nubia-Antarctic plate motion has been steady since at least 5.2 Ma. Lwandle-Antarctic seafloor spreading rates that are estimated from the new high-resolution reconstructions differ insignificantly from a GPS estimate, thereby implying steady Lwandle-Antarctic plate motion since 5.2 Ma. Between the Somalia and Antarctic plates, the new Southwest Indian Ridge reconstructions eliminate roughly half of the systematic difference between the GPS and MORVEL spreading rate estimates. We interpret the available observations as evidence that Somalia-Antarctic spreading rates have been steady since at least 5.2 Ma and postulate that the remaining difference is attributable to random and/or systematic errors in the plate kinematic estimates and the combined effects of insufficient geodetic sampling of undeforming areas of the Somalia plate, glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica, and transient deformation triggered by the 1998 Mw=8.2 Antarctic earthquake, the 2004 Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake, or possibly other large historic earthquakes.
Nakano, Takemi; Nagata, Kentaro; Yamada, Masafumi; Magatani, Kazushige
2009-01-01
In this study, we describe the application of least square method for muscular strength estimation in hand motion recognition based on surface electromyogram (SEMG). Although the muscular strength can consider the various evaluation methods, a grasp force is applied as an index to evaluate the muscular strength. Today, SEMG, which is measured from skin surface, is widely used as a control signal for many devices. Because, SEMG is one of the most important biological signal in which the human motion intention is directly reflected. And various devices using SEMG are reported by lots of researchers. Those devices which use SEMG as a control signal, we call them SEMG system. In SEMG system, to achieve high accuracy recognition is an important requirement. Conventionally SEMG system mainly focused on how to achieve this objective. Although it is also important to estimate muscular strength of motions, most of them cannot detect power of muscle. The ability to estimate muscular strength is a very important factor to control the SEMG systems. Thus, our objective of this study is to develop the estimation method for muscular strength by application of least square method, and reflecting the result of measured power to the controlled object. Since it was known that SEMG is formed by physiological variations in the state of muscle fiber membranes, it is thought that it can be related with grasp force. We applied to the least-squares method to construct a relationship between SEMG and grasp force. In order to construct an effective evaluation model, four SEMG measurement locations in consideration of individual difference were decided by the Monte Carlo method.
Multi-camera networks for motion parameter estimation of an aircraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Banglei Guan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available A multi-camera network is proposed to estimate an aircraft’s motion parameters relative to the reference platform in large outdoor fields. Multiple cameras are arranged to cover the aircraft’s large-scale motion spaces by field stitching. A camera calibration method using dynamic control points created by a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle is presented under the conditions that the field of view of the cameras is void. The relative deformation of the camera network caused by external environmental factors is measured and compensated using a combination of cameras and laser rangefinders. A series of field experiments have been carried out using a fixed-wing aircraft without artificial makers, and its accuracy is evaluated using an onboard Differential Global Positioning System. The experimental results show that the multi-camera network is precise, robust, and highly dynamic and can improve the aircraft’s landing accuracy.
Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.
1987-01-01
Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.
Assessing the impact of vertical land motion on twentieth century global mean sea level estimates
Hamlington, B. D.; Thompson, P.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Ray, R. D.
2016-07-01
Near-global and continuous measurements from satellite altimetry have provided accurate estimates of global mean sea level in the past two decades. Extending these estimates further into the past is a challenge using the historical tide gauge records. Not only is sampling nonuniform in both space and time, but tide gauges are also affected by vertical land motion (VLM) that creates a relative sea level change not representative of ocean variability. To allow for comparisons to the satellite altimetry estimated global mean sea level (GMSL), typically the tide gauges are corrected using glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. This approach, however, does not correct other sources of VLM that remain in the tide gauge record. Here we compare Global Positioning System (GPS) VLM estimates at the tide gauge locations to VLM estimates from GIA models, and assess the influence of non-GIA-related VLM on GMSL estimates. We find that the tide gauges, on average, are experiencing positive VLM (i.e., uplift) after removing the known effect of GIA, resulting in an increase of 0.24 ± 0.08 mm yr-1 in GMSL trend estimates from 1900 to present when using GPS-based corrections. While this result is likely dependent on the subset of tide gauges used and the actual corrections used, it does suggest that non-GIA VLM plays a significant role in twentieth century estimates of GMSL. Given the relatively short GPS records used to obtain these VLM estimates, we also estimate the uncertainty in the GMSL trend that results from limited knowledge of non-GIA-related VLM.
Method to estimate position, motion and trajectory of a target with a single x-ray imager
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2010-01-01
of the method for tumors with periodic respiratory motion and for prostate are provided. Clinical feasibility is demonstrated for a pancreas tumor. The method includes monoscopic tracking of the 3D prostate position utilizing the spatial probability density to estimate the unresolved motion from the resolved...
Rest-frame UV single-epoch black hole mass estimates of low-luminosity AGN at intermediate redshifts
Karouzos, Marios; Matsuoka, Kenta; Kochanek, Christopher S; Onken, Christopher A; Kollmeier, Juna A; Park, Dawoo; Nagao, Tohru; Kim, Sang Chul
2015-01-01
The ability to accurately derive black hole (BH) masses at progressively higher redshifts and over a wide range of continuum luminosities has become indispensable in the era of large-area extragalactic spectroscopic surveys. In this paper we present an extension of existing comparisons between rest-frame UV and optical virial BH mass estimators to intermediate redshifts and luminosities comparable to the local H$\\beta$ reverberation mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN). We focus on the MgII, CIV, and CIII] broad emission lines and compare them to both H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$. We use newly acquired near-infrared spectra from the FMOS instrument on the Subaru telescope for 89 broad-lined AGN at redshifts between 0.3 and 3.5, complemented by data from the AGES survey. We employ two different prescriptions for measuring the emission line widths and compare the results. We confirm that MgII shows a tight correlation with H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$, with a scatter of ~0.25 dex. The CIV and CIII] estimators, while showing...
Technique of key-frame extraction and motion editing based on wavelet transform%基于小波变换的关键帧提取及运动编辑技术
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁加红; 李可; 李猛; 胡应龙
2013-01-01
For the problems of large motion capture data and the difficulty of editing key frames,the paper proposed a technique to introduce wavelet transform into key frames extraction and motion editing.The proposed technique deals with the motion capture data as signal processing,decomposes the signal into high frequency signals and low frequency signals,and disposes the coefficients by semi-soft threshold function,and extracts key frames through setting different threshold.After extracting the key frames,the key frames animation is reconstructed by the interpolation technique in order to generate new human motion sequence.In motion editing,the high frequency signals are adjusted so as to enhance the characteristics of motion,further improving the technique of motion editing.The experiment demonstrates this technique is of good application,the extracted key frames have recapitulation,and after the motion editing,the reality of motion can be ensured to some extent.%针对当前运动捕捉数据量大、关键帧难编辑的问题,提出将小波变换引入到关键帧的提取及运动编辑的技术.将运动捕捉数据作为信号进行处理,通过小波变换的方法将人体运动信号分解成高频信号和低频信号,利用半软阈值函数处理小波系数,通过设定不同的阈值,实现对关键帧的提取.提取关键帧后,利用插值技术重建关键帧动画,可生成新的人体运动序列.在运动编辑中,通过调整运动的高频信号,实现了运动特征的增强,进一步丰富了运动编辑的方法.实验结果表明,小波变换对关键帧的提取具有一定的适用性,所提取的关键帧有较强的概括力,对运动进行编辑后,一定程度上保证了运动的真实性.
Hierarchical information fusion for global displacement estimation in microsensor motion capture.
Meng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Jian-Kang; Wong, Wai-Choong
2013-07-01
This paper presents a novel hierarchical information fusion algorithm to obtain human global displacement for different gait patterns, including walking, running, and hopping based on seven body-worn inertial and magnetic measurement units. In the first-level sensor fusion, the orientation for each segment is achieved by a complementary Kalman filter (CKF) which compensates for the orientation error of the inertial navigation system solution through its error state vector. For each foot segment, the displacement is also estimated by the CKF, and zero velocity update is included for the drift reduction in foot displacement estimation. Based on the segment orientations and left/right foot locations, two global displacement estimates can be acquired from left/right lower limb separately using a linked biomechanical model. In the second-level geometric fusion, another Kalman filter is deployed to compensate for the difference between the two estimates from the sensor fusion and get more accurate overall global displacement estimation. The updated global displacement will be transmitted to left/right foot based on the human lower biomechanical model to restrict the drifts in both feet displacements. The experimental results have shown that our proposed method can accurately estimate human locomotion for the three different gait patterns with regard to the optical motion tracker.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐超; 温增平
2016-01-01
以某典型的12层钢筋混凝土框架结构作为研究对象，研究基于非线性动力时程分析和地震动参数的RC框架结构易损性分析方法。首先采用静力 pushover分析判定结构薄弱层，并确定结构性能（capacity）参数；然后应用非线性动力时程分析估计结构地震反应，研究以峰值加速度和基本周期加速度反应谱作为地震动参数结构反应的不确定性，并进一步分析结构地震需求（demand）参数与地震动参数的关系；在此基础上，分别建立该结构基于峰值加速度和加速度反应谱的易损性曲线，通过考虑场地条件对地震动特性的影响，研究场地条件对结构易损性的影响，结果表明不同场地条件下的结构易损性曲线有一定差异。应用本文方法，根据新一代地震区划图或地震安全性评价确定的地震动参数，可以直接估计结构在未来地震中出现不同破坏的概率，这在结构的抗震性能评估和地震损失预测中有一定意义。%In this study,we performed the seismic vulnerability analysis of reinforced concrete (RC)frame buildings based on nonlinear dynamic time history analysis and ground motion pa-rameters.We used a typical 1 2-story RC frame structure as the research obj ect.First,we conducted static pushover analysis to identify a weak layer and to determine the capacity parameters of the building.Then,we performed nonlinear dynamic time history analysis to estimate the seismic re-sponse of the structure and to analyze the relation between the demand and ground motion param-eters.With respect to ground motion parameters,we studied the uncertainty of the structural re-sponse and then established peak ground acceleration and vulnerability curves based on the first-mode acceleration response spectrum.By considering the impacts of site conditions on ground mo-tion characteristics,we examined the impact of site conditions on vulnerability.The results show
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali
2008-09-15
Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase
A low cost matching motion estimation sensor based on the NIOS II microprocessor.
González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco
2012-09-27
This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimdon, J.; Grangeat, P.; Koenig, A.; Bonnet, St
2004-07-01
Respiratory and cardiac motion causes blurring in dynamic X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Fast scans reduce this problem, but they require a higher radiation dose per time period to maintain the signal to noise ratio of the resulting images, thereby magnifying the health risk to the patient. As an alternative to increased radiation, our team has already developed a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm based on a dynamic particle model that estimates, predicts, and compensates for respiratory motion in circular X-ray CT. The current paper presents an extension of this method to spiral CT, applicable to modern multi-slice scanners that take advantage of the speed and dose benefits of helical trajectories. We adapted all three main areas of the algorithm: backprojection, prediction, and compensation/accumulation. In backprojection, we changed the longitudinal re-binning technique, filter direction, and the method of enforcing the data sufficiency requirements. For prediction, we had to be careful of objects appearing and disappearing as the scanner bed advanced. For compensation/accumulation, we controlled the reconstruction time and combined images to cover a greater longitudinal extent for each phase in the respiratory or cardiac cycle. Tests with moving numerical phantoms demonstrate that the algorithm successfully improves the temporal resolution of the images without increasing the dose or reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimdon, J.; Grangeat, P.; Koenig, A.; Bonnet, St
2004-07-01
Respiratory and cardiac motion causes blurring in dynamic X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). Fast scans reduce this problem, but they require a higher radiation dose per time period to maintain the signal to noise ratio of the resulting images, thereby magnifying the health risk to the patient. As an alternative to increased radiation, our team has already developed a cone-beam reconstruction algorithm based on a dynamic particle model that estimates, predicts, and compensates for respiratory motion in circular X-ray CT. The current paper presents an extension of this method to spiral CT, applicable to modern multi-slice scanners that take advantage of the speed and dose benefits of helical trajectories. We adapted all three main areas of the algorithm: backprojection, prediction, and compensation/accumulation. In backprojection, we changed the longitudinal re-binning technique, filter direction, and the method of enforcing the data sufficiency requirements. For prediction, we had to be careful of objects appearing and disappearing as the scanner bed advanced. For compensation/accumulation, we controlled the reconstruction time and combined images to cover a greater longitudinal extent for each phase in the respiratory or cardiac cycle. Tests with moving numerical phantoms demonstrate that the algorithm successfully improves the temporal resolution of the images without increasing the dose or reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. (authors)
High-resolution estimates of Southwest Indian Ridge plate motions, 20 Ma to present
DeMets, C.; Merkouriev, S.; Sauter, D.
2015-12-01
We present the first estimates of Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) plate motions at high temporal resolution during the Quaternary and Neogene based on nearly 5000 crossings of 21 magnetic reversals out to C6no (19.72 Ma) and the digitized traces of 17 fracture zones and transform faults. Our reconstructions of this slow-spreading mid-ocean ridge reveal several unexpected results with notable implications for regional and global plate reconstructions since 20 Ma. Extrapolations of seafloor opening distances to zero-age seafloor based on reconstructions of reversals C1n (0.78 Ma) through C3n.4 (5.2 Ma) reveal evidence for surprisingly large outward displacement of 5 ± 1 km west of 32°E, where motion between the Nubia and Antarctic plates occurs, but 2 ± 1 km east of 32°E, more typical of most mid-ocean ridges. Newly estimated SWIR seafloor spreading rates are up to 15 per cent slower everywhere along the ridge than previous estimates. Reconstructions of the numerous observations for times back to 11 Ma confirm the existence of the hypothesized Lwandle plate at high confidence level and indicate that the Lwandle plate's western and eastern boundaries respectively intersect the ridge near the Andrew Bain transform fault complex at 32°E and between ˜45°E and 52°E, in accord with previous results. The Nubia-Antarctic, Lwandle-Antarctic and Somalia-Antarctic rotation sequences that best fit many magnetic reversal, fracture zone and transform fault crossings define previously unknown changes in the Neogene motions of all three plate pairs, consisting of ˜20 per cent slowdowns in their spreading rates at 7.2^{+0.9 }_{ -1.4} Ma if we enforce a simultaneous change in motion everywhere along the SWIR and gradual 3°-7° anticlockwise rotations of the relative slip directions. We apply trans-dimensional Bayesian analysis to our noisy, best-fitting rotation sequences in order to estimate less-noisy rotation sequences suitable for use in future global plate reconstructions
Gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system for flight vehicle motion estimation
Wang, Xin; Xiao, Lu
2017-01-01
In this paper, a novel configuration of strategically distributed accelerometer sensors with the aid of one gyro to infer a flight vehicle's angular motion is presented. The MEMS accelerometer and gyro sensors are integrated to form a gyroscope-reduced inertial measurement unit (GR-IMU). The motivation for gyro aided accelerometers array is to have direct measurements of angular rates, which is an improvement to the traditional gyroscope-free inertial system that employs only direct measurements of specific force. Some technical issues regarding error calibration in accelerometers and gyro in GR-IMU are put forward. The GR-IMU based inertial navigation system can be used to find a complete attitude solution for flight vehicle motion estimation. Results of numerical simulation are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed configuration. The gyroscope-reduced inertial navigation system based on distributed accelerometer sensors can be developed into a cost effective solution for a fast reaction, MEMS based motion capture system. Future work will include the aid from external navigation references (e.g. GPS) to improve long time mission performance.
Efficient architecture for global elimination algorithm for H.264 motion estimation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Muralidhar; C B Ramarao
2016-01-01
This paper presents a fast block matching motion esti mation algorithm and its architecture. The proposed architecture is based on Global Elimination (GE) Algorithm, which uses pixel averaging to reduce complexity of motion search while keeping performance close to that of full search. GE uses a preprocessing stage which can skip unnecessary Sum Absolute Difference (SAD) calculations by comparing minimum SAD with sub-sampled SAD (SSAD). In the second stage SAD is computed at roughly matched candidate positions. GE algorithm uses fixed sub-block sizes and shapes to compute SSAD values in preprocessing stage. Complexity of this GE algorithm is further reduced by adaptively changing the sub-block sizes depending on the macroblock features. In this paper adaptive Global Elimination algorithm has been implemented which reduces the computational complexity of motion estimation algorithm and thus resulted in low power dissipation. Proposed architecture achieved 60% less number of computations compared to existing full search architecture and 50% high throughput compared to existing fixed Global Elimination Architecture.
Time-to-Collision estimation from motion based on primate visual processing.
Galbraith, John M; Kenyon, Garrett T; Ziolkowski, Richard W
2005-08-01
A population coded algorithm, built on established models of motion processing in the primate visual system, computes the time-to-collision of a mobile robot to real-world environmental objects from video imagery. A set of four transformations starts with motion energy, a spatiotemporal frequency based computation of motion features. The following processing stages extract image velocity features similar to, but distinct from, optic flow; "translation" features, which account for velocity errors including those resulting from the aperture problem; and finally, estimate the time-to-collision. Biologically motivated population coding distinguishes this approach from previous methods based on optic flow. A comparison of the population coded approach with the popular optic flow algorithm of Lucas and Kanade against three types of approaching objects shows that the proposed method produces more robust time-to-collision information from a real world input stimulus in the presence of the aperture problem and other noise sources. The improved performance comes with increased computational cost, which would ideally be mitigated by special purpose hardware architectures.
Geometric estimation of intestinal contraction for motion tracking of video capsule endoscope
Mi, Liang; Bao, Guanqun; Pahlavan, Kaveh
2014-03-01
Wireless video capsule endoscope (VCE) provides a noninvasive method to examine the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially small intestine, where other endoscopic instruments can barely reach. VCE is able to continuously provide clear pictures in short fixed intervals, and as such researchers have attempted to use image processing methods to track the video capsule in order to locate the abnormalities inside the GI tract. To correctly estimate the speed of the motion of the endoscope capsule, the radius of the intestinal track must be known a priori. Physiological factors such as intestinal contraction, however, dynamically change the radius of the small intestine, which could bring large errors in speed estimation. In this paper, we are aiming to estimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. First a geometric model is presented for estimating the radius of small intestine based on the black hole on endoscopic images. To validate our proposed model, a 3-dimentional virtual testbed that emulates the intestinal contraction is then introduced in details. After measuring the size of the black holes on the test images, we used our model to esimate the radius of the contracted intestinal track. Comparision between analytical results and the emulation model parameters has verified that our proposed method could preciously estimate the radius of the contracted small intestine based on endoscopic images.
Chen, Mingqing; Zheng, Yefeng; Wang, Yang; Mueller, Kerstin; Lauritsch, Guenter
2013-01-01
Compared to pre-operative imaging modalities, it is more convenient to estimate the current cardiac physiological status from C-arm angiocardiography since C-arm is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality to guide many cardiac interventions. The 3D shape and motion of the left ventricle (LV) estimated from rotational angiocardiography provide important cardiac function measurements, e.g., ejection fraction and myocardium motion dyssynchrony. However, automatic estimation of the 3D LV motion is difficult since all anatomical structures overlap on the 2D X-ray projections and the nearby confounding strong image boundaries (e.g., pericardium) often cause ambiguities to LV endocardium boundary detection. In this paper, a new framework is proposed to overcome the aforementioned difficulties: (1) A new learning-based boundary detector is developed by training a boosting boundary classifier combined with the principal component analysis of a local image patch; (2) The prior LV motion model is learned from a set of dynamic cardiac computed tomography (CT) sequences to provide a good initial estimate of the 3D LV shape of different cardiac phases; (3) The 3D motion trajectory is learned for each mesh point; (4) All these components are integrated into a multi-surface graph optimization method to extract the globally coherent motion. The method is tested on seven patient scans, showing significant improvement on the ambiguous boundary cases with a detection accuracy of 2.87 +/- 1.00 mm on LV endocardium boundary delineation in the 2D projections.
Miyazaki, Makito
2010-01-01
We present an effective method for estimating the motion of proteins from the motion of attached probe particles in single-molecule experiments. The framework naturally incorporates Langevin dynamics to compute the most probable trajectory of the protein. By using a perturbation expansion technique, we achieve computational costs more than four orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional gradient descent method without loss of simplicity in the computation algorithm. We present illustrative applications of the method using simple models of single-molecule experiments and confirm that the proposed method yields reasonable estimates of the hidden motion in a highly efficient manner.
A MAP estimator based on geometric Brownian motion for sample distances of laser triangulation data
Herrmann, Markus; Otesteanu, Marius
2016-11-01
The proposed algorithm is designed to enhance the line-detection stability in laser-stripe sensors. Despite their many features and capabilities, these sensors become unstable when measuring in dark or strongly-reflective environments. Ambiguous points within a camera image can appear on dark surfaces and be confused with noise when the laser-reflection intensity approaches noise level. Similar problems arise when strong reflections within the sensor image have intensities comparable to that of the laser. In these circumstances, it is difficult to determine the most probable point for the laser line. Hence, the proposed algorithm introduces a maximum a posteriori estimator, based on geometric Brownian motion, to provide a range estimate for the expected location of the reflected laser line.
Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongbin Qi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications.
Real-Time Hand Motion Parameter Estimation with Feature Point Detection Using Kinect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chun-Ming Chang; Che-Hao Chang; Chung-Lin Huang
2014-01-01
This paper presents a real-time Kinect-based hand pose estimation method. Different from model-based and appearance-based approaches, our approach retrieves continuous hand motion parameters in real time. First, the hand region is segmented from the depth image. Then, some specific feature points on the hand are located by the random forest classifier, and the relative displacements of these feature points are transformed to a rotation invariant feature vector. Finally, the system retrieves the hand joint parameters by applying the regression functions on the feature vectors. Experimental results are compared with the ground truth dataset obtained by a data glove to show the effectiveness of our approach. The effects of different distances and different rotation angles for the estimation accuracy are also evaluated.
The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames
Lachièze-Rey, M
2006-01-01
We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced GPS coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes. We show that they are covariant, and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position, (ii) the components of his [four-]velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides to this system an unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localisation, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography, tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate its position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime; a...
Is visual estimation of passive range of motion in the pediatric lower limb valid and reliable
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dagher Fernand
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual estimation (VE is an essential tool for evaluation of range of motion. Few papers discussed its validity in children orthopedics' practice. The purpose of our study was to assess validity and reliability of VE for passive range of motions (PROMs of children's lower limbs. Methods Fifty typically developing children (100 lower limbs were examined. Visual estimations for PROMs of hip (flexion, adduction, abduction, internal and external rotations, knee (flexion and popliteal angle and ankle (dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were made by a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon (POS and a 5th year resident in orthopaedics. A last year medical student did goniometric measurements. Three weeks later, same measurements were performed to assess reliability of visual estimation for each examiner. Results Visual estimations of the POS were highly reliable for hip flexion, hip rotations and popliteal angle (ρc ≥ 0.8. Reliability was good for hip abduction, knee flexion, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion (ρc ≥ 0.7 but poor for hip adduction (ρc = 0.5. Reproducibility for all PROMs was verified. Resident's VE showed high reliability (ρc ≥ 0.8 for hip flexion and popliteal angle. Good correlation was found for hip rotations and knee flexion (ρc ≥ 0.7. Poor results were obtained for ankle PROMs (ρc Conclusion Accuracy of VE of passive hip flexion and knee PROMs is high regardless of the examiner's experience. Same accuracy can be found for hip rotations and abduction whenever VE is performed by an experienced examiner. Goniometric evaluation is recommended for passive hip adduction and for ankle PROMs.
Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh
2012-09-13
This paper presents a novel medical image registration algorithm that explicitly models the physical constraints imposed by objects or sub-structures of objects that have differing material composition and border each other, which is the case in most medical registration applications. Typical medical image registration algorithms ignore these constraints and therefore are not physically viable, and to incorporate these constraints would require prior segmentation of the image into regions of differing material composition, which is a difficult problem in itself. We present a mathematical model and algorithm for incorporating these physical constraints into registration / motion and deformation estimation that does not require a segmentation of different material regions. Our algorithm is a joint estimation of different material regions and the motion/deformation within these regions. Therefore, the segmentation of different material regions is automatically provided in addition to the image registration satisfying the physical constraints. The algorithm identifies differing material regions (sub-structures or objects) as regions where the deformation has different characteristics. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on the analysis of cardiac MRI which includes the detection of the left ventricle boundary and its deformation. The experimental results indicate the potential of the algorithm as an assistant tool for the quantitative analysis of cardiac functions in the diagnosis of heart disease.
Does motion affect liver stiffness estimates in shear wave elastography? Phantom and clinical study.
Pellot-Barakat, Claire; Chami, Linda; Correas, Jean Michel; Lefort, Muriel; Lucidarme, Olivier
2016-09-01
This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of free-breathing (FB) vs. Apnea on Shear-wave elastography (SWE) measurements. Quantitative liver-stiffness measurements were obtained during FB and Apnea for 97 patients with various body-morphologies and liver textures. Quality indexes of FB and Apnea elasticity maps (percentage of non-filling (PNF), temporal (TV) and spatial (SV) variabilities) were computed. SWE measurements were also obtained from an homogeneous phantom at rest and during a mechanically-induced motion. Liver-stiffness values estimated from FB and Apnea acquisitions were correlated, particularly for homogeneous livers (r=0.76, PFB values were consistently 20-25% lower than Apnea ones (PFB also systematically resulted in degradation of TV (PFB measurements are highly correlated, although FB data quality is degraded compared to Apnea and estimated stiffness in FB is systematically lower than in Apnea. These discrepancies between rest and motion states were observed for patients but not for phantom data, suggesting that patient breath-holding impacts liver stiffness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carr, J.R.; Roberts, K.P.
1989-02-01
Universal kriging is compared with ordinary kriging for estimation of earthquake ground motion. Ordinary kriging is based on a stationary random function model; universal kriging is based on a nonstationary random function model representing first-order drift. Accuracy of universal kriging is compared with that for ordinary kriging; cross-validation is used as the basis for comparison. Hypothesis testing on these results shows that accuracy obtained using universal kriging is not significantly different from accuracy obtained using ordinary kriging. Test based on normal distribution assumptions are applied to errors measured in the cross-validation procedure; t and F tests reveal no evidence to suggest universal and ordinary kriging are different for estimation of earthquake ground motion. Nonparametric hypothesis tests applied to these errors and jackknife statistics yield the same conclusion: universal and ordinary kriging are not significantly different for this application as determined by a cross-validation procedure. These results are based on application to four independent data sets (four different seismic events).
WSDF: Weighting of Signed Distance Function for Camera Motion Estimation in RGB-D Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pham Minh Hoang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available With the recent advent of the cost-effective Kinect, which can capture real-time high-resolution RGB and visual depth information, has opened an opportunity to significantly increase the capabilities of many automated vision based recognition including object/action classification, 3D reconstruction, etc… In this work, we address the camera motion estimation which is an important phase in 3D object reconstruction system based on RGB-D data. We segment objects by thresholding algorithm based on depth data and propose the weighting function for SDF that is called WSDF. The problem of minimizing of this function is solved by Gauss-Newton methods. We systematically evaluate our method on TUM dataset. The experimental results are measured by ATE and RPE that evaluate both global and local consistency of camera motion estimation algorithm. We demonstrate large improvements over the state-of-the-art methods on both plant and teddy3 objects and achieve the best ATE as 0.00564 and 0.0182 and the best RPE as 0.00719 and 0.00104, respectively. These experiments show that the proposed method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art techniques.
HIERARCHICAL ADAPTIVE ROOD PATTERN SEARCH FOR MOTION ESTIMATION AT VIDEO SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. T. Nguyen
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the motion estimation algorithms for the analysis of video sequences in compression standards MPEG-4 Visual and H.264. Anew algorithm has been offered based on the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms. Method. Thealgorithm is called hierarchical adaptive rood pattern search (Hierarchical ARPS, HARPS. This new algorithm includes the classic adaptive rood pattern search ARPS and hierarchical search MP (Hierarchical search or Mean pyramid. All motion estimation algorithms have been implemented using MATLAB package and tested with several video sequences. Main Results. The criteria for evaluating the algorithms were: speed, peak signal to noise ratio, mean square error and mean absolute deviation. The proposed method showed a much better performance at a comparable error and deviation. The peak signal to noise ratio in different video sequences shows better and worse results than characteristics of known algorithms so it requires further investigation. Practical Relevance. Application of this algorithm in MPEG-4 and H.264 codecs instead of the standard can significantly reduce compression time. This feature enables to recommend it in telecommunication systems for multimedia data storing, transmission and processing.
Sibois, Aurore E.; Desai, Shailen D.; Bertiger, Willy; Haines, Bruce J.
2017-02-01
We present results from the generation of 10-year-long continuous time series of the Earth's polar motion at 15-min temporal resolution using Global Positioning System ground data. From our results, we infer an overall noise level in our high-rate polar motion time series of 60 μas (RMS). However, a spectral decomposition of our estimates indicates a noise floor of 4 μas at periods shorter than 2 days, which enables recovery of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion. We deliberately place no constraints on retrograde diurnal polar motion despite its inherent ambiguity with long-period nutation. With this approach, we are able to resolve damped manifestations of the effects of the diurnal ocean tides on retrograde polar motion. As such, our approach is at least capable of discriminating between a historical background nutation model that excludes the effects of the diurnal ocean tides and modern models that include those effects. To assess the quality of our polar motion solution outside of the retrograde diurnal frequency band, we focus on its capability to recover tidally driven and non-tidal variations manifesting at the ultra-rapid (intra-daily) and rapid (characterized by periods ranging from 2 to 20 days) periods. We find that our best estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion result from an approach that adopts, at the observation level, a reasonable background model of these effects. We also demonstrate that our high-rate polar motion estimates yield similar results to daily-resolved polar motion estimates, and therefore do not compromise the ability to resolve polar motion at periods of 2-20 days.
Aggregated Motion Estimation for Image Reconstruction in Real-Time MRI
Li, Housen; Zhang, Shuo; Frahm, Jens; Munk, Axel
2013-01-01
Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods generally shorten the measuring time by acquiring less data than needed according to the sampling theorem. In order to obtain a proper image from such undersampled data, the reconstruction is commonly defined as the solution of an inverse problem, which is regularized by a priori assumptions about the object. While practical realizations have hitherto been surprisingly successful, strong assumptions about the continuity of image features may affect the temporal fidelity of the estimated images. Here we propose a novel approach for the reconstruction of serial real-time MRI data which integrates the deformations between nearby frames into the data consistency term. The method is not required to be affine or rigid and does not need additional measurements. Moreover, it handles multi-channel MRI data by simultaneously determining the image and its coil sensitivity profiles in a nonlinear formulation which also adapts to non-Cartesian (e.g., radial) sampling sche...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd McElroy
2007-08-01
Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords
基于中心距离特征的人体运动序列关键帧提取%Key Frame Extraction Using Central Distance Feature for Human Motion Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭淑娟
2012-01-01
运动捕获数据的关键帧是原始运动序列的简洁表示,对于运动压缩、运动检索和运动分割起着重要的作用。提出了一种基于中心距离特征的人体运动捕获数据关键帧提取方法,通过提取四肢到中心点ROOT的距离,得到一组中心距离特征,将特征分为上肢和下肢来分别表示,并提取上下肢的距离模,得到二维的特征向量模;然后采用主成分分析得到一维特征,并提取其局部极值点作为初始关键帧;最后通过对初始关键帧的重新筛选与插入得到最终关键帧序列。实验结果表明,该方法提取的关键帧序列在视觉上能够很好的概括原始运动序列的内容,且具有高压缩率。%The key frames of the motion capture data are the concise description for the original motion sequence,which play an important role for the motion compression,motion retrieval and motion segmentation.A key frame extraction method based on the central distance features for the human motion capture data was proposed.The approach was divided into three main stages.In the first stage,a set of central distance features from the center joint ROOT to limbs was selected,and those features were divided into the upper and lower limbs norms.In the second stage,PCA method was used to get the one dimension principal component,which was used to extract the local optimum as the initial key frames.In the last stage,the initial key frames were filtered and inserted to get the final key frames.Experimental results show that the proposed method can get the needed key frames,which can have good visual generalization of the original motion sequence,and also be of high compression ratio as well.
THOR, MARIA; APTE, ADITYA; DEASY, JOSEPH O.; MUREN, LUDVIG PAUL
2016-01-01
Background and purpose Internal organ motion over a course of radiotherapy (RT) leads to uncertainties in the actual delivered dose distributions. In studies predicting RT morbidity, the single estimate of the delivered dose provided by the treatment planning computed tomography (pCT) is typically assumed to be representative of the dose distribution throughout the course of RT. In this paper, a simple model for describing organ motion is introduced, and is associated to late rectal morbidity data, with the aim of improving morbidity prediction. Material and methods Organ motion was described by normally distributed translational motion, with its magnitude characterised by the standard deviation (SD) of this distribution. Simulations of both isotropic and anisotropic (anterior-posterior only) motion patterns were performed, as were random, systematic or combined random and systematic motion. The associations between late rectal morbidity and motion-inclusive delivered dose-volume histograms (dDVHs) were quantified using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (Rs) in a series of 232 prostate cancer patients, and were compared to the associations obtained with the static/planned DVH (pDVH). Results For both isotropic and anisotropic motion, different associations with rectal morbidity were seen with the dDVHs relative to the pDVHs. The differences were most pronounced in the mid-dose region (40–60 Gy). The associations were dependent on the applied motion patterns, with the strongest association with morbidity obtained by applying random motion with an SD in the range 0.2–0.8 cm. Conclusion In this study we have introduced a simple model for describing organ motion occurring during RT. Differing and, for some cases, stronger dose-volume dependencies were found between the motion-inclusive dose distributions and rectal morbidity as compared to the associations with the planned dose distributions. This indicates that rectal organ motion during RT influences the
Park, Wooram; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Yu; Moses, Matthew; Chirikjian, Gregory S
2008-04-11
A nonholonomic system subjected to external noise from the environment, or internal noise in its own actuators, will evolve in a stochastic manner described by an ensemble of trajectories. This ensemble of trajectories is equivalent to the solution of a Fokker-Planck equation that typically evolves on a Lie group. If the most likely state of such a system is to be estimated, and plans for subsequent motions from the current state are to be made so as to move the system to a desired state with high probability, then modeling how the probability density of the system evolves is critical. Methods for solving Fokker-Planck equations that evolve on Lie groups then become important. Such equations can be solved using the operational properties of group Fourier transforms in which irreducible unitary representation (IUR) matrices play a critical role. Therefore, we develop a simple approach for the numerical approximation of all the IUR matrices for two of the groups of most interest in robotics: the rotation group in three-dimensional space, SO(3), and the Euclidean motion group of the plane, SE(2). This approach uses the exponential mapping from the Lie algebras of these groups, and takes advantage of the sparse nature of the Lie algebra representation matrices. Other techniques for density estimation on groups are also explored. The computed densities are applied in the context of probabilistic path planning for kinematic cart in the plane and flexible needle steering in three-dimensional space. In these examples the injection of artificial noise into the computational models (rather than noise in the actual physical systems) serves as a tool to search the configuration spaces and plan paths. Finally, we illustrate how density estimation problems arise in the characterization of physical noise in orientational sensors such as gyroscopes.
MOTION ESTIMATION IN MPEG-4 VIDEO SEQUENCE USING BLOCK MATCHING ALGORITHM
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KISHORE PINNINTI
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Now a day, MPEG-4 is the most apparent multimedia standard which combines natural interactivity, synthetic digital videos and computer graphics. It has a wide variety of applications such as video conferencing, computer games and mobile phones etc. All the applications need portable video communicators, so low power VLSIimplementations are required. In addition to the required portable devices, a care must be taken for the band width limitations. To perform an effective transmission of video sequences using the limited Bandwidth, the input data must be compressed and coded to fit these limited resources .This paper aims towards the realizationof an efficient estimation of moving components in a video image sequences to isolate moving image from the static background. The architecture developed in this paper uses LMS algorithm for estimating the noise components and also uses Block Matching Algorithm for the detection of moving components in the frame sequences. Further Huffman decoder is used for decoding the compressed data in the video codec. The proposed task is implemented in VHDL Language and the results are analyzed in XILINX Spartan-III.
Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields--An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach.
Strübbe, Simon; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Egelhaaf, Martin
2015-01-01
The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD) algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion.
Insect-Inspired Self-Motion Estimation with Dense Flow Fields--An Adaptive Matched Filter Approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Strübbe
Full Text Available The control of self-motion is a basic, but complex task for both technical and biological systems. Various algorithms have been proposed that allow the estimation of self-motion from the optic flow on the eyes. We show that two apparently very different approaches to solve this task, one technically and one biologically inspired, can be transformed into each other under certain conditions. One estimator of self-motion is based on a matched filter approach; it has been developed to describe the function of motion sensitive cells in the fly brain. The other estimator, the Koenderink and van Doorn (KvD algorithm, was derived analytically with a technical background. If the distances to the objects in the environment can be assumed to be known, the two estimators are linear and equivalent, but are expressed in different mathematical forms. However, for most situations it is unrealistic to assume that the distances are known. Therefore, the depth structure of the environment needs to be determined in parallel to the self-motion parameters and leads to a non-linear problem. It is shown that the standard least mean square approach that is used by the KvD algorithm leads to a biased estimator. We derive a modification of this algorithm in order to remove the bias and demonstrate its improved performance by means of numerical simulations. For self-motion estimation it is beneficial to have a spherical visual field, similar to many flying insects. We show that in this case the representation of the depth structure of the environment derived from the optic flow can be simplified. Based on this result, we develop an adaptive matched filter approach for systems with a nearly spherical visual field. Then only eight parameters about the environment have to be memorized and updated during self-motion.
Active Head Motion Compensation of TMS Robotic System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Estimation
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Wan Zakaria W.N.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS allows neuroscientist to study human brain behaviour and also become an important technique for changing the activity of brain neurons and the functions they sub serve. However, conventional manual procedure and robotized TMS are currently unable to precisely position the TMS coil because of unconstrained subject’s head movement and excessive contact force between the coil and subject’s head. This paper addressed this challenge by proposing an adaptive neuro-fuzzy force control to enable low contact force with a moving target surface. A learning and adaption mechanism is included in the control scheme to improve position disturbance estimation. The results show the ability of the proposed force control scheme to compensate subject’s head motions while maintaining desired contact force, thus allowing for more accurate and repeatable TMS procedures.
A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor
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Diego González
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system.
Power-scalable video encoder for mobile devices based on collocated motion estimation
Jung, Joel; Bourge, Arnaud
2004-01-01
In this paper, a method for designing low-power video schemes is presented. Algorithms that imply a very low dissipation are required for new applications where the energy source is limited, e.g. mobile phones including a camera and video features. Whereas it can be observed that video standards are mainly designed around coding efficiency, we propose to take into account power consumption characteristics directly when designing the algorithm. More precisely, we give some guidelines for the design of low-power video codecs in the scope of modern hardware architectures and we introduce the notion of power scalability. We present an original encoder based on so-called 'Collocated Motion Estimation' designed using the proposed methodology. Experimental results show that we remain close to the coding efficiency of the reference H.264 baseline encoder while the power consumption is largely reduced in our solution. Moreoever this encoder is scalable in memory transfer and computational complexity.
Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.
Moore, J A
1990-12-01
A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.
Tlapale, Émilien; Kornprobst, Pierre; Masson, Guillaume; Faugeras, Olivier; Bouecke, Jan,; Neumann, Heiko
2010-01-01
We propose a bio-inspired approach to motion estimation based on recent neuroscience findings concerning the motion pathway. Our goal is to identify the key biological features in order to reach a good compromise between bio-inspiration and computational efficiency. Here we choose the neural field formalism which provides a sound mathematical framework to describe the model at a macroscopic scale. Within this framework we define the cortical activity as coupled integro-differential equations ...
Estimating Inland Ground Motions from Lake Turbidite Sequences, Northern Cascadia margin, USA.
Goldfinger, C.; Hausmann, R. B.; Black, B.; Romsos, C. G.; Beeson, J. W.; Galer, S.; Collins, T.
2016-12-01
Using cores collected from lakes in northern Oregon and Washington, we are attempting to estimate ground motions from plate boundary earthquakes at inland paleoseismic sites. Paleoseismic evidence in Cascadia comes largely from coastal and offshore sites, while population the main population centers of Seattle, Victoria, Vancouver and Portland are 100-180 km inland. Cores from Leland Lake on the Olympic Peninsula, Lake Sawyer, near Seattle, and Bull Run Lake, 65 km east of Portland contain sequences of event beds that are interpreted as internal lake turbidites. The number, timing based on 14C constrained age models, sequencing, and individual event characteristics correlated with physical properties and CT data are compatible with onshore and offshore paleoseismic records of plate boundary earthquakes. The likely correlative turbidite sequence at Bull Run is well-matched to the nearest offshore turbidite sequences at Hydrate Ridge and Oceanus Basin (see also Hausmann et al. this meeting). Similarly, the Washington lake sequences are well matched to the offshore Washington sequences (Goldfinger et al. 2016), with the likely inclusion of a single Seattle Fault earthquake 1000 cal BP. Bull Run Lake has several ashes, but otherwise, additional event beds related to crustal faulting or other events are not observed. Our strategy is to investigate lakes that have low sensitivity to subaquatic slope failures in order to explore the limits of stability. In this case, the minimum ground shaking required for slope failure will approach actual ground motions as stability increases. We mapped failure zones within the lakes, and collected shear vane measurements to estimate sediment cohesion. We then computed minimum ground motions for these sites. For Leland Lake, there are no mappable failures, indicating internal lake turbidites likely were generated by thin surface failures below mapping resolution. For Sawyer and Bull Run, the most stable failure sites require 0.2-0.3g
Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance
Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann
2012-01-01
Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...
Frame independent cosmological perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2013-09-01
We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.
Gao, Bin; Liu, Wanyu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Croisille, Pierre; Delachartre, Philippe; Clarysse, Patrick
2016-12-01
Cine-MRI is widely used for the analysis of cardiac function in clinical routine, because of its high soft tissue contrast and relatively short acquisition time in comparison with other cardiac MRI techniques. The gray level distribution in cardiac cine-MRI is relatively homogenous within the myocardium, and can therefore make motion quantification difficult. To ensure that the motion estimation problem is well posed, more image features have to be considered. This work is inspired by a method previously developed for color image processing. The monogenic signal provides a framework to estimate the local phase, orientation, and amplitude, of an image, three features which locally characterize the 2D intensity profile. The independent monogenic features are combined into a 3D matrix for motion estimation. To improve motion estimation accuracy, we chose the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation as a matching measure, and implemented a bilateral filter for denoising and edge-preservation. The monogenic features distance is used in lieu of the color space distance in the bilateral filter. Results obtained from four realistic simulated sequences outperformed two other state of the art methods even in the presence of noise. The motion estimation errors (end point error) using our proposed method were reduced by about 20% in comparison with those obtained by the other tested methods. The new methodology was evaluated on four clinical sequences from patients presenting with cardiac motion dysfunctions and one healthy volunteer. The derived strain fields were analyzed favorably in their ability to identify myocardial regions with impaired motion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean Liénard
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the estimation of the motions and the segmentation of the spatial supports of the different layers involved in transparent X-ray image sequences. Classical motion estimation methods fail on sequences involving transparent effects since they do not explicitly model this phenomenon. We propose a method that comprises three main steps: initial block-matching for two-layer transparent motion estimation, motion clustering with 3D Hough transform, and joint transparent layer segmentation and parametric motion estimation. It is validated on synthetic and real clinical X-ray image sequences. Secondly, we derive an original transparent motion compensation method compatible with any spatiotemporal filtering technique. A direct transparent motion compensation method is proposed. To overcome its limitations, a novel hybrid filter is introduced which locally selects which type of motion compensation is to be carried out for optimal denoising. Convincing experiments on synthetic and real clinical images are also reported.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bao Han
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The obstacle motion state estimation is an essential task in intelligent vehicle. The ASCL group has developed such a system that uses a radar and GPS/INS. When running on the road, the acceleration of the vehicle is always changing, so it is hard for constant velocity (CV model and constant acceleration (CA model to describe the motion state of the vehicle. This paper introduced Current Statistical (CS model from military field, which uses the modified Rayleigh distribution to describe acceleration. The adaptive Kalman filter based on CS model was used to estimate the motion state of the target. We conducted simulation experiments and real vehicle tests, and the results showed that the estimation of position, velocity, and acceleration can be precise.
Motion feature extraction scheme for content-based video retrieval
Wu, Chuan; He, Yuwen; Zhao, Li; Zhong, Yuzhuo
2001-12-01
This paper proposes the extraction scheme of global motion and object trajectory in a video shot for content-based video retrieval. Motion is the key feature representing temporal information of videos. And it is more objective and consistent compared to other features such as color, texture, etc. Efficient motion feature extraction is an important step for content-based video retrieval. Some approaches have been taken to extract camera motion and motion activity in video sequences. When dealing with the problem of object tracking, algorithms are always proposed on the basis of known object region in the frames. In this paper, a whole picture of the motion information in the video shot has been achieved through analyzing motion of background and foreground respectively and automatically. 6-parameter affine model is utilized as the motion model of background motion, and a fast and robust global motion estimation algorithm is developed to estimate the parameters of the motion model. The object region is obtained by means of global motion compensation between two consecutive frames. Then the center of object region is calculated and tracked to get the object motion trajectory in the video sequence. Global motion and object trajectory are described with MPEG-7 parametric motion and motion trajectory descriptors and valid similar measures are defined for the two descriptors. Experimental results indicate that our proposed scheme is reliable and efficient.
Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen
2016-03-01
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Pose and Motion Estimation Using Dual Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filtering
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Goddard, J.S.; Abidi, M.A.
1998-06-01
A solution to the remote three-dimensional (3-D) measurement problem is presented for a dynamic system given a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) intensity images of a moving object. The 3-D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the six-degree-of-freedom motion and position values as well as structure. The stochastic model uses the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) as a nonlinear estimator and a screw representation of the 3-D transformation based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions, whose elements are dual numbers, provide a means to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. Linear object features, represented as dual vectors, are transformed using the dual quaternion transformation and are then projected to linear features in the image plane. The method has been implemented and tested with both simulated and actual experimental data. Simulation results are provided, along with comparisons to a point-based IEKF method using rotation and translation, to show the relative advantages of this method. Experimental results from testing using a camera mounted on the end effector of a robot arm are also given.
The Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) for Vehicle Motion State Estimation.
Gao, Siwei; Liu, Yanheng; Wang, Jian; Deng, Weiwen; Oh, Heekuck
2016-07-16
This paper proposes a multi-sensory Joint Adaptive Kalman Filter (JAKF) through extending innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) to estimate the motion state of the moving vehicles ahead. JAKF views Lidar and Radar data as the source of the local filters, which aims to adaptively adjust the measurement noise variance-covariance (V-C) matrix 'R' and the system noise V-C matrix 'Q'. Then, the global filter uses R to calculate the information allocation factor 'β' for data fusion. Finally, the global filter completes optimal data fusion and feeds back to the local filters to improve the measurement accuracy of the local filters. Extensive simulation and experimental results show that the JAKF has better adaptive ability and fault tolerance. JAKF enables one to bridge the gap of the accuracy difference of various sensors to improve the integral filtering effectivity. If any sensor breaks down, the filtered results of JAKF still can maintain a stable convergence rate. Moreover, the JAKF outperforms the conventional Kalman filter (CKF) and the innovation-based adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) with respect to the accuracy of displacement, velocity, and acceleration, respectively.
SU-E-J-01: 3D Fluoroscopic Image Estimation From Patient-Specific 4DCBCT-Based Motion Models
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Dhou, S; Hurwitz, M; Lewis, J [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Mishra, P [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: 3D motion modeling derived from 4DCT images, taken days or weeks before treatment, cannot reliably represent patient anatomy on the day of treatment. We develop a method to generate motion models based on 4DCBCT acquired at the time of treatment, and apply the model to estimate 3D time-varying images (referred to as 3D fluoroscopic images). Methods: Motion models are derived through deformable registration between each 4DCBCT phase, and principal component analysis (PCA) on the resulting displacement vector fields. 3D fluoroscopic images are estimated based on cone-beam projections simulating kV treatment imaging. PCA coefficients are optimized iteratively through comparison of these cone-beam projections and projections estimated based on the motion model. Digital phantoms reproducing ten patient motion trajectories, and a physical phantom with regular and irregular motion derived from measured patient trajectories, are used to evaluate the method in terms of tumor localization, and the global voxel intensity difference compared to ground truth. Results: Experiments included: 1) assuming no anatomic or positioning changes between 4DCT and treatment time; and 2) simulating positioning and tumor baseline shifts at the time of treatment compared to 4DCT acquisition. 4DCBCT were reconstructed from the anatomy as seen at treatment time. In case 1) the tumor localization error and the intensity differences in ten patient were smaller using 4DCT-based motion model, possible due to superior image quality. In case 2) the tumor localization error and intensity differences were 2.85 and 0.15 respectively, using 4DCT-based motion models, and 1.17 and 0.10 using 4DCBCT-based models. 4DCBCT performed better due to its ability to reproduce daily anatomical changes. Conclusion: The study showed an advantage of 4DCBCT-based motion models in the context of 3D fluoroscopic images estimation. Positioning and tumor baseline shift uncertainties were mitigated by the 4DCBCT
Estimating Rayleigh wave particle motion from three-component array analysis of ambient vibrations
Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat
2010-01-01
Several methods have been proposed in the past years to extract the Rayleigh wave ellipticity from horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of single station ambient noise recordings. The disadvantage of this set of techniques is the difficulty in clearly identifying and separating the contribution of higher modes. In most cases, only the fundamental mode of ellipticity can be identified. Moreover, it is generally difficult to correct for the energy of SH and Love waves present in the horizontal components of the ambient vibration wavefield. We introduce a new methodology to retrieve Rayleigh wave ellipticity using high-resolution frequency-wavenumber array analysis. The technique is applied to the three components of motion and is based on the assumption that an amplitude maximum in the f-k cross-spectrum must represent the true power amplitude of the corresponding signal. In the case of Rayleigh waves, therefore, the ratio between maxima obtained from the horizontal (radial-polarized) and vertical components of motion will also represent the frequency-dependent ellipticity function. Consequently, if we can identify the Rayleigh dispersion curves of several modes on the f-k plane, then the corresponding modal ellipticity patterns can also be separated and extracted. To test the approach, synthetic and real data sets were processed. In all tested cases, a reliable estimation of segments of the fundamental mode ellipticity was obtained. The identification of higher modes is possible in most cases. The quality of results depends on the selected array geometry and the signal-to-noise ratio, with a major improvement achieved by increasing the number of receivers employed during the survey. An experiment conducted in the town of Visp (Switzerland) allowed the retrieval of portions of ellipticity curves up to the second Rayleigh higher mode, using two concentric circular array configurations of 14 and 11 receivers each.
Estimation of site effects using strong motion data of BYTNet array in Turkey
Özmen, Ö. T.; Yamanaka, H.; Zaineh, H. E.; Alkan, M. A.
2016-07-01
Simultaneous estimation of effects of source, propagation path, and local site amplification was carried out using observed strong motion records in a frequency range from 0.8 to 20 Hz for the purpose of empirical evaluation of the local site effects in different geological conditions in the northwestern part of Turkey. The analyzed data are S-wave portions of 162 accelerograms from 39 shallow events observed at 14 sites of BYTNet array. A spectral separation method was applied to the observed S-wave spectra. The solutions for source spectra, inelasticity factor of propagation path for S-waves (Q s-value), and factor of site amplification at each site were obtained in a least squares sense. In the analysis, we assumed that the factor of the site amplification at a reference site is the same as that of theoretical amplification of S-waves to the soil model whose bottom layer has an S-wave velocity around 2.15 km/s. The estimated Q s-value of the propagation path is modeled as Q s(f) = 87.4f0.78. The estimated site amplifications are characterized into three groups. The sites in the first group belong to rock site with no dominant peaks at a frequency range of 2 to 10 Hz. The second group of hard soil sites is characterized with moderately dominant peaks at a frequency of 5 Hz. The last group for soft soil sites has common peaks at a frequency of 4 Hz with larger amplitudes than those in the hard soil group. We, then, compare the amplifications with average S-wave velocity in top 30 m of the shallow S-wave profiles and proposed linear empirical formula between them at each frequency. We, furthermore, inverted the observed amplification factors into S-wave velocity and Q s-value profiles of the deep soil over the basement.
Balaguer-Puig, Matilde; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Lerma, José Luis; Ibáñez-Asensio, Sara
2017-10-01
The quantitative estimation of changes in terrain surfaces caused by water erosion can be carried out from precise descriptions of surfaces given by means of digital elevation models (DEMs). Some stages of water erosion research efforts are conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulators and soil boxes with areas less than 1 m2. Under these conditions, erosive processes can lead to very small surface variations and high precision DEMs are needed to account for differences measured in millimetres. In this paper, we used a photogrammetric Structure from Motion (SfM) technique to build DEMs of a 0.5 m2 soil box to monitor several simulated rainfall episodes in the laboratory. The technique of DEM of difference (DoD) was then applied using GIS tools to compute estimates of volumetric changes between each pair of rainfall episodes. The aim was to classify the soil surface into three classes: erosion areas, deposition areas, and unchanged or neutral areas, and quantify the volume of soil that was eroded and deposited. We used a thresholding criterion of changes based on the estimated error of the difference of DEMs, which in turn was obtained from the root mean square error of the individual DEMs. Experimental tests showed that the choice of different threshold values in the DoD can lead to volume differences as large as 60% when compared to the direct volumetric difference. It turns out that the choice of that threshold was a key point in this method. In parallel to photogrammetric work, we collected sediments from each rain episode and obtained a series of corresponding measured sediment yields. The comparison between computed and measured sediment yields was significantly correlated, especially when considering the accumulated value of the five simulations. The computed sediment yield was 13% greater than the measured sediment yield. The procedure presented in this paper proved to be suitable for the determination of sediment yields in rainfall-driven soil
Estimation of site effects using strong motion data of BYTNet array in Turkey
Özmen, Ö. T.; Yamanaka, H.; Zaineh, H. E.; Alkan, M. A.
2017-01-01
Simultaneous estimation of effects of source, propagation path, and local site amplification was carried out using observed strong motion records in a frequency range from 0.8 to 20 Hz for the purpose of empirical evaluation of the local site effects in different geological conditions in the northwestern part of Turkey. The analyzed data are S-wave portions of 162 accelerograms from 39 shallow events observed at 14 sites of BYTNet array. A spectral separation method was applied to the observed S-wave spectra. The solutions for source spectra, inelasticity factor of propagation path for S-waves ( Q s-value), and factor of site amplification at each site were obtained in a least squares sense. In the analysis, we assumed that the factor of the site amplification at a reference site is the same as that of theoretical amplification of S-waves to the soil model whose bottom layer has an S-wave velocity around 2.15 km/s. The estimated Q s-value of the propagation path is modeled as Q s( f) = 87.4f0.78. The estimated site amplifications are characterized into three groups. The sites in the first group belong to rock site with no dominant peaks at a frequency range of 2 to 10 Hz. The second group of hard soil sites is characterized with moderately dominant peaks at a frequency of 5 Hz. The last group for soft soil sites has common peaks at a frequency of 4 Hz with larger amplitudes than those in the hard soil group. We, then, compare the amplifications with average S-wave velocity in top 30 m of the shallow S-wave profiles and proposed linear empirical formula between them at each frequency. We, furthermore, inverted the observed amplification factors into S-wave velocity and Q s-value profiles of the deep soil over the basement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Xiong Zhang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In wideband radar systems, the performance of motion parameters estimation can significantly affect the performance of object detection and the quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR imaging. Although the traditional motion parameters estimation methods can reduce the range migration (RM and Doppler frequency migration (DFM effects in ISAR imaging, the computational complexity is high. In this paper, we propose a new fast non-parameter-searching method for motion parameters estimation based on the cross-correlation of adjacent echoes (CCAE for wideband LFM signals. A cross-correlation operation is carried out for two adjacent echo signals, then the motion parameters can be calculated by estimating the frequency of the correlation result. The proposed CCAE method can be applied directly to the stretching system, which is commonly adopted in wideband radar systems. Simulation results demonstrate that the new method can achieve better estimation performances, with much lower computational cost, compared with existing methods. The experimental results on real radar datasets are also evaluated to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art existing methods.
SU-E-J-135: An Investigation of Ultrasound Imaging for 3D Intra-Fraction Prostate Motion Estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Shea, T; Harris, E; Bamber, J [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Greater London (United Kingdom); Evans, P [Centre for Vision, Speech and Signal Processing, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)
2014-06-01
Purpose: This study investigates the use of a mechanically swept 3D ultrasound (US) probe to estimate intra-fraction motion of the prostate during radiation therapy using an US phantom and simulated transperineal imaging. Methods: A 3D motion platform was used to translate an US speckle phantom while simulating transperineal US imaging. Motion patterns for five representative types of prostate motion, generated from patient data previously acquired with a Calypso system, were using to move the phantom in 3D. The phantom was also implanted with fiducial markers and subsequently tracked using the CyberKnife kV x-ray system for comparison. A normalised cross correlation block matching algorithm was used to track speckle patterns in 3D and 2D US data. Motion estimation results were compared with known phantom translations. Results: Transperineal 3D US could track superior-inferior (axial) and anterior-posterior (lateral) motion to better than 0.8 mm root-mean-square error (RMSE) at a volume rate of 1.7 Hz (comparable with kV x-ray tracking RMSE). Motion estimation accuracy was poorest along the US probe's swept axis (right-left; RL; RMSE < 4.2 mm) but simple regularisation methods could be used to improve RMSE (< 2 mm). 2D US was found to be feasible for slowly varying motion (RMSE < 0.5 mm). 3D US could also allow accurate radiation beam gating with displacement thresholds of 2 mm and 5 mm exhibiting a RMSE of less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: 2D and 3D US speckle tracking is feasible for prostate motion estimation during radiation delivery. Since RL prostate motion is small in magnitude and frequency, 2D or a hybrid (2D/3D) US imaging approach which also accounts for potential prostate rotations could be used. Regularisation methods could be used to ensure the accuracy of tracking data, making US a feasible approach for gating or tracking in standard or hypo-fractionated prostate treatments.
The covariance of GPS coordinates and frames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lachieze-Rey, Marc [CNRS APC, UMR 7164 Service d' Astrophysique, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)
2006-05-21
We explore, in the general relativistic context, the properties of the recently introduced global positioning system (GPS) coordinates, as well as those of the associated frames and coframes that they define. We show that they are covariant and completely independent of any observer. We show that standard spectroscopic and astrometric observations allow any observer to measure (i) the values of the GPS coordinates at his position (ii) the components of his 4-velocity and (iii) the components of the metric in the GPS frame. This provides this system with a unique value both for conceptual discussion (no frame dependence) and for practical use (involved quantities are directly measurable): localization, motion monitoring, astrometry, cosmography and tests of gravitation theories. We show explicitly, in the general relativistic context, how an observer may estimate his position and motion, and reconstruct the components of the metric. This arises from two main results: the extension of the velocity fields of the probes to the whole (curved) spacetime, and the identification of the components of the observer's velocity in the GPS frame with the (inversed) observed redshifts of the probes. Specific cases (non-relativistic velocities, Minkowski and Friedmann-Lemaitre spacetimes, geodesic motions) are studied in detail.
Santos, C. Almeida; Costa, C. Oliveira; Batista, J.
2016-05-01
The paper describes a kinematic model-based solution to estimate simultaneously the calibration parameters of the vision system and the full-motion (6-DOF) of large civil engineering structures, namely of long deck suspension bridges, from a sequence of stereo images captured by digital cameras. Using an arbitrary number of images and assuming a smooth structure motion, an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter is used to recursively estimate the projection matrices of the cameras and the structure full-motion (displacement and rotation) over time, helping to meet the structure health monitoring fulfilment. Results related to the performance evaluation, obtained by numerical simulation and with real experiments, are reported. The real experiments were carried out in indoor and outdoor environment using a reduced structure model to impose controlled motions. In both cases, the results obtained with a minimum setup comprising only two cameras and four non-coplanar tracking points, showed a high accuracy results for on-line camera calibration and structure full motion estimation.
Real-time estimation of 3D human arm motion from markerless images for human-machine interaction
Verma, Siddharth; Kofman, Jonathan
2003-10-01
Vision-based motion tracking is commonly used in surveillance, human-machine interfaces in robotics and automation, virtual and augmented reality applications and biomechanics. Most techniques require markers, use a predefined motion sequence or user-intervention for initialization, and do not process in real-time. This paper describes the implementation of a vision-based non-invasive technique for markerless real-time tracking of human-arm motion. Human-arm motion is tracked by processing images from two calibrated cameras in real-time to estimate the position of the 3D joint centers of the wrist and elbow, and determine the orientation of the hand from the 3D positions of the index finger and thumb. Tracking of the hand and arm was carried out without any prior knowledge of subject's arm length, texture, width and distance from the camera.
Lecheler, S.K.
2010-01-01
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a dissociation of framing from other media effects concepts is not necessarily the ideal way to go in creating a more advanced framing theory. We also provide the first contours of a theory of news framing...
Key frame extraction from unstructured consumer video clips
Papin, Christophe; Luo, Jiebo
2007-01-01
We present a key frame extraction method dedicated to summarize unstructured consumer video clips acquired from digital cameras. Analysis of spatio-temporal changes over time provides meaningful information about the scene and the cameraman's general intents. First, camera and object motion are estimated and used to derive motion descriptors. A video is segmented into homogeneous segments based on major types of camera motion (e.g., pan, zoom, pause, steady). Dedicated rules are used to extract candidate key frames from each segment. Confidence measures are computed for the candidates to enable ranking in semantic relevance. This method is scalable so that we can produce any desired number of key frames from the candidates. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our method by comparing results with the ground truth agreed by multiple judges.
Adaptive mode decision with residual motion compensation for distributed video coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren; Slowack, Jurgen
2013-01-01
mode in DVC. The adaptive mode decision is not only based on quality of key frames but also the rate of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. To improve noise distribution estimation for a more accurate mode decision, a residual motion compensation is proposed to estimate a current noise residue based on a previously...
Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.
1989-01-01
Several techniques to perform static and dynamic load balancing techniques for vision systems are presented. These techniques are novel in the sense that they capture the computational requirements of a task by examining the data when it is produced. Furthermore, they can be applied to many vision systems because many algorithms in different systems are either the same, or have similar computational characteristics. These techniques are evaluated by applying them on a parallel implementation of the algorithms in a motion estimation system on a hypercube multiprocessor system. The motion estimation system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from different time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters. It is shown that the performance gains when these data decomposition and load balancing techniques are used are significant and the overhead of using these techniques is minimal.
Simpson, Elizabeth C.
1989-01-01
Motion estimation is a field of great interest because of its many applications in areas such as robotics and image coding. The optic flow method is one such scheme which, although fairly accurate, is prone to error in the presence of noise. This thesis describes the use of the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF) in reducing errors in displacement estimation due to degradation of the sequence. The implementation of filtering and motion estimation algorithms on the SUN workstation is also discussed. Results from preliminary testing were used to determine the degrees of freedom available for the ROMKF in the SUN software. The tests indicated that increasing the state to the left leads to slight improvement over the minimum state case. Therefore, the software uses the minimum model, with the option of adding states to the left only. The ROMKF was then used in conjunction with a hierarchical pel recursive motion estimation algorithm. Applying the ROMKF to the degraded displacements themselves generally yielded slight improvements in cases with noise degradation and noise plus blur. Filtering the images of the degraded sequence prior to motion estimation was less effective in these cases. Both methods performed badly in the case of blur alone, resulting in increased displacement errors. This is thought to be due in part to filter artifacts. Some improvements were obtained by varying the filter parameters when filtering the displacements directly. This result suggests that further study in varying filter parameters may lead to better results. The results of this thesis indicate that the ROMKF can play a part in reducing motion estimation errors from degraded sequences. However, more work needs to be done before the use of the ROMKF can be a practical solution.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel
2007-01-01
A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the past...
Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko
2016-10-01
The detailed source rupture process of the M 7.3 event (April 16, 2016, 01:25, JST) of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes was derived from strong-motion waveforms using multiple-time-window linear waveform inversion. Based on the observations of surface ruptures, the spatial distribution of aftershocks, and the geodetic data, a realistic curved fault model was developed for source-process analysis of this event. The seismic moment and maximum slip were estimated as 5.5 × 1019 Nm ( M w 7.1) and 3.8 m, respectively. The source model of the M 7.3 event had two significant ruptures. One rupture propagated toward the northeastern shallow region at 4 s after rupture initiation and continued with large slips to approximately 16 s. This rupture caused a large slip region 10-30 km northeast of the hypocenter that reached the caldera of Mt. Aso. Another rupture propagated toward the surface from the hypocenter at 2-6 s and then propagated toward the northeast along the near surface at 6-10 s. A comparison with the result of using a single fault plane model demonstrated that the use of the curved fault model led to improved waveform fit at the stations south of the fault. The source process of the M 6.5 event (April 14, 2016, 21:26, JST) was also estimated. In the source model obtained for the M 6.5 event, the seismic moment was 1.7 × 1018 Nm ( M w 6.1), and the rupture with large slips propagated from the hypocenter to the surface along the north-northeast direction at 1-6 s. The results in this study are consistent with observations of the surface ruptures. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .
Aagaard, B.T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; McCandless, K.; Nilsson, S.; Petersson, N.A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; Zoback, M.L.
2008-01-01
We estimate the ground motions produce by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake making use of the recently developed Song et al. (2008) source model that combines the available geodetic and seismic observations and recently constructed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. Our estimates of the ground motions for the 1906 earthquake are consistent across five ground-motion modeling groups employing different wave propagation codes and simulation domains. The simulations successfully reproduce the main features of the Boatwright and Bundock (2005) ShakeMap, but tend to over predict the intensity of shaking by 0.1-0.5 modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units. Velocity waveforms at sites throughout the San Francisco Bay Area exhibit characteristics consistent with rupture directivity, local geologic conditions (e.g., sedimentary basins), and the large size of the event (e.g., durations of strong shaking lasting tens of seconds). We also compute ground motions for seven hypothetical scenarios rupturing the same extent of the northern San Andreas fault, considering three additional hypocenters and an additional, random distribution of slip. Rupture directivity exerts the strongest influence on the variations in shaking, although sedimentary basins do consistently contribute to the response in some locations, such as Santa Rosa, Livermore, and San Jose. These scenarios suggest that future large earthquakes on the northern San Andreas fault may subject the current San Francisco Bay urban area to stronger shaking than a repeat of the 1906 earthquake. Ruptures propagating southward towards San Francisco appear to expose more of the urban area to a given intensity level than do ruptures propagating northward.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王振洲; 李桂苓
2003-01-01
Motion estimation is an important part of the MPEG-4 encoder, due to its significant impact on the bit rate and the output quality of the encoder sequence. Unfortunately this feature takes a significant part of the encoding time especially when the straightforward full search(FS) algorithm is used. In this paper, a new algorithm named diamond block based gradient descent search (DBBGDS) algorithm, which is significantly faster than FS and gives similar quality of the output sequence, is proposed. At the same time, some other algorithms, such as three step search (TSS), improved three step search (ITSS), new three step search (NTSS), four step search (4SS), cellular search (CS) , diamond search (DS) and block based gradient descent search (BBGDS), are adopted and compared with DBBGDS. As the experimental results show, DBBGDS has its own advantages. Although DS has been adopted by the MPEG-4 VM, its output sequence quality is worse than that of the proposed algorithm while its complexity is similar to the proposed one. Compared with BBGDS, the proposed algorithm can achieve a better output quality.
A Multi-Task Learning Framework for Head Pose Estimation under Target Motion.
Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Liu, Gaowen; Lanz, Oswald; Sebe, Nicu
2016-06-01
Recently, head pose estimation (HPE) from low-resolution surveillance data has gained in importance. However, monocular and multi-view HPE approaches still work poorly under target motion, as facial appearance distorts owing to camera perspective and scale changes when a person moves around. To this end, we propose FEGA-MTL, a novel framework based on Multi-Task Learning (MTL) for classifying the head pose of a person who moves freely in an environment monitored by multiple, large field-of-view surveillance cameras. Upon partitioning the monitored scene into a dense uniform spatial grid, FEGA-MTL simultaneously clusters grid partitions into regions with similar facial appearance, while learning region-specific head pose classifiers. In the learning phase, guided by two graphs which a-priori model the similarity among (1) grid partitions based on camera geometry and (2) head pose classes, FEGA-MTL derives the optimal scene partitioning and associated pose classifiers. Upon determining the target's position using a person tracker at test time, the corresponding region-specific classifier is invoked for HPE. The FEGA-MTL framework naturally extends to a weakly supervised setting where the target's walking direction is employed as a proxy in lieu of head orientation. Experiments confirm that FEGA-MTL significantly outperforms competing single-task and multi-task learning methods in multi-view settings.
An improved implementation of block matching for motion estimation in ultrasound imaging
Cardoso, Fernando M.; Furuie, Sergio S.
2017-03-01
Ultrasound elastography has become an important procedure that provides information about the tissue dynamics and may help on the detection of tissue abnormalities. Therefore, motion estimation in a sequence of ultrasound acquisition is crucial to the quality of this information. We propose a novel algorithm to perform speckle tracking, which consists in an implementation of 2D Block Matching with two enhancements: sub-pixel linear interpolation and displacement propagation, which are able to increase resolution, reduce computation time and prevent kernel mismatching errors. This method does not require any additional hardware and provide real-time information. The proposed technique was evaluated using four different numerical phantoms and its results were compared with the results from standard 2D block matching and optical flow. The proposed method outperformed the other two methods, providing an average error of 0.98 pixels, while standard 2D block matching and optical flow presented an average error of 2.50 and 10.03 pixels, respectively. The proposed algorithm was also assessed with four different physical phantoms and a qualitative comparison showed that the proposed technique presented results that were compatible to the results from the built-in elastography mode of the ultrasound equipment (Ultrasonix Touch).
Unmanned aerial vehicle-based structure from motion biomass inventory estimates
Bedell, Emily; Leslie, Monique; Fankhauser, Katie; Burnett, Jonathan; Wing, Michael G.; Thomas, Evan A.
2017-04-01
Riparian vegetation restoration efforts require cost-effective, accurate, and replicable impact assessments. We present a method to use an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a GoPro digital camera to collect photogrammetric data of a 0.8-ha riparian restoration. A three-dimensional point cloud was created from the photos using "structure from motion" techniques. The point cloud was analyzed and compared to traditional, ground-based monitoring techniques. Ground-truth data were collected on 6.3% of the study site and averaged across the entire site to report stem heights in stems/ha in three height classes. The project site was divided into four analysis sections, one for derivation of parameters used in the UAV data analysis and the remaining three sections reserved for method validation. Comparing the ground-truth data to the UAV generated data produced an overall error of 21.6% and indicated an R2 value of 0.98. A Bland-Altman analysis indicated a 95% probability that the UAV stems/section result will be within 61 stems/section of the ground-truth data. The ground-truth data are reported with an 80% confidence interval of ±1032 stems/ha thus, the UAV was able to estimate stems well within this confidence interval.
Lu, Tao; Hu, Guorui
2016-04-01
In the engineering seismology studies, the seismic permanent displacement of the near-fault site is often obtained by the process of the ground motion accelerogram recorded by the instrument on the station. Because of the selection differences of the estimate methods and the algorithm parameters, the strongly different results of the permanent displacement is gotten often. And the reliability of the methods has not only been proved in fact, but also the selection of the algorithm parameters has to be carefully considered. In order to solve this problem, the experimental study on the permanent displacement according to the accelerogram was carried out with the experiment program of using the large shaking table and the sliding mechanism in the earthquake engineering laboratory. In the experiments,the large shaking table genarated the dynamincs excitation without the permanent displacement,the sliding mechanism fixed on the shaking table genarated the permanent displacement, and the accelerogram including the permant information had been recorded by the instrument on the sliding mechanism.Then the permanent displacement value had been obtained according to the accelerogram, and been compared with the displacement value gotten by the displacement meter and the digital close range photogrammetry. The experimental study showed that the reliable permanent displacement could be obtained by the existing processing method under the simple laboratory conditions with the preconditions of the algorithm parameters selection carefully.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoine, Jean-Pierre [Institut de Recherche en Mathematique et Physique, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium); Balazs, Peter, E-mail: jean-pierre.antoine@uclouvain.be, E-mail: peter.balazs@oeaw.ac.at [Acoustics Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wohllebengasse 12-14, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)
2011-05-20
Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with a bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, both in the continuous and discrete case, and give some remarks for the dual situation. In particular, we show that reconstruction is still possible in certain cases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feygelman, Vladimir; Zhang, Geoffrey; Hunt, Dylan; Opp, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Stambaugh, Cassandra [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Wolf, Theresa K. [Live Oak Technologies LLC, Kirkwood, Missouri 63122 (United States); Nelms, Benjamin E. [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States)
2013-02-15
Purpose: To present a framework for measurement-guided VMAT dose reconstruction to moving patient voxels from a known motion kernel and the static phantom data, and to validate this perturbation-based approach with the proof-of-principle experiments. Methods: As described previously, the VMAT 3D dose to a static patient can be estimated by applying a phantom measurement-guided perturbation to the treatment planning system (TPS)-calculated dose grid. The fraction dose to any voxel in the presence of motion, assuming the motion kernel is known, can be derived in a similar fashion by applying a measurement-guided motion perturbation. The dose to the diodes in a helical phantom is recorded at 50 ms intervals and is transformed into a series of time-resolved high-density volumetric dose grids. A moving voxel is propagated through this 4D dose space and the fraction dose to that voxel in the phantom is accumulated. The ratio of this motion-perturbed, reconstructed dose to the TPS dose in the phantom serves as a perturbation factor, applied to the TPS fraction dose to the similarly situated voxel in the patient. This approach was validated by the ion chamber and film measurements on four phantoms of different shape and structure: homogeneous and inhomogeneous cylinders, a homogeneous cube, and an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. A 2D motion stage was used to simulate the motion. The stage position was synchronized with the beam start time with the respiratory gating simulator. The motion patterns were designed such that the motion speed was in the upper range of the expected tumor motion (1-1.4 cm/s) and the range exceeded the normally observed limits (up to 5.7 cm). The conformal arc plans for X or Y motion (in the IEC 61217 coordinate system) consisted of manually created narrow (3 cm) rectangular strips moving in-phase (tracking) or phase-shifted by 90 Degree-Sign (crossing) with respect to the phantom motion. The XY motion was tested with the computer-derived VMAT
Liu, Hong; Wang, Jie; Xu, Xiangyang; Song, Enmin; Wang, Qian; Jin, Renchao; Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fei, Baowei
2015-01-01
A robust and accurate center-frequency (CF) estimation (RACE) algorithm for improving the performance of the local sine-wave modeling (SinMod) method, which is a good motion estimation method for tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images, is proposed in this study. The RACE algorithm can automatically, effectively and efficiently produce a very appropriate CF estimate for the SinMod method, under the circumstance that the specified tagging parameters are unknown, on account of the following two key techniques: (1) the well-known mean-shift algorithm, which can provide accurate and rapid CF estimation; and (2) an original two-direction-combination strategy, which can further enhance the accuracy and robustness of CF estimation. Some other available CF estimation algorithms are brought out for comparison. Several validation approaches that can work on the real data without ground truths are specially designed. Experimental results on human body in vivo cardiac data demonstrate the significance of accurate CF estimation for SinMod, and validate the effectiveness of RACE in facilitating the motion estimation performance of SinMod. PMID:25087857
Block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for wavelet-decomposed digital video
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zafar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Zhang, Y.Q. [David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jabbari, B. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)
1997-08-01
In this paper the authors introduce a block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for the previously developed wavelet-based video codec, where multiresolution motion estimation is performed in the wavelet domain. The frame classification structure described in this paper is similar to that used in the MPEG standard. Specifically, the I-frames are intraframe coded, the P-frames are interpolated from a previous I- or a P-frame, and the B-frames are bidirectional interpolated frames. They apply this frame classification structure to the wavelet domain with variable block sizes and multiresolution representation. They use a symmetric bidirectional scheme for the B-frames and classify the motion blocks as intraframe, compensated either from the preceding or the following frame, or bidirectional (i.e., compensated based on which type yields the minimum energy). They also introduce the concept of F-frames, which are analogous to P-frames but are predicted from the following frame only. This improves the overall quality of the reconstruction in a group of pictures (GOP) but at the expense of extra buffering. They also study the effect of quantization of the I-frames on the reconstruction of a GOP, and they provide intuitive explanation for the results. In addition, the authors study a variety of wavelet filter-banks to be used in a multiresolution motion-compensated hierarchical video codec.
Lossless Compression of Video using Motion Compensation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren
1998-01-01
Summary form only given. We investigate lossless coding of video using predictive coding and motion compensation. The new coding methods combine state-of-the-art lossless techniques as JPEG (context based prediction and bias cancellation, Golomb coding), with high resolution motion field estimation......-predictors and intra-frame predictors as well. As proposed by Ribas-Corbera (see PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 1996), we use bi-linear interpolation in order to achieve sub-pixel precision of the motion field. Using more reference images is another way of achieving higher accuracy of the match. The motion...
Motion Estimated-Compensated Reconstruction with Preserved-Features in Free-Breathing Cardiac MRI
Bustin, Aurelien; Janich, Martin A; Burschka, Darius; Felblinger, Jacques; Brau, Anja C S; Odille, Freddy
2016-01-01
To develop an efficient motion-compensated reconstruction technique for free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows high-quality images to be reconstructed from multiple undersampled single-shot acquisitions. The proposed method is a joint image reconstruction and motion correction method consisting of several steps, including a non-rigid motion extraction and a motion-compensated reconstruction. The reconstruction includes a denoising with the Beltrami regularization, which offers an ideal compromise between feature preservation and staircasing reduction. Results were assessed in simulation, phantom and volunteer experiments. The proposed joint image reconstruction and motion correction method exhibits visible quality improvement over previous methods while reconstructing sharper edges. Moreover, when the acceleration factor increases, standard methods show blurry results while the proposed method preserves image quality. The method was applied to free-breathing single-shot cardiac MR...
Yamaguchi, A; Hirohata, A; Ono, T; Miyajima, H
2012-01-18
We observed a magnetic domain wall (DW) motion induced by the spin-polarized pulsed current in a nanoscale Fe(19)Ni(81) wire using a magnetic force microscope. High current density, which is of the order of 10(11) A m(-2), was required for the DW motion. A simple method to estimate the temperature of the wire was developed by comparing the wire resistance measured during the DW motion with the temperature dependence of the wire resistance. Using this method, we found the temperature of the wire was proportional to the square of the current density and became just beneath at the threshold Curie temperature. Our experimental data qualitatively support this analytical model that the temperature is proportional to the resistivity, thickness, width of the wire and the square of the current density, and also inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity.
Hosman, R. J. A. W.; Vandervaart, J. C.
1984-01-01
An experiment to investigate visual roll attitude and roll rate perception is described. The experiment was also designed to assess the improvements of perception due to cockpit motion. After the onset of the motion, subjects were to make accurate and quick estimates of the final magnitude of the roll angle step response by pressing the appropriate button of a keyboard device. The differing time-histories of roll angle, roll rate and roll acceleration caused by a step response stimulate the different perception processes related the central visual field, peripheral visual field and vestibular organs in different, yet exactly known ways. Experiments with either of the visual displays or cockpit motion and some combinations of these were run to asses the roles of the different perception processes. Results show that the differences in response time are much more pronounced than the differences in perception accuracy.
Royuela-del-Val, Javier; Cordero-Grande, Lucilio; Simmross-Wattenberg, Federico; Martín-Fernández, Marcos; Alberola-López, Carlos
2016-04-01
Compressed sensing methods with motion estimation and compensation techniques have been proposed for the reconstruction of accelerated dynamic MRI. However, artifacts that naturally arise in compressed sensing reconstruction procedures hinder the estimation of motion from reconstructed images, especially at high acceleration factors. This work introduces a robust groupwise nonrigid motion estimation technique applied to the compressed sensing reconstruction of dynamic cardiac cine MRI sequences. A spatio-temporal regularized, groupwise, nonrigid registration method based on a B-splines deformation model and a least squares metric is used to estimate and to compensate the movement of the heart in breath-hold cine acquisitions and to obtain a quasistatic sequence with highly sparse representation in temporally transformed domains. Short axis in vivo datasets are used for validation, both original multicoil as well as DICOM data. Fully sampled data were retrospectively undersampled with various acceleration factors and reconstructions were compared with the two well-known methods k-t FOCUSS and MASTeR. The proposed method achieves higher signal to error ratio and structure similarity index for medium to high acceleration factors. Reconstruction methods based on groupwise registration show higher quality reconstructions for cardiac cine images than the pairwise counterparts tested. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cardiac C-arm CT: 4D non-model based heart motion estimation and its application
Prümmer, M.; Fahrig, R.; Wigström, L.; Boese, J.; Lauritsch, G.; Strobel, N.; Hornegger, J.
2007-03-01
The combination of real-time fluoroscopy and 3D cardiac imaging on the same C-arm system is a promising technique that might improve therapy planning, guiding, and monitoring in the interventional suite. In principal, to reconstruct a 3D image of the beating heart at a particular cardiac phase, a complete set of X-ray projection data representing that phase is required. One approximate approach is the retrospectively ECG-gated FDK reconstruction (RG-FDK). From the acquired data set of N s multiple C-arm sweeps, those projection images which are acquired closest in time to the desired cardiac phase are retrospectively selected. However, this approach uses only 1/ N s of the obtained data. Our goal is to utilize data from other cardiac phases as well. In order to minimize blurring and motion artifacts, cardiac motion has to be compensated for, which can be achieved using a temporally dependent spatial 3D warping of the filtered-backprojections. In this work we investigate the computation of the 4D heart motion based on prior reconstructions of several cardiac phases using RG-FDK. A 4D motion estimation framework is presented using standard fast non-rigid registration. A smooth 4D motion vector field (MVF) represents the relative deformation compared to a reference cardiac phase. A 4D deformation regridding by adaptive supersampling allows selecting any reference phase independently of the set of phases used in the RG-FDK for a motion corrected reconstruction. Initial promising results from in vivo experiments are shown. The subjects individual 4D cardiac MVF could be computed from only three RG-FDK image volumes. In addition, all acquired projection data were motion corrected and subsequently used for image reconstruction to improve the signal-to-noise ratio compared to RG-FDK.
Inertial Frames and Clock Rates
Kak, Subhash
2012-01-01
This article revisits the historiography of the problem of inertial frames. Specifically, the case of the twins in the clock paradox is considered to see that some resolutions implicitly assume inertiality for the non-accelerating twin. If inertial frames are explicitly identified by motion with respect to the large scale structure of the universe, it makes it possible to consider the relative inertiality of different frames.
E. Lannutti; Lenzano, M. G.; Toth, C; L. Lenzano; Rivera, A.
2016-01-01
In this work, we assessed the feasibility of using optical flow to obtain the motion estimation of a glacier. In general, former investigations used to detect glacier changes involve solutions that require repeated observations which are many times based on extensive field work. Taking into account glaciers are usually located in geographically complex and hard to access areas, deploying time-lapse imaging sensors, optical flow may provide an efficient solution at good spatial and te...
Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region
Graves, R. W.
2006-12-01
Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing
Nathan, Viswam; Akkaya, Ilge; Jafari, Roozbeh
2015-01-01
In this work, we describe a methodology to probabilistically estimate the R-peak locations of an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal using a particle filter. This is useful for heart rate estimation, which is an important metric for medical diagnostics. Some scenarios require constant in-home monitoring using a wearable device. This poses a particularly challenging environment for heart rate detection, due to the susceptibility of ECG signals to motion artifacts. In this work, we show how the particle filter can effectively track the true R-peak locations amidst the motion artifacts, given appropriate heart rate and R-peak observation models. A particle filter based framework has several advantages due to its freedom from strict assumptions on signal and noise models, as well as its ability to simultaneously track multiple possible heart rate hypotheses. Moreover, the proposed framework is not exclusive to ECG signals and could easily be leveraged for tracking other physiological parameters. We describe the implementation of the particle filter and validate our approach on real ECG data affected by motion artifacts from the MIT-BIH noise stress test database. The average heart rate estimation error is about 5 beats per minute for signal streams contaminated with noisy segments with SNR as low as -6 dB.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plathow, Christian; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Heinz Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herth, Felix; Tuengerthal, Siegfried [Clinic of Thoracic Disease, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
2009-12-15
To estimate a new technique for quantifying regional lung motion using 3D-MRI in healthy volunteers and to apply the technique in patients with intra- or extrapulmonary tumors. Intraparenchymal lung motion during a whole breathing cycle was quantified in 30 healthy volunteers using 3D-dynamic MRI (FLASH [fast low angle shot] 3D, TRICKS [time-resolved interpolated contrast kinetics]). Qualitative and quantitative vector color maps and cumulative histograms were performed using an introduced semiautomatic algorithm. An analysis of lung motion was performed and correlated with an established 2D-MRI technique for verification. As a proof of concept, the technique was applied in five patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 5 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The correlation between intraparenchymal lung motion of the basal lung parts and the 2D-MRI technique was significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Also, the vector color maps quantitatively illustrated regional lung motion in all healthy volunteers. No differences were observed between both hemithoraces, which was verified by cumulative histograms. The patients with NSCLC showed a local lack of lung motion in the area of the tumor. In the patients with MPM, there was global diminished motion of the tumor bearing hemithorax, which improved significantly after chemotherapy (CHT) (assessed by the 2D- and 3D-techniques) (p < 0.01). Using global spirometry, an improvement could also be shown (vital capacity 2.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 3.4 L {+-} 0.6, FEV1 0.9 {+-} 0.2 versus 1.4 {+-} 0.2 L) after CHT, but this improvement was not significant. A 3D-dynamic MRI is able to quantify intraparenchymal lung motion. Local and global parenchymal pathologies can be precisely located and might be a new tool used to quantify even slight changes in lung motion (e.g. in therapy monitoring, follow-up studies or even benign lung diseases)
Lannutti, E.; Lenzano, M. G.; Toth, C.; Lenzano, L.; Rivera, A.
2016-06-01
In this work, we assessed the feasibility of using optical flow to obtain the motion estimation of a glacier. In general, former investigations used to detect glacier changes involve solutions that require repeated observations which are many times based on extensive field work. Taking into account glaciers are usually located in geographically complex and hard to access areas, deploying time-lapse imaging sensors, optical flow may provide an efficient solution at good spatial and temporal resolution to describe mass motion. Several studies in computer vision and image processing community have used this method to detect large displacements. Therefore, we carried out a test of the proposed Large Displacement Optical Flow method at the Viedma Glacier, located at South Patagonia Icefield, Argentina. We collected monoscopic terrestrial time-lapse imagery, acquired by a calibrated camera at every 24 hour from April 2014 until April 2015. A filter based on temporal correlation and RGB color discretization between the images was applied to minimize errors related to changes in lighting, shadows, clouds and snow. This selection allowed discarding images that do not follow a sequence of similarity. Our results show a flow field in the direction of the glacier movement with acceleration in the terminus. We analyzed the errors between image pairs, and the matching generally appears to be adequate, although some areas show random gross errors related to the presence of changes in lighting. The proposed technique allowed the determination of glacier motion during one year, providing accurate and reliable motion data for subsequent analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Jianbing, E-mail: yijianbing8@163.com [College of Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000, China and College of Information Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000 (China); Yang, Xuan, E-mail: xyang0520@263.net; Li, Yan-Ran, E-mail: lyran@szu.edu.cn [College of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000 (China); Chen, Guoliang, E-mail: glchen@szu.edu.cn [National High Performance Computing Center at Shenzhen, College of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518000 (China)
2015-10-15
Purpose: Image-guided radiotherapy is an advanced 4D radiotherapy technique that has been developed in recent years. However, respiratory motion causes significant uncertainties in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. To address these issues, an innovative lung motion estimation model based on a robust point matching is proposed in this paper. Methods: An innovative robust point matching algorithm using dynamic point shifting is proposed to estimate patient-specific lung motion during free breathing from 4D computed tomography data. The correspondence of the landmark points is determined from the Euclidean distance between the landmark points and the similarity between the local images that are centered at points at the same time. To ensure that the points in the source image correspond to the points in the target image during other phases, the virtual target points are first created and shifted based on the similarity between the local image centered at the source point and the local image centered at the virtual target point. Second, the target points are shifted by the constrained inverse function mapping the target points to the virtual target points. The source point set and shifted target point set are used to estimate the transformation function between the source image and target image. Results: The performances of the authors’ method are evaluated on two publicly available DIR-lab and POPI-model lung datasets. For computing target registration errors on 750 landmark points in six phases of the DIR-lab dataset and 37 landmark points in ten phases of the POPI-model dataset, the mean and standard deviation by the authors’ method are 1.11 and 1.11 mm, but they are 2.33 and 2.32 mm without considering image intensity, and 1.17 and 1.19 mm with sliding conditions. For the two phases of maximum inhalation and maximum exhalation in the DIR-lab dataset with 300 landmark points of each case, the mean and standard deviation of target registration errors on the
Lecheler, S.K.
2010-01-01
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a dissoc
de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.
2016-01-01
Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used th
Raschke, Mathias
2015-01-01
In this paper, I introduce a novel approach to modelling the individual random component (also called the intra-event uncertainty) of a ground-motion relation (GMR), as well as a novel approach to estimating the corresponding parameters. In essence, I contend that the individual random component is reproduced adequately by a simple stochastic mechanism of random impulses acting in the horizontal plane, with random directions. The random number of impulses was Poisson distributed. The parameters of the model were estimated according to a proposal by Raschke (2013a), with the sample of random difference xi=ln(Y1)-ln(Y2), in which Y1 and Y2 are the horizontal components of local ground-motion intensity. Any GMR element was eliminated by subtraction, except the individual random components. In the estimation procedure the distribution of difference xi was approximated by combining a large Monte Carlo simulated sample and Kernel smoothing. The estimated model satisfactorily fitted the difference xi of the sample o...
Kainz, Hans; Hajek, Martin; Modenese, Luca; Saxby, David J; Lloyd, David G; Carty, Christopher P
2017-03-01
In human motion analysis predictive or functional methods are used to estimate the location of the hip joint centre (HJC). It has been shown that the Harrington regression equations (HRE) and geometric sphere fit (GSF) method are the most accurate predictive and functional methods, respectively. To date, the comparative reliability of both approaches has not been assessed. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the reliability of the HRE and the GSF methods, (2) analyse the impact of the number of thigh markers used in the GSF method on the reliability, (3) evaluate how alterations to the movements that comprise the functional trials impact HJC estimations using the GSF method, and (4) assess the influence of the initial guess in the GSF method on the HJC estimation. Fourteen healthy adults were tested on two occasions using a three-dimensional motion capturing system. Skin surface marker positions were acquired while participants performed quite stance, perturbed and non-perturbed functional trials, and walking trials. Results showed that the HRE were more reliable in locating the HJC than the GSF method. However, comparison of inter-session hip kinematics during gait did not show any significant difference between the approaches. Different initial guesses in the GSF method did not result in significant differences in the final HJC location. The GSF method was sensitive to the functional trial performance and therefore it is important to standardize the functional trial performance to ensure a repeatable estimate of the HJC when using the GSF method.
A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio
2011-01-01
The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....
Buyco, K.; Heaton, T. H.
2016-12-01
Current U.S. seismic code and performance-based design recommendations quantify ground motion intensity using 5%-damped spectral acceleration when estimating the collapse vulnerability of buildings. This intensity measure works well for predicting inter-story drift due to moderate shaking, but other measures have been shown to be better for estimating collapse risk.We propose using highly-damped (>10%) spectral acceleration to assess collapse vulnerability. As damping is increased, the spectral acceleration at a given period T begins to behave like a weighted average of the corresponding lowly-damped (i.e. 5%) spectrum at a range of periods. Weights for periods longer than T increase as damping increases. Using high damping is physically intuitive for two reasons. Firstly, ductile buildings dissipate a large amount of hysteretic energy before collapse and thus behave more like highly-damped systems. Secondly, heavily damaged buildings experience period-lengthening, giving further credence to the weighted-averaging property of highly-damped spectral acceleration.To determine the optimal damping value(s) for this ground motion intensity measure, we conduct incremental dynamic analysis for a suite of ground motions on several different mid-rise steel buildings and select the damping value yielding the lowest dispersion of intensity at the collapse threshold. Spectral acceleration calculated with damping as high as 70% has been shown to be a better indicator of collapse than that with 5% damping.
Multi-Hazard Analysis for the Estimation of Ground Motion Induced by Landslides and Tectonics
Iglesias, Rubén; Koudogbo, Fifame; Ardizzone, Francesca; Mondini, Alessandro; Bignami, Christian
2016-04-01
Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors allow obtaining all-day all-weather terrain complex reflectivity images which can be processed by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) for the monitoring of displacement episodes with extremely high accuracy. In the work presented, different PSI strategies to measure ground surface displacements for multi-scale multi-hazard mapping are proposed in the context of landslides and tectonic applications. This work is developed in the framework of ESA General Studies Programme (GSP). The present project, called Multi Scale and Multi Hazard Mapping Space based Solutions (MEMpHIS), investigates new Earth Observation (EO) methods and new Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions to improve the understanding and management of disasters, with special focus on Disaster Risk Reduction rather than Rapid Mapping. In this paper, the results of the investigation on the key processing steps for measuring large-scale ground surface displacements (like the ones originated by plate tectonics or active faults) as well as local displacements at high resolution (like the ones related with active slopes) will be presented. The core of the proposed approaches is based on the Stable Point Network (SPN) algorithm, which is the advanced PSI processing chain developed by ALTAMIRA INFORMATION. Regarding tectonic applications, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. In this context, a low-resolution approach based in the integration of differential phase increments of velocity and topographic error (obtained through the fitting of a linear model adjustment function to data) will be evaluated. Data from the default mode of Sentinel-1, the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode, will be considered for this application. Regarding landslides
Estimation and Analysis of Parameters for Reference Frame Transformation%参考架转换参数估计与分析∗
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨廷高; 高玉平; 童明雷; 赵成仕; 高峰
2016-01-01
Based on the estimation method of parameters for reference frame transfor-mation, the parameters used for transformation between different modern DE (Develop-ment Ephemeris) ephemeris pairs are derived using the data of heliocentric coordinates of Earth-Moon barycenter from DE ephemeris pairs, and the transformation parameters between DE ephemeris dynamic reference frame and ICRF (International Celestial Ref-erence Frame) are estimated by using the timing data and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observation results of millisecond pulsars. The estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation include three rotational angles of rotational ma-trix and their derivatives of time. The reference epoch of estimated parameters for the reference frame transformation is MJD51545, that is J2000.0. Our results show that the absolute maximum value of rotational angles for the transformation of DE200 to DE405 ephemeris is 13 mas, and its derivative of time is−0.0007 mas/d. No absolute value of rotational angles is larger than 0.1 mas for the transformation of DE414 to DE421 ephemeris. The absolute maximum value of rotational angles of rotation matrix for the transformation of DE421 ephemeris to ICRF is 3 mas, and the time derivatives of three rotational angles are also necessarily included.%在描述不同参考架转换参数估计方法的基础上,利用太阳系行星历表资料估计了近代不同DE (Development Ephemeris)历表之间的转换参数；利用脉冲星计时观测与VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry)技术观测得到的毫秒脉冲星位置资料,估计了基于DE历表的动力学参考架与河外射电源参考架(ICRF)之间的转换参数.给出的不同参考架之间转换参数包括旋转矩阵的3个旋转角及其随时间的变化率,参考历元为MJD51545.结果表明： DE200到DE405历表转换参数的旋转角最大绝对值为13 mas,其随时间变化率为−0.0007 mas/d. DE414到DE421历表转换参数的3个
Mukherjee, Nibedita; Sutherland, William J; Khan, Md Nabiul I; Berger, Uta; Schmitz, Nele; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico
2014-06-01
Mangroves are threatened worldwide, and their loss or degradation could impact functioning of the ecosystem. Our aim was to investigate three aspects of mangroves at a global scale: (1) their constituents (2) their indispensable ecological functions, and (3) the maintenance of their constituents and functions in degraded mangroves. We focused on answering two questions: "What is a mangrove ecosystem" and "How vulnerable are mangrove ecosystems to different impacts"? We invited 106 mangrove experts globally to participate in a survey based on the Delphi technique and provide inputs on the three aspects. The outputs from the Delphi technique for the third aspect, i.e. maintenance of constituents and functions were incorporated in a modeling approach to simulate the time frame for recovery. Presented here for the first time are the consensus definition of the mangrove ecosystem and the list of mangrove plant species. In this study, experts considered even monospecific (tree) stands to be a mangrove ecosystem as long as there was adequate tidal exchange, propagule dispersal, and faunal interactions. We provide a ranking of the important ecological functions, faunal groups, and impacts on mangroves. Degradation due to development was identified as having the largest impact on mangroves globally in terms of spatial scale, intensity, and time needed for restoration. The results indicate that mangroves are ecologically unique even though they may be species poor (from the vegetation perspective). The consensus list of mangrove species and the ranking of the mangrove ecological functions could be a useful tool for restoration and management of mangroves. While there is ample literature on the destruction of mangroves due to aquaculture in the past decade, this study clearly shows that more attention must go to avoiding and mitigating mangrove loss due to coastal development (such as building of roads, ports, or harbors).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunjie Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The wearable full-body exoskeleton robot developed in this study is one application of mobile cyberphysical system (CPS, which is a complex mobile system integrating mechanics, electronics, computer science, and artificial intelligence. Steel wire was used as the flexible transmission medium and a group of special wire-locking structures was designed. Additionally, we designed passive joints for partial joints of the exoskeleton. Finally, we proposed a novel gait phase recognition method for full-body exoskeletons using only joint angular sensors, plantar pressure sensors, and inclination sensors. The method consists of four procedures. Firstly, we classified the three types of main motion patterns: normal walking on the ground, stair-climbing and stair-descending, and sit-to-stand movement. Secondly, we segregated the experimental data into one gait cycle. Thirdly, we divided one gait cycle into eight gait phases. Finally, we built a gait phase recognition model based on k-Nearest Neighbor perception and trained it with the phase-labeled gait data. The experimental result shows that the model has a 98.52% average correct rate of classification of the main motion patterns on the testing set and a 95.32% average correct rate of phase recognition on the testing set. So the exoskeleton robot can achieve human motion intention in real time and coordinate its movement with the wearer.
Optimal Surface Marker Locations for Tumor Motion Estimation in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy
Dong, Bin; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B
2012-01-01
Using fiducial markers on patient's body surface to predict the tumor location is a widely used approach in lung cancer radiotherapy. The purpose of this work is to propose an algorithm that automatically identifies a sparse set of locations on the patient's surface with the optimal prediction power for the tumor motion. The sparse selection of markers on the external surface and the assumed linear relationship between the marker motion and the internal tumor motion are represented by a prediction matrix. Such a matrix is determined by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function contains a sparsity term that penalizes the number of markers chosen on the patient's surface. The performance of our algorithm has been tested on realistic clinical data of four lung cancer patients. Thoracic 4DCT scans with 10 phases are used for the study. On a reference phase, a grid of points are casted on the patient's surface (except for patient's back) and propagated to other phases via deformable image regis...
Mean likelihood estimation of target micro-motion parameters in laser detection
Guo, Liren; Hu, Yihua; Wang, Yunpeng
2016-10-01
Maximum Likelihood Estimation(MLE) is the optimal estimator for Micro-Doppler feature extracting. However, the enormous computational burden of the grid search and the existence of many local maxima of the respective highly nonlinear cost function are harmful for accurate estimation. A new method combining the Mean Likelihood Estimation(MELE) and the Monte Carlo(MC) way is proposed to solve this problem. A closed-form expression to evaluate the parameters which maximize the cost function is derived. Then the compressed likelihood function is designed to obtain the global maximum. Finally the parameters are estimated by calculating the circular mean of the samples get from MC method. The high dependence of accurate initials and the computational complexity of the iteration algorithms are avoided in this method. Applied to the simulated and experimental data, the proposed method achieves similar performance as MLE but less computational amount. Meanwhile, this method guarantees the global convergence and joint parameter estimation.
Fusion Frames and -Frames in Banach Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amir Khosravi; Behrooz Khosravi
2011-05-01
Fusion frames and -frames in Hilbert spaces are generalizations of frames, and frames were extended to Banach spaces. In this article we introduce fusion frames, -frames, Banach -frames in Banach spaces and we show that they share many useful properties with their corresponding notions in Hilbert spaces. We also show that -frames, fusion frames and Banach -frames are stable under small perturbations and invertible operators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rulin Huang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Existing collision avoidance methods for autonomous vehicles, which ignore the driving intent of detected vehicles, thus, cannot satisfy the requirements for autonomous driving in urban environments because of their high false detection rates of collisions with vehicles on winding roads and the missed detection rate of collisions with maneuvering vehicles. This study introduces an intent-estimation- and motion-model-based (IEMMB method to address these disadvantages. First, a state vector is constructed by combining the road structure and the moving state of detected vehicles. A Gaussian mixture model is used to learn the maneuvering patterns of vehicles from collected data, and the patterns are used to estimate the driving intent of the detected vehicles. Then, a desirable long-term trajectory is obtained by weighting time and comfort. The long-term trajectory and the short-term trajectory, which are predicted using a constant yaw rate motion model, are fused to achieve an accurate trajectory. Finally, considering the moving state of the autonomous vehicle, collisions can be detected and avoided. Experiments have shown that the intent estimation method performed well, achieving an accuracy of 91.7% on straight roads and an accuracy of 90.5% on winding roads, which is much higher than that achieved by the method that ignores the road structure. The average collision detection distance is increased by more than 8 m. In addition, the maximum yaw rate and acceleration during an evasive maneuver are decreased, indicating an improvement in the driving comfort.
Rapid estimation of 4DCT motion-artifact severity based on 1D breathing-surrogate periodicity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guang, E-mail: lig2@mskcc.org; Caraveo, Marshall [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Wei, Jie [Department of Computer Science, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States); Rimner, Andreas; Wu, Abraham J.; Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Yorke, Ellen [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2014-11-01
Purpose: Motion artifacts are common in patient four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images, leading to an ill-defined tumor volume with large variations for radiotherapy treatment and a poor foundation with low imaging fidelity for studying respiratory motion. The authors developed a method to estimate 4DCT image quality by establishing a correlation between the severity of motion artifacts in 4DCT images and the periodicity of the corresponding 1D respiratory waveform (1DRW) used for phase binning in 4DCT reconstruction. Methods: Discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) was applied to analyze 1DRW periodicity. The breathing periodicity index (BPI) was defined as the sum of the largest five Fourier coefficients, ranging from 0 to 1. Distortional motion artifacts (excluding blurring) of cine-scan 4DCT at the junctions of adjacent couch positions around the diaphragm were classified in three categories: incomplete, overlapping, and duplicate anatomies. To quantify these artifacts, discontinuity of the diaphragm at the junctions was measured in distance and averaged along six directions in three orthogonal views. Artifacts per junction (APJ) across the entire diaphragm were calculated in each breathing phase and phase-averaged APJ{sup ¯}, defined as motion-artifact severity (MAS), was obtained for each patient. To make MAS independent of patient-specific motion amplitude, two new MAS quantities were defined: MAS{sup D} is normalized to the maximum diaphragmatic displacement and MAS{sup V} is normalized to the mean diaphragmatic velocity (the breathing period was obtained from DFT analysis of 1DRW). Twenty-six patients’ free-breathing 4DCT images and corresponding 1DRW data were studied. Results: Higher APJ values were found around midventilation and full inhalation while the lowest APJ values were around full exhalation. The distribution of MAS is close to Poisson distribution with a mean of 2.2 mm. The BPI among the 26 patients was calculated with a value
Mori, Ichio; Tadang, Nikom
1973-01-01
Reports the effects of exposing both kindergarten and elementary school children to high and low speed motion pictures on children's estimation of time. Concluded the children's judgment is dependent upon their chronological ages and daily experiences of visual perception. (CC)
Frames of Reference in the Classroom
Grossman, Joshua
2012-01-01
The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…
Geocenter motion estimated from GRACE orbits: The impact of F10.7 solar flux
Tseng, Tzu-Pang; Hwang, Cheinway; Sośnica, Krzysztof; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Liu, Ya-Chi; Yeh, Wen-Hao
2017-06-01
We assess the impact of orbit modeling on the origin offsets between GRACE kinematic and reduced-dynamic orbits. The origin of the kinematic orbit is the center of IGS network (CN), whereas the origin of the reduced-dynamic orbit is assumed to be the center of mass of the Earth (CM). Theoretically, the origin offset between these two orbits is associated with the geocenter motion. However, the dynamic property of the reduced-dynamic orbit is highly related to orbit parameterizations. The assessment of the F10.7 impact on the geocenter motion is implemented by using different orbit parameterization setups in the reduced-dynamic method. We generate two types of reduced-dynamic orbits using 15 and 240 empirical parameters per day from 2005 to 2012. The empirical parameter used in Bernese GNSS Software is called piece-wise constant empirical acceleration (PCA) and is mainly to absorb the non-gravitational forces mostly related to the atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure. The differences between kinematic and dynamic orbits can serve as a measurement for geocenter. The RMS value of the geocenter measurement in the 15-PCA case is approximately 3.5 cm and approximately 2 cm in the 240-PCA case. The correlation between the orbit difference and F10.7 is about 0.90 in the 15-PCA case and -0.10 to 0 in the 240-PCA case. This implies that the reduced-dynamic orbit modeled with 240 PCAs absorbs the F10.7 variation, which aliases to the 15-PCA orbit solution. The annual amplitudes of the geocenter motion are 3.1, 3.1 and 2.5 mm in the 15-PCA case, compared to 0.9, 2.0 and 1.3 mm in the 240-PCA case in the X, Y and Z components, respectively. The 15-PCA solution is thus closer to the geocenter motions derived from other space-geodetic techniques. The proposed method is limited to the parameterizations in the reduced-dynamic approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Q; Zhang, Y [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Liu, Y [Duke University (United States); Hu, L; Yin, F; Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miller, W [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: Hyperpolarized gas (HP) tagging MRI is a novel imaging technique for direct measurement of lung motion during breathing. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) in lung motion estimation using HP tagging MRI as references. Methods: Three healthy subjects were imaged using the HP MR tagging, as well as a high-resolution 3D proton MR sequence (TrueFISP) at the end-of-inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE). Ground truth of lung motion and corresponding displacement vector field (tDVF) was derived from HP tagging MRI by manually tracking the displacement of tagging grids between EOI and EOE. Seven different DIR methods were applied to the high-resolution TrueFISP MR images (EOI and EOE) to generate the DIR-based DVFs (dDVF). The DIR methods include Velocity (VEL), MIM, Mirada, multi-grid B-spline from Elastix (MGB) and 3 other algorithms from DIRART toolbox (Double Force Demons (DFD), Improved Lucas-Kanade (ILK), and Iterative Optical Flow (IOF)). All registrations were performed by independent experts. Target registration error (TRE) was calculated as tDVF – dDVF. Analysis was performed for the entire lungs, and separately for the upper and lower lungs. Results: Significant differences between tDVF and dDVF were observed. Besides the DFD and IOF algorithms, all other dDVFs showed similarity in deformation magnitude distribution but away from the ground truth. The average TRE for entire lung ranged 2.5−23.7mm (mean=8.8mm), depending on the DIR method and subject's breathing amplitude. Larger TRE (13.3–23.7mm) was found in subject with larger breathing amplitude of 45.6mm. TRE was greater in lower lung (2.5−33.9 mm, mean=12.4mm) than that in upper lung (2.5−11.9 mm, mean=5.8mm). Conclusion: Significant differences were observed in lung motion estimation between the HP gas tagging MRI method and the DIR methods, especially when lung motion is large. Large variation among different
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dai Hongyan; Zou Hongxing
2007-01-01
The time-frequency analysis of the signal acquired by a single ground-based microphone shows a two-dimensional interference pattern in the time-frequency plane,which is caused by the time delay of the received signal emitted from a low flying aircraft via the direct path and the ground-reflected path.A model is developed for estimating the motion parameters of an aircraft flying along a straight line at a constant height and with a constant speed.Monte Carlo simulation results and experimental results are presented to validate the model,and an error analysis of the model is presented to verify the effectiveness of the estimation scheme advocated.
Risser, Laurent; Vialard, François-Xavier; Baluwala, Habib Y; Schnabel, Julia A
2013-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new strategy for modelling sliding conditions when registering 3D images in a piecewise-diffeomorphic framework. More specifically, our main contribution is the development of a mathematical formalism to perform Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping registration with sliding conditions. We also show how to adapt this formalism to the LogDemons diffeomorphic registration framework. We finally show how to apply this strategy to estimate the respiratory motion between 3D CT pulmonary images. Quantitative tests are performed on 2D and 3D synthetic images, as well as on real 3D lung images from the MICCAI EMPIRE10 challenge. Results show that our strategy estimates accurate mappings of entire 3D thoracic image volumes that exhibit a sliding motion, as opposed to conventional registration methods which are not capable of capturing discontinuous deformations at the thoracic cage boundary. They also show that although the deformations are not smooth across the location of sliding conditions, they are almost always invertible in the whole image domain. This would be helpful for radiotherapy planning and delivery.
Three-Dimensional Object Motion and Velocity Estimation Using a Single Computational RGB-D Camera
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungwon Lee
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D object moving direction and velocity estimation method is presented using a dual off-axis color-filtered aperture (DCA-based computational camera. Conventional object tracking methods provided only two-dimensional (2D states of an object in the image for the target representation. The proposed method estimates depth information in the object region from a single DCA camera that transforms 2D spatial information into 3D model parameters of the object. We also present a calibration method of the DCA camera to estimate the entire set of camera parameters for a practical implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed DCA-based color and depth (RGB-D camera can calculate the 3D object moving direction and velocity of a randomly moving object in a single-camera framework.
Three-dimensional object motion and velocity estimation using a single computational RGB-D camera.
Lee, Seungwon; Jeong, Kyungwon; Park, Jinho; Paik, Joonki
2015-01-08
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) object moving direction and velocity estimation method is presented using a dual off-axis color-filtered aperture (DCA)-based computational camera. Conventional object tracking methods provided only two-dimensional (2D) states of an object in the image for the target representation. The proposed method estimates depth information in the object region from a single DCA camera that transforms 2D spatial information into 3D model parameters of the object. We also present a calibration method of the DCA camera to estimate the entire set of camera parameters for a practical implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed DCA-based color and depth (RGB-D) camera can calculate the 3D object moving direction and velocity of a randomly moving object in a single-camera framework.
Vision-Based 3D Motion Estimation for On-Orbit Proximity Satellite Tracking and Navigation
2015-06-01
Network .....................................................................................58 3. Telemetry Computer...screenshot of the telemetry software and the SSH terminals. ...........61 Figure 25. View of the VICON cameras above the granite flat floor of the FSS...point-wise kinematic models. The pose of the 3D structure is then estimated using a dual quaternion method [19]. The robustness and validity of this
a Novel Method for Estimation of Glacier Surface Motion in 1960s from Argon KH-5 Optical Imagery
Li, R.; Ye, W.; Kong, F.; Qiao, G.; Tong, X.; Ma, X.; Guo, S.; Wang, Z.
2016-06-01
The Antarctic ice sheet response to the global climate change, specifically the ice flow speed change of the glaciers, has been investigated by many researchers. However, most research results cover the period since 1970s or after the operation of the LANDSAT series. The availability of the film-based ARGON KH-5 data makes it possible to quantify the changes of the Antarctic ice sheet in 1960s. To meet the challenges of processing the low quality film-based ARGON images, a novel method was developed to allow estimating the ice sheet surface motion and reconstructing the surface model simultaneously from ARGON stereo images by decomposing the total parallaxes to terrain and motion based components. A photogrammetric approach was developed to distinguish stable ice surface features from those on motion and use them for recovering the camera orientation information. Several existing Antarctic mapping products were used to establish the ground control. The ice flow speed field is reconstructed using a hierarchical image matching strategy. Firstly, epipolar images are generated via a fundamental matrix derived from correspondences used in the geometric modelling process, and then an image pyramid is built. Second, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) technique is conducted on each layer of the pyramid to match the extracted features. Since the images were taken at different times, during which the glacier motion occurred, the measured total parallaxes are decomposed to terrain and motion parallaxes according to given ice flow directions which are derived from the iteratively produced DTM or images. Finally, a speed map and a DTM can be generated at each level of the image pyramid. This process repeats itself. At the bottom of the pyramid the final speed map and DTM are produced at a resolution of about 60m and represent the ice flow field of 1963. This approach was tested using two ARGON stereo-pairs in Rayner glacier in East Antarctica. Both the ice flow speed map
Study of frame-rate up conversion based on H.264
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAN Zong-liang; ZHU Xiu-chang
2007-01-01
In this study, a low complexity frame-rate up conversion method using compressed domain information for H.264 decoder is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the motion vectors (MVs) are estimated using constant acceleration motion model, and the MVs regarded as no credibility are corrected, and the interpolation method is applied on the basis of the macroblock (MB) coded types.Applied to the H.264 decoder, the proposed method provides high quality interpolation frames and an obvious decrease of the block artifacts.
Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Calais, E.
2012-09-01
We use elastic block modelling of 126 GPS site velocities from Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and other islands in the northern Caribbean to test for the existence of a Hispaniola microplate and estimate angular velocities for the Gônave, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands and two smaller microplates relative to each other and the Caribbean and North America plates. A model in which the Gônave microplate spans the whole plate boundary between the Cayman spreading centre and Mona Passage west of Puerto Rico is rejected at a high confidence level. The data instead require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary within or offshore from western Hispaniola. Our updated angular velocities predict 6.8 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the seismically hazardous Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone of southwest Hispaniola, 9.8 ± 2.0 mm yr-1 of slip along the Septentrional fault of northern Hispaniola and ˜14-15 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. They also predict 5.7 ± 1 mm yr-1 of fault-normal motion in the vicinity of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, faster than previously estimated and possibly accommodated by folds and faults in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone borderlands. Our new and a previous estimate of Gônave-Caribbean plate motion suggest that enough elastic strain accumulates to generate one to two Mw˜ 7 earthquakes per century along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and nearby faults of southwest Hispaniola. That the 2010 M= 7.0 Haiti earthquake ended a 240-yr-long period of seismic quiescence in this region raises concerns that it could mark the onset of a new earthquake sequence that will relieve elastic strain that has accumulated since the late 18th century.
Kinematics of Milky Way Satellites: Mass Estimates, Rotation Limits, and Proper Motions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louis E. Strigari
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the past several years kinematic data sets from Milky Way satellite galaxies have greatly improved, furthering the evidence that these systems are the most dark matter dominated objects known. This paper discusses a maximum likelihood formalism that extracts important quantities from these kinematic data sets, including the amplitude of a rotational signal, proper motions, and the mass distributions. Using a simple model for galaxy rotation it is shown that the expected error on the amplitude of a rotational signal is ∼0.5 km s−1 with ∼103 stars from either classical or ultra-faint satellites. As an example Sculptor is analyzed for the presence of a rotational signal; no significant detection of rotation is found, with a 90% c.l. upper limit of ∼2 km s−1. A criterion for model selection is presented that determines the parameters required to describe the dark matter halo density profiles and the stellar velocity anisotropy. Applied to four data sets with a wide range of velocities, models with variable velocity anisotropy are preferred relative to those with constant velocity anisotropy, and that central dark matter profiles both less cuspy and more cuspy than Lambda-Cold Dark Matter-based fits are equally acceptable.
Expansion of Frames to Tight Frames
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Feng LI; Wen Chang SUN
2009-01-01
We show that every Bessel sequence (and therefore every frame) in a separable Hilbert space can be expanded to a tight frame by adding some elements. The proof is based on a recent generalization of the frame concept, the g-frame, which illustrates that g-frames could be useful in the study of frame theory. As an application, we prove that any Gabor frame can be expanded to a tight frame by adding one window function.
Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing; Jauregui, Ricardo; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2013-08-01
Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations.
Overall properties of the Gaia DR1 reference frame
Liu, N.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, J.-C.; Ding, C.-Y.
2017-03-01
Aims: The first Gaia data release (Gaia DR1) provides 2191 ICRF2 sources with their positions in the auxiliary quasar solution and five astrometric parameters - positions, parallaxes, and proper motions - for stars in common between the Tycho-2 catalogue and Gaia in the joint Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution (TGAS). We aim to analyze the overall properties of Gaia DR1 reference frame. Methods: We compare quasar positions of the auxiliary quasar solution with ICRF2 sources using different samples and evaluate the influence on the Gaia DR1 reference frame owing to the Galactic aberration effect over the J2000.0-J2015.0 period. Then we estimate the global rotation between TGAS with Tycho-2 proper motion systems to investigate the property of the Gaia DR1 reference frame. Finally, the Galactic kinematics analysis using the K-M giant proper motions is performed to understand the property of Gaia DR1 reference frame. Results: The positional comparison between the auxiliary quasar solution and ICRF2 shows negligible orientation and validates the declination bias of -0.1mas in Gaia quasar positions with respect to ICRF2. Galactic aberration effect is thought to cause an offset 0.01mas of the Z axis direction of Gaia DR1 reference frame. The global rotation between TGAS and Tycho-2 proper motion systems, obtained by different samples, shows a much smaller value than the claimed value 0.24mas yr-1. For the Galactic kinematics analysis of the TGAS K-M giants, we find possible non-zero Galactic rotation components beyond the classical Oort constants: the rigid part ωYG = -0.38±0.15mas yr-1 and the differential part ω^primeYG = -0.29±0.19mas yr-1 around the YG axis of Galactic coordinates, which indicates possible residual rotation in Gaia DR1 reference frame or problems in the current Galactic kinematical model. Conclusions: The Gaia DR1 reference frame is well aligned to ICRF2, and the possible influence of the Galactic aberration effect should be taken into consideration
Wang, Zhirui; Xu, Jia; Huang, Zuzhen; Zhang, Xudong; Xia, Xiang-Gen; Long, Teng; Bao, Qian
2016-03-16
To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI) algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target's position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target's offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target's azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhirui Wang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available To detect and estimate ground slowly moving targets in airborne single-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR, a road-aided ground moving target indication (GMTI algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, the road area is extracted from a focused SAR image based on radar vision. Second, after stationary clutter suppression in the range-Doppler domain, a moving target is detected and located in the image domain via the watershed method. The target’s position on the road as well as its radial velocity can be determined according to the target’s offset distance and traffic rules. Furthermore, the target’s azimuth velocity is estimated based on the road slope obtained via polynomial fitting. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed method can effectively cope with slowly moving targets partly submerged in a stationary clutter spectrum. In addition, the proposed method can be easily extended to a multi-channel system to further improve the performance of clutter suppression and motion estimation. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
基于 CUDA 的运动估计算法研究%Research on Motion Estimation Algorithm Based on CUDA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵海国
2012-01-01
运动估计是 H.264视频编码器中复杂度最高、耗时最长的模块.本文介绍了运动估计的基本原理以及全搜索算法 FS(Full Search)和钻石搜索法 DS (Diamond Search )等经典的运动估计算法，并引入了基于 CUDA 的运动估计算法：全域消除 GEA 算法和基于 CUDA 的并行 FS 算法，有效地提高了 H.264视频编解码速度% Motion estimation is the most time complexity part of Video Compression Standard H.264. This paper introduces the principle of motion estimation and classical motion estimation algorithms such as Full Search algorithm and Diamond Search algorithm, and this paper proposes motion estimation algorithm using CUDA, for example, Global Elimination Algorithm and parallelizing Full Search Algorithm for motion estimation using CUDA, which can accelerate the encoding and decoding process of H.264 significantly.
Framing scales and scaling frames
Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.
2009-01-01
Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment o
Hausmann, R. B.; Goldfinger, C.; Black, B.; Collins, T.; Romsos, C. G.; Medeiros, L.; Mutschler, M.; Galer, S.; Raymond, R.; Morey, A. E.
2015-12-01
measurements. Initial slope stability models suggest that slopes less than ~ 25 degrees are statically stable. We are investigating the levels of ground motion required to destabilize surface sediments around the lake, and radiocarbon dating the disturbance events for comparison to other paleoseismic records, including new offshore cores at a similar latitude.
Can the fluctuations of the motion be used to estimate performance of kayak paddlers?
Vadai, Gergely
2015-01-01
Today many compact and efficient on-water data acquisition units help the modern coaching by measuring and analyzing various inertial signals during kayaking. One of the most challenging problems is how these signals can be used to estimate performance and to develop the technique. Recently we have introduced indicators based on the fluctuations of the inertial signals as promising additions to the existing parameters. In this work we report about our more detailed analysis, compare new indicators and discuss the possible advantages of the applied methods. Our primary aim is to draw the attention to several exciting and inspiring open problems and to initiate further research even in several related multidisciplinary fields. More detailed information can be found on a dedicated web page, http://www.noise.inf.u-szeged.hu/kayak.
Can the fluctuations of motion be used to estimate the performance of kayak paddlers?
Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán
2016-05-01
Today many compact and efficient on-water data acquisition units help modern coaching by measuring and analyzing various inertial signals during kayaking. One of the most challenging problems is how these signals can be used to estimate performance and to develop the technique. Recently we have introduced indicators based on the fluctuations of the inertial signals as promising additions to the existing parameters. In this work we report on our more detailed analysis, compare new indicators, and discuss the possible advantages of the applied methods. Our primary aim is to draw attention to several exciting and inspiring open problems and to initiate further research even in several related multidisciplinary fields. More detailed information can be found on the dedicated webpage, www.noise.inf.u-szeged.hu/kayak.
Non-invasive Player Experience Estimation from Body Motion and Game Context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burelli, Paolo; Triantafyllidis, George; Patras, Ioannis
2014-01-01
. The data collected was analysed and a neural network was trained to find the mapping between player body movements, player in- game behaviour and player experience. The results reveal that some aspects of player experience, such as anxiety or challenge, can be detected with high accuracy (up to 81......In this paper, we investigate on the relationship between player experience and body movements in a non-physical 3D computer game. During an experiment, the participants played a series of short game sessions and rated their experience while their body movements were tracked using a depth camera......%). Moreover, taking into account the playing context, the accuracy can be raised up to 86%. Following such a multi-modal approach, it is possible to estimate the player experience in a non-invasive fashion during the game and, based on this information, the game content could be adapted accordingly....
Montel, J.; Andre, Y.; Mirc, F.; Etcheto, P.; Evrard, J.; Bray, N.; Saccoccio, M.; Tomasini, L.; Perot, E.
2015-09-01
ESTADIUS is an autonomous, accurate and daytime attitude estimation system, for stratospheric balloons that require a high level of attitude measurement and stability. The system has been developed by CNES. ESTADIUS is based on star sensor an pyrometer data fusion within an extended Kalman filter. The star sensor is composed of a 16 MPixels visible-CCD camera and a large aperture camera lens (focal length of 135mm, aperture f/1.8, 10ºx15º field of view or FOV) which provides very accurate stars measurements due to very low pixel angular size. This also allows detecting stars against a bright sky background. The pyrometer is a 0.01º/h performance class Fiber Optic Gyroscope (FOG). The system is adapted to work down to an altitude of ~25km, even under high cinematic conditions. Key elements of ESTADIUS are: daytime conditions use (as well as night time), autonomy (automatic recognition of constellations), high angular rate robustness (a few deg/s thanks to the high performance of attitude propagation), stray-light robustness (thanks to a high performance baffle), high accuracy (<1", 1σ). Four stratospheric qualification flights were very successfully performed in 2010/2011 and 2013/2014 in Kiruna (Sweden) and Timmins (Canada). ESTADIUS will allow long stratospheric flights with a unique attitude estimation system avoiding the restriction of night/day conditions at launch. The first operational flight of ESTADIUS will be in 2015 for the PILOT scientific missions (led by IRAP and CNES in France). Further balloon missions such as CIDRE will use the system ESTADIUS is probably the first autonomous, large FOV, daytime stellar attitude measurement system. This paper details the technical features and in-flight results.
A semi-automatic 2D-to-3D video conversion with adaptive key-frame selection
Ju, Kuanyu; Xiong, Hongkai
2014-11-01
To compensate the deficit of 3D content, 2D to 3D video conversion (2D-to-3D) has recently attracted more attention from both industrial and academic communities. The semi-automatic 2D-to-3D conversion which estimates corresponding depth of non-key-frames through key-frames is more desirable owing to its advantage of balancing labor cost and 3D effects. The location of key-frames plays a role on quality of depth propagation. This paper proposes a semi-automatic 2D-to-3D scheme with adaptive key-frame selection to keep temporal continuity more reliable and reduce the depth propagation errors caused by occlusion. The potential key-frames would be localized in terms of clustered color variation and motion intensity. The distance of key-frame interval is also taken into account to keep the accumulated propagation errors under control and guarantee minimal user interaction. Once their depth maps are aligned with user interaction, the non-key-frames depth maps would be automatically propagated by shifted bilateral filtering. Considering that depth of objects may change due to the objects motion or camera zoom in/out effect, a bi-directional depth propagation scheme is adopted where a non-key frame is interpolated from two adjacent key frames. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has better performance than existing 2D-to-3D scheme with fixed key-frame interval.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stemkens, B; Tijssen, RHN; Denis de Senneville, B Denis; Lagendijk, JJW; Berg, CAT van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To estimate full field-of-view abdominal respiratory motion from fast 2D image navigators using a 4D-MRI based motion model. This will allow for radiation dose accumulation mapping during MR-Linac treatment. Methods: Experiments were conducted on a Philips Ingenia 1.5T MRI. First, a retrospectively ordered 4D-MRI was constructed using 3D transient-bSSFP with radial in-plane sampling. Motion fields were calculated through 3D non-rigid registration. From these motion fields a PCA-based abdominal motion model was constructed and used to warp a 3D reference volume to fast 2D cine-MR image navigators that can be used for real-time tracking. To test this procedure, a time-series consisting of two interleaved orthogonal slices (sagittal and coronal), positioned on the pancreas or kidneys, were acquired for 1m38s (dynamic scan-time=0.196ms), during normal, shallow, or deep breathing. The coronal slices were used to update the optimal weights for the first two PCA components, in order to warp the 3D reference image and construct a dynamic 4D-MRI time-series. The interleaved sagittal slices served as an independent measure to test the model’s accuracy and fit. Spatial maps of the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and histograms of the motion differences within the pancreas and kidneys were used to evaluate the method. Results: Cranio-caudal motion was accurately calculated within the pancreas using the model for normal and shallow breathing with an RMSE of 1.6mm and 1.5mm and a histogram median and standard deviation below 0.2 and 1.7mm, respectively. For deep-breathing an underestimation of the inhale amplitude was observed (RMSE=4.1mm). Respiratory-induced antero-posterior and lateral motion were correctly mapped (RMSE=0.6/0.5mm). Kidney motion demonstrated good motion estimation with RMSE-values of 0.95 and 2.4mm for the right and left kidney, respectively. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method that can calculate dynamic 3D abdominal motion in a large volume
DeMets, C.; Merkouriev, S.
2016-07-01
Large gaps and inconsistencies remain in published estimates of Nubia-Somalia plate motion based on reconstructions of seafloor spreading data around Africa. Herein, we use newly available reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge at ˜1-Myr intervals since 20 Ma to estimate Nubia-Somalia plate motion farther back in time than previously achieved and with an unprecedented degree of temporal resolution. At the northern end of the East African rift, our new estimates of Nubia-Somalia motion for six times from 0.78 Ma to 5.2 Ma differ by only 2% from the rift-normal component of motion that is extrapolated from a recently estimated GPS angular velocity. The rate of rift-normal extension thus appears to have remained steady since at least 5.2 Ma. Our new rotations indicate that the two plates have moved relative to each other since at least 16 Ma and possibly longer. Motion has either been steady since at least 16 Ma or accelerated modestly between 6 and 5.2 Ma. Our Nubia-Somalia rotations predict 42.5±3.8 km of rift-normal extension since 10.6 Ma across the well-studied, northern segment of the Main Ethiopian Rift, consistent with 40-50 km estimates for extension since 10.6 Myr based on seismological surveys of this narrow part of the plate boundary. Nubia-Somalia rotations are also derived by combining newly estimated Somalia-Arabia rotations that reconstruct the post-20-Ma opening of the Gulf of Aden with Nubia-Arabia rotations estimated via a probabilistic analysis of plausible opening scenarios for the Red Sea. These rotations predict Nubia-Somalia motion since 5.2 Myr that is consistent with that determined from Southwest Indian Ridge data and also predict 40±3 km of rift-normal extension since 10.6 Ma across the Main Ethiopian Rift, consistent with our 42.5±3.8 km Southwest Indian Ridge estimate. Our new rotations exclude at high confidence level previous estimates of 12±13 km and 123±14 km for rift-normal extensions across the Main Ethiopian Rift since
DeMets, C.; Merkouriev, S.
2016-10-01
Large gaps and inconsistencies remain in published estimates of Nubia-Somalia plate motion based on reconstructions of seafloor spreading data around Africa. Herein, we use newly available reconstructions of the Southwest Indian Ridge at ˜1-Myr intervals since 20 Ma to estimate Nubia-Somalia plate motion farther back in time than previously achieved and with an unprecedented degree of temporal resolution. At the northern end of the East African rift, our new estimates of Nubia-Somalia motion for six times from 0.78 Ma to 5.2 Ma differ by only 2 per cent from the rift-normal component of motion that is extrapolated from a recently estimated GPS angular velocity. The rate of rift-normal extension thus appears to have remained steady since at least 5.2 Ma. Our new rotations indicate that the two plates have moved relative to each other since at least 16 Ma and possibly longer. Motion has either been steady since at least 16 Ma or accelerated modestly between 6 and 5.2 Ma. Our Nubia-Somalia rotations predict 42.5 ± 3.8 km of rift-normal extension since 10.6 Ma across the well-studied, northern segment of the Main Ethiopian Rift, consistent with 40-50 km estimates for extension since 10.6 Myr based on seismological surveys of this narrow part of the plate boundary. Nubia-Somalia rotations are also derived by combining newly estimated Somalia-Arabia rotations that reconstruct the post-20-Ma opening of the Gulf of Aden with Nubia-Arabia rotations estimated via a probabilistic analysis of plausible opening scenarios for the Red Sea. These rotations predict Nubia-Somalia motion since 5.2 Myr that is consistent with that determined from Southwest Indian Ridge data and also predict 40 ± 3 km of rift-normal extension since 10.6 Ma across the Main Ethiopian Rift, consistent with our 42.5 ± 3.8 km Southwest Indian Ridge estimate. Our new rotations exclude at high confidence level previous estimates of 12 ± 13 and 123 ± 14 km for rift-normal extensions across the Main
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamanaka, H.; Kurita, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1997-12-01
This paper introduces the result of a case study in the Kanto Plain, Japan on estimation of strong ground motion taking underground structure into account and exploration of the underground structures. Methods for estimating the strong ground motion may be classified into the following three methods: an empirical method represented by the distance attenuation expression, a semi-empirical method, in which small to medium earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of a focus fault of the subject earthquake are conceived as a Green function, and superposed according to the analogy of the earthquakes, and an analytic method. These three approaches are used respectively in the present situation. Micro motion array observation is being carried at a large number of points in the Kanto Plain to explore S-wave velocity structures. Seven seismograph arrays have observed micro motions with slightly long cycles, phase velocities of Raleigh waves were derived, and then S-wave velocity distribution down to the seismic base was estimated from reverse analysis therefrom. S-wave amplification characteristics were calculated by using one-dimensional duplicate reflection on the prepared ground bed model. The result well explains the observation values, indicating that the ground bed model is reasonable for estimating the seismic motion amplifying characteristics. 33 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Estimation of S-wave site response in and around Delhi region from weak motion data
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S K Nath; P Sengupta; S K Srivastav; S N Bhattacharya; R S Dattatrayam; R Prakash; H V Gupta
2003-09-01
Site response in and around Delhi is studied using digital seismograms recorded by a thirteen-station VSAT-based 24-bit digital Delhi telemetry network of the India Meteorological Department. Nine local (l ≥ 2.3) and nine regional (l ≥ 3.9) earthquakes are selected for the estimation of site amplification factor using the classical standard spectral ratio for regional events (Ridge Delhi Observatory being the reference station), normalized standard spectral ratio for local events, horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio or receiver function and the generalized inversion techniques in the frequency range of 0.5 to 7.5 Hz. Site response curves at all the thirteen stations exhibit station to station variation of the site amplification factor reflecting the changes in geologic/geotectonic/soil conditions. A comparison of the site response values obtained by the generalized inversion with those computed using receiver function technique shows a large scatter even though the pattern of the curves remain more or less similar. However, the site effects computed by generalized inversion and standard spectral ratio exhibit a good 1:1 correspondence. The peaks yielded by all the methods have been observed to occur at the same frequencies. It is evident that the softer fluvial deposits of the newer alluvium of the east Yamuna sector show steeper site amplification gradient at lower frequencies, while the greater Delhi experiences moderate site amplification. The variation of site response corroborates the abrupt changes in intensity from one location to another due to local site condition.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A seismic observation array for strong motions was deployed to estimate seismic source, propagation path and local site effects in Tangshan, China. We compared site response from the S-wave inversion and those from other tech-niques, such as traditional direct spectral ratios of S waves and receiver-function of S waves. From the inversion, we found that S-wave quality factor, i.e. QS-value, is approximately satisfied with the relation of QS=67f 1.1 in the range of frequency from 0.5 Hz to 32 Hz and that the source spectra follow the w-2 model of seismic source for low frequencies less than about 12 Hz. From the comparison of site responses estimated by the different methods for each soil site, we found that all the methods can extract the same predominant peaks from the responses, the amplifica-tions from direct S-wave spectral ratios are well correlated with those from the S-wave inversion within a factor of 2 to 3, while the correlation between the amplifications from S-wave receiver-function and those from the S-wave inversion is not good, especially for high frequencies more than 8 Hz.
Vision System Measures Motions of Robot and External Objects
Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry
2008-01-01
A prototype of an advanced robotic vision system both (1) measures its own motion with respect to a stationary background and (2) detects other moving objects and estimates their motions, all by use of visual cues. Like some prior robotic and other optoelectronic vision systems, this system is based partly on concepts of optical flow and visual odometry. Whereas prior optoelectronic visual-odometry systems have been limited to frame rates of no more than 1 Hz, a visual-odometry subsystem that is part of this system operates at a frame rate of 60 to 200 Hz, given optical-flow estimates. The overall system operates at an effective frame rate of 12 Hz. Moreover, unlike prior machine-vision systems for detecting motions of external objects, this system need not remain stationary: it can detect such motions while it is moving (even vibrating). The system includes a stereoscopic pair of cameras mounted on a moving robot. The outputs of the cameras are digitized, then processed to extract positions and velocities. The initial image-data-processing functions of this system are the same as those of some prior systems: Stereoscopy is used to compute three-dimensional (3D) positions for all pixels in the camera images. For each pixel of each image, optical flow between successive image frames is used to compute the two-dimensional (2D) apparent relative translational motion of the point transverse to the line of sight of the camera. The challenge in designing this system was to provide for utilization of the 3D information from stereoscopy in conjunction with the 2D information from optical flow to distinguish between motion of the camera pair and motions of external objects, compute the motion of the camera pair in all six degrees of translational and rotational freedom, and robustly estimate the motions of external objects, all in real time. To meet this challenge, the system is designed to perform the following image-data-processing functions: The visual-odometry subsystem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bundgaard, Charlotte
2009-01-01
, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...
Cool, Simon; Pieters, Jan G; Mertens, Koen C; Mora, Sergio; Cointault, Frédéric; Dubois, Julien; van de Gucht, Tim; Vangeyte, Jürgen
2015-11-12
Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m² with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Cool
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m2 with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.
Negoita, Madalina; Zolgharni, Massoud; Dadkho, Elham; Pernigo, Matteo; Mielewczik, Michael; Cole, Graham D; Dhutia, Niti M; Francis, Darrel P
2016-09-01
To determine the optimal frame rate at which reliable heart walls velocities can be assessed by speckle tracking. Assessing left ventricular function with speckle tracking is useful in patient diagnosis but requires a temporal resolution that can follow myocardial motion. In this study we investigated the effect of different frame rates on the accuracy of speckle tracking results, highlighting the temporal resolution where reliable results can be obtained. 27 patients were scanned at two different frame rates at their resting heart rate. From all acquired loops, lower temporal resolution image sequences were generated by dropping frames, decreasing the frame rate by up to 10-fold. Tissue velocities were estimated by automated speckle tracking. Above 40 frames/s the peak velocity was reliably measured. When frame rate was lower, the inter-frame interval containing the instant of highest velocity also contained lower velocities, and therefore the average velocity in that interval was an underestimate of the clinically desired instantaneous maximum velocity. The higher the frame rate, the more accurately maximum velocities are identified by speckle tracking, until the frame rate drops below 40 frames/s, beyond which there is little increase in peak velocity. We provide in an online supplement the vendor-independent software we used for automatic speckle-tracked velocity assessment to help others working in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Motion Tracking of Infants in Risk of Cerebral Palsy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard
much earlier. The goal with this thesis is to describe the development of a markerless motion tracking system for infants. Based on data recorded with a low-cost depth sensor, image analysis and mathematical modeling is used to model the infant’s body and its movements. Two methods are considered......, where the first method is able to do single frame pose estimation, based on simple assumptions on the infant’s body. The second method uses an articulated model that incorporates anatomical constraints. Combining the two methods results in a robust motion tracking system for infants. The results from...... the motion tracking are used to extract physical features such as velocity and acceleration of the individual body parts. A novel method for estimating scene ow in human motion data is presented, utilizing the results from the motion tracking. A number of examples are given for potential applications...
Cardiac nonrigid motion analysis from image sequences
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Huafeng
2006-01-01
Noninvasive estimation of the soft tissue kinematics properties from medical image sequences has many important clinical and physiological implications, such as the diagnosis of heart diseases and the understanding of cardiac mechanics. In this paper, we present a biomechanics based strategy, framed as a priori constraints for the ill-posed motion recovery problema, to realize estimation of the cardiac motion and deformation parameters. By constructing the heart dynamics system equations from biomechanics principles, we use the finite element method to generate smooth estimates.of heart kinematics throughout the cardiac cycle. We present the application of the strategy to the estimation of displacements and strains from in vivo left ventricular magnetic resonance image sequence.
Kano, M.; Nagao, H.; Shiomi, K.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Mizusako, S.; Hori, M.; Hirata, N.
2014-12-01
Prediction of structural motions during large earthquakes is important to prevent secondary disasters. To evaluate such strong motion as accurately as possible, it is essential to infer the image of ground motion in the target area based on densely installed seismological networks. In the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, the dense seismological array "MeSO-net" was established in 2007, and has approximately 300 stations with several kilometer intervals. Mizusako et al. (2014, AGU) applies lasso, which is a linear regression modeling method using the L1 regularization, to the MeSO-net data during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake to infer the spatially-high-resolution strong motions in the metropolitan area. Their method succeeds in reproducing the waveforms up to much higher frequency component than previous studies. However, there are two topics to deal with before practical use of their study. The first topic is that real azimuths of MeSO-net seismometers installed after 2009 have not been verified, while those installed in 2007 and 2008 were already verified based on cross correlation with nearby tiltmeters of Hi-net and/or seismometers of F-net (Shiomi et al., 2009). Since azimuths of seismometers obviously affect the data processing, we evaluate the azimuths of seismometers following Shiomi et al. (2009). The second topic is that we cannot directly obtain the ground motion data on surface since MeSO-net seismometers are installed at 20m depth. We have been also developing the method to estimate transfer functions that convert strong motion at 20m depth to that on surface, by utilizing continuous observations obtained both on surface and at 20m depth at two stations, and short-term observations obtained above the boreholes at more than 100 stations. A combination of this vertical transformation method and the horizontal estimation method (Mizusako et al., 2014), enables us to infer an image of ground motions in the whole Tokyo area.
A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm for H.264/AVC%基于H.264/AVC的一种快速运动估计算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张志刚; 季翠丽
2012-01-01
H. 264/AVC has better performance of compression because of using motion estimation of vari-able block size, but it also enlarge computational complexity, which restricts the application range of H. 264/AVC. An ameliorative algorithm named MMVFAST (Multi-Motion Vector Field Adaptive Search Technology) is proposed through the improvement on MVFAST in this paper, the selection of block pat-tern can be sped up by use of the coherence of contiguous blocks and the applied probability of block modes, which can also confirm original motion-vectors, and then, different search pattern is used for block-matching according to the motion type of current block. Accordingly, this algorithm can simplify the computation of motion estimation greatly. Experimental results show that this algorithm can retrench time of motion estimation and improve speed of encoding observably in the pre-requisite of the fact that the image quality and output rate keep invariant.%H.264/AVC编码采用可变块尺寸运动估计,具有更好的压缩性能,但计算复杂度急剧增加,限制了其应用范围.笔者将MVFAST算法思想引入H.264/AVC,利用相邻块的相关性和模式应用概率,加快分割模式选择速度,并选定初始运动矢量,根据其运动类型选用不同的搜索模板进行块匹配,大大减少了运动估计的运算量.实验结果表明,在不影响图像质量和输出码率的前提下,该算法显著减少了运动估计时间,有效提高了编码速度.
Frame construction and frame promotion (strategic framing choices)
Hänggli, R.; Kriesi, H.
2012-01-01
In this article, the authors discuss the three most important strategic framing choices by political actors ("substantive emphasis choice," "oppositional emphasis choice," and "contest emphasis choice") of direct-democratic campaigns. The authors investigate these strategic framing choices in the
Taheriyoun, Ali R.; Moghimbeygi, Meisam
2017-02-01
An approximation of the fractional Brownian motion based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is used to obtain an asymptotic likelihood function. Two estimators of the Hurst index are then presented in the likelihood approach. The first estimator is produced according to the observed values of the sample path; while the second one employs the likelihood function of the incremental process. We also employ visual roughness of realization to restrict the parameter space and to obtain prior information in Bayesian approach. The methods are then compared with three contemporary estimators and an experimental data set is studied.
Robust super-resolution by fusion of interpolated frames for color and grayscale images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barry eKarch
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Multi-frame super-resolution (SR processing seeks to overcome undersampling issues that can lead to undesirable aliasing artifacts. The key to effective multi-frame SR is accurate subpixel inter-frame registration. This accurate registration is challenging when the motion does not obey a simple global translational model and may include local motion. SR processing is further complicated when the camera uses a division-of-focal-plane (DoFP sensor, such as the Bayer color filter array. Various aspects of these SR challenges have been previously investigated. Fast SR algorithms tend to have difficulty accommodating complex motion and DoFP sensors. Furthermore, methods that can tolerate these complexities tend to be iterative in nature and may not be amenable to real-time processing. In this paper, we present a new fast approach for performing SR in the presence of these challenging imaging conditions. We refer to the new approach as Fusion of Interpolated Frames (FIF SR. The FIF SR method decouples the demosaicing, interpolation, and restoration steps to simplify the algorithm. Frames are first individually demosaiced and interpolated to the desired resolution. Next, FIF uses a novel weighted sum of the interpolated frames to fuse them into an improved resolution estimate. Finally, restoration is applied to deconvolve the modeled system PSF. The proposed FIF approach has a lower computational complexity than most iterative methods, making it a candidate for real-time implementation. We provide a detailed description of the FIF SR method and show experimental results using synthetic and real datasets in both constrained and complex imaging scenarios. The experiments include airborne grayscale imagery and Bayer color array images with affine background motion plus local motion.
Bijukchhen, Subeg M.; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Sasatani, Tsutomu; Sugimura, Yokito
2017-07-01
The Himalayan collision zone experiences many seismic activities with large earthquakes occurring at certain time intervals. The damming of the proto-Bagmati River as a result of rapid mountain-building processes created a lake in the Kathmandu Valley that eventually dried out, leaving thick unconsolidated lacustrine deposits. Previous studies have shown that the sediments are 600 m thick in the center. A location in a seismically active region, and the possible amplification of seismic waves due to thick sediments, have made Kathmandu Valley seismically vulnerable. It has suffered devastation due to earthquakes several times in the past. The development of the Kathmandu Valley into the largest urban agglomerate in Nepal has exposed a large population to seismic hazards. This vulnerability was apparent during the Gorkha Earthquake (Mw7.8) on April 25, 2015, when the main shock and ensuing aftershocks claimed more than 1700 lives and nearly 13% of buildings inside the valley were completely damaged. Preparing safe and up-to-date building codes to reduce seismic risk requires a thorough study of ground motion amplification. Characterizing subsurface velocity structure is a step toward achieving that goal. We used the records from an array of strong-motion accelerometers installed by Hokkaido University and Tribhuvan University to construct 1-D velocity models of station sites by forward modeling of low-frequency S-waves. Filtered records (0.1-0.5 Hz) from one of the accelerometers installed at a rock site during a moderate-sized (mb4.9) earthquake on August 30, 2013, and three moderate-sized (Mw5.1, Mw5.1, and Mw5.5) aftershocks of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake were used as input motion for modeling of low-frequency S-waves. We consulted available geological maps, cross-sections, and borehole data as the basis for initial models for the sediment sites. This study shows that the basin has an undulating topography and sediment sites have deposits of varying thicknesses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, Rene; Ehrhardt, Jan; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz [Luebeck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Informatics; Albers, Dirk; Petersen, Cordula; Cremers, Florian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radio-Oncology; Frenzel, Thorsten [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Health Care Center
2012-07-01
Purpose: Breathing-induced motion effects on dose distributions in radiotherapy can be analyzed using 4D CT image sequences and registration-based dose accumulation techniques. Often simplifying assumptions are made during accumulation. In this paper, we study the dosimetric impact of two aspects which may be especially critical for IMRT treatment: the weighting scheme for the dose contributions of IMRT segments at different breathing phases and the temporal resolution of 4D CT images applied for dose accumulation. Methods: Based on a continuous problem formulation a patient- and plan-specific scheme for weighting segment dose contributions at different breathing phases is derived for use in step- and -shoot IMRT dose accumulation. Using 4D CT data sets and treatment plans for 5 lung tumor patients, dosimetric motion effects as estimated by the derived scheme are compared to effects resulting from a common equal weighting approach. Effects of reducing the temporal image resolution are evaluated for the same patients and both weighting schemes. Results: The equal weighting approach underestimates dosimetric motion effects when considering single treatment fractions. Especially interplay effects (relative misplacement of segments due to respiratory tumor motion) for IMRT segments with only a few monitor units are insufficiently represented (local point differences > 25% of the prescribed dose for larger tumor motion). The effects, however, tend to be averaged out over the entire treatment course. Regarding temporal image resolution, estimated motion effects in terms of measures of the CTV dose coverage are barely affected (in comparison to the full resolution) when using only half of the original resolution and equal weighting. In contrast, occurence and impact of interplay effects are poorly captured for some cases (large tumor motion, undersized PTV margin) for a resolution of 10/14 phases and the more accurate patient- and plan-specific dose accumulation scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dang, Jun; Gu, Xuejun [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Jing, E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)
2015-02-01
Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a 4-dimensional (4-D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) reconstruction scheme based on simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) through patient studies. Methods and Materials: The SMEIR algorithm contains 2 alternating steps: (1) motion-compensated CBCT reconstruction using projections from all phases to reconstruct a reference phase 4D-CBCT by explicitly considering the motion models between each different phase and (2) estimation of motion models directly from projections by matching the measured projections to the forward projection of the deformed reference phase 4D-CBCT. Four lung cancer patients were scanned for 4 to 6 minutes to obtain approximately 2000 projections for each patient. To evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm on a conventional 1-minute CBCT scan, the number of projections at each phase was reduced by a factor of 5, 8, or 10 for each patient. Then, 4D-CBCTs were reconstructed from the down-sampled projections using Feldkamp-Davis-Kress, total variation (TV) minimization, prior image constrained compressive sensing (PICCS), and SMEIR. Using the 4D-CBCT reconstructed from the fully sampled projections as a reference, the relative error (RE) of reconstructed images, root mean square error (RMSE), and maximum error (MaxE) of estimated tumor positions were analyzed to quantify the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: The SMEIR algorithm can achieve results consistent with the reference 4D-CBCT reconstructed with many more projections per phase. With an average of 30 to 40 projections per phase, the MaxE in tumor position detection is less than 1 mm in SMEIR for all 4 patients. Conclusion: The results from a limited number of patients show that SMEIR is a promising tool for high-quality 4D-CBCT reconstruction and tumor motion modeling.
Global affine motion estimation for aerial video registration%基于全局仿射变换估计的航拍视频校正
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭江; 申浩; 李书晓; 常红星
2011-01-01
提出了一种快速的基于特征点匹配的全局仿射运动估计方法,用于航拍视频校正和运动检测.为建立对应点集合,改进的Harris角点检测器用于从图像序列中提取和选择稳定的角点,并采用SURF描述子描述这些角点.在运用随机一致性采样方法求取运动参数之前,将匹配对视为矢量进行分析,滤除明显的误匹配对以提高内点率.结果表明,该方法可实时、准确地估计全局仿射运动,完全能够满足移动平台下运动检测的需要.%This paper proposed a fast feature-based global affine motion estimation method for aerial video registration and motion detection.To establish the correspondences, developed the improved Harris corner detector to extract and select stable corners from image sequences, and extracted the SURF descriptor to describe those corners.Ahead of utilizing the random sample consensus technique for motion parameters estimation, viewed the matched couples as vectors, and analyzed to filter out the obvious mismatches to improve the ratio of inliers.Experiments demonstrate that the presented method can robustly estimate the global affine motion parameters with high accuracy, and can meet the requirements of motion detection for mobile platform.
Sun, Yu; Riva, Riccardo; Ditmar, Pavel
2016-11-01
The focus of the study is optimizing the technique for estimating geocenter motion and variations in J2 by combining data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission with output from an Ocean Bottom Pressure model and a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model. First, we conduct an end-to-end numerical simulation study. We generate input time-variable gravity field observations by perturbing a synthetic Earth model with realistically simulated errors. We show that it is important to avoid large errors at short wavelengths and signal leakage from land to ocean, as well as to account for self-attraction and loading effects. Second, the optimal implementation strategy is applied to real GRACE data. We show that the estimates of annual amplitude in geocenter motion are in line with estimates from other techniques, such as satellite laser ranging (SLR) and global GPS inversion. At the same time, annual amplitudes of C10 and C11 are increased by about 50% and 20%, respectively, compared to estimates based on Swenson et al. (2008). Estimates of J2 variations are by about 15% larger than SLR results in terms of annual amplitude. Linear trend estimates are dependent on the adopted GIA model but still comparable to some SLR results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.
2011-11-17
We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.
An Algorithm of Extracting I-Frame in Compressed Video
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Yaling
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The MPEG video data includes three types of frames, that is: I-frame, P-frame and B-frame. However, the I-frame records the main information of video data, the P-frame and the B-frame are just regarded as motion compensations of the I-frame. This paper presents the approach which analyzes the MPEG video stream in the compressed domain, and find out the key frame of MPEG video stream by extracting the I-frame. Experiments indicated that this method can be automatically realized in the compressed MPEG video and it will lay the foundation for the video processing in the future.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Xiaokui; SUN Chao; FANG Jie
2003-01-01
Phase errors in synthetic aperture sonar (SAS) imaging must be reduced to less than one eighth of a wavelength so as to avoid image destruction. Most of the phase errors occur as a result of platform motion errors, for example, sway yaw and surge that are the most important error sources. The phase error of a wide band synthetic aperture sonar is modeled and solutions to sway yaw and surge motion estimation based on the raw sonar echo data with a Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) method are proposed and their implementations are detailed in this paper. It is shown that the sway estimates can be obtained from the correlation lag and phase difference between the returns at coincident phase centers. An estimate of yaw is also possible if such a technique is applied to more than one overlapping phase center positions. Surge estimates can be obtained by identifying pairs of phase centers with a maximum correlation coefficient. The method works only if the platform velocity is low enough such that a number of phase centers from adjacent pings overlap.
Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.
1989-01-01
Computer vision systems employ a sequence of vision algorithms in which the output of an algorithm is the input of the next algorithm in the sequence. Algorithms that constitute such systems exhibit vastly different computational characteristics, and therefore, require different data decomposition techniques and efficient load balancing techniques for parallel implementation. However, since the input data for a task is produced as the output data of the previous task, this information can be exploited to perform knowledge based data decomposition and load balancing. Presented here are algorithms for a motion estimation system. The motion estimation is based on the point correspondence between the involved images which are a sequence of stereo image pairs. Researchers propose algorithms to obtain point correspondences by matching feature points among stereo image pairs at any two consecutive time instants. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms employ non-iterative procedures, which results in saving considerable amounts of computation time. The system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from consecutive time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李明; 刘勇; 孙哲哲; 袁赫
2015-01-01
近断层脉冲型地震动对结构有很大的潜在破坏作用.为分析不同类型该类地震动对框架剪力墙结构地震反应的影响,搜集了近断层双脉冲和多脉冲型地震动,计算了这些地震动的加速度反应谱,及其引起的一个22层钢筋混凝土框架-剪力墙结构的时程反应.对比了双脉冲和多脉冲型地震动的平均弹性加速度反应谱,及其引起框架-剪力墙结构的平均基底剪力、平均最大层间位移角、平均顶层位移和平均结构整体破坏指数.结果表明:近断层双脉冲型地震动的平均弹性加速度反应谱谱值均接近或大于近断层多脉冲型地震动;近断层双脉冲型地震动引起的框架-剪力墙结构平均基底剪力、平均最大层间位移角、平均顶层位移和平均结构整体破坏指数均不小于近断层多脉冲型地震动.由此说明,在统计意义上,当分析近断层脉冲型地震动对框架-剪力墙结构破坏作用的影响时,输入地震动可近似仅考虑双脉冲型地震动.%Near-fault pulse ground motion has large potential damage effect on structure.In order to analyze the effect of this kind of ground motion on frame-shear wall structures,near-fault double-pulse-type and multi-pulse-type ground motion are collected.Their elastic acceleration response spectra and the time history response of a 22-floor concrete reinforced frame-shear wall structure induced by them are calculated.The average elastic acceleration response spectra of the near-fault double-pulse-type ground motion is compared with that of the multi-pulse-type ground motion.The average base shear,the average maximum storey-drift-angle,the average top floor displacement,and the average whole structure damage index induced by the near-fault double-pulse-type ground motion are also compared with those induced by the multi-pulse-type ground motion.The results show:the average elastic acceleration response spectra of the near-fault double
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholl, David, E-mail: David.Scholl@utoronto.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Kim, Han W., E-mail: hanwkim@gmail.com [Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Division of Cardiology, Duke University, NC (United States); Shah, Dipan, E-mail: djshah@tmhs.org [The Methodist DeBakey Heart Center, Houston, TX (United States); Fine, Nowell M., E-mail: nowellfine@gmail.com [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Tandon, Shruti, E-mail: standon4@uwo.ca [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Thompson, Terry, E-mail: thompson@lawsonimaging.ca [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Drangova, Maria, E-mail: mdrangov@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); White, James A., E-mail: jwhite@imaging.robarts.ca [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada)
2012-08-15
Background: Visual determination of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by segmental scoring may be a practical alternative to volumetric analysis of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The accuracy and reproducibility of this approach for has not been described. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel segmental visual scoring method for LVEF estimation using cine MRI. Methods: 362 patients with known or suspected cardiomyopathy were studied. A modified wall motion score (mWMS) was used to blindly score the wall motion of all cardiac segments from cine MRI imaging. The same datasets were subjected to blinded volumetric analysis using endocardial contour tracing. The population was then separated into a model cohort (N = 181) and validation cohort (N = 181), with the former used to derive a regression equation of mWMS versus true volumetric LVEF. The validation cohort was then used to test the accuracy of this regression model to estimate the true LVEF from a visually determined mWMS. Reproducibility testing of mWMS scoring was performed upon a randomly selected sample of 20 cases. Results: The regression equation relating mWMS to true LVEF in the model cohort was: LVEF = 54.23 - 0.5761 Multiplication-Sign mWMS. In the validation cohort this equation produced a strong correlation between mWMS-derived LVEF and true volumetric LVEF (r = 0.89). Bland and Altman analysis showed no systematic bias in the LVEF estimated using the mWMS (-0.3231%, 95% limits of agreement -12.22% to 11.58%). Inter-observer and intra-observer reproducibility was excellent (r = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). Conclusion: The mWMS is a practical tool for reporting regional wall motion and provides reproducible estimates of LVEF from cine MRI.
Motion-compensated wavelet video coding using adaptive mode selection
Zhai, Fan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.
2004-01-01
A motion-compensated wavelet video coder is presented that uses adaptive mode selection (AMS) for each macroblock (MB). The block-based motion estimation is performed in the spatial domain, and an embedded zerotree wavelet coder (EZW) is employed to encode the residue frame. In contrast to other motion-compensated wavelet video coders, where all the MBs are forced to be in INTER mode, we construct the residue frame by combining the prediction residual of the INTER MBs with the coding residual of the INTRA and INTER_ENCODE MBs. Different from INTER MBs that are not coded, the INTRA and INTER_ENCODE MBs are encoded separately by a DCT coder. By adaptively selecting the quantizers of the INTRA and INTER_ENCODE coded MBs, our goal is to equalize the characteristics of the residue frame in order to improve the overall coding efficiency of the wavelet coder. The mode selection is based on the variance of the MB, the variance of the prediction error, and the variance of the neighboring MBs' residual. Simulations show that the proposed motion-compensated wavelet video coder achieves a gain of around 0.7-0.8dB PSNR over MPEG-2 TM5, and a comparable PSNR to other 2D motion-compensated wavelet-based video codecs. It also provides potential visual quality improvement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, C [Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jiang, R [Grand River Regional Cancer Center, Kitchener, Ontario (Canada); Chow, J [Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2015-06-15
Purpose: We developed a method to predict the change of DVH for PTV due to interfraction organ motion in prostate VMAT without repeating the CT scan and treatment planning. The method is based on a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curves of PTV modelled by the Gaussian error function (GEF). Methods: For a group of 30 patients with different prostate sizes, their VMAT plans were recalculated by shifting their PTVs 1 cm with 10 increments in the anterior-posterior, left-right and superior-inferior directions. The DVH curve of PTV in each replan was then fitted by the GEF to determine parameters describing the shape of curve. Information of parameters, varying with the DVH change due to prostate motion for different prostate sizes, was analyzed and stored in a database of a program written by MATLAB. Results: To predict a new DVH for PTV due to prostate interfraction motion, prostate size and shift distance with direction were input to the program. Parameters modelling the DVH for PTV were determined based on the pre-calculated patient dataset. From the new parameters, DVH curves of PTVs with and without considering the prostate motion were plotted for comparison. The program was verified with different prostate cases involving interfraction prostate shifts and replans. Conclusion: Variation of DVH for PTV in prostate VMAT can be predicted using a pre-calculated patient database with DVH curve fitting. The computing time is fast because CT rescan and replan are not required. This quick DVH estimation can help radiation staff to determine if the changed PTV coverage due to prostate shift is tolerable in the treatment. However, it should be noted that the program can only consider prostate interfraction motions along three axes, and is restricted to prostate VMAT plan using the same plan script in the treatment planning system.
Jakel, Thomas
With the adoption of Global Navigation Satellite Systems in smart phones, soldier equipment, and emergency responder navigation systems users have realized the usefulness of low cost Personal Navigation Systems. The state-of-the-art Personal Navigation System is a unit that fuses information based on external references with a low cost IMU. Due to the size, weight, power, and cost constraints imposed on a pedestrian navigation systems as well as current IMU performance limitations, the gyroscopes used to determine heading exhibit significant drift limiting the performance of the navigation system. In this thesis biomechanical signals are used to predict the onset of pedestrian turning motion. Experimental data from eight subjects captured in a gait laboratory using a Vicon motion tracking unit is used for validation. The analysis of experimental data shows the heading computed by turn prediction augmented integration is more accurate than open loop gyro integration alone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.
2014-01-01
to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two.......We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...
Motion detection algorithm based on background estimated%基于背景估计的运动检测算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
司红伟; 全蕾; 张杰
2011-01-01
In order to detect the contour of a static target and suppress the impact of Jitter video in motion detection, a motion detection algorithm based on background estimated is presented. On one hand, the background updates strategy with template masks are adopted to avoid updating the target foreground area. At the same time, the algorithm estimate target background according to the texture similarity for the sake of updating the sheltered area synchronously under the changes in the illumination conditions. On the other hand, the global motion parameters and partial motion parameters with video stabilization algorithm are gained. The global motion parameters is used to stabilize video and the partial motion parameters is treated as the input of the target detection module. And then, the algorithm detects targets with Gaussian model. Finally, by making experiments under several jitter video segments, the validity and efficiency of the presented algorithm are demonstrated.%为了有效检测出运动目标静止后的轮廓和抑制视频抖动给运动检测带来的影响,提出了基于背景估计的运动检测算法.采用带模板遮罩的背景更新策略来避免目标前景区域被更新,同时根据纹理相似性,对目标遮挡区域的背景进行估算,使得在光照变化下遮挡区域得到同步更新.通过视频稳定算法得到全局运动参数和局部运动参数,然后利用全局运动参数稳定视频,利用局部运动参数作为运动目标检测的输入,最后利用高斯模型来检测运动目标.通过对多段抖动视频做实验,结果验证了该算法的准确性和有效性.
Casazza, Peter G; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta
2010-01-01
Frames have established themselves as a means to derive redundant, yet stable decompositions of a signal for analysis or transmission, while also promoting sparse expansions. However, when the signal dimension is large, the computation of the frame measurements of a signal typically requires a large number of additions and multiplications, and this makes a frame decomposition intractable in applications with limited computing budget. To address this problem, in this paper, we introduce sparsity of a frame as a new paradigm. In our terminology, a sparse frame is a frame whose elements have a sparse representation in an orthonormal basis, thereby enabling low-complexity frame decompositions. To introduce a precise meaning of optimality, we take the sum of the numbers of vectors needed of this orthonormal basis when expanding each frame vector as sparsity measure. We then analyze the recently introduced algorithm Spectral Tetris for construction of unit norm tight frames and prove that the tight frames generated...
Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun
2017-05-01
Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize a target in 3D space or in a 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, the 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and to determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for the 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting in on average only <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem
Estimation of micro-motion parameters based on range vernier%基于游标测距的微动参数估计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱得糠; 刘永祥; 霍凯; 黎湘
2011-01-01
精确地估计微动参数有利于对微动目标进行分类识别.本文根据目标微动在全相参脉冲多普勒雷达体制下的回波特点,提出了一种基于游标测距(Range Vernier)的微动参数估计方法.首先建立微动目标雷达回波模型,主要是进动目标回波模型.以某一回波脉冲为参考,采用游标测距技术测量后续回波脉冲接收时刻目标的距离,该距离与时间的关系反映了目标的运动规律,最后通过正弦基分解(Sin FM Basis Decomposition)的方法从测量结果中估计出微动参数,包括振幅、角频率和初始相位.参数估计过程中峰值搜索的范围由经验知识和雷达测量信息确定.算法性能分析推导了雷达测速误差、测相位误差以及脉冲重复频率(PRF)和载频之间的约束关系,以保证游标测距正常进行.仿真结果验证了在现有雷达体制和测量精度条件下,游标测距可以正常应用,并且微动参数估计的精度非常高.%It' s beneficial for the recognition and classification of targets to obtain precise estimation of micro-motion parameters. This paper proposed a new method to estimate micro-motion parameters using range vernier technique based on the echo characteristics of a point target in the coherent pulse Doppler radar system. First we establish a point target's radar echo model with micro-motion, actually the echo model of target with precession. Taking a given received pulse as reference point, the range change of target caused by movements at the successive received pulses can be measured accurately by using range vernier technique, and the relationship between range and time reflects the characteristics of target motion. At last, we utilize the Sin FM Basis Decomposition method to estimate the micro-motion parameters, such as amplitude, circular frequency and initial phase. During the process of estimating parameters, the scope of peak search is determined by empirical knowledge and
Fang, Li; Xu, Yusheng; Yao, Wei; Stilla, Uwe
2016-11-01
For monitoring of glacier surface motion in pole and alpine areas, radar remote sensing is becoming a popular technology accounting for its specific advantages of being independent of weather conditions and sunlight. In this paper we propose a method for glacier surface motion monitoring using phase correlation (PC) based on point-like features (PLF). We carry out experiments using repeat-pass TerraSAR X-band (TSX) and Sentinel-1 C-band (S1C) intensity images of the Taku glacier in Juneau icefield located in southeast Alaska. The intensity imagery is first filtered by an improved adaptive refined Lee filter while the effect of topographic reliefs is removed via SRTM-X DEM. Then, a robust phase correlation algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and an improved random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is applied to sequential PLF pairs generated by correlation using a 2D sinc function template. The approaches for glacier monitoring are validated by both simulated SAR data and real SAR data from two satellites. The results obtained from these three test datasets confirm the superiority of the proposed approach compared to standard correlation-like methods. By the use of the proposed adaptive refined Lee filter, we achieve a good balance between the suppression of noise and the preservation of local image textures. The presented phase correlation algorithm shows the accuracy of better than 0.25 pixels, when conducting matching tests using simulated SAR intensity images with strong noise. Quantitative 3D motions and velocities of the investigated Taku glacier during a repeat-pass period are obtained, which allows a comprehensive and reliable analysis for the investigation of large-scale glacier surface dynamics.
Key frames extraction in athletic video
Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa; Russo, Stefano
2003-06-01
In this paper, we present an effective framework for features extraction from an athletic sport sequence. We analyze both forward and backward motion vectors from MPEG 2 video sequences for camera movements detection. Features like the beginning and the end of the race and the type of competition are strictly connected to the camera motion. Our algorithm is able to extract the frame number of the investigated feature with very high accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. García Moreno
2013-08-01
Full Text Available On 8 November 1983 an earthquake of magnitude 4.6 damaged more than 16 000 buildings in the region of Liège (Belgium. The extraordinary damage produced by this earthquake, considering its moderate magnitude, is extremely well documented, giving the opportunity to compare the consequences of a recent moderate earthquake in a typical old city of Western Europe with scenarios obtained by combining strong ground motions and vulnerability modelling. The present study compares 0.3 s spectral accelerations estimated from ground motion prediction equations typically used in Western Europe with those obtained locally by applying the statistical distribution of damaged masonry buildings to two fragility curves, one derived from the HAZUS programme of FEMA (FEMA, 1999 and another developed for high-vulnerability buildings by Lang and Bachmann (2004, and to a method proposed by Faccioli et al. (1999 relating the seismic vulnerability of buildings to the damage and ground motions. The results of this comparison reveal good agreement between maxima spectral accelerations calculated from these vulnerability and fragility curves and those predicted from attenuation law equations, suggesting peak ground accelerations for the epicentral area of the 1983 earthquake of 0.13–0.20 g (g: gravitational acceleration.
An Advanced Hardware Realization of Motion Estimation%一种先进运动估计算法的硬件实现
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江飞; 杨奕; 杨兵
2012-01-01
文中介绍了一种先进运动估计处理（MEP）的算法实现。所介绍的MEP用于图像间的运动估计，它计算参考图像在搜索图像区域中不同位移时，两幅图像对应像素点亮度信息的差值之和，并选取最小值作为运动向量。而其硬件实现则采用较先进的处理单元阵列，外挂DSP处理器和外置SRAM存储器，所以算法处理速度可以迅速加快，相反硬件实现的面积也较小。%An advanced hardware realization technique of motion estimation between two images,materially is realized by choosing a better motion vector, which is the smallest one of all the sums between two relative piels belonging to two images separately while computing the motion vector of referencing image in searching image field.So its compute speeds up and realization area is relative small by adopting advanced processor element arrays and external dsp and sram.
Chimoto, Kosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Tsuno, Seiji; Miyake, Hiroe; Yamada, Nobuyuki
2016-12-01
Shallow S-wave velocity V S profiles were estimated for 26 temporary strong motion observation sites surrounding the epicenters of a sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. The microtremor array method was used to gather the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves. V S profiles were obtained by inverting the dispersion curves for each site and those of three permanent strong motion stations that recorded the sequence of seismic events. The shallow V S profiles near two of the permanent strong motion stations in the town of Mashiki were almost identical. However, the V S profiles at other stations varied. The V S profiles were found to have the common feature of the uppermost low-velocity layer being widely distributed from Mashiki to the village of Minami-Aso, and it was especially thick in the areas that suffered heavy damage. This low-velocity layer was a major contributor to the site amplification. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of the microtremors indicate that both the shallow soil and deep sedimentary layers may control the site response characteristics over a broad frequency range.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Bo, E-mail: luboufl@gmail.com; Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States); Chen, Yunmei [Department of Mathematics, University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)
2015-01-15
Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the
Anderson, Richard I.; Casertano, Stefano; Riess, Adam G.
2017-01-01
We employ the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) in spatial scanning mode to measure 30 - 40μas parallax of 19 classical Cepheids in the Milky Way with the aim of improving the calibration of the cosmic distance scale (Riess et al. 2014; Casertano et al. 2016). The measured parallaxes are an order of magnitude more precise than parallaxes from the first Gaia data release and thus furthermore provide important cross-checks for Gaia data processing.Here we present our work aimed at estimating the parallax error due to orbital motion caused by undetected companion stars (Anderson et al. 2016). We have secured more than 1600 high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements of the 19 long-period (Ppuls > 9d) Cepheids in our sample using ground-based telescopes on both hemispheres to investigate the presence of spectroscopic companions. We model the RV variability together with orbital motion using a grid of input orbital periods, Porb. We determine upper limits on the (unsigned) projected parallax error induced by hypothetical companions using the orbital configuration upper limits determined by modeling RV data. We thus show that our HST/WFC3 parallax measurements are subject to an error of less than 2% in parallax (i.e., typically less than ±7μas) for 16 stars in the sample, and 10yr) orbital motion using literature data and RV templates based on our new data. We thus discover new evidence for RV signals due to long-term orbital motion for 4 Cepheids and critically assess putative evidence for spectroscopic binarity previously reported based on data of much lesser quality. We caution that astrometric measurements of binaries with Porb on the order of decades may be subject to a currently not quantified systematic error in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution.
A Fast Block-Matching Algorithm Using Smooth Motion Vector Field Adaptive Search Technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Bo(李波); LI Wei(李炜); TU YaMing(涂亚明)
2003-01-01
In many video standards based on inter-frame compression such as H.26x and MPEG, block-matching algorithm has been widely adopted as the method for motion estimation because of its simplicity and effectiveness. Nevertheless, since motion estimation is very complex in computing. Fast algorithm for motion estimation has always been an important and attractive topic in video compression. From the viewpoint of making motion vector field smoother, this paper proposes a new algorithm SMVFAST. On the basis of motion correlation, it predicts the starting point by neighboring motion vectors according to their SADs. Adaptive search modes are usedin its search process through simply classifying motion activity. After discovering the ubiquitous ratio between the SADs of the collocated blocks in the consecutive frames, the paper proposes an effective half-stop criterion that can quickly stop the search process with good enough results.Experiments show that SMVFAST obtains almost the same results as the full search at very low computation cost, and outperforms MVFAST and PMVFAST in speed and quality, which are adopted by MPEG-4.
Di, Alessandro C.; Boatwright, J.
2006-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M > 2.8 aftershocks in almost 8 weeks. We analyze these recordings, together with recordings of the mainshock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using generalized spectral ratio analysis. We test a set of aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the mainshock at San Luis Obispo and Park Hill. We convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. This approximation allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the mainshock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield peak ground accelerations distributed as 28% ?? 4%g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion, because our analysis assumes a linear response, whereas the presence of liquefaction indicates that the ground behaved nonlinearly in Oceano.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Di Fiore
2002-0