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Sample records for frambuesas rubus idaeus

  1. Contenido de N, P, K y rendimiento de frambuesa roja (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn bliss’ orgánico asociada con lupino (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

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    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta de la frambuesa ‘Autumn Bliss’ productora de otoño a la aplicación de un biofertilizante (vermicomposta asociada con lupino, en condiciones de invernadero en Montecillo, México. En el ensayo se estudiaron 5 niveles de vermicomposta (0, 30, 60, 90 y 120 g maceta–1 y 2 niveles de asociación (con o sin lupino totalizando 10 tratamientos y un tratamiento adicional que consistió de fertilización química (N100 P80 K80 . Como material vegetal se utilizaron brotes adventicios de frambuesa tratadas con frío durante 60 días a 5 °C. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas a los niveles de vermicomposta incorporada al sustrato, y niveles de 60 hasta 90 g maceta–1 favorecieron las mayores concentraciones de N y K en frambuesa. Cuando la frambuesa se asoció con lupino, permitió una mayor acumulación de P, lo que indica una interacción positiva entre estos elementos. El mayor rendimiento en peso y en número de frutos se obtuvo con la aplicación de 90 g maceta–1 de vermicomposta. Sin embargo, cuando la frambuesa se asoció con lupino el mayor rendimiento en peso y en número de frutos se obtuvo con aplicación de 120 g maceta–1 de vermicomposta.

  2. Establecimiento in vitro y pruebas preliminares de micropropagación en medio semisólido y líquido de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L.

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    Fiorella Jones Castro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La propagación de la frambuesa se realiza tradicionalmente de forma vegetativa por separación de corona o brote etiolado; sin embargo, en vista de la demanda masiva de material sano y vigoroso, se ha generado un gran interés por el uso de la técnica de cultivo de tejidos. Para el establecimiento in vitro de la frambuesa, se realizaron tres tratamientos, la mayor supervivencia (45% se obtuvo con una desinfección superficial de 6gL-1 Agri-mycin® y Bisolex® y 5gL-1 Ferbam® durante 60 min, seguida de una exposición a CaClO2 3,5% por 15 min en bomba al vacío.Se probaron dos sistemas para la micropropagación, el medio semisólido y el medio líquido en inmersión temporal, utilizando el medio de cultivo M&S complementado con BAP, AG3 y ácidoascórbico, con un pH de 5,5. Los resultados obtenidos para ambos sistemas fueron estadísticamente similares. Los dos presentaron buena brotación y crecimiento; sin embargo las vitroplantas en inmersión temporal se observaron más vigorosas.

  3. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. leaves.

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    Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.

  4. The isolation of RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit.

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    Jones, C S; Iannetta, P P; Woodhead, M; Davies, H V; McNicol, R J; Taylor, M A

    1997-12-01

    Previous attempts to extract high-quality, total RNA from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits using published protocols have proven to be unsuccessful. Even the use of protocols developed for the extraction of RNA from other fruit tissue has resulted in low yields (1) or the isolation of degraded RNA (2). Here, we report on the development of a quick and simple method of extracting total RNA from raspberry fruit. Using this method, high yields of good quality, undegraded RNA were obtained from fruit at all stages of ripening. The RNA is of sufficient quality for northern analysis and cDNA library construction.

  5. Pathogenicity, fungicide resistance, and genetic variability of Phytophthora rubi isolates from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in the Western United States

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    Root rot of raspberry (Rubus idaeus), thought to be primarily caused by Phytophthora rubi, is an economically important disease in the western United States. The objectives of this study were to determine which Phytophthora species are involved in root rot, examine the efficacy of different isolatio...

  6. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC) of phenolic compounds from the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' cultivar variety.

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    Kula, Marta; Głód, Daniel; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-03-20

    In this study the application of two-dimensional LC (2D LC) for qualitative analysis of polyphenols and simple phenols in the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' variety is presented. In the preliminary analysis, the methanol extract of the shoots was analyzed by one-dimensional LC. One-dimensional LC separation profiles of phenolics from R. idaeus 'Glen Ample' shoots were dependent on column type, mobile phase composition and gradient program used. Two-dimensional LC system was built from connecting an octadecyl C-18 silica column in the first dimension and pentafluorophenyl column in the second dimension, coupled with DAD and MS (ESI, APCI, DUIS ionization) detectors. A total of 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the groups of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and ellagic acid conjugates were identified in the shoots of R. idaeus 'Glen Ample'. The established 2D LC method offers an effective tool for analysis of phenolics present in Rubus species.

  7. Saturated linkage map construction in Rubus idaeus using genotyping by sequencing and genome-independent imputation

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    Ward Judson A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid development of highly saturated genetic maps aids molecular breeding, which can accelerate gain per breeding cycle in woody perennial plants such as Rubus idaeus (red raspberry. Recently, robust genotyping methods based on high-throughput sequencing were developed, which provide high marker density, but result in some genotype errors and a large number of missing genotype values. Imputation can reduce the number of missing values and can correct genotyping errors, but current methods of imputation require a reference genome and thus are not an option for most species. Results Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS was used to produce highly saturated maps for a R. idaeus pseudo-testcross progeny. While low coverage and high variance in sequencing resulted in a large number of missing values for some individuals, a novel method of imputation based on maximum likelihood marker ordering from initial marker segregation overcame the challenge of missing values, and made map construction computationally tractable. The two resulting parental maps contained 4521 and 2391 molecular markers spanning 462.7 and 376.6 cM respectively over seven linkage groups. Detection of precise genomic regions with segregation distortion was possible because of map saturation. Microsatellites (SSRs linked these results to published maps for cross-validation and map comparison. Conclusions GBS together with genome-independent imputation provides a rapid method for genetic map construction in any pseudo-testcross progeny. Our method of imputation estimates the correct genotype call of missing values and corrects genotyping errors that lead to inflated map size and reduced precision in marker placement. Comparison of SSRs to published R. idaeus maps showed that the linkage maps constructed with GBS and our method of imputation were robust, and marker positioning reliable. The high marker density allowed identification of genomic regions with segregation

  8. Screening of antibacterial activity of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and pomace extracts

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    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of fruit and pomace extracts (concentration 50 mg/ml of two raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. cultivars (Meeker and Willamette was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (reference and wild strains. Disc diffusion method with 15 μl of extracts and agar-well diffusion method with 50 and 100 μl were used. Antibiotic (cefotaxime/clavulanic acid was used as a control. Both raspberry fruit extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (wild strain and Bacillus cereus, where the largest clear zones (without growth appeared. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain, with only zone of reduced growth. The highest antibacterial activity of pomace extracts was against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. There were no differences in the antibacterial activity between cultivars for both fruit and pomace extracts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  9. Differential expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes in drupelets and receptacle of raspberry (Rubus idaeus).

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    Fuentes, Lida; Monsalve, Liliam; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Valdenegro, Mónika; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Defilippi, Bruno G; González-Agüero, Mauricio

    2015-05-01

    Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) is traditionally classified as non-climacteric, and the role of ethylene in fruit ripening is not clear. The available information indicates that the receptacle, a modified stem that supports the drupelets, is involved in ethylene production of ripe fruits. In this study, we report receptacle-related ethylene biosynthesis during the ripening of fruits of cv. Heritage. In addition, the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis transcripts was evaluated during the ripening process. The major transcript levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (RiACS1) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (RiACO1) were concomitant with ethylene production, increased total soluble solids (TSS) and decreased titratable acidity (TA) and fruit firmness. Moreover, ethylene biosynthesis and transcript levels of RiACS1 and RiACO1 were higher in the receptacle, sustaining the receptacle's role as a source of ethylene in regulating the ripening of raspberry.

  10. The influence of Rubus idaeus and Rubus caesius leaf extracts on platelet aggregation in whole blood. Cross-talk of platelets and neutrophils.

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    Dudzinska, Dominika; Bednarska, Katarzyna; Boncler, Magdalena; Luzak, Boguslawa; Watala, Cezary

    2016-07-01

    Recently, polyphenols have gained attention as potential natural cardioprotective therapeutics, due to their antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant activity. Species belonging to the genus Rubus sp. have been reported to be a source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidative proprieties and beneficial biological activities. This study investigates the effects of leaf extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) and European dewberry (Rubus caesius L.) on the reactivity of blood platelets. In ADP-stimulated blood, raspberry and dewberry extracts (15 µg/ml) markedly decreased platelet surface membrane expression of activated GPIIbIIIa receptor by 16% and 21%, respectively (P raspberry and by 38-55% for dewberry, P raspberry and dewberry leaf extracts considerably modulated blood platelet reactivity in whole blood: they influenced blood platelet aggregation, possibly via the modulation of the redox status dependent on the oxidative activity of neutrophils.

  11. HPLC analysis of polyphenols in the fruits of Rubus idaeus L. (Rosaceae).

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    Sparzak, B; Merino-Arevalo, M; Vander Heyden, Y; Krauze-Baranowska, M; Majdan, M; Fecka, I; Głód, D; Bączek, T

    2010-11-01

    The separation of anthocyanins present in the fruits of 11 varieties of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode-array detector and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The ELSD parameters--drift tube temperature, nebulising gas flow rate and gain value--were optimised to get the best detection and identification of the anthocyanins. The varieties Heritage and Willamette had the simplest anthocyanin sets consisting of only two predominant anthocyanins--cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside (1) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (3), while in the other varieties two other predominant compounds were also present, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (4) and cyanidin-3-O-(2(G)-O-glucosylrutinoside) (2). Moreover, using ELSD, simultaneous analysis of anthocyanins and sanguiin H-6 (5), an ellagitannin, was performed. The contents of anthocyanins and sanguiin H-6 (5) were estimated by HPLC with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light detection. The determined concentrations of anthocyanins varied from 76.22 to 277.06 mg per 100 g of dry weight (d.w.). The content of sanguiin H-6 (5) was in the range from 135.04 to 547.48 mg per 100 g of d.w.

  12. Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum

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    Elżbieta Klewicka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.

  13. Ellagitannins from Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Fruit as Natural Inhibitors of Geotrichum candidum.

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    Klewicka, Elżbieta; Sójka, Michał; Klewicki, Robert; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Lipińska, Lidia; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-07-13

    The paper presents the chemical characteristics of ellagitannins isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit and their in vitro and in situ antifungal activity against Geotrichum candidum ŁOCK 0511. The study investigated a complex preparation containing various raspberry ellagitannins at a concentration of 86% w/w, as well as pure lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6. The ellagitannin preparation was obtained by extracting raspberry press cake and purifying the extract using Amberlite XAD resin, while individual compounds were isolated by means of preparative HPLC. The complex preparation was analyzed for the content of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols using HPLC and LC-MS. The antifungal activity of the complex ellagitannin preparation and the isolated ellagitannins was determined for the strain Geotrichum candidum. The MIC and MFC values (10.0 mg/mL and 30.0 mg/mL, respectively) were found to be the same for lambertianin C, sanguiin H-6, and the complex ellagitannin preparation. The fungistatic activity of the studied ellagitannin preparation at a concentration of 10 mg/mL, as determined by the poisoned medium method, was 65.2% following 6 day incubation of Geotrichum candidum, with the linear growth rate of only 16.2 mm/day. The corresponding parameters for the control sample were 0% and 56 mm/day, respectively. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in situ antifungal activity of raspberry ellagitannins against Geotrichum candidum.

  14. GENETIC VARIATION IN RED RASPBERRIES (RUBUS IDAEUS L.; ROSACEAE) FROM SITES DIFFERING IN ORGANIC POLLUTANTS COMPARED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM REPEAT DNA PROBES

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    Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit on quality and active components over postharvest storage

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    The objective of this study was to evaluate modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) impacts on market quality and actives preservation of organic Chinese red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit over postharvest storage. Fruit were harvested, cooled, and sorted for uniform maturity and quality. Fruit were ...

  16. Rapid Identification of Flavonoid Constituents Directly from PTP1B Inhibitive Extract of Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Leaves by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-MS.

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    Li, Zhuan-Hong; Guo, Han; Xu, Wen-Bin; Ge, Juan; Li, Xin; Alimu, Mireguli; He, Da-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Many potential health benefits of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves were attributed to polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids. In this study, the methanol extract of R. idaeus leaves showed significant protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.01 µg mL(-1) Meanwhile, a rapid and reliable method, employed high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, was established for structure identification of flavonoids from PTP1B inhibitive extract of R. idaeus leaves using accurate mass measurement and characteristic fragmentation patterns. A total of 16 flavonoids, including 4 quercetin derivatives, 2 luteolin derivatives, 8 kaempferol derivatives and 2 isorhamnetin derivatives, were identified. Compounds 3: and 4: , Compounds 6: and 7: and Compounds 15: and 16: were isomers with different aglycones and different saccharides. Compounds 8: , 9: and 10: were isomers with the same aglycone and the same saccharide but different substituent positions. Compounds 11: and 12: were isomers with the same aglycone but different saccharides. Compounds 2: , 8: , 9: and 10: possessed the same substituent saccharide of glycuronic acid. Most of them were reported inR. idaeus for the first time.

  17. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus.

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    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.18.

  18. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach.

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    Bushakra, J M; Stephens, M J; Atmadjaja, A N; Lewers, K S; Symonds, V V; Udall, J A; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2012-07-01

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed world-wide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms. An F(1) population developed from a cross between an advanced breeding selection of Rubus occidentalis (96395S1) and R. idaeus 'Latham' was used to construct a new genetic map consisting of DNA sequence-based markers. The genetic linkage maps presented here are constructed of 131 markers on at least one of the two parental maps. The majority of the markers are orthologous, including 14 Rosaceae conserved orthologous set markers, and 60 new gene-based markers developed for raspberry. Thirty-four published raspberry simple sequence repeat markers were used to align the new maps to published raspberry maps. The 96395S1 genetic map consists of six linkage groups (LG) and covers 309 cM with an average of 10 cM between markers; the 'Latham' genetic map consists of seven LG and covers 561 cM with an average of 5 cM between markers. We used BLAST analysis to align the orthologous sequences used to design primer pairs for Rubus genetic mapping with the genome sequences of Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4', Malus × domestica 'Golden Delicious', and Prunus 'Lovell'. The alignment of the orthologous markers designed here suggests that the genomes of Rubus and Fragaria have a high degree of synteny and that synteny decreases with phylogenetic distance. Our results give unprecedented insights into the genome evolution of raspberry from the putative ancestral genome of the single ancestor common to Rosaceae.

  19. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) using AFLP and microsatellite markers

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    Sargent, Daniel J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Rys, Alicja; Knight, Victoria H; Simpson, David W; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO), which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1) and (dw) respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus. PMID:17374159

  20. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. using AFLP and microsatellite markers

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    Knight Victoria H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO, which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1 and (dw respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus.

  1. Pomological features, nutritional quality, polyphenol content analysis, and antioxidant properties of domesticated and 3 wild ecotype forms of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Gülçin, Ilhami; Topal, Fevzi; Çakmakçı, Ramazan; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet C; Erdogan, Ummugulsum

    2011-05-01

    The raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) is an economically important berry crop that contains many phenolic compounds with potential health benefits. In this study, important pomological features, including nutrient content and antioxidant properties, of a domesticated and 3 wild (Yayla, Yavuzlar, and Yedigöl) raspberry fruits were evaluated. Also, the amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs) and quercetin equivalents (QE). The highest phenolic compounds were found in wild Yayla ecotype (26.66 ± 3.26 GAE/mg extract). Whilst, the highest flavonoids were determined in wild Yedigöl ecotype (6.09 ± 1.21 QA/mg extract). The antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were investigated as trolox equivalents using different in vitro assays including DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), DMPD(•+), and O(•-)(2) radical scavenging activities, H(2)O(2) scavenging activity, ferric (Fe(3+)) and cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing abilities, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, α-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid in lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results clearly show that p-coumaric acid is the main phenolic acid responsible for the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of lyophilized aqueous extracts of domesticated and wild ecotypes of raspberry fruits.

  2. A case study on toxicological aspects of the pest and disease control in the production of the high-quality raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Sadło, Stanisław; Szpyrka, Ewa; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Grodzicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The field studies on the residue levels of the fungicides and insecticides used in commercial raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantation have been performed. Starting on the first day of harvesting (on June 19), 20 laboratory samples of fruit, 10 laboratory samples of leaves and 4 samples of soil were analyzed and the residue levels were compared to the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) and Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI). All analyses were carried out using extraction method and gas chromatography technique. Esfenwalerate (Sumi-alpha 050 EC) and beta-cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025 EC), the insecticides belonging to the group of synthetic pyrethroids, were not found in harvested ripe fruits, while cypermethrin residues (Cyperkill 25 EC) applied on May 24, 25 days later was still found on low levels in fruits (0.026 mg kg(-1)) and in leaves (2.58 mg kg(-1)). In turn, residues of chlorpyrifos (Dursban 480 EC), applied to the soil on May 15 against the cockchafers Melolontha melolontha and Otiorhynchus sp., were found at the level 0.004 mg kg(-1). The content of pesticides in ripe fruits depended mainly on the dose and on the time that has elapsed from the date of their application and were as follows: boscalid -0.950, pyrimethanil -0.917, pyraclostrobin -0.253 cypermethrin -0.026 and chlorpyrifos -0.004 mg kg(-1) while in leaves: boscalid -30.64, pyrimethanil -8.13, pyraclostrobin -15.82, cypermethrin -2.58 and chlorpyrifos -0.15 mg kg(-1). The highest average daily intake was in the case of boscalid, and in fruits and leaves reached the levels 0.205 and 6.63, in total 0.33% and 12.18% of ADI, respectively.

  3. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

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    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. lignans and its formula with Rubus idaeus on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the liver protection effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (SC) lignans and its combination with Rubus idaeus (RI) on chronic alcohol-induced mice. A low level of SC lignans (SL) was prepared from the clear juice of sarcocarp. Lignans were further extracted from the SC seeds and added to the SL to form high-level SC lignans (SH). Moreover, RI clear juice lyophilized powder was mixed with SL (SR), and the liver protection effects of SL, SH and SR were investigated. Male ICR mice were administered with the corresponding samples and gastrically infused with 50% alcohol (1 h later) once per day for 60 d. In the in vitro study, the characteristic lignans in the SC clear juice and the seed extract were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capability of SL, SH, and SR were determined. The results of the in vivo study showed that SC lignans exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the regulation of hepatic antioxidant status, serum transaminases levels, hyperlipidemia and hepatic fat deposition in mice. However, hepatic lesions were observed in the SH mice, which indicated a potential side effect caused by long-term consumption of SH under chronic alcohol administration. By contrast, SR exhibited a similar hepatoprotective effect as SH without any abnormality found in the histological analysis. After analysis with HPLC, Schizandrol A and Schizandrol B were identified in the SC clear juice, and two more kinds of lignans, Schisandrin A and Schisandrin B, were identified in the seed extracts. The SR sample had the highest TPC and exhibited the best antioxidant capability. In conclusion, RI strengthened the liver protection effect of SC lignans effectively and safely, which was probably achieved by enhancing the antioxidant status and the positive effect of their combination was possibly attributed to both lignans and polyphenols. This study demonstrated that the

  5. Construction of black (Rubus occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry linkage maps and their comparison to the genomes of strawberry, apple, and peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Rubus belongs to the Rosaceae and is comprised of 600-800 species distributed worldwide. To date, genetic maps of the genus consist largely of non-transferable markers such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). An F1 population developed from a cross between an advanced breedi...

  6. First report of a resistance-breaking strain of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) is pollen-transmitted and the most important virus of Rubus worldwide. Infection of RBDV is associated with drupelet abortion, resulting in crumbly fruit. Multiple RBDV strains have been reported, with the Scottish-type (D200) strains being the most prevalent, and...

  7. Risk Preferences Estimation for Small Raspberry Producers in the Bío-Bío Region, Chile Estimación de Preferencias por Riesgo para Pequeños Productores de Frambuesa de la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Toledo T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are strongly influenced by risk and risk preferences of decision makers; however, in Chile there are few studies in the agricultural sector focused on this topic. The present paper analyzes the risk preferences of small producers of raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and the production function associated with their production system in the Bio-Bio Region of Chile. Under a mean-variance approach, the estimation procedure uses a flexible utility function to incorporate a variety of risk preference alternatives. Three different estimation procedures were used: Least Squares Estimation, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Full Information Maximum Likelihood, which revealed the same conclusions. Results showed that small farmers are risk averse (γ = 0.104 and present increasing relative and absolute aversion to risk (θ = 0.099 Las decisiones son fuertemente influenciadas por el riesgo y las preferencias por riesgo de los agentes que las toman, sin embargo, en Chile existen pocos estudios en el sector agrícola que se enfoquen en este tema. El presente estudio analiza las preferencias por riesgo de pequeños productores de frambuesa (Rubus idaeus L., y la función de producción asociada a este sistema productivo, en la Región del Bío-Bío, Chile. Utilizando un modelo de media-varianza, se estima una función de utilidad flexible de manera de incorporar diferentes alternativas de preferencias por riesgo. Para la estimación se utilizaron tres procedimientos: Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios, Sistemas de Ecuaciones Aparentemente no Relacionadas y Máxima Verosimilitud con Información Completa, arrojando similares resultados. Los resultados revelan que los productores son aversos al riesgo (γ = 0,104 y tienen aversión absoluta y relativa creciente (θ = 0,099 < 1 y θ < γ, respectivamente. Se rechazan las hipótesis de neutralidad (γ = 0 y aversión absoluta constante al riesgo (θ = 1, con un 94% y un 99% de confianza, respectivamente. La

  8. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Ru...

  9. Validação de metodologias analíticas para quantificação de quercetina e canferol em extratos hidrolisados de folhas de rubus erythrocladus, rubus idaeus e morus nigra e screening antifúngico destes extratos

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Ruschel Tallini

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho utilizou-se a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) e a eletroforese capilar (EC) como ferramentas analíticas para avaliação de flavonoides em extratos hidrolisados de folhas de Rubus e de Morus. Os extratos foram preparados por hidrólise ácida em ultrassom e analisados por CLAE-DAD e EC-DAD. Os métodos elaborados foram validados e aplicados. Quercetina e canferol foram identificados nestes extratos por CLAE-DAD, EC-DAD e CLUE-DAD/EM. Em Rubus erythrocladus quantifico...

  10. Resistencia transgénica para el control del virus motoso del enanismo de la frambuesa (raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv) Transgenic resistance for the control of raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv

    OpenAIRE

    Angel J.; Mayo M.

    1998-01-01

    RBDV se transmite en asociación con polen y por lo tanto la resistencia genética de algunos cultivares del género Rubus ha sido la única medida de control efectivo. Sin embargo, recientemente apareció la cepa viral R-15 de RBDV, la cual rompió la resistencia natural existente en algunos cultivares comerciales de frambuesa. El principal objeti...

  11. Optimizing shoot culture media for Rubus germplasm: the effects of NH4+, NO3-, and total nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen components of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were significant factors for improved growth in our earlier study that modeled the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry(Rubus idaeus L.). In this study, a mixture component design was applie...

  12. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C

    2016-09-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars.

  13. The Chilean wild raspberry (Rubus geoides Sm.) increases intracellular GSH content and protects against H2O2 and methylglyoxal-induced damage in AGS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Ávila, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Mardones, Claudia; von Baer, Dietrich; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean raspberry Rubus geoides Sm. (Rosaceae) is a native species occurring in the Patagonia. Five R. geoides samples were assessed for phenolic content and composition, antioxidant activity, effect on total reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and protective effect against H2O2 and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced stress in epithelial gastric AGS cells. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS profiles allowed the tentative identification of 39 phenolics including flavonol glycosides and tannins. R. geoides presented higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than Rubus idaeus. Two out of the five phenolic enriched R. geoides extracts (PEEs) exhibited better antioxidant activity than R. idaeus in the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. A significant cytoprotective activity was observed when AGS cells were pre-incubated with extracts and subsequently challenged with H2O2 or MGO. Treatment with the PEEs increased the intracellular GSH content. R. geoides fruit extracts may induce the activation of intracellular protection mechanisms against oxidative and dicarbonyl-induced stress.

  14. EKSTRAKSI PEWARNA ALAMI DARI BUAH ARBEN (Rubus idaeus Linn. [Extraction of Natural Colorant from Red Raspberry (rubus idaeus linn. And its application in food sistem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tensiska1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Red raspberry fruit has not been optimally utilized even though it contains anthocyanin pigment. The pigment can be used as a natural colorant which also function as antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate solvent for anthocyanin extraction from red raspberry fruit and its possibility for food colorant. The research was started with preliminary research to determine appropriate acidulants (citric, acetic and tartaric acid with levels of 0,1 ;0,25;0,5 ;0,75 and 1 %. The main research was divided into three stages, which were: (1 to determine the appropriate solvent of extraction (aquadest, ethanol and etil acetate; (2 the best extract was determined its color stability in pH of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and (3 to examine the pigment solubility into some food system (aqua96%dest, 25% of acetic acid, 96% of ethanol and coconut oil. The best extract also was examined its solubility in carbonated drink (pH of 3.69, pasteurized milk (pH of 6.49 and yogurt (pH of 2.6. the results showed that the extraction using aquadest with 0.75% of tartaric acid resulted in the highest total anthocyanin and showed the best color intensity. This extract was stable at pH of 2-5 and its solubility was best in aquaeous system with low pHs, thus it can be applied for aqueous product with low pHs.

  15. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  16. Response of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. on soil mulching and foliar nutrition with manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Konopiński

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry is one of the most important species of fruit plants in Poland. The consumer usefulness and processing of fruits determined the taste and chemical composition. The raspberry fruits contain many valuable and important for human health ingredients. Furthermore the raspberries have a very high value of beekeeping. The main determinants of achieving a high yield and high biological value are a good supply of plant in the macro- and micronutrients and properly prepared soil.The aim of the study was to determine the response of raspberry on the soil mulching and foliar nutrition with manganese. In the study were included the following factors: I type of bedding: black foil, black agri-woven, pine bark, wheat straw, soil without bedding – control; II foliar nutrition with manganese and without foliar nutrition. Yield of fruits, weight of 100 fruits, length of shoots, fruiting terms and the number of harvests were specified. It was found that the soil bedding in the raspberries rows had no significant effect on the plant yielding, weight of fruits, length of shoots and the number of harvests. Foliar nutrition with manganese had a significant negative impact on the yield of raspberry fruits and their mass. While the foliar nutrition of plants had a significantly positive impact on the growth of raspberry shoots.

  17. Epidemiology of Xiphinema americanum and Tomato ringspot virus on Red Raspberry, Rubus idaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The population dynamics and the ability of Xiphinema americanum to transmit Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are poorly understood in the raspberry pathosystem. Soil samples were collected monthly from 1999 through 2002 in a ToRSV infected 'Willamette' red raspberry field in Clark County, WA, USA. Pop...

  18. Bioactivity of Meeker and Willamette raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) pomace extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetojević-Simin, Dragana D; Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Cetković, Gordana S; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna T; Vulić, Jelena J; Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna M; Djilas, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    Taking into account the substantial potential of raspberry processing by-products, pomace extracts from two raspberry cultivars, Meeker and Willamette, were investigated. Total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents were determined. Willamette pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.042 mg/ml) demonstrated stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical-scavenging activity than did Meeker pomace extract (EC₅₀=0.072 mg/ml). The most pronounced cell growth inhibition effect was obtained in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line, reaching EC50 values of 34.8 and 60.3 μg/ml for Willamette and Meeker extracts, respectively. Both extracts demonstrated favourable non-tumor/tumor cell growth ratios and potently increased the apoptosis/necrosis ratio in breast adenocarcinoma and cervix carcinoma cells. In reference and wild bacterial strains, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were achieved in a concentration range from 0.29 to 0.59 mg/ml, and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) in a range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/ml. The results indicate significant antioxidant, antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antibacterial activities of raspberry pomace and favour its use as a functional food ingredient.

  19. Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) intake decreases oxidative stress in obese diabetic (db/db) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Chew, Boon P; Atienza, Liezl M

    2017-07-15

    Red raspberry fruit intake was investigated on obese diabetic (db/db) mice for 8weeks. Animals fed isocaloric diets (5.3% freeze-dried raspberry, or control) were assessed for obesity-diabetes-disease risk biomarkers. Results showed that raspberry intake improved antioxidant status and lessened plasma interleukin (IL)-6 (0.3-fold of control, p0.05). Plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-CHL), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-CHL), and resistin were higher in the raspberry group. Overall, the enhanced detoxifying cell defenses exerted by raspberry intake might be due to its polyphenolics and fibre. This study demonstrates in vivo that raspberry intake, at a dose that can be achieved by human consumption, might protect against diabetes-induced oxidative stress.

  20. Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F

    2010-10-15

    Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 μg/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 μg/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 μg/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 μg/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 μg/L, 440.33 μg/L and 438 μg/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 μg/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 μg/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters.

  1. Water sorption and glass transition temperatures in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M. [Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, PO Box 646120, Pullman, WA 99164-6120 (United States); Sablani, Shyam S., E-mail: ssablani@wsu.edu [Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, PO Box 646120, Pullman, WA 99164-6120 (United States); Tang, Juming [Biological Systems Engineering Department, Washington State University, PO Box 646120, Pullman, WA 99164-6120 (United States); Powers, Joseph; Swanson, Barry G. [School of Food Science, Washington State University, PO Box 6463760, Pullman, WA 99164-6376 (United States)

    2010-05-20

    Water sorption isotherms and glass transition temperatures of raspberries were determined to understand interactions between water and biopolymers. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms of raspberries were determined with an isopiestic method. Thermal transitions of raspberries equilibrated at selected water concentrations using adsorption and desorption were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The sorption isotherm data were modeled by BET and GAB equations, while the plasticizing influence of water on glass transition was modeled by the Gordon-Taylor equation. Equilibrium water concentrations varied at equivalent water activities during adsorption and desorption indicating occurrence of hysteresis and irreversibility of thermodynamic processes. The monolayer water concentrations of 0.099 and 0.108 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids obtained by BET and GAB models during desorption were larger than those during adsorption (0.059 and 0.074 kg water/kg dry raspberry solids). The glass transition temperature of raspberries decreased with increasing water concentrations. The Gordon-Taylor parameters T{sub gs} and k obtained for raspberries during adsorption were 42.6 {sup o}C and 4.73 and during desorption were 44.9 {sup o}C and 5.03, respectively. The characteristic glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze concentrated solution T{sup '}{sub g} was -63.1 {+-} 5 {sup o}C and the onset of ice crystal melting temperature T{sup '}{sub m} was -32.3 {+-} 0.4 {sup o}C. Although the water activity differed significantly at equivalent water concentrations obtained using absorption or desorption, the glass transition temperatures of raspberries were dependent on the concentration of water present not the method of equilibration.

  2. Method to reduce low temperature stress (LTS) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Norway and other Nordic regions, the floricanes of red raspberries often suffer 20 to 30 percent injury from exposures to extremely low temperatures. We studied from 2011 to 2014 to determine the effect of bending the floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7 red raspberries close to th...

  3. Characterization and biological activities of a novel polysaccharide isolated from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeyuan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Yaqin; Wang, Libo; Teng, Xin; Li, Xingguo; Dai, Jing

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide namely RCP-II from raspberry fruits was obtained by complex enzyme method followed by successive purification using macroporous resin D4020 and Sephadex G-100 columns. RCP-II was an acidic heteropolysaccharide and the characteristic structure of polysaccharide was determined. The carbohydrate of RCP-II was composed with galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:1.19:0.52:0.44:1.90 and the average molecular weight was estimated to be 4013 Da, based on dextran standards. RCP-II presented high scavenging activity toward DPPH•, HO•, O2(•-) in a concentration-dependent manner. The determination of the inhibitory activity on protein glycation showed that in 14 days of incubation the inhibitory ability of RCP-II was more effective on the development of non-enzymatic glycation reaction at early phase than that at the following two phases.

  4. Nonsense mutation inside anthocyanidin synthase gene controls pigmentation in yellow raspberry (Rubus idaeus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Rafique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry (Anne. A 5-bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans+5. The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect i.e. nonsense-mRNA mediated decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans+5 and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  5. Nonsense Mutation Inside Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene Controls Pigmentation in Yellow Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Muhammad Z; Carvalho, Elisabete; Stracke, Ralf; Palmieri, Luisa; Herrera, Lorena; Feller, Antje; Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow raspberry fruits have reduced anthocyanin contents and offer unique possibility to study the genetics of pigment biosynthesis in this important soft fruit. Anthocyanidin synthase (Ans) catalyzes the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin, a key committed step in biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Molecular analysis of the Ans gene enabled to identify an inactive ans allele in a yellow fruit raspberry ("Anne"). A 5 bp insertion in the coding region was identified and designated as ans(+5). The insertion creates a premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein of 264 amino acids, compared to 414 amino acids wild-type ANS protein. This mutation leads to loss of function of the encoded protein that might also result in transcriptional downregulation of Ans gene as a secondary effect, i.e., nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Further, this mutation results in loss of visible and detectable anthocyanin pigments. Functional characterization of raspberry Ans/ans alleles via complementation experiments in the Arabidopsis thaliana ldox mutant supports the inactivity of encoded protein through ans(+5) and explains the proposed block in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in raspberry. Taken together, our data shows that the mutation inside Ans gene in raspberry is responsible for yellow fruit phenotypes.

  6. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti

    2014-10-01

    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'.

  7. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alcohol in fully ripe Rubus fruit, with the exception of three out of 82 Rubus fruit samples (cloudberry 0.01 g/100 g, red raspberry 0.03 g/100 g, and blackberry 4.8 g/100 g(∗); (∗)highly unusual as 73 other blackberry samples contained no detectable sorbitol). Past findings on simple carbohydrate composition of Rubus fruit, other commonly consumed Rosaceae fruit, and additional fruits (24 genera and species) are summarised. We are hopeful that this review will clarify Rosaceae fruit sugar alcohol concentrations and individual sugar composition; examples of non-Rosaceae fruit and prepared foods containing sugar alcohol are included for comparison. A brief summary of sugar alcohol and health will also be presented.

  8. Estudio del proceso de deshidratación de alimentos frutihortícolas: empleo de microondas y energía solar

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Jaramillo, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la deshidratación solar y por microondas sobre las características microestructurales, fisicoquímicas y sensoriales de productos frutihortícolas, tales como acelga (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum), kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) y frambuesa (Rubus idaeus). Los frutos fueron adquiridos en el mercado local, se acondicionaron y se trataron de la siguiente manera: para el secado solar se empleó un equipo prototipo donde el alimento a...

  9. Novel microsatellite markers acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and cross-amplification in other Rubus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-An; Song, Jae Young; Choi, Heh-Ran; Chung, Jong-Wook; Jeon, Young-Ah; Lee, Jung-Ro; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2015-04-10

    The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3%) type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%). The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry). These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  10. Novel Microsatellite Markers Acquired from Rubus coreanus Miq. and Cross-Amplification in Other Rubus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-An Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rubus genus consists of more than 600 species that are distributed globally. Only a few Rubus species, including raspberries and blueberries, have been domesticated. Genetic diversity within and between Rubus species is an important resource for breeding programs. We developed genomic microsatellite markers using an SSR-enriched R. coreanus library to study the diversity of the Rubus species. Microsatellite motifs were discovered in 546 of 646 unique clones, and a dinucleotide repeat was the most frequent (75.3% type of repeat. From 97 microsatellite loci with reproducible amplicons, we acquired 29 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Rubus coreanus collection. The transferability values ranged from 59.8% to 84% across six Rubus species, and Rubus parvifolius had the highest transferability value (84%. The average number of alleles and the polymorphism information content were 5.7 and 0.541, respectively, in the R. coreanus collection. The diversity index of R. coreanus was similar to the values reported for other Rubus species. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on SSR profiles revealed that seven Rubus species could be allocated to three groups, and that R. coreanus was genetically close to Rubus crataegifolius (mountain berry. These new microsatellite markers might prove useful in studies of the genetic diversity, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among Rubus species.

  11. Checklist and distribution data of Dutch brambles (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) = Naamlijst en verspreidingsgegevens van de Nederlandse bramen (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de B.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Haveman, R.; Meijer, K.; Ronde, I.D.; Troelstra, A.; Weeda, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In Noordwest-Europa is de taxonomie van bramen (Rubus.L. subgenus Rubus) goed op orde en de verspreiding van bramen in de verschillende landen goed bekend dankzij herbarium- en veldonderzoek vanaf de jaren 1970. In Nederland dateert onderzoek aan bramen pasvan na 1900 met een actieve periode na de T

  12. Ceniza volcánica, polinizadores y productividad de la frambuesa. Efectos de la ceniza del volcán sobre la polinización y fructificación

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, Agustín; Ramos, Lorena Yésica; Morales, Carolina Laura; Aizen, Marcelo Adrian

    2016-01-01

    La frambuesa es un fruto ampliamente cultivado en el NO Patagónico. En ausencia de polinizadores su producción se reduce aproximadamente en un 20%. La ceniza caída producto de la erupción del volcán Puyehue redujo poblaciones de polinizadores, impactando negativamente sobre la polinización de la frambuesa. Sin embargo, este fenómeno reveló que un exceso de visitas de polinizadores es contraproducente para la producción de frutos. Fil: Sáez, Agustín. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cien...

  13. Resistencia transgénica para el control del virus motoso del enanismo de la frambuesa (raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv Transgenic resistance for the control of raspberry bushy dwarf virus-rbdv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available

    RBDV se transmite en asociación con polen y por lo tanto la resistencia genética de algunos cultivares del género Rubus ha sido la única medida de control efectivo. Sin embargo, recientemente apareció la cepa viral R-15 de RBDV, la cual rompió la resistencia natural existente en algunos cultivares comerciales de frambuesa. El principal objetivo de este proyecto fue medir la resistencia   transgénica a la infección con RBDV, la cual podría conferirse mediante diferentes secuencias de genes pertenecientes a este virus, adicionalmente, otro objetivo fue entender los mecanismos moleculares de resistencia transgénica que podrían ser generados por estos genes. Para medir la resistencia transgénica a RBDV, se introdujeron siete construcciones conteniendo secuencias génicas de RBDV dentro de Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediante conjugación de la bacteria («triparental mating» y los cultivos resultantes se usaron para transformar fragmentos de hojas de Nicotiana tabacum o fragmentos de tallo de plantas de Nicotiana benthamiana provenientes de invernadero o de cultivo de tejido. Se utilizaron plantas regeneradas a partir de cultivo de tejido en medio que contenía kanamicina para obtener semillas que dieron origen a plantas de la generación F1, las cuales se evaluaron para medir su resistencia a RBDV mediante la inoculación manual de hojas jóvenes y se analizaron para determinar el título de virus mediante ELISA después de 5 y 10 días post-inoculación. Se analizaron más de 20 líneas por cada construcción y los resultados mostraron que cada transgen introducido tuvo algún efecto de protección contra el virus. De esta manera, se obtuvo evidencia de la resistencia inducida por los genes correspondientes a la cápside, la antisecuencia y la polimerasa de RBDV

  14. Vegetative growth of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ‘Autumn Bliss’ with vermicompost application intercropped with lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Jara-Peña

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out with objective to determine the response of red raspberry to vermicompost application and lupine (intercropped or not in the phase of vegetative growth under greenhouse conditions in Montecillo, Mexico. In the experiment 11 treatments were studied with 9 replications per treatment, with a complete factorial (5 × 2 plus an additional treatment consisting of a chemical fertilization with N100 P80 K80. As vegetable material adventitious buds of raspberry were used, statistically significant differences were found between treatments in number of leaves, plant height, cane diameter, fresh and dry matter in raspberry. The biggest response was obtained with 90 and 120 g pot–1 of vermicompost. In general, the lupine intercropped with raspberry permitted a slight competion but favored the biggest development in the foliar area.

  15. Determination of Best Planting Pruning Method in Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and Its Effects on Generative and Vegetative Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Makaracı

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the best planting pruning method of raspberry plants by leaving different number of buds during planting. In this research “Ruby” cultivar red raspberry was used. Raspberry canes were pruned by leaving 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 buds per plant in each treatment. Generative and vegetative growth criteria were investigated. Results showed that canes that have 6 and 8 buds have the best growth. In these plants both generative and vegetative growth were in equilibrium.

  16. Rubus pharmacology: antiquity to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschylus, Hippocrates, Krataeus, Dioscorides, and Galen; Romans: Cato, Ovid, and Pliny the Elder; Asian medicinal traditions, such as the Unani Tibb, traditional Chinese medicine, and the Ayurvedic tradition of India. Folk traditions of native peoples throughout the world have also applied Rubus fo...

  17. Rubus Iconography: Antiquity to the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubus images from late Antiquity to the Renaissance are described and assessed for botanical and horticultural information. The earliest surviving European blackberry (R. fruticosus L. sp. agg.) image is found on folio 83 in the Juliana Anicia Codex (Codex Vindobonensis) of 512 CE which contains cop...

  18. Diversificación con frambuesa : : el impacto de su introducción en sistemas hortícolas de Coronda, Santa Fe, Argentina : análisis de un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Travadelo, Mariana; Sordo, María del Huerto; Favaro, Juan Carlos; Pernuzzi, Cristian; Perren, Ricardo; Gariglio, Norberto; Maina, Mariela; Rossler, Noelia; Brizi, María C.; Carboni, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar el impacto micro-económico que produce la introducción del cultivo de frambuesa en una pyme hortícola de Coronda, dedicada esencialmente a la producción de frutillas.El patrón de diversificación actual es escaso, debido principalmente a las limitaciones financieras existentes a nivel predial. Se combina el cultivo de frutilla con otras hortalizas, a contra-ciclo, tales...

  19. Nieuwe soorten uit het genus Rubus L. uit de binnenduinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van de Bram (A.)

    1997-01-01

    Three new species from the coastal area of the Netherlands are described: Rubus vadalis Beek mainly from the islands in the North, similar to R. platyacanthus P.J. Müll. & Lefèvre, but less hairy; Rubus ceratifolius Beek mainly from the dunes of the west-coast, related to R. gelertii Frid., but with

  20. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  1. Proceedings of the XI international Rubus and Ribes symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceedings book summarizes the latest internationial research concerning Rubus, Ribes and their wild relatives. This proceedings includes 82 scientific reports from international scientists concerning the genetics and germplasm, pests and diseases, physiology and production systems, post harve...

  2. GENETIC VARIATION IN RED RASPBERRIES (RUBUS IDAEUS L.; ROSACEAE) FROM SITES DIFFERING IN ORGANIC POLLUTANTS COMPARED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM REPEAT DNA PROBES. (R826602)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  4. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.

  5. Transfer and Mass Balance of Ellagitannins, Anthocyanins, Flavan-3-ols, and Flavonols during the Processing of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) to Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sójka, Michał; Macierzyński, Jakub; Zaweracz, Wojciech; Buczek, Maria

    2016-07-13

    The putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. Their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics in raspberries and the products of their processing (that is, juice and press cake, including its seed and seedless fractions). The study also examined the relationship between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. The average percentage contributions of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols to total polyphenolics in the fruits were 64.2%, 17.1%, 16.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. Analysis of raspberry products showed that the dominant compounds in juice were anthocyanins, with 65.1% contribution to total polyphenolics, while in raspberry press cake, they were tannins (98.0%, mainly ellagitannin including lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6). As shown by our mass-balance calculations, on average, 68.1% of ellagitannins and 87.7% of flavanols were retained in press cake, especially in its seedless fraction. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. An increase in molecular mass from 1568 to 2805 Da resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in ellagitannin transfer.

  6. Comparison of sugar, acids, and volatile composition in raspberry bushy dwarf virus-resistant transgenic raspberries and the wild type 'meeker' (rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malowicki, Sarah M M; Martin, Robert; Qian, Michael C

    2008-08-13

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) causes a significant reduction in yield and quality in raspberry and raspberry-blackberry hybrid. Genetic modifications were made to 'Meeker' red raspberries to impart RBDV resistance. The RBDV-resistant transgenic and wild type 'Meeker' plants were grown in Oregon and Washington, and the fruits were harvested in the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons. Year-to-year and site-to-site variations were observed for the degrees Brix and titratable acidity, with Oregon raspberries having slightly higher degrees Brix and lower titratable acidity than Washington raspberries. Twenty-nine volatile compounds were quantified using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) paired with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There were very few differences in volatile concentrations between the transgenic varieties and the wild type 'Meeker'. Much larger variations were observed between sites and harvest seasons. Raspberries grown in Oregon appeared to have higher concentrations of delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, geraniol, and linalool. Chiral analysis of alpha-ionone, alpha-pinene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, delta-octalactone, and delta-decalactone demonstrated a much higher percentage of one isomer over the other, particularly alpha-ionone, alpha-pinene, delta-octalactone, and delta-decalactone, with more than 90% of one isomer, while a racemic mixture was observed for linalool. The isomeric analysis revealed very little variation between varieties, locations, or years. The flavor compounds tested in this study did not show any difference between the transgenic lines and the wild type 'Meeker' raspberry.

  7. Anthocyanin fingerprinting of true bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in black raspberry products has been increasing due to its flavor and potential health benefits. While black raspberries grown in North America are Rubus occidentalis L., there has been some confusion regarding the identity of black raspberry grown in Korea (known as bokbunja; R. corean...

  8. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus
    Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by
    statistically derived character species.
    Location North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom,
    the Netherlands, Den

  9. Bioactive and volatile organic compounds in Southern Brazilian blackberry (Rubus Fruticosus) fruit cv. Tupy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques, Andressa Carolina; Chaves, Fábio Clasen; Zambiazi, Rui Carlos; Brasil, Márcia Campos; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cultivar Tupy), an expanding fruit crop in southern Brazil, is greatly appreciated for its flavor and bioactive potential with limited characterization of its metabolite content...

  10. SMALL GENOMES IN TETRAPLOID RUBUS L. (ROSACEAE) FROM NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 60 to70% of Rubus species are polyploids. Ploidy in this genus ranges from diploid through tetradecaploid , with aneuploids. The gametic chromosome number is x = 7. Taxa in Rubus Subgenera Micranthobatus and Comaropsis are endemic to the Southern Hemisphere in trans-Pacific Ocean environments ...

  11. Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis genes discriminate between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infective genotypes of Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea; Mann, Rachel A; Rodoni, Brendan; Goesmann, Alexander; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2012-10-01

    Comparative genomic analysis revealed differences in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis gene cluster between the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 and the Spiraeoideae-infecting strain CFBP 1430 of Erwinia amylovora. These differences corroborate rpoB-based phylogenetic clustering of E. amylovora into four different groups and enable the discrimination of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains. The structure of the differences between the two groups supports the hypothesis that adaptation to Rubus spp. took place after species separation of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae that contrasts with a recently proposed scenario, based on CRISPR data, in which the shift to domesticated apple would have caused an evolutionary bottleneck in the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora which would be a much earlier event. In the core region of the LPS biosynthetic gene cluster, Spiraeoideae-infecting strains encode three glycosyltransferases and an LPS ligase (Spiraeoideae-type waaL), whereas Rubus-infecting strains encode two glycosyltransferases and a different LPS ligase (Rubus-type waaL). These coding domains share little to no homology at the amino acid level between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains, and this genotypic difference was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the associated DNA region in 31 Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains. The LPS biosynthesis gene cluster may thus be used as a molecular marker to distinguish between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora using primers designed in this study.

  12. Comparative diversity analysis of southeastern Rubus germplasm through molecular and pedigree techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Rubus germplasm collection contains hundreds of diverse blackberry, raspberry, and black raspberry (Rubus L.)selections, among which intra- and interspecific crosses were made to achieve breeding goals for expanding commercial production in the Southeast. For over 50 years, the b...

  13. Hydrology and Sedimentology of a Series of Dam-Breach Paleolakes at Idaeus Fossae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salese, F.; Di Achille, G.; Ori, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the identification and geological study of a nearly 300-km-long valley system located westward of Idaeus Fossae, in Tempe Terra, Mars. The valley apparently originates from a subsided area surrounding the ejecta of a relatively fresh crater and after about 25 km from its source area enters a series of dam-breach paleolakes. The lake chain consists of six open basins (with associated fan-shaped sedimentary deposits) and covers an area of about 2500 sq. km over a E-W stretch of about 100 km. The latter lakes are interconnected and were likely coeval and drain eastward into a main 20-km-diameter crater-lake forming a complex and multilobate deltaic deposit whose front lies at about 1800-1820 m below the martian datum. The deltaic deposit is about 8-km-long and morphologically resembles the Jezero delta, showing a well-developed distributary pattern with evidence of channel switching on the delta plain. The floor of the crater-lake is not incised by the main valley, however a breach area is present along the eastern crater rim and consists of two spillover channels at about the same elevation of the crater inlet (-1820 m). These latter channels connect the crater lake to the eastward portion of the valley continuing towards Idaeus Fossae with a more than 180-km-long complex pattern of anabranching channels . We used high-resolution imagery and topography (HRSC, and CTX and HiRISE stereo pairs) to derive a geological-geomorphological map of the area and to understand its evolution. The extension and morphology of the observed fluvio-lacustrine features suggest relatively long-term (>103 yrs) formation timescales as also supported by the presence of the main fan delta in the central open basin. The overall water source for the 300-km-long fluvial system is unclear, though the occurrence of many rampart craters and the relationships between their ejecta and the channels suggest that subsurface volatiles might have also played an important role.

  14. Rubus canadensis virus 1, a novel betaflexivirus identified in blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2013-02-01

    Flexuous filaments, resembling flexivirus virions, were observed in partially purified blackberry preparations showing mild virus-like symptoms. Further tests revealed the presence of a novel betaflexivirus that is phylogenetically related to foveaviruses. The putative virus-encoded proteins shared limited similarity with orthologs of known members of the genus, indicating that the virus, provisionally named Rubus canadensis virus 1 (RuCV-1), represents a novel member of the taxon. Results of a survey in several U.S. states suggest that RuCV-1 is not widespread in the blackberry germplasm.

  15. Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated Rubus species in Colombia using AFLP and SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bibiana Aguilar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Andean blackberry belongs to the genus Rubus, the largest of the Rosaceae family and one of the mostdiverse of the plant kingdom. In Colombia Rubus glaucus Benth, known as the Andean raspberry or blackberry, is one of thenine edible of the genus out of forty-four reported species. In this study wild and cultivated genotypes, collected in the CentralAndes of Colombia were analyzed by AFLP and SSR markers. Sexual reproduction seems to play an important role inmaintaining the genetic variability in R. glaucus, and the viability of using the SSR of Rubus alceifolius to characterizeColombian Rubus species was clearly demonstrated. All species evaluated produced very specific banding patterns,differentiating them from the others. Both AFLP and SSR produced bands exclusive to each of the following species: R.robustus, R. urticifolius, R. glaucus, and R. rosifolius. The SSR markers differentiated diploid and tetraploid genotypes of R.glaucus.

  16. Development and genetic characterization of high-functional Rubus coreanus mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hong

    2008-07-15

    The gamma irradiation as a 100 Gy lead to mutate Bokbunja seed as well as induction of germination, in addition, the optimum condition for inducing mutation is that H2SO4 should be treated after gamma irradiation in vivo. In order to breed the useful mutants in black raspberry, cultivated in Gochanggun, 2-year-old nursery stocks were irradiated with 70 (264 lines) and 120 Gy (360 lines) of gamma-ray. The LD50 dose was identified as 70 Gy. Morphological characteristics of the variants were observed such as stem variation, no. of thorn and no. of sucker compared with donor cultivar. The comparison of morphological and chemical characteristics between Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis was carried out and these two species are quite different that is, number of cortex cells in Rubus occidentalis are much higher than Rubus coreanus. Rubus occidentalis highly contained glucose, xylose, and arabinose, and well developed secondary cell wall compared with Rubus coreanus. We carried out to obtain phylogenetic information on Korean cultivated bramble (KCB) by comparing its specific and random genomic and chloroplast sequences. The characteristics of nuclear and chloroplast genomes of KCB accessions are significantly different from those of other Rubus species. Phylogentic relationship inferred from these molecular features suggest that KCB accessions are relatively more closely related to black raspberry than to R. coreanus. Rubus are classified into 4 developing fruit stages such as green, yellow, red, and black color. The anthocyanin content was increased together with maturation, that is black color fruit is the highest anthocyanin content and highly correlated the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes sunch as C4H, F3H. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the anthocynin biosynthesis is modulated by chitosan resulting in enhanced anthocyanin content in ripen fruit

  17. Mistaken Identity: Clarification of Rubus coreanus Miquel (Bokbunja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungmin Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., there has been a recent surge in Korean black raspberry products available and in the number of reports about this species appearing in the scientific literature. Despite this, the majority of products sold and the work carried out has been on Rubus occidentalis L., not R. coreanus Miquel. The importance of accurate recognition of all starting material is multiplied for research downstream, including genetics/genomics, plant breeding, phenolic identification, food processing improvements and pharmacokinetic investigations. An overview of distinguishing characteristics separating R. coreanus from R. occidentalis will be presented. Research conducted on correctly identified fruit will also be summarized to aid future studies that might showcase the unique qualities that bokbunja can offer.

  18. Rubus canduliger, a new regional species from the Netherlands, with notes on the range structure and dynamics of brambles (Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.J.; Haveman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Rubus canduliger is described as a new regional bramble species belonging to the series Discolores. It has been recognized in the Netherlands as a distinct species for more than 70 years but identified as the central European R. grabowskii. The latter, however, differs by its tapering prickles,

  19. Compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta (Rubus spp. Bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus spp. grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta (Rubus spp., pequena fruta de clima temperado, possui coloração atraente, variando do vermelho púrpura ao azul, devido ao elevado teor de antocianinas. As antocianinas, juntamente com os carotenoides, compõem os pigmentos naturais, majoritários encontrados em diversas frutas. Diversos estudos têm relatado a importância destes pigmentos naturais como protetores e/ou inibidores de doenças degenerativas, porém são escassos os estudos sobre compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta cultivada no Brasil. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram identificar as antocianinas e os carotenoides presentes em amora-preta, determinar os conteúdos totais de compostos fenólicos, carotenoides, flavonoides, antocianinas totais, monoméricas, poliméricas e copigmentadas, e a capacidade antioxidante frente aos radicais livres ABTS e DPPH. O teor total de carotenoides foi baixo (86,5 ± 0,2 µg/100 g, com all-trans-β-caroteno (39,6 % e all-trans-luteína (28,2 % como os majoritários. As amoras-pretas apresentaram elevado potencial antioxidante principalmente pelo teor representativo de antocianinas monoméricas (104,1 ± 1,8 mg/100 g de fruto, presença de antocianinas poliméricas (22,9 ± 0,4 %, baixa porcentagem de antocianinas copigmentadas (1,6 ± 0,1 % e altos teores de compostos fenólicos (241,7 ± 0,8 mg equivalente de ácido gálico/100 g e de flavonoides totais (173,7 ± 0,7 mg equivalente de catequina/100 g. Cianidina 3-glucosídeo foi a antocianina majoritária (92,9 %. Diante destes resultados, a amora-preta pode ser considerada uma fonte natural rica em antioxidantes e pigmentos.The blackberry (Rubus spp., a small fruit grown in temperate climate, shows an attractive color ranging from purple red to blue, due to the high content of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins, along with carotenoids, are the major natural pigments found in several fruits. Many studies have reported the importance of these natural pigments as protectors

  20. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  1. Efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, Rubus ideaus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, H; Wagoner, W; Cohen, C; Kellogg, J; Bestwick, R

    1995-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for red raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Using this system we have successfully introduced a gene that encodes an enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase), in raspberry cultivars Meeker (MK), Chilliwack (CH) and Canby (CY). Leaf and petiole expiants were inoculated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 carrying either of two binary vectors, pAG1452 or pAG1552, encoding gene sequences for SAMase under the control of the wound and fruit specific tomato E4 promoter. Primary shoot regenerants on selection medium were chimeral containing both transformed and non-transformed cells. Non-chimeral transgenic clones were developed by iterative culture of petiole, node and leaf explants, on selection medium, from successive generations of shoots derived from the primary regenerants. Percent recovery of transformants was higher with the selection marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), than with neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII). Transformation frequencies of 49.6%, 0.9% and 8.1% were obtained in cultivars Meeker, Chilliwack and Canby respectively from petiole expiants using hygromycin selection. Genomic integration of transgenes was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Transgenic plants from a total of 218 independent transformation events (161 MK, 4 CH, 53 CY) have been successfully established in soil.

  2. Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) use as an herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rameshwar; Gangrade, Tushar; Punasiya, Rakesh; Ghulaxe, Chetan

    2014-07-01

    Wild grown European blackberry Rubus fruticosus) plants are widespread in different parts of northern countries and have been extensively used in herbal medicine. The result show that European blackberry plants are used for herbal medicinal purpose such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antidysentery, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal, and also good antioxidant. Blackberry plant (R. fruticosus) contains tannins, gallic acid, villosin, and iron; fruit contains vitamin C, niacin (nicotinic acid), pectin, sugars, and anthocyanins and also contains of berries albumin, citric acid, malic acid, and pectin. Some selected physicochemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial screening of fruit, leaves, root, and stem of R. fruticosus, and total anthocyanins of four preselected wild grown European blackberry (R. fruticosus) fruits are investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content detect among the medicinal use. The highest protein content (2%), the genotypes with the antioxidant activity of standard butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) studies 85.07%. Different cultivars grown in same location consistently show differences in antioxidant capacity.

  3. Eop1 from a Rubus strain of Erwinia amylovora functions as a host-range limiting factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, J E; Bonasera, J M; Kim, J F; Oh, C-S; Beer, S V

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Erwinia amylovora, the bacterium causing the disease fire blight of rosaceous plants, are separated into two groups based on host range: Spiraeoideae and Rubus strains. Spiraeoideae strains have wide host ranges, infecting plants in many rosaceous genera, including apple and pear. In the field, Rubus strains infect the genus Rubus exclusively, which includes raspberry and blackberry. Based on comparisons of limited sequence data from a Rubus and a Spiraeoideae strain, the gene eop1 was identified as unusually divergent, and it was selected as a possible host specificity factor. To test this, eop1 genes from a Rubus strain and a Spiraeoideae strain were cloned and mutated. Expression of the Rubus-strain eop1 reduced the virulence of E. amylovora in immature pear fruit and in apple shoots. Sequencing the orfA-eop1 regions of several strains of E. amylovora confirmed that forms of eop1 are conserved among strains with similar host ranges. This work provides evidence that eop1 from a Rubus-specific strain can function as a determinant of host specificity in E. amylovora.

  4. Pollen morphology of the genus Rubus L. I. introductory studies on the european representatives of the subgenus Rubus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tomlik-Wyremblewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pollen morphology studies of 9 European Rubus species are presented in this paper (R. apricus, R. armeniacus, R. divaricatus, R. fabrimontanus, R. gracilis, R. hirtus, R. laciniatus, R. nessensis and R. pedemontanus. The examination is made by SEM observation for first time and also by LM. All examined pollen grains are small, isopolar and tricolporate. All grains, except for R. armeniacus and R. gracilis tend to have very long colpi. Equatorial bridges constricted, make the pores unvisible in most of the species. R. apricus, R. armeniacus, R. gracilis and R. pedemontanus have the equatorial bridges stretched therefore the dark whole was only the trace of existing endoaperture. The sculpture of the grain confirms striate pattern and the orientation of the muri indicates the differences between the species; R. pedemontanus and R. fabrimontanus appear to have long, compact muri, parallelly orientated to the colpus; R. nessensis appears muri meandrically orientated, reminiscent of "finger prints" pattern with distinct thickenings in the place of connection and numerous narrow grooves with perforations. R. hirtus appears to have striate-scabrate sculpture because of granular elements (punctae dispersed between the muri on all over the grain like the internal part of the exine. Shape and size turned out to be a poor criterion for identifying species.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Rubus ulmifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzi, L; Caponi, C; Catalano, S; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I

    2002-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity on bacteria and fungi of increasing polarity extracts of Rubus ulmifolius and that of some isolated constituents, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide; kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, gallic acid, ferulic acid and tiliroside was evaluated. The phenolic and tannins fractions showed an high antimicrobial activity.

  6. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  7. A blackberry (Rubus L.) expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blackberry (Rubus L.) expressed sequence tag (EST) library was produced for developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the tetraploid blackberry cultivar, Merton Thornless, the source of the thornless trait in commercial cultivars. RNA was extracted from young expanding leaves and used f...

  8. Ciclo de produção de cultivares de framboeseiras (Rubus idaeus submetidas à poda drástica nas condições do sul de Minas Gerais

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    Luana Aparecida Castilho Maro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o ciclo de produção de cultivares de framboeseiras submetidas à poda drástica nas condições edafoclimáticas do sul de Minas Gerais. As cultivares escolhidas Batum, Autumn Bliss, Heritage e Golden Bliss foram avaliadas nas condições edafoclimáticas do sul de Minas Gerais desde a poda drástica até a produção e desenvolvimento de frutos nas hastes primárias e secundárias, e nas gemas subapicais. As hastes emitidas após a poda de inverno foram marcadas e avaliadas quanto ao início e término das fases de florescimento e frutificação. Para a determinação da curva de desenvolvimento dos frutos, foram feitas amostragens semanais desde o início da formação do fruto até a colheita. Conclui-se que ocorre a emissão de dois surtos de crescimento de rebentos oriundos do sistema radicular. As cultivares diferem quanto ao ciclo de produção nas hastes primárias e secundárias. As gemas subapicais mostram baixa capacidade de brotação e florescimento. Os frutos das diferentes cultivares apresentam padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples.

  9. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae in South Africa. IV. Natural hybridiza­ tion

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    J. J. Spies

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Rubus L. is represented in southern Africa by the subgenera  Eubatus Focke and  Idaeobatus Focke. A combination o f morphological data, data on the reproductive systems of some collections and meiotic chromosome behaviour indicates that a hybrid swarm in the eastern Transvaal was formed subsequent to the hybridization between R. cuneifolius Pursh. taxon B (subgenus Eubatus and R. longepedicellatus (C. E. Gust. C. H. Stirton (subgenus Idaeobatus. Other examples of intra- and intersubgeneric hybridization were found during this study of the South African material. These instances, with examples found in the literature, indicate that the subgeneric subdivisions of Rubus are artificial. Three different methods were used to analyse the meiotic chromosome configurations. The genome relationship system of Alonso & Kimber (1981 and Kimber & Alonso (1981 and the modification of the binomial system of Jackson & Casey (1980 by Spies (1984 proved to be the most sensitive for distinguishing between alio-, segmental alio- and autoploids.

  10. Wound Healing Activity of Rubus sanctus Schreber (Rosaceae): Preclinical Study in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Koca, Ufuk; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli

    2011-01-01

    Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus.

  11. Wound Healing Activity of Rubus sanctus Schreber (Rosaceae: Preclinical Study in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Süntar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Young shoots of Rubus species have been used for healing of wounds, infected insect bites and pimples in folk medicine for ages. In order to evaluate the wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus, four different extracts were prepared from the whole aerial parts of the plant by using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Incision wound healing model by using tensiometer on rats and excision model on mice were employed to assess the activity. Remarkable wound healing activity was observed with the ointment formulation of the methanol extract at 1% concentration on the mentioned models. The results of histopathological examination also supported the outcome of both incision and excision wound models. The wound healing effect was comparatively evaluated with a reference ointment Madecassol. The experimental data confirmed the ethnobotanical usage of R. sanctus.

  12. Rubus bohemo-polonicus (Rosaceae - a new species of bramble from the Czech Republic and Poland

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    Jerzy Zieliński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus bohemo-polonicus Travnicek & Zieliński, a regional species belonging to series Radula (Focke Focke, is described from the Czech Republic and Poland. It differs from closely related species (R. radula Weihe, R. salisburgensis Focke ex Caflisch and R. indusiatus Focke mainly by the almost glabrous stems and consistently white petals. Illustrations and a distribution map of the new species are provided.

  13. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (Psponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  14. RNA-Seq analysis and transcriptome assembly for blackberry (Rubus sp. Var. Lochness) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Seco, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco J; Martin, Cathie; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in berries, especially blackberries in the diet, because of recent reports of their health benefits due to their high content of flavonoids. A broad range of genomic tools are available for other Rosaceae species but these tools are still lacking in the Rubus genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the breeding of improved varieties. Results De novo RNA-seq of ripe blackberries grown under field conditions was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000. Alm...

  15. Bioactive and volatile organic compounds in Southern Brazilian blackberry (Rubus Fruticosus) fruit cv. Tupy

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa Carolina Jacques; Fábio Clasen Chaves; Rui Carlos Zambiazi; Márcia Campos Brasil; Elina Bastos Caramão

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cultivar Tupy), an expanding fruit crop in southern Brazil, is greatly appreciated for its flavor and bioactive potential with limited characterization of its metabolite content. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bioactive and volatile organic compound (VOC) content of mature blackberry fruit of cultivar Tupy. Gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, ferulic acid, and quercetin were the main phenolic compounds found in mature fruit. Among the VOCs identified...

  16. Water extracts of immature Rubus coreanus regulate lipid metabolism in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Bidur; Lee, Geum-Hwa; Marahatta, Anu; Lee, Hak-Yong; Kim, Sun-Young; So, Byung-Ok; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Song, Ji-Young; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Soo-Wan; Chae, Han-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor for atherosclerosis and hypolipidemic drugs such as statin are highly prescribed to treat elevated lipid level in plasma. Rubus coreanus, which is widely cultivated in south eastern Asia, have been reported to show significant cholesterol lowering action in hyperlipidemic subjects. Our objective was to determine the cellular effect of Rubus coreanus extract (RCE) on cholesterol biosynthesis in human hepatic cells (HepG2) and to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which it causes change in cholesterol metabolism. RCE treatment lowered cholesterol biosynthesis as well as secretion from HepG2 cells. This effect was associated with lowering the release of apolipoproteins from hepatic cells. RCE treatment also showed an increase in phosphorylation of foxhead box protein 01 (FoXo-1) and 5-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), thus lowering expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and G6Pase, which might be a major pathway for cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition. Apart from this; RCE also lowered sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) expression in HepG2 cells, showing a long term regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis activity. These results indicate that one of the anti-hyperlipidemic actions of RCE is due to inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatic cells and provides first documentation of a hypolipidemic bio-molecular action of Rubus coreanus.

  17. Failure of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae and the predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus to control a population of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Simon L; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Mumford, John D

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of a population of the phytophagous cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), and its natural enemies was undertaken in central Bahia, Brazil, in mid-1996. In spite of the presence of extremely high densities of the predatory phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma, the phytophagous mite population reached such high densities itself that there was total overexploitation of the cassava plants, leading to total leaf loss. Meanwhile, the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera, Humber & Hajek did not affect the M. tanajoa population in its growth phase as there was no inoculum present, even though we predict from a simple regression model that there was the potential for epizootics at that time. Soon after the M. tanajoa population crashed due to defoliation, there could have been an epizootic but there were simply no mite hosts to infect. These data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of one natural enemy (the predator) in terms of prey population regulation and demonstrate the importance of timing in the possible effectiveness of the other (the pathogen). For the pathogen, this probably explains its sporadic effect on host populations as previously reported. We conclude that the fungus is likely to be most useful as an adjunct to biological control with predatory mites other than N. idaeus.

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Selected Wild Berries (Rubus moluccanus L., R. fraxinifolius Poir., and R. alpestris Blume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly; Ismail, Nur Amalina; Isha, Azizul; Mei Ling, Angelina Lee

    2016-01-01

    Berries, from the genus Rubus, are among the vital components in a healthy diet. In this study, 80% methanol extracts from the three wild Rubus species (Rubus moluccanus L., Rubus fraxinifolius Poir., and Rubus alpestris Blume) were evaluated for their phytochemical contents (total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and carotenoid content), antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS assays), antiacetylcholinesterase, and antibacterial activities. GC-MS was used for quantification of naturally occurring phytochemicals. The results showed that R. alpestris contained the highest total phenolic [24.25 ± 0.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g] and carotenoid content [21.86 ± 0.63 mg β-carotene equivalents (BC)/g], as well as the highest DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities. The highest total flavonoid [18.17 ± 0.20 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g] and anthocyanin content [36.96 ± 0.39 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (c-3-gE)/g] have been shown by R. moluccanus. For antibacterial assays, R. moluccanus and R. alpestris extracts showed mild inhibition towards Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. Anticholinesterase activity for all extracts was in the range of 23-26%. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 12, 21, and 7 different organic compounds in 80% methanol extracts of R. alpestris, R. moluccanus, and R. fraxinifolius, respectively, which might contribute to the bioactivity.

  19. Estabilidade de compostos bioativos em polpa congelada de amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus cv. Tupy Stability of bioactive compounds in frozen pulp of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Carolina Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus (Rosaceae, popularly known as Blackberry, is a highly nutritious fruit, rich in bioactive compounds. Their stability during processing has been the focus of several studies. This work describes the evaluation of the stability of the main phytochemicals of pulp from blackberry cv. Tupy, stored under different temperature conditions for six months. The storage at -10 °C was not sufficient to cause significant changes in total phenolics content, anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity during two months of storage. Likewise, at -18 °C, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity were kept for four months, but total anthocyanins and β-carotene content were kept for two and six months of storage, respectively.

  20. Enhanced Immunomodulatory Activity of Gelatin-Encapsulated Rubus coreanus Miquel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Choon Geun; Cha, Seon Woo; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Jin-Chul; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2–3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2–3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune

  1. Bioactive and volatile organic compounds in Southern Brazilian blackberry (Rubus Fruticosus fruit cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Carolina Jacques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, cultivar Tupy, an expanding fruit crop in southern Brazil, is greatly appreciated for its flavor and bioactive potential with limited characterization of its metabolite content. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bioactive and volatile organic compound (VOC content of mature blackberry fruit of cultivar Tupy. Gallic acid, (--epicatechin, ferulic acid, and quercetin were the main phenolic compounds found in mature fruit. Among the VOCs identified in 'Tupy' blackberry were important flavor components characteristic of fruit berries, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and terpenoids. Some of the VOCs had not been previously found in blackberry, while others have been associated with typical blackberry flavor.

  2. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  3. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.; Moraes, C.

    Metal content was determined in three groups of molluscs - an oyster Saccostrea cucullata, snail Cerithium rubus and clam Tellina angulata from three sites along the Bombay Coast. Seasonal difference in copper content was significant in S. cucullata...

  4. Dormancy and Germination of Castilla Blackberry Seeds (Rubus glaucus Benth / Latencia y Germinación de Semillas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth

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    Díaz Diez Cipriano Arturo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We categorized the dormancy and germination ofblackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth seeds from the GermplasmBank System for Food and Agriculture of the Colombian Nation. A tetrazolium test showed normal seedling production viability, but seed coat impermeability prevented imbibition, which is considered an expression of exogenous dormancy; however, this was released by immersing the seeds in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite for 16 to 21 hours. The treatment was applied to 10 accessions of Castilla blackberry, harvested during the dry and rainy seasons. The seeds were germinated under light and dark conditions. The highest germination counts were obtained with the dry-season-collected seeds incubated in darkness and with the rainy-season seeds incubated under light conditions. Differential germination responses were also independently determined by genotype, incubation conditions (light or darkness and collecting season. / Se categorizaron la latencia y la germinación ensemillas de mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth, provenientes del Sistema de Bancos de Germoplasma para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de la Nación Colombiana. La prueba del tetrazolio demostró que las semillas tenían la capacidad para dar origen a una plántula normal; sin embargo, al contacto con el agua la imbibición fue restringida por la impermeabilidad de la testa, lo que se considera como una expresión de latencia exógena. Ésta pudo ser removida con la inmersión de las semillas durante 16 a 21 horas en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%. El tratamiento fue aplicado a 10 accesiones de mora de Castila cosechadas en épocas seca y lluviosa; las semillas se germinaron bajo condiciones deluz y oscuridad, con una mayor germinación al incubar lasprovenientes de tiempo seco en condiciones de oscuridad y en aquellas de época lluviosa al ser germinadas con luz. También al aplicar el procedimiento de remoción de latencia exógena se observaron respuestas germinativas diferenciales

  5. Environ: E00826 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00826 Raspberry leaf Medicinal herb Flagellin, Gallate [CPD:C01424], Ellagic acid ...[CPD:C10788], Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] [DR:D00018] Rubus idaeus [TAX:32247] Rosaceae Raspberry leaf leaves Medicinal

  6. Ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp (Rosaceae em Timbó-SC, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas João de Mello Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou experimentalmente a ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.. Objetivou-se confirmar a síndrome de polinização de Rubus sp., por meio de análise de seu sistema reprodutivo, quantificação da produção diária de néctar, levantamento da entomofauna que visita as flores da amoreira na área de estudo e análise do seu comportamento polinizador. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma área de cultivo de amoreira-preta, no mês de dezembro de 2005, município de Timbó (SC. Constatou-se que a maior taxa de frutificação (48,3 % ± 3,2 ocorreu via polinização livre, onde os insetos não foram excluídos. Foi verificada a ocorrência de autopolinização, porém com taxa inferior de frutificação (12,2% ± 4,9. A anemofilia não foi constatada na espécie. A avaliação da produção de néctar em Rubus sp. resultou em valores compatíveis com a síndrome de melitofilia. Os visitantes florais coletados e observados sobre as flores de Rubus sp. foram predominantemente abelhas da ordem Hymenoptera (97%, que iniciam, em menor número, a atividade de forrageamento às 8h, com pico de atividade às 12h e declinando até às 16h. As coletas resultaram numa amostragem de 1.360 abelhas, divididas em quatro famílias e 13 espécies. A família com maior riqueza de espécies (N = 7 foi Halictidae e a mais abundante foi Apidae, com 1.288 indivíduos. Em Apidae, houve o predomínio da espécie exótica Apis mellifera, cuja representação na amostra foi de 1.246 indivíduos. Os dados da abundância e as observações naturalísticas do seu comportamento da flor apontaram A. mellifera como o principal polinizador de Rubus sp., mas confirmam que as demais espécies de abelhas também participam na polinização de Rubus sp.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L. Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus sp. juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574 recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6GL° with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28C°, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  8. Ethno-pharmacognostical Studies on Root Bark of Rubus ellipticus Smith. from Manipur

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    CL. Ringmichon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus ellipticus Smith. belongs to family Rosaceae. It is one of the important ethnomedicinal plants of Manipur. The Naga tribe of Manipur uses the root bark of the said plant for curing fever since ancient times. The present study deals with comprehensive pharmacognostical studies on root bark of this plant, it includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical parameters. Some diagnostic characters are presence of uniserriate root hairs, endodermal cells, stone cells and calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical studies revealed total ash (3.35%, acid insoluble ash (1.0%, water soluble ash (0.9%, alcohol soluble extractive (21.12% water soluble extractive (25.3% and chloroform extractive (1.3%. This will help in laying down pharmacopeial parameters.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  10. Effects of a Rubus coreanus Miquel supplement on plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Jung eun; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, SooMuk

    2011-01-01

    Korean raspberry, Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which prevent oxidative stress. To determine the effect of RCM on antioxidant capacity in humans, we assessed in vivo lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities from plasma in 15 healthy men. The subjects ingested 30 g of freeze-dried RCM daily for 4 weeks. Blood was taken at baseline and at the end of the study to determine blood lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, liver function, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. RCM supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or fasting plasma glucose concentrations but decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. RCM supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that short-term RCM supplementation may offer health benefits by enhancing antioxidant capacity in a healthy population. PMID:22125680

  11. Phytochemicals in blackberry/ Fitoquímicos em amora-preta (Rubus spp

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    Rui Carlos Zambiazi

    Full Text Available Among the options for fruit species with market prospects, the blackberry (Rubus spp stands out as one of the most promising. This is a species that has shown an increase of cultivated area in recent years in Rio Grande do Sul (main Brazilian producer. Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with low risk of incidence and mortality from cancer and heart disease due to the presence of compounds derived from secondary metabolism, especially flavonoids and anthocyanins, which have great capacity to react with free radicals that cause oxidative stress, and therefore contribute to the prevention of these diseases. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were identificated in the group of phenolic compounds in blackberry. Among the flavonoids, stands out the anthocyanins, which vary in concentration according to the stage of maturation of fruits. Based on the antocyanin content related in literature and the great variation between different genetic materials, there is great potential in the production of blackberry and its utilization as a natural colorant in the food and pharmaceuticals industry. In addition to these compounds, the blackberry also has other phytochemicals such as vitamin C, vitamin E and carotenoids. This paper aims to review literature of the main phytochemicals in blackberry (Rubus spp.Dentre as opções de espécies frutíferas com perspectivas de comercialização, a amoreira-preta (Rubus spp se destaca como uma das mais promissoras. Esta é uma das espécies que tem apresentado um crescimento de área cultivada nos últimos anos no Rio Grande do Sul (principal produtor brasileiro. O consumo regular de frutas e hortaliças está associado com o baixo risco de incidência e mortalidade por câncer e doenças cardíacas, devido à presença de compostos oriundos do metabolismo secundário, especialmente flavonóides e antocianinas, os quais apresentam grande capacidade de reagir com radicais livres que causam estresse

  12. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Rojas-Bribiesca, Gabriela; Nicasio-Torres, María del Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Tortoriello, Jaime; Meckes-Fischer, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant. PMID:22966243

  13. Microbiological and Pharmacological Evaluation of the Micropropagated Rubus liebmannii Medicinal Plant

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    Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus liebmannii is an endemic species from Mexico used in traditional medicine primarily to treat dysentery and cough. The in vitro activity against Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica that produces the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant led us to expand the pharmacological and phytochemical research of this species. Gastrointestinal disorders including amebiasis remain one of the health problems that need to be addressed and it is of interest to find alternatives that improve their treatment. Also, it is important to emphasize that R. liebmannii grows wild in the country and is not found in abundance; therefore, alternatives that avoid overexploitation of the natural resource are mandatory. Ongoing with the evaluation of the potentialities that R. liebmannii possesses for treating infectious gastrointestinal diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects and the chemical composition of the micropropagated plant.

  14. Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp.) relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation Beneficios del néctar de mora (Rubus spp.) en relación con la hipercolesterolemia y la peroxidación lipídica

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Ferreira de Araujo; V. da Silva Santos; A. Rodrigues Machado; C. Gevehr Fernandes; J.A. Silva; R. da Silva Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp.) have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. Objective: This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantificat...

  15. Microsatellite Markers for Raspberries and Blackberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, w...

  16. Microsatellite markers for raspberry and blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    welve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, we...

  17. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90...

  18. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  19. LICOR DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON DIFERENTES PORCENTAJES DE PULPA BLACKBERRY LIQUOR (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH DIFFERENT PULP PERCENTAGES

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    Álvaro Montoya Gómez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth es una fruta de interés comercial y altamente perecedera, que presenta deterioro debido a su fragilidad e inadecuado manejo poscosecha, cantidades apreciables de fruta son afectadas, básicamente en sus características físicas, siendo este producto apto para el procesamiento industrial. Veinte kg de mora fueron despulpados, homogenizados y caracterizada la pulpa, determinando; grados brix de 6,0; porcentaje de acidez de 2,91 % y densidad de 0,991 g/ml en promedio. Se formularon licores, con una participación de la pulpa del 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 % iniciando con 35 °Brix, para todos los casos en el mosto fermentable, ajustando las formulaciones con sacarosa; la levadura inoculada fue Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen en concentración del 0,2 %; la fermentación se llevó a cabo en reactores con capacidad de 2 litros, con desfogue de manguera de látex, el mosto fermentable fue dejado en los reactores durante 20 semanas, luego los licores fueron filtrados y caracterizados físico-químicamente, evaluando el porcentaje de alcohol por destilación, encontrando que el porcentaje de 40 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor concentración con 8,36 % de volumen de alcohol en promedio. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron una diferencia significativa entre los porcentajes de participación de pulpa y su influencia sobre la producción de alcohol para los valores de 25 % y 30 % con respecto a los porcentajes 35 %, 40 %, 45 %, 50 % y 55 %. Un modelo matemático lineal apropiado para la producción de alcohol en función de la participación de pulpa fue obtenido. La prueba sensorial con 10 jueces, mostró que el licor preparado con 35 % de participación de pulpa, fue el de mayor aceptación.The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth is a fruit of commercial interest that is highly perishable, showing appreciable damage due to fragileness and inadequate pos-harvesting handling

  20. Interspecific hybridization among raspberry cultivars, Rubus cratagifolius and Rubus parvifolius%树莓品种与牛叠肚及茅莓种间杂交研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹; 代汉萍; 刘镇东

    2009-01-01

    Five raspberry eultivars(Rubus/daeus L.) and 3 accessions of wild raspberries SM5 (R.crataegifolius Bge.),SM_6(R.crataegifolius Bge.) and SM_2 (R.parvifolius L.) were used as parents to carry out interspecific hybridization in a total of 12 combinations.The results showed that great differences of fruit-setting rate existed among combinations.Fruit-setting rates of Fall Golden×SM_5, Fall Golden×SM_6, Royahy×SM_5, Royalty×SM_6, SM_2xRoyalty, SM_2×Autumn Bliss, SM_2×Heritage and V×SM_6 were zero.While V×SM_5, Heritage×SM_2,Royalty×SM_2 and Autumn Bliss×SM_2 had better compatibility with fruit-set-ring rates of 40.76%,53.06% ,70.83% and 100.00% respectively.Seedlings from the latter 4 combinations were obtained,but the rates of germination were all less than 2.5%.Fruit-setting rate can be increased by repeat pollination.The fruit-setting rate was decreased by delayed pollination.%以5份树莓栽培品种(Rub us idcleu8 L)和2份野生树莓牛叠肚(Rubus crataegifolius Bge.)SM5、sM6及1份茅莓(R.parrifolius L.)SM_2为亲本进行杂交试验,共配置12个杂交组合.结果表明,不同杂交组合的杂交结实率差异很大,Fall Golden×SM_5、Fall Golden×SM6、Royahy×SM_4Royahy×SM_6、SM_2xRoyahy、SM_2×Autumn Bliss、SM_2×Heritage、V×SM_6等8个杂交组合杂交结实率均为0,组合VxSM_5、HeritagexSM_2、RoyahyxSM_2、Autum BlissxSM_2亲和性较好,杂交结实率分别为40.76%、53.06%、70.83%、100.00%,播种后,均得到杂种实生苗,但出苗率低于2.5%;重复授粉的方法可以提高树莓种间杂交结实率,延迟授粉则杂交结实率低.

  1. Ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp (Rosaceae em Timbó-SC, Brasil Pollination ecology of blackberry (Rubus sp. (Rosaceae in Timbo (SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leônidas João de Mello Junior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho verificou experimentalmente a ecologia da polinização da amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.. Objetivou-se confirmar a síndrome de polinização de Rubus sp., por meio de análise de seu sistema reprodutivo, quantificação da produção diária de néctar, levantamento da entomofauna que visita as flores da amoreira na área de estudo e análise do seu comportamento polinizador. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma área de cultivo de amoreira-preta, no mês de dezembro de 2005, município de Timbó (SC. Constatou-se que a maior taxa de frutificação (48,3 % ± 3,2 ocorreu via polinização livre, onde os insetos não foram excluídos. Foi verificada a ocorrência de autopolinização, porém com taxa inferior de frutificação (12,2% ± 4,9. A anemofilia não foi constatada na espécie. A avaliação da produção de néctar em Rubus sp. resultou em valores compatíveis com a síndrome de melitofilia. Os visitantes florais coletados e observados sobre as flores de Rubus sp. foram predominantemente abelhas da ordem Hymenoptera (97%, que iniciam, em menor número, a atividade de forrageamento às 8h, com pico de atividade às 12h e declinando até às 16h. As coletas resultaram numa amostragem de 1.360 abelhas, divididas em quatro famílias e 13 espécies. A família com maior riqueza de espécies (N = 7 foi Halictidae e a mais abundante foi Apidae, com 1.288 indivíduos. Em Apidae, houve o predomínio da espécie exótica Apis mellifera, cuja representação na amostra foi de 1.246 indivíduos. Os dados da abundância e as observações naturalísticas do seu comportamento da flor apontaram A. mellifera como o principal polinizador de Rubus sp., mas confirmam que as demais espécies de abelhas também participam na polinização de Rubus sp.The pollination ecology of the blackberry (Rubus sp. was studied by means of determining its reproductive system, the analysis of flower's nectar production. Sampling the insects that visit

  2. Rubus rosaefolius extract as a natural preservative candidate in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Elissa Arantes; Marcondes, Elda Maria Cecilio; Nishikawa, Suzana de Oliveira; Lopes, Patricia Santos; Varca, Gustavo Henrique Costa; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli; Consiglieri, T Vladi Olga; Baby, Andre Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Kaneko, Telma Mary

    2011-06-01

    Even though the synthetic preservatives may offer a high antimicrobial efficacy, they are commonly related to adverse reactions and regarded as having potentially harmful effects caused by chronic consumption. The development of natural preservatives provides a way of reducing the amount of synthetic preservatives normally used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In addition, these agents have less toxic effects and represent a possible natural and safer alternative of the preservatives. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the Rubus rosaefolius Smith extract efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. Of the extract, 0.2% (w/w) was assayed for its effectiveness of antimicrobial protection in two different base formulations (emulsion and gel). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standard procedures proposed by The United States Pharmacopoeia 33nd, European Pharmacopoeia 6th, Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th, and the Cosmetics, Toiletries, and Fragrance Association using standardized microorganisms. The results demonstrated that R. rosaefolius extract at the studied concentration reduced the bacterial inocula, satisfying the criterion in all formulations, even though it was not able to present an effective preservative behavior against fungi. Thus, the investigation of new natural substances with preservative properties that could be applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products is relevant due to the possibility of substituting or decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives, providing a way for the development of safer formulas for the use of consumers.

  3. Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time.  The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.

  4. Color, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arozarena, Íñigo; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Urretavizcaya, Inés; Salvatierra, Sara; Córdova, Inés; Marín-Arroyo, María Remedios; Noriega, María José; Navarro, Montserrat

    2012-08-01

    Twenty-eight blackberry ( Rubus glaucus Benth.) wines elaborated under different processing conditions were analyzed for total phenolics, ellagitannins, anthocyanins, color, and antioxidant activity. Ellagitannins were the main phenolic compounds and the most determinant factor in the antioxidant capacity of wines (r = 0.980). The major anthocyanins were cyanidin 3-rutinoside (64 ± 6%) and cyanidin 3-glucoside (19 ± 4%), followed by several minor compounds (17 ± 4%). Two of them were native blackberry anthocyanins, namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin 3-xylorutinoside. The remaining seven compounds were anthocyanin-related pigments generated during and after the alcoholic fermentation, identified as A-type and B-type vitisins and hydroxyphenylpyranoanthocyanins. The presence of fruit solids in contact with the liquid fraction during fermentation and the ratio of water to fruit employed in the preparation of the musts had a great impact on the content of ellagitannins, total phenolics, and the antioxidant activity of wines and a minor impact on their color and anthocyanin composition.

  5. Total Phenols, Antioxidant Activity and Microbiological Quality of Ozone Sanitized Blackberry (Rubus spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcenir Júnior Mendes Furlan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular research conducted has associated the consumption of fresh fruits to beneficial effects on health, but microbiological quality must be ensured. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of ozone as a sanitizing agent and evaluate the impact of treatment on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color and microbiological quality of blackberry (Rubus spp. L. Tupy cultivar. The total coliforms and at 45ºC, Salmonella, yeasts and molds, content of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, color and pH of the samples were evaluated. The values obtained for total phenols, antioxidant activity and color test were not significantly different (p>0.05 between the control treatment, and those where the ozone was applied for 30 s and for 3 min. However, sanitization with a solution of sodium hypochlorite caused a significant reduction (p≤0.05 for the hue angle in relation to the in natura sample (control. It was concluded that the treatment in which ozone was used as a sanitizer for 3 min, was the most effective in reducing the microbial load of yeasts and molds, followed by the treatment with sodium hypochlorite solution and ozone for 30 s.

  6. Intraplant distribution of Acalitus essigi (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on blackberries (Rubus fruticosus agg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J T; Allen, G R; Williams, M A

    2001-01-01

    Specialised phytophagous arthropods often display high levels of specificity to particular sites on their host plant. In this paper we examine the occupation of microhabitats and aggregation patterns of the eriophyoid mite, Acalitus essigi (Hassan), on its host plant, European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate), a plant that undergoes significant seasonal changes in its morphology. A. essigi was found to be a refuge inhabiting species. It resided in bud and leaf axil microhabitats on both primocanes and fructocanes and also occupied berry and bract microhabitats on fructocanes. Population fluctuations within the different microhabitats were evident across seasons. From summer to winter, populations significantly declined in bract and leaf axil microhabitats, but significantly increased within bud microhabitats where overwintering took place as slowly reproducing colonies. Live fruit and young shoots were also identified as overwintering sites. A. essigi populations displayed an aggregated distribution both within and between individual blackberry canes. Within primocanes A. essigi were aggregated in the lower 20% of cane length. On fructocanes aggregation of A. essigi was in the lower 20% and especially in the upper 20% of cane length. In spring A. essigi was confirmed to emerge from bud overwintering sites and colonise shoots mainly in the lower third of the previous season's primocanes, suggesting limited dispersal away from overwintering sites. It is proposed that biotic factors such as tissue age, microhabitat morphology and limited ambulatory dispersal capabilities are responsible for the aggregation pattems of this mite.

  7. Effects of methanolic extract from leaves of Rubus imperialis in DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Barp, Cristiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of Rubus imperialis, a berry known as "amora-branca", in colitis dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced in mice. Animals were treated orally with vehicle (water), 5-aminosalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or methanolic extract from leaves of R. imperialis (MERI, 100 mg/kg), once a day during seven days. The disease activity index (DAI) was observed daily. Colons were collected for histological, histochemical and biochemical analysis. The administration of MERI exacerbated colitis, as indicated by DAI heightened weight loss and increased histological colonic injury. MERI also decreased the colon mucin levels and increased colonic TNF content. The colonic levels of reduced glutathione and the superoxide dismutase activity in colitic group treated with MERI were decreased. Despite the worsening of colitis, MERI not altered the intestinal transit, body weight, colon length or organs weight in normal mice. Tormentic acid (TA) and 2β,3β,19α-trihydroxyursolic acid (THA), compounds isolated from MERI, reduced the L929 cells viability. Thus, MERI may have aggravated the DSS-induced colitis through intense intestinal mucus barrier impairment, which would lead to inflammatory responses, TA and THA contribute to the intestinal damage verified suggesting caution about the use of R. imperialis preparations, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  9. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1. One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  10. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  11. Antifungal activity of Rubus chingii extract combined with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Chen, Jia; Yu, Yi-qun; Cao, Yong-bing; Jiang, Yuan-ying

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Rubus chingii extract in combination with fluconazole (FLC) against FLC-resistant Candida albicans 100 in vitro. A R. chingii extract and FLC-resistant C. albicans fungus suspension were prepared. The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index of R. chingii extract combined with FLC against C. albicans were determined, after which growth curves for C. albicans treated with R. chingii extract, FLC alone and a combination of these preparations were constructed. Additionally, the mechanisms of drug combination against C. albicans were explored by flow cytometry, gas chromatographic mass spectrometry and drug efflux pump function detection. R. chingii extract combined with FLC showed significant synergy. Flow cytometry suggested that C. albicans cells mainly arrest in G1 and S phases when they have been treated with the drug combination. The drug combination resulted in a marked decrease in the ergosterol content of the cell membrane. Additionally, efflux of Rhodamine 6G decreased with increasing concentrations of R. chingii extract. R. chingii extract combined with FLC has antifungal activity against FLC-resistant C. albicans.

  12. Identification of four IgE-reactive proteins in raspberry (Rubus ideaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Gorji; Herndl, Anita; Kolarich, Daniel; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Mansfeld, Agata; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Katinger, Hermann; Laimer, Margit

    2008-12-01

    IgE-reactive proteins in raspberry (Rubus ideaus L.) were identified using PCR, RT-PCR, 2-DE and MS/MS peptide sequencing. Specific polyclonal antibodies and patient sera were used in Western blotting to identify crossreactive epitopes. Initially, two potential allergens Rub i 1 and Rub i 3 were detected using PCR, showing high sequence identity to proteins in Rosaceous species like Mal d 1 and Mal d 3 from apple, Pru av 1 and Pru av 3 from cherry and Pru p 1 and Pru p 3 from peach. Furthermore, de novo identified peptides of a protein band at about 30 kDa reacting with most of the patient sera tested (> 80%) revealed a high sequence homology with class III chitinases. Raspberry chitinase, when subjected to glycoproteomic analysis, showed typical complex plant-type N-glycans with a core alpha1,3 fucose and a beta1,2 xylose at least at one position, indicating the presence of crossreacting carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Finally, MS/MS analysis revealed an IgE-reactive raspberry cyclophilin, homologous to Bet v 7. Results obtained suggest that the consumption of raspberries might be responsible for adverse reactions in sensitised individuals.

  13. Impact of Pratylenchus penetrans on establishment of red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant-parasitic nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major constraint to red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) production. To determine the impact of P. penetrans on the establishment and productivity of eight raspberry cultivars, Rubus niveus, and R. leucodermis, plants were grown in fumigated and non...

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Regulation of Primocane Apex Rooting in Raspberry (Rubus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Raspberries (Rubus spp. exhibit a unique rooting process that is initiated from the stem apex of primocane, conferring an unusual asexual mode of reproduction to this plant. However, the full complement of genes involved in this process has not been identified. To this end, the present study analyzed the transcriptomes of the Rubus primocane and floricane stem apex at three developmental stages by Digital Gene Expression profiling to identify genes that regulate rooting. Sequencing and de novo assembly yielded 26.82 Gb of nucleotides and 59,173 unigenes; 498, 7,346, 4,110, 7,900, 9,397, and 4,776 differently expressed genes were identified in paired comparisons of SAF1 (floricane at developmental stage 1 vs. SAP1 (primocane at developmental stage 1, SAF2 vs. SAP2, SAF3 vs. SAP3, SAP1 vs. SAP2, SAP1 vs. SAP3, and SAP2 vs. SAP3, respectively. SAP1 maintains an extension growth pattern; SAP2 then exhibits growth arrest and vertical (downward gravitropic deflection; and finally, short roots begin to form on the apex of SAP3. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis of SAP1 vs. SAP2 revealed 12 pathways that were activated in response to shoot growth arrest and root differentiation, including circadian rhythm—plant (ko04712 and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075. Our results indicate that genes related to circadian rhythm, ethylene and auxin signaling, shoot growth, and root development are potentially involved in the regulation of primocane apex rooting in Rubus. These findings provide a basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of primocane apex rooting in this economically valuable crop.

  15. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag4 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing...

  16. Phenolics from Rubus fairholmianus induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Blassan P; Abrahamse, Heidi; Hemmaragala, Nanjundaswamy M

    2017-09-25

    Herbal medicine is an important part of health care system in most of the countries. Rubus fairholmianus is an unexplored berry in folkloric medicine. In this study, we aimed to understand the importance of R. fairholmianus in pharmaceutical industry for the development of cost-effective cancer therapeutic drugs using in vivo and in vitro analysis. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties of R. fairholmianus root methanolic column subfraction (RFM) were investigated. The RFM displayed the presence of alpha-tocopherol, flavonol glycoside and apigenin in the chemical characterization. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging assays exhibited an activity of 7.56 μg/mL (IC50) and 20514.7 μM trolox equivalents/g respectively. The solid and ascites tumors in mice were reduced significantly upon 100 mg/kg RFM treatment by reducing the tumor volume (1.86 cm(3)), tumor weight (69%) and increasing life span (31.74 days). The morphological features of RFM treated MCF-7 cells showed the cell damage and decreased cell numbers. The viability of treated cells decreased with 67.73% at 20 μg/mL against 96.50% in untreated cells. The treated cells (20 μg/mL) resulted in a substantial decrease (p apigenin might be the reason behind the caspase-mediated apoptosis. Further work is warranted to study the individual effects of these bioactive compounds in the induction of cell death. Due to the apoptosis inducing properties, it can be considered as an effective adjuvant therapeutic agent in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of starch-beeswax coatings on quality parameters of blackberries (Rubus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gallardo, Alfonso; García-Almendárez, Blanca; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo; Pimentel-González, Diana; Reyes-González, L R; Regalado, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    There is increased interest in berry fruits due to health benefits, and maintenance of fruit quality for longer periods of time has been a priority. We previously found that starch based coatings applied on raspberries was associated to volatile compounds production due to anoxic conditions. The objective of this work was to design more hydrophobic coatings with reduced thickness. A starch-beeswax dispersion containing 2 % (w/v) modified tapioca starch added with either 0.5 or 1.0 % (w/v) beeswax microparticles was produced, and used for spray coating freshly harvested blackberries (Rubus spp.). Coatings were air dried, packed in plastic trays and stored up to 16 days at 4 °C and 88 % relative humidity. Storage quality parameters such as hardness, respiration rate, anthocyanins content, total phenols, color changes and weight loss were evaluated. We did not find Interactions among coating ingredients, and incorporation of beeswax reduced moisture transfer rate. Coatings did not occlude the stomata and apparently did not over-hydrate the cuticle. This characteristic allowed appropriate gas exchange (O2 and CO2), and reduced accumulation of volatile compounds associated to fermentative metabolism. Respiration rates were 4.207 ± 0.157, 4.557 ± 0.220 and 4.780 ± 0.050 mmol CO2 kg(-1) h(-1) for control, 0.5 and 1 % of wax content in coatings, respectively. However, ethylene production increased throughout storage time along with beeswax concentration, indicating stressful conditions for the fruit. This trend appears to be related with changes in total phenols and anthocyanins during storage. Edible coatings based on starch and hydrophobic particles should be reformulated to maintain quality of stored berry fruits.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Eight Constituents in Fruits of Rubus chingii by UPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Chai; Long-fei Du; Jing Yang; Zhen-zuo Jiang; Long Yang; Yue-fei Wang; Yan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple,efficient,and reliable method for routine quantitative analysis of main constituents presented in the fruits of Rubus chingii,which is widely used in Chinese materia medica(CMM),known as Fupenzi(FPZ) in Chinese.Methods An ultra performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array(UPLC-PDA) system was employed for simultaneous quantification of eight compounds,i.e.adenosine,gallic acid,brevifolin carboxylic acid,ethyl gallate,ellagic acid,kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside,kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,and tiliroside.The chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.1%formic acid aqueous solution within a runtime of 25 min.Results All calibration curves were linear(R2> 0.9997) over the tested ranges.The intra- and inter-day precisions as determined from sample solutions were both less than 2.45%and 2.78%,respectively.The average recoveries for the eight constituents ranged from 94.77%to 101.35%with RSD ≤ 4.41%.The newly-developed method was applied to the quality assessment of various R.chingii samples,including both ripe and unripe fruits of R.chingii from different habitats.Conclusion The relative levels of the investigated compounds vary remarkably in the fruits of R.chingii collected from different habitats.As only two of the eight compounds,adenosine and ellagic acid,are determined in the ripe fruits of R.chingii,the results may explain the reason why only the unripe fruits can be used in CMM.

  19. Gastroprotective Value of Berries: Evidences from Methanolic Extracts of Morus nigra and Rubus niveus Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Angela Nottar Nesello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the gastroprotective value of the methanol extracts from fruits of Morus nigra L. (black mulberry (MEMN and Rubus niveus Thunb (raspberry (MERN. The total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were measured, as well as the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenger activity. The gastroprotective effects of the extracts against 60% ethanol/0.3 M HCl were evaluated in mice. After that, the lipid hydroperoxides and reduced glutathione levels at ulcerated tissue were determined. The effects of extracts on H+/K+-ATPase activity were also verified. The extracts exhibited high contents of polyphenols; however, MERN presented 1.5-fold higher levels. The presence of flavonoids also was confirmed. In addition, MEMN (IC50 = 13.74 μg/mL and MERN (IC50 = 14.97 μg/mL scavenged DPPH radical. The MEMN reduced the ulcer area only at 300 mg/kg (p.o. by 64.06%. Interestingly, MERN decreased the ulcer area in a superior potency (ED50 = 20.88 mg/kg, reducing the ulcer area by 81.86% at 300 mg/kg, and increased the gastric mucin levels. The antioxidant effects of extracts were evidenced by reduced lipoperoxides and increased reduction of glutathione amount in the gastric mucosa. However, MEMN or MERN did not change the H+/K+-ATPase activity. These results confirm that M. nigra and R. niveus are berries with a gastroprotective value by strengthening of gastric protective factors.

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis.

  1. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) juice on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi; Bae, Seon Young; Lee, Ji-Hye; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Chung, Mi Sook

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral gastroenteritis, causing approximately 90% of non-bacterial epidemic outbreaks around the world. Rubus coreanus is a species of black raspberry, rich in polyphenols, and known to exert anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. In the present study, the antiviral effects of R. coreanus juice (black raspberry [BRB] juice) on foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), were compared with those of cranberry juice, grape juice, and orange juice by plaque assays. Among the four juices tested, BRB juice was the most effective in reducing plaques formation of these viruses. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the mechanism of action of BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9. The maximal antiviral effect of BRB juice against MNV-1 was observed when it was added to RAW 264.7 cells (mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line) simultaneously with the virus. Pre-treatment of either Crandell Reese Feline Kidney cells or FCV-F9 with BRB juice exhibited significant antiviral activity. The inhibition of viral infection by BRB juice on MNV-1 and FCV-F9 probably occurs at the internalization of virions into the cell or the attachment of the viral surface protein to the cellular receptor. The polyphenol components in BRB (i.e., gallic acid and quercetin), however, did not show any activity against these viruses. Our data provide great promise for the utilization of BRB in the prevention of foodborne viral outbreaks.

  2. A blackberry (Rubus L. expressed sequence tag library for the development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main Dorrie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development of novel repeat-fruiting types of blackberry (Rubus L. cultivars, combined with a long history of morphological marker-assisted selection for thornlessness by blackberry breeders, has given rise to increased interest in using molecular markers to facilitate blackberry breeding. Yet no genetic maps, molecular markers, or even sequences exist specifically for cultivated blackberry. The purpose of this study is to begin development of these tools by generating and annotating the first blackberry expressed sequence tag (EST library, designing primers from the ESTs to amplify regions containing simple sequence repeats (SSR, and testing the usefulness of a subset of the EST-SSRs with two blackberry cultivars. Results A cDNA library of 18,432 clones was generated from expanding leaf tissue of the cultivar Merton Thornless, a progenitor of many thornless commercial cultivars. Among the most abundantly expressed of the 3,000 genes annotated were those involved with energy, cell structure, and defense. From individual sequences containing SSRs, 673 primer pairs were designed. Of a randomly chosen set of 33 primer pairs tested with two blackberry cultivars, 10 detected an average of 1.9 polymorphic PCR products. Conclusion This rate predicts that this library may yield as many as 940 SSR primer pairs detecting 1,786 polymorphisms. This may be sufficient to generate a genetic map that can be used to associate molecular markers with phenotypic traits, making possible molecular marker-assisted breeding to compliment existing morphological marker-assisted breeding in blackberry.

  3. RNA-Seq analysis and transcriptome assembly for blackberry (Rubus sp. Var. Lochness) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Seco, Daniel; Zhang, Yang; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco J; Martin, Cathie; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2015-01-22

    There is an increasing interest in berries, especially blackberries in the diet, because of recent reports of their health benefits due to their high content of flavonoids. A broad range of genomic tools are available for other Rosaceae species but these tools are still lacking in the Rubus genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the breeding of improved varieties. De novo RNA-seq of ripe blackberries grown under field conditions was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000. Almost 9 billion nucleotide bases were sequenced in total. Following assembly, 42,062 consensus sequences were detected. For functional annotation, 33,040 (NR), 32,762 (NT), 21,932 (Swiss-Prot), 20,134 (KEGG), 13,676 (COG), 24,168 (GO) consensus sequences were annotated using different databases; in total 34,552 annotated sequences were identified. For protein prediction analysis, the number of coding DNA sequences (CDS) that mapped to the protein database was 32,540. Non redundant (NR), annotation showed that 25,418 genes (73.5%) has the highest similarity with Fragaria vesca subspecies vesca. Reanalysis was undertaken by aligning the reads with this reference genome for a deeper analysis of the transcriptome. We demonstrated that de novo assembly, using Trinity and later annotation with Blast using different databases, were complementary to alignment to the reference sequence using SOAPaligner/SOAP2. The Fragaria reference genome belongs to a species in the same family as blackberry (Rosaceae) but to a different genus. Since blackberries are tetraploids, the possibility of artefactual gene chimeras resulting from mis-assembly was tested with one of the genes sequenced by RNAseq, Chalcone Synthase (CHS). cDNAs encoding this protein were cloned and sequenced. Primers designed to the assembled sequences accurately distinguished different contigs, at least for chalcone synthase genes. We prepared and analysed transcriptome data from ripe blackberries, for which prior genomic information was limited

  4. Cardiovascular effects of ethanol extract of Rubus chingii Hu (Rosaceae) in rats: an in vivo and in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X H; Duan, R; Sun, Y Y; Wen, J F; Kang, D G; Lee, H S; Cho, K W; Jin, S N

    2014-06-01

    Rubus chingii Hu (Rosaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine that has been used to improve function of the kidney and treat excessive polyuria. However, the effects of Rubus chingii on the cardiovascular system and its pharmacological mechanisms of action have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of ethanol extract of Rubus chingii (ERC) in rats. The changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate of rats and vascular tone of aortic rings in in vitro were measured using pressure transducer and force transducer, respectively, connected to a multichannel recording system. ERC decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate in a concentration-dependent manner. ERC induced vasorelaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. The ERC-induced vasorelaxation was not observed in the absence of the endothelium. The vasorelaxant effect of ERC was significantly attenuated by inhibition of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or Ca(2+) entry from extracellular sources with L-NAME, ODQ, diltiazem, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion, respectively. Similarly, an inhibition of Akt with wortmannin attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Modulators of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry, thapsigargin, Gd(3+), and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate markedly attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Furthermore, 4-aminopyridine an inhibitor of voltage-dependent K(+) (KV) channel, significantly attenuated the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. However, tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide, had no significant effect on the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. Indomethacin, atropine, and propranolol had no effects on the ERC-induced vasorelaxation. The present study demonstrates that ERC induces vasorelaxation via endothelium-dependent two-step signaling: an activation of the Ca(2+)-eNOS-NO signaling in the endothelial cells and then subsequent stimulation of the NO-sGC-cGMP-KV channel signaling in the vascular

  5. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization and bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus sp. grown in Brazil Caracterização físico-química e de compostos bioativos em amora-preta (Rubus sp. cultivada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five blackberry cultivars (Rubus sp. were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, bioactive compounds and composition. Ascorbic acid levels, consisting of dehydro-ascorbic acid, ranged from 9.8 to 21.4 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight. Cyanidin (66 to 80% of total flavonoids, epicatechin, quercetin and traces of kaempferol were the main flavonoids found in all cultivars. The five cultivars presented high antioxidant capacity in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with inhibition similar to the synthetic antioxidant BHT, at a 50 µM concentration. Caingangue cultivar presented high vitamin C and total phenolics content, while Guarani had the highest cyanidin, total anthocyanin and total flavonoids levels and also the highest antioxidant capacity. These cultivars also presented good TSS/TA ratios. From the data, at a quantitative level, blackberry can be considered a good source of bioactive compounds, as well as potentially beneficial to human health.Cinco cultivares de amora-preta (Rubus sp. foram avaliadas quanto a sua capacidade antioxidante, perfil de compostos bioativos e composição físico-química. Os níveis de ácido ascórbico total, presentes na forma de ácido desidroascórbico, variaram entre 9,8 a 21,4 mg.100 g-1 (b.u.. Os principais flavonóides presentes nas cinco cultivares foram: a antocianina cianidina (66 a 80% do total de flavonóides; o flavan-3-ol epicatequina; e os flavonóis quercetina e traços de caenferol. As cinco cultivares apresentaram alta capacidade antioxidante quando avaliadas pelo sistema de co-oxidação β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, similar ao antioxidante sintético BHT, na concentração de 50 µM. A cultivar Guarani apresentou os maiores teores de flavonóides totais, antocianina total, cianidina e de capacidade antioxidante, enquanto que a cultivar Caigangue apresentou alto conteúdo de vitamina C e de fenólicos totais. Estas duas cultivares também apresentaram uma boa correlação TSS/TA. Assim, a amora

  7. 掌叶覆盆子化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents from dried fruits of Rubus chingii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洪明; 祖灵博; 李石平; 王开金; 李宁

    2011-01-01

    Rubus chingii Hu (Rosaeae) is a kind of sub-shrub widely distributed in China, and the dried fruits of Rubus chingii called "fupenzi", has been used as a tonic in Traditional Chinese Medicine with the beneficial functions to liver, kidney and eyes for the treatments of kidney deficiency, erectile dysfunction,spermatorrhea, pollakisurie, enuresis, clouded vision and premature hair graying. To characterize the active constituents for the traditional effect of "fupenzi", the chemical investigation on the dried fruits of Rubus chingii was carried out. The 80% ethanol extract of the dried fruits of Rubus chingii was dissolved in H2O and partitioned with petroleum ether, EtOAc and n-BuOH sequentially to yield petroleum ether, EtOAc, n-BuOH and aqueous fraction. Eighteen compounds were isolated from the EtOAc, n-BuOH fraction by means of repeated column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and MCI. Their structures were determined mainly on the basis of physicochemical and spectral data and identified as kaempferol ( 1 ), astragalin ( 2 ), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucuronic acid methyl ester ( 3 ), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside ( 4 ), tiliroside ( 5 ), isoquercitrin (6), rutin ( 7 ), phlorizin (8) ,β-sitosterol ( 9 ), daucosterol ( 10 ), ursolic acid ( 11 ), 2α, 19α-dihydroxy-3-oxo-12-ursen-28-oic acid ( 12 ), nigaichigoside Fl ( 13 ), goshonoside F5 ( 14 ), gallic acid ( 15 ),methyl brevifolin-carboxylate(16) ,glucose(17) and methyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(18). Compounds 4,7,8,12,13,16 and 18 were isolated from Rubus chingii for the first time, and compound 12 was found in genus of Rubus firstly.%目的 研究蔷薇科悬钩子属掌叶覆盆子(Rubus chingii)干燥果实的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20、ODS和MCI柱色谱等手段进行化合物的分离与纯化,通过波谱分析,结合理化性质鉴定各化合物的结构.结果 从覆盆子体积分数80%乙醇提取物中分离得到18个已知化

  8. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gar Yee; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Zhijun

    2009-06-10

    The aqueous extraction process of the leaves of Rubus suavissimus often brings in a large amount of nonactive polysaccharides as part of the constituents. To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. AP was effective in partitioning the aqueous crude extract into a soluble supernatant and an insoluble precipitant, and its effect varied significantly with alcohol regimens. Generally, the higher the alcohol concentration, the purer was the resultant extract. At its maximum, approximately 36% (w/w) of the crude extract, of which 23% was polysaccharides, was precipitated and removed, resulting in a purified extract consisting of over 20% bioactive marker compounds (gallic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, rubusoside, and steviol monoside). The removal of 11% polysaccharides from the crude water extract by using alcohol precipitation was complete at 70% alcohol regimen. Higher alcohol levels resulted in even purer extracts, possibly by removing some compounds of uncertain bioactivity. Alcohol precipitation is an effective way of removing polysaccharides from the water extract of the sweet tea plant and could be used as an initial simple purification tool for many water plant extracts that contain large amounts of polysaccharides.

  9. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus Residues

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    Quinatzin Y. Zafra-Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90% and extraction time (X2: 10–15 min, and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g dry weight basis (dw; 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol, ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  10. Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae) extract and pure compound niga-ichigoside F1: wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Talita Dacroce; Thiesen, Liliani Carolini; de Oliveira Nunes, Maria Luisa; Broering, Milena Fronza; Donato, Marcos Paulo; Goss, Marina Jagielski; Petreanu, Marcel; Niero, Rivaldo; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Here, we evaluate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects of methanolic crude extract obtained from aerial parts (leaves and branches) of Rubus imperialis Chum. Schl. (Rosaceae) and the pure compound niga-ichigoside F1. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in vivo and in vitro, and the healing effect was evaluated in surgical lesions in mice skin. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced oxidative stress were used to determine antioxidant activity. The efferocytosis activity was also determined. The data obtained show that the extract of R. imperialis promote reduction in the inflammatory process induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or carrageenan in the air pouch model; the effects could be reinforced by nitric oxide reduction in LPS-stimulated neutrophils, and an increase in the efferocytosis. The extract showed wound healing property in vitro and in vivo, scavenging activity for DPPH, and cytoprotection in the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in L929 cells. In addition, the compound niga-ichigoside F1 was able to reduce the NO secretion; however, it did not present wound-healing activity in vitro. Together, the data obtained point out the modulatory actions of R. imperialis extract on leukocyte migration to the inflamed tissue, the antioxidant, and the pro-resolutive activity. However, the R. imperialis anti-inflammatory activity may be mediated in parts by niga-ichigoside F1, and on wound healing do not correlated with niga-ichigoside F1.

  11. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Sánchez-Franco, José Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Torres-Valencia, Jesús Martín

    2016-11-29

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp.) fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice), pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L). The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.

  12. Extracts and constituents of Rubus chingii with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hsiou-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the fruits of Rubus chingii was studied in vitro. Ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from dried R. chingii fruits revealed strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 17.9, 3.4 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were further purified by a combination of silica gel chromatography, Lobar RP-8 chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nine compounds were isolated, where methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl)-acetate (2), vanillic acid (5), kaempferol (7), and tiliroside (9) showed stronger DPPH free radical scavenging activity than that of ascorbic acid (131.8 μM) with IC(50) values of 45.2, 34.9, 78.5, and 13.7 μM, respectively. In addition, rubusine (1) is a new compound discovered in the present study and methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl)-acetate (2), methyl dioxindole-3-acetate (3), and 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid (4) were isolated from the fruits for the first time.

  13. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  14. Extracts and Constituents of Rubus chingii with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity

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    Hsiou-Yu Ding

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the fruits of Rubus chingii was studied in vitro. Ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from dried R. chingii fruits revealed strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 17.9, 3.4 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were further purified by a combination of silica gel chromatography, Lobar RP-8 chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Nine compounds were isolated, where methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl-acetate (2, vanillic acid (5, kaempferol (7, and tiliroside (9 showed stronger DPPH free radical scavenging activity than that of ascorbic acid (131.8 µM with IC50 values of 45.2, 34.9, 78.5, and 13.7 µM, respectively. In addition, rubusine (1 is a new compound discovered in the present study and methyl (3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydroindol-3-yl-acetate (2, methyl dioxindole-3-acetate (3, and 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid (4 were isolated from the fruits for the first time.

  15. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model

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    Mee Youn Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Metabolite Profiling Reveals the Effect of Dietary Rubus coreanus Vinegar on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mee Youn; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Singh, Digar; Yeo, Soo Hwan; Baek, Seong Yeol; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-26

    The study was aimed at exploring the curative effects of Rubus coreanus (RC) vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis by using ovariectomized rats as a model. The investigations were performed in five groups: sham, ovariectomized (OVX) rats without treatment, low-dose RC vinegar (LRV)-treated OVX rats, high-dose RC vinegar (HRV)-treated OVX rats and alendronate (ALEN)-treated OVX rats. The efficacy of RC vinegar was evaluated using physical, biochemical, histological and metabolomic parameters. Compared to the OVX rats, the LRV and HRV groups showed positive effects on the aforementioned parameters, indicating estrogen regulation. Plasma metabolome analysis of the groups using gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis revealed 19 and 16 metabolites, respectively. Notably, the levels of butyric acid, phenylalanine, glucose, tryptophan and some lysophosphatidylcholines were marginally increased in RC vinegar-treated groups compared to OVX. However, the pattern of metabolite levels in RC vinegar-treated groups was found similar to ALEN, but differed significantly from that in sham group. The results highlight the prophylactic and curative potential of dietary vinegar against postmenopausal osteoporosis. RC vinegar could be an effective natural alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  17. Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Total Alkaloids in Rubus aleaefolius Poir through Regulation of Fat Metabolism

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    Ying Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total alkaloids in Rubus aleaefolius Poir (TARAP is a folk medicinal herb that has been used clinically in China to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD for many years. However, the mechanism of its anti-NAFLD effect is largely unknown. In this study, we developed a NAFLD rat model by supplying a modified high-fat diet (mHFD ad libitum for 8 weeks and evaluated the therapeutic effect of TARAP in NAFLD rats as well as the underlying molecular mechanism. We found that TARAP could reduce the serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C levels and increase the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C level in NAFLD rats. In addition, TARAP treatment reduced expression of fatty acid synthetase (FAS, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC and upregulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT. Our results suggest that regulation of lipid metabolism may be a mechanism by which TARAP treats NAFLD.

  18. Effect of Thermoultrasound on the Antioxidant Compounds and Fatty Acid Profile of Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. Juice

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    José de Jesús Manríquez-Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus spp. fruit has high antioxidant activity due to its significant content of anthocyanins and antioxidant compounds. Among emerging technologies for food preservation, thermoultrasound is a technique that reduces microbial loads and releases compounds with antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant content and fatty acid profile of blackberry juice subjected to thermoultrasound treatment in comparison to pasteurized juice. Blackberry juice and n-hexane extracts from a control (untreated juice, pasteurized, and thermoultrasonicated samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile, and antioxidant content. The juice treated with thermoultrasound exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 higher levels of total phenols (1011 mg GAE/L, anthocyanins (118 mg Cy-3-GlE/L; antioxidant activity by ABTS (44 mg VCEAC/L and DPPH (2665 µmol TE/L in comparison to the control and pasteurized samples. Oil extract from thermoultrasound juice also had the highest antioxidant activity (177.5 mg VCEAC/L and 1802.6 µmol TE/L. The fatty acid profile of the n-hexane extracts showed the presence of myristic, linolenic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids and was not affected by the treatments except for stearic acid, whose amount was particularly higher in the control. Our results demonstrated that thermoultrasound can be an alternative technology to pasteurization that maintains and releases antioxidant compounds and preserves the fatty acids of fruit juice.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  20. Comparison of protein patterns after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis from leaves of in vitro cultures and seedlings of Rubus chamaemorus L.

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    Barbara Thiem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins from leaves of Rubus chamaemorus propagated in vitro were subjected to miniaturized 2-D electrophoresis. The 2-DE patterns of proteins showed qualitative differences between plants propagated in vitro and control seedlings. More proteins of a high molecular weight were observed in leaves of plants from in vitro culture. A two-dimensional map of proteins from leaves provides detailed data concerning both polymorphism and protein patterns of this species. This makes it possible to start constructing a protein map of R. chamaemorus. The reasons for qualitative differences are discussed.

  1. Estudo botânico, fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Rubus rosaefolius Sm. - Rosaceae

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    Claudia Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubus rosaefolius Sm., Rosaceae, is a shrub with compound leaves, recurvate prickles, white flowers and aggregate fruit, popularly known as sylvan strawberry. The present research concerns its botany (macroscopic and microscopic studies, phytochemistry and antimicrobial properties. The presence of antraquinones, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins on stem, root and leaves, were confirmed by specific phytochemical tests. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalchoolic fractions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The hydroalchoolic fraction revealed antimicrobial activity against all species tested and the aqueous fraction inhibited the growth of S. aureus and C. albicans.

  2. Comportamento fenológico e produtivo de cultivares de amora-preta (Rubus sp.) em região subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrar Hussain

    2015-01-01

    O cultivo da amora-preta (Rubus sp.) tem despertado o interesse de muitos produtores do mundo, como as plantas entram em produção em um ano após o plantio, e a demanda para as indústrias também aumentaram. No entanto, o cultivo desta árvore frutífera em condições subtropicais, com inverno ameno ainda é desconhecido. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de cultivares de amora. Tupy e Xavante cresceram em uma área subtropical. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação ...

  3. A raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quito-Avila, D F; Ibarra, M A; Alvarez, R; Peralta, E L; Martin, R R

    2014-09-01

    Sequencing of the complete genome of a raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Rubus glaucus in Ecuador revealed that its RNA-1 and RNA-2 were 5449 and 2231 nucleotides (nt) long, respectively, and phylogenetically closest to isolates from Sweden and Slovenia. In dsRNA analysis of infected plants, an additional band of 3 kbp was observed. Sequencing of this band revealed that it was 3279 nt long. BLAST searches revealed that this band contained a modified version of RNA-2, which consisted of RNA-2 (2231 nt) plus an additional 1048-nt fragment that was concatenated in a reverse-complement fashion to its 5' terminus.

  4. Benefits of blackberry nectar (Rubus spp. relative to hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation Beneficios del néctar de mora (Rubus spp. en relación con la hipercolesterolemia y la peroxidación lipídica

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    P. R. Ferreira de Araujo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In humans, the normal metabolic activity produces free radicals that constantly, along with other risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia may be responsible for the onset of degenerative diseases. Some bioactive compounds present in blackberry (Rubus spp. have the ability to act as natural antioxidants can make the food to minimize effects on the body caused by reactive oxygen species. Objective: This study verified the benefits of blackberry nectar through the quantification of triglycerides, total and fraction cholesterol HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Methods: Two groups were treated with hypercholesterolemic diets (0.1% cholesterol, one of them receiving an additional 5 mL of nectar daily, and a third (control group treated only with a standard diet. In the blood the quantification of lipids, blood glucose and lipid peroxidation was performed. In the brain, liver and small intestine the lipid peroxidation was determined and in other organs, histopathological evaluations were carried out. Results: The blackberry nectar reduced the triglycerides serum levels, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, without influencing the HDL and blood glucose concentrations. A decrease in the initiation of lipid peroxidation reactions in the blood, brain and small intestine was also observed. Only the liver showed histopathological changes (steatosis, due to excess cholesterol, with no positive influence from the nectar.Introducción: En los seres humanos, la actividad metabólica normal produce radicales libres que constantemente, junto con otros factores de riesgo, incluyendo la hipercolesterolemia puede ser responsable de la aparición de enfermedades degenerativas. Algunos de los compuestos bioactivos presentes en mora (Rubus spp. tienen la capacidad de actuar como antioxidantes naturales

  5. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Hübner, L K; Antunes, L E C; Nava, D E

    2013-02-01

    The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  6. Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae

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    GI. Diez-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794 damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days. These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

  7. Germinación in vitro e inducción de callo en Rubus adenotrichus Schltdl.

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    N.S. Martínez-Cruz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa para resolver problemas de dormancia, obtención masiva de plantas y biomoléculas de interés es el cultivo in vitro, el objetivo de este trabajo fue inducir la germinación y establecer el cultivo de callo deRubus adenotrichus. Se probaron tres métodos de escarificación: 1 inmersión en ácido sulfúrico (30 y 60 min, 2 inmersión en hipoclorito de sodio (72 h y 3 remoción de la cubierta de la semilla, este último tratamiento fue el mejor, generando un 68% de porcentaje de germinación, en medio Murashige Skoog (MS sin reguladores. Las plántulas obtenidas tuvieron un desarrollo similar al de las plantas silvestres. Para la inducción de callo, se emplearon hojas de plantas silvestres como explantes y fueron colocadas en dos tipos de medio: MS, con 1 mg/L de ácido naftalenacético y 0.5 mg/L cinetina y Woody Plant Medium (WPM con 0.5 mg/L de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético y 0.75 mg/L de cinetina. En ambos medios se desarrolló un callo friable y pigmentado. El proceso de escarifi cación es fundamental para la germinación de esta especie. El empleo de los medios MS y WPM, con los reguladores adicionados son promotores de la producción de callos friables.

  8. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-02-05

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  9. Insectos plagas y benéficos asociados al cultivo de mora (Rubus glaucus, benth en La Sabana, Madriz, Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Jiménez-Martínez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available LA MORA (RUBUS GLAUCUS, BENTH ES UNA PLANTA en proceso de domesticación que se cultiva en pequeñas parcelas. Es hospedera de muchos insectos plaga y enfermedades. En Nicaragua se establecieron plantaciones de mora desde hace unos tres años, como alternativa de diversificación de fincas cafetaleras en los departamentos de Madriz y Nueva Segovia. Hasta ahora no hay información formal sobre los principales insectos plaga y benéficos presentes en este cultivo, que está tomando gran importancia. Por ello, se hizo una investigación para describir la fluctuación poblacional de los insectos plaga y sus depredadores naturales, asociados a este cultivo. El estudio se realizó en la finca La Patasta, municipio La Sabana, departamento de Madriz, entre septiembre de 2004 y abril de 2005. El monitoreo se realizó semanalmente en cinco sitios específicos, mediante capturas manuales de especimenes, con ayuda de bolsas de plástico y vasos de vidrio con alcohol. Como resultado, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de insectos de las principales familias Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae, Cantharidae, y de los órdenes Hemíptero (Cicadellidae, Pentatomidae, Miridae y Orthóptero (Acrididae y Tettigonidae. Igualmente, se identificó y describió la fluctuación poblacional de depredadores naturales de insectos de la familia Staphilinidae, Coccinelidae, Vespidae y Aracnidae, presentes en este cultivo.

  10. Studies on chemical constituents from Rubus alceaefolius Poir%粗叶悬钩子的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹丹; 周洪波; 房志坚

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究粗叶悬钩子的化学成分.方法 利用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱对粗叶悬钩子进行分离纯化,通过理化常数和波谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从粗叶悬钩子的石油醚萃取部位分离鉴定出6个化合物,分别为:熊果醇(Ⅰ)、白桦酸(Ⅱ)、蔷薇酸(Ⅲ)、大黄素甲醚(Ⅳ)、肉豆蔻酸(V)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅵ).结论 化合物Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、V均为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To study on the chemical constituents from Rubus akeaefolius. Methods The compounds were isolated with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column cinematography from Rubus akeaefolius, and identified with various modern spectroscopic analysis and physical constants. Results Six compounds were isolated from petroleum ether extract of this plant and identified as uvaol ( I ) , betulinic acid ( II ) , euscaphic acid (III ) , physcion (IV ) , myristic acid ( V), β-sitosterol (VI). Conclusion Compounds I 、II 、 III、 IV 、 V were obtained from the plant for the first time.

  11. Comparative analysis of the Hrp pathogenicity island of Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting Erwinia amylovora strains identifies the IT region as a remnant of an integrative conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rachel A; Blom, Jochen; Bühlmann, Andreas; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne E; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Rodoni, Brendan C; Duffy, Brion; Smits, Theo H M

    2012-08-01

    The Hrp pathogenicity island (hrpPAI) of Erwinia amylovora not only encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and other genes required for pathogenesis on host plants, but also includes the so-called island transfer (IT) region, a region that originates from an integrative conjugative element (ICE). Comparative genomic analysis of the IT regions of two Spiraeoideae- and three Rubus-infecting strains revealed that the regions in Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were syntenic and highly conserved in length and genetic information, but that the IT regions of the Rubus-infecting strains varied in gene content and length, showing a mosaic structure. None of the ICEs in E. amylovora strains were complete, as conserved ICE genes and the left border were missing, probably due to reductive genome evolution. Comparison of the hrpPAI region of E. amylovora strains to syntenic regions from other Erwinia spp. indicates that the hrpPAI and the IT regions are the result of several insertion and deletion events that have occurred within the ICE. It also suggests that the T3SS was present in a common ancestor of the pathoadapted Erwinia spp. and that insertion and deletion events in the IT region occurred during speciation.

  12. Deshidratación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus bajo régimen convectivo con aire forzado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez C Carlos Julio

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Moras de castilla (Rubus glaucus calibre B con un índice de color de 5 y 6, según norma técnica colombiana (NTC-4106, fueron deshidratadas por convección forzada a temperaturas de 35, 50 y 65°C utilizando un deshidratador de bandejas de flujo paralelo. La deshidratación fue llevada a cabo en dos tamaños de partícula: mora triturada y pulpa de mora. La mora triturada fue obtenida por trituración mecánica y la pulpa por licuado. La granulometría fue hecha siguiendo la norma S319.2 American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE (1994, realizada para los dos tamaños de partículas de mora, una vez finalizado el proceso de deshidratación, a las temperaturas consideradas. Se encontró que la deshidratación con moras licuadas (pulpa de mora es más rápida que las moras trituradas mecánicamente, alcanzándose una humedad de equilibrio menor, en menos tiempo, para todas las temperaturas evaluadas: a 35ºC la humedad de equilibrio fue de 28,06% b.s para mora triturada y de 17,40% b.s para mora licuada; a 50ºC fue de 20,64% b.s para mora triturada y de 15,04% b.s en mora licuada y para 65ºC la humedad de equilibrio fueron de 16,60% b.s y 11,02% b.s, para moras trituradas y licuadas respectivamente. La mora licuada deshidratada o harina de mora, presentó una mayor cantidad de material fino, con un módulo de fineza de 2,386, índice de uniformidad 0:4:6 y un diámetro promedio de partícula de 0,55 mm. En moras trituradas, se encontró un módulo de fineza de 4,93, índice de uniformidad de 7:3:0 y un diámetro promedio de partícula de 3,175 mm, la mora licuada presentó una mayor capacidad de transferencia de calor y masa haciendo más acelerado el proceso de evaporación del agua.

  13. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (pIC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0

  14. 树莓果冻加工工艺研究%Processing technology of Rubus coreanus jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范雯谡; 李影; 韩立杰; 金铁岩

    2012-01-01

    通过向树莓汁和白砂糖中添加不同比例的明胶和果胶制作树莓果冻,分析其理化特性和感官特性,确定制作树莓果冻时明胶与果胶的最佳配比。结果表明:制作树莓果冻时,材料添加比例不同,其pH值、总酸和总糖均无明显变化;色度中L*值随明胶添加量的增加而增加,a*值和b*值则随果胶添加量的增加而增加;质地方面,硬度、黏合性、咀嚼性随明胶添加量的增加而增加,弹性、凝聚力、胶黏度随果胶添加量的增加而增加。从理化特性和感官特性来看,制作树莓果冻时明胶和果胶最佳添加量分别为15%和10%。%Adding different ratios of gelatin and pectin to Rubus coreanus juice and sugar to make R. coreanu jelly, then analysis of its physicochemical and sensory characteristics to determinate the best ratio of gelatin and pectin when manufacture R. coreanus jelly. There were no significant changes in the pH values, total acidity and sugar content of all R. coreanus jelly prepared with different amount of materials. Color in L* value of the R. coreanus jelly increased in proportion to additive amount of gelatin. Color in a* value and b* value of the R. coreanus jelly increased in proportion to additive amount of pectin. The value of hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness in the R. coreanus jelly increased in proportion to the additive amount of gelatin. The value of springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess were increased in proportion to additive amount of pectin. From physical and chemical characteristics and the sensory evaluation, the addition of 15% gelatin and 10% pectin when manufacture R. coreanus jelly is most appropriate.

  15. Managing Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Established Red Raspberry Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy and phytotoxicity of post-plant treatments to control root lesion [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb), Chitwood & Otiefa] and dagger (Xiphinema bakeri Williams) nematodes in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) were evaluated in four field studies conducted over three years. Spring spray applicat...

  16. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  17. Abbreviated Environmental Assessment for the Northwest Infrastructure, Phase II Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    iM---/nclucll!np ........... - .J (+•~.t/td; O•no~ ·•1111111-olltct; U• unkno..,-) + 0 . u 7. AIR INSTAU.ATION ~ PI \\ TliiLE USE ZONEAANO USE...petraea Traubeneiche Ses.~i le Oak rubus idaeus Himbeere Red Raspberry salix fragilis Bruchweidc Crack Willow sam bucus nigra Schwarz.~r Holw1der

  18. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  19. Effect of application timing of oxamyl in nonbearing raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate (active ingredient oxamyl) to non-bearing raspberry for the suppression of the root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). This is a new use pattern of this nematicide f...

  20. ‘Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...

  1. Identification and dietary relevance of antioxidants from raspberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the current literature on antioxidants from fruit of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and place these in context concerning what is known from other food species. The review concentrates on the methods of antioxidant testing, the diversity of antioxidants in raspberry, effects of

  2. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red Raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.), widespread in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is most commonly caused by a virus infection. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has long been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, t...

  3. Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Reese, R Neil; Smiljanic, Danijela; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Rinaldi, Peter L

    2013-12-11

    Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites potentially contributing to the antiproliferative bioactivity of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits were extracted in ethyl acetate and isolated by semipreparative and analytical HPLC and analyzed by NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS techniques. Here we present complete and partial structures of a variety of the chemical entities such as quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, myricetin glucoside, dihydrokaempferol glucoside, benzoic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-coumaryl glucoside, p-coumaryl sugar ester, ellagic acid, methyl ellagic acid acetylpentose, methyl ellagic acid valerylpentose, trans-piceid, phloretin glucoside (phloridzin), dihydrosinapic acid, salicylic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester, a salicylic acid derivative without attached sugar, p-alkylphenyl glucoside, and a citric acid derivative. To our knowledge, 15 of these compounds were not previously reported in black raspberry fruits.

  4. Evidence for a switch in the reproductive biology of Rubus alceifolius (Rosaceae) towards apomixis, between its native range and its area of introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, L; Noyer, J L; Hossaert-McKey, M

    2001-12-01

    We compared the reproductive system of Rubus alceifolius in its native range in Southeast Asia, in Madagascar, where the plant was introduced apparently some centuries ago, and in La Réunion, an Indian Ocean island onto which R. alceifolius was introduced (from Madagascan source populations) around 1850. While tetraploidy makes it impossible to analyze variation in R. alceifolius using classical methods of population genetics, both the patterns of genetic diversity (as revealed by AFLP [amplified fragment length polymorphism] markers) and differences between half-sib progeny and their maternal parents (revealed by microsatellite markers) show that in the plant's native range in southeast Asia, seeds are produced sexually. In contrast, in Madagascar sexual reproduction cannot alone account for the genetic patterns observed with microsatellite markers. Over 85% of the half-sib progeny resulting from open pollination gave multilocus genotypes identical to those of their respective maternal parents, despite the fact that the latter had alleles that were rare in the population. The other progeny differed in having an allele with one motif more or less than that of the maternal parent. Seeds thus appear to be produced mostly or exclusively by apomixis in Madagascar. We present findings suggesting that Madagascan populations result from hybridization of introduced R. alceifolius and native populations of R. roridus, a closely related species of Rubus subgenus Malachobatus, and suggest that apomixis was a consequence of this hybridization. In Reunionese populations of R. alceifolius (derived from Madagascan populations), seeds obtained in controlled pollination experiments were all genetically identical to maternal parents. While genetic variation (microsatellite markers) in Reunionese populations was low, it was sufficient to allow us to demonstrate that seeds could not have resulted from fertilization by the pollen donors chosen for controlled pollinations, or from

  5. Diversidade e flutuação populacional de ácaros (Acari em amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márla Maria Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ácaros das famílias Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae e Tetranychidae são citados como de importância econômica na cultura de amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae, framboesa e outras frutas pequenas. Este estudo foi conduzido de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2003 nas cultivares Brazos, Caigangue e Tupy no município de Ilópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer a acarofauna e sua dinâmica populacional em amora-preta. Foram coletados 36.094 ácaros pertencentes a 11 famílias. A maioria dos ácaros coletados pertence às famílias Diptilomiopidae (80,9% e Tetranychidae (13,9%, compostas por espécies fitófagas. Chakrabartiella sp. (Diptilomiopidae, foi a espécie mais abundante, seguida por Neotetranychus asper Feres & Flechtmann, 2000 (Tetranychidae. Stigmaeidae (2,1% e Phytoseiidae (0,4% foram os ácaros predadores mais comuns, sendo Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira, 2002 (Stigmaeidae e Typhlodromalus aripo DeLeon, 1967 (Phytoseiidae, as espécies de predadores mais abundantes.

  6. Novel ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Rubus corchorifolius L. f. Inhibits Human Colon Cancer Cell Growth via Inducing Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexiang; Wu, Xian; Ouyang, Wen; Gu, Min; Gao, Zili; Song, Mingyue; Chen, Yunjiao; Lin, Yanyin; Cao, Yong; Xiao, Hang

    2017-03-01

    The tender leaves of Rubus corchorifolius L. f. have been consumed as tea for drinking in China since ancient times. In this study, a novel ent-kaurane diterpenoid was isolated and identified from R. corchorifolius L. f. leaves as ent-kaur-2-one-16β,17-dihydroxy-acetone-ketal (DEK). DEK suppressed the growth of HCT116 human colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 40 ± 0.21 μM, while it did not cause significant growth inhibition on CCD-18Co human colonic myofibroblasts at up to100 μM. Moreover, DEK induced extensive apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest in the colon cancer cells. Accordingly, DEK caused profound effects on multiple signaling proteins associated with cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. DEK significantly upregulated the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved PARP, p53, Bax, and tumor suppressor p21(Cip1/Waf1), downregulated the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins such as cyclinD1, CDK2, and CDK4 and carcinogenic proteins such as EGFR and COX-2, and suppressed the activation of Akt. Overall, our results provide a basis for using DEK as a potential chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis.

  7. Comparison of genetic diversity of the invasive weed Rubus alceifolius poir. (Rosaceae) in its native range and in areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, L; Noyer, J L; Le Bourgeois, T; Hossaert-McKey, M

    2000-04-01

    Theory predicts that colonization of new areas will be associated with population bottlenecks that reduce within-population genetic diversity and increase genetic differentiation among populations. This should be especially true for weedy plant species, which are often characterized by self-compatible breeding systems and vegetative propagation. To test this prediction, and to evaluate alternative scenarios for the history of introduction, the genetic diversity of Rubus alceifolius was studied with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in its native range in southeast Asia and in several areas where this plant has been introduced and is now a serious weed (Indian Ocean islands, Australia). In its native range, R. alceifolius showed great genetic variability within populations and among geographically close populations (populations sampled ranging from northern Vietnam to Java). In Madagascar, genetic variability was somewhat lower than in its native range, but still considerable. Each population sampled in the other Indian Ocean islands (Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius) was characterized by a single different genotype of R. alceifolius for the markers studied, and closely related to individuals from Madagascar. Queensland populations also included only a single genotype, identical to that found in Mauritius. These results suggest that R. alceifolius was first introduced into Madagascar, perhaps on multiple occasions, and that Madagascan individuals were the immediate source of plants that colonized other areas of introduction. Successive nested founder events appear to have resulted in cumulative reduction in genetic diversity. Possible explanations for the monoclonality of R. alceifolius in many areas of introduction are discussed.

  8. Studies on chemical constituents in fruit of Rubus chingii%掌叶覆盆子的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭启雷; 杨峻山

    2005-01-01

    目的:对蔷薇科悬钩子属植物掌叶覆盆子Rubus chingii的果实进行化学成分研究.方法:通过反复硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20和重结晶的方法分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果:分离得到11个已知化合物,分别为齐墩果酸(Ⅰ),乌苏酸(Ⅱ),2α-羟基齐墩果酸(Ⅲ),2α-羟基乌苏酸(Ⅳ),arjunic acid(Ⅴ),hexacosyl p-coumarate(Ⅵ),4′,5,7-三羟基黄酮醇-3-O-β-D-(6″-对羟基桂皮酰基)-葡萄糖苷(tiliroside)(Ⅶ),硬脂酸(Ⅷ),三十二烷酸(Ⅸ),β-谷甾醇(Ⅹ),胡萝卜苷(Ⅺ).结论:除了化合物Ⅶ和Ⅹ,其他化合物均为首次从本植物中分离得到.

  9. Producto potencialmente simbiótico a partir de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus aplicando impregnación a vacío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneyder Rodríguez-Barona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar un producto potencialmente simbiótico impregnando al vacío láminas de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus con tres soluciones; zumo de mora, solución de Fructooligosacáridos (FOS, y una mezcla de zumo de mora y solución de FOS, todas inoculadas con Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 (109 UCF/mL. Las láminas de mora impregnadas con la mezcla de zumo más FOS y con solución de FOS, contenían más de 108 UCF/g luego de 72 horas de almacenamiento bajo condiciones de refrigeración y más de 0,0022g de FOS por cada 100g de muestra impregnada. Los resultados indican que la presencia de FOS en la solución de impregnación aumentaría la viabilidad del microorganismo y que en efecto, es viable la obtención de un alimento potencialmente simbiótico a partir de mora de castilla mediante la impregnación de su matriz porosa con microorganismos benéficos y sustancias prebióticas.

  10. Three new labdane-type diterpene glycosides from fruits of Rubus chingii and their cytotoxic activities against five humor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruijian; Guo, Qing; Zhou, Guoping; Fu, Huizheng; Wan, Kaihua

    2015-04-01

    Three new labdane-type diterpene glycosides, 15,18-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-7(8),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (1), 15,18-di-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-8(9),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (2), and 15-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-18-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13(E)-ent-labda-8(9),13(14)-diene-3β,15,18-triol (3), were isolated from the fruits of Rubus chingii. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-3 were evaluated against five human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, BGC-823, A549, and A2780). Compounds 3 showed cytotoxic activity against A549 with an IC50 value of 2.32μM.

  11. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  12. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kyung Hyun

    Full Text Available The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2 gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  13. Caracterización de la resistencia a la antracnosis causada por Glomerella cingulata y productividad de cinco genotipos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel López-Vásquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En la vereda Betania, municipio de Guática, Risaralda (Colombia a 2160 m.s.n.m., se evaluaron cinco materiales promisorios de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth. por su resistencia a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides y por su alta productividad, los cuales fueron previamente seleccionados por el grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Biotecnología de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Diez meses después del establecimiento las plantas fueron inoculadas con diferentes cepas del hongo a una concentración de 1.2 x 10(6 conidios/ml de agua. Las variables evaluadas fueron incidencia (presencia o ausencia de lesiones en tallo, severidad (según escala de 1 a 9 y rendimiento (kg/planta. Los genotipos se clasificaron en tres grupos según su resistencia al patógeno y por su rendimiento: el primero, lo conformaron UTP-8 y UTP-7, los cuales produjeron 21 y 17.6 t/ha, respectivamente; el segundo grupo estuvo formado por el genotipo UTP-1 el cual produjo 14.3 t/ha, y el tercero por UTP-2 y UTP-4 con 9.8 y 7.9 t/ha, respectivamente.

  14. Antiobesity Effects of Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel and Its Constituents: An In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Underlying Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dool-Ri Oh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

  15. Caracterização química e bioquímica dos frutos de ARBUTUS UNEDO L. e de RUBUS FRUTICOSUS AGG.: contribuição para a sua valorização

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaco, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Agricultura sustentável, Universidade do Algarve, 2007 O presente trabalho teve como principal objectivo caracterizar quimicamente dois frutos silvestres, o fruto de Arbutus unedo L (medronho) e o fruto de Rubus fruticosus Agg. (amora), que crescem espontaneamente na Serra do Caldeirão. Os parâmetros físico-químicos e bioquímicos estudados foram o pH, o ºBrix, a humidade, a cinza total, os iões cálcio, magnésio, sódio e potássio, o azoto total, a proteína...

  16. Conservación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) mediante la aplicación de un recubrimiento comestible de gel de mucílago de penca de sábila (aloe barbadensis miller)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Quirama, Jhon David

    2012-01-01

    La mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth) es una fruta comercialmente importante, en la venta al detalle y en la industrial, pese a que es un producto altamente perecedero. Los recubrimientos comestibles (RC) han tenido mucho auge como método de conservación sobre las frutas a nivel mundial debido a su fácil implementación y costo relativamente bajo. El aloe vera es una alternativa bastante importante en los RC, debido a sus características mucílaginosas y a su poder antimicrobiano, a demás q...

  17. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM Rubus glaucus Benth AND Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE, STORAGE TIME AND WATER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. OLAYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento, la temperatura y la actividad de agua (Aw sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas microencapsuladas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus y tamarillo (Solanum betaceum. Las frutas se sometieron a deshidratación osmótica con etanol y el extracto antociánico se microencapsuló con maltodextrina ED 20 por atomización. La vida media de las antocianinas; los cambios en color, fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante se analizaron durante el almacenamiento a dos temperaturas (25 °C y 40 °C y dos niveles de Aw (0,20 y 0,35. Se observó una disminución de la antocianina monomérica en las dos muestras. La vida media de los pigmentos de mora de Castilla varió entre 11 y 32 días, mientras que la vida media de los pigmentos del tamarillo varió entre 9 y 21 días. Hubo oscurecimiento de las muestras como resultado del tiempo de almacenamiento. La actividad antioxidante de las dos muestras disminuyó, mientras que el contenido fenólico aumentó con el tiempo. La actividad antioxidante de las muestras de mora de Castilla presentó una alta correlación con los contenidos de antocianinas y fenoles totales mientras que la actividad antioxidante de las muestras de tamarillo se correlacionó con el contenido de fenoles totales. Estos resultados son útiles en el desarrollo de aplicaciones de antocianinas microencapsuladas como colorantes alimenticios.

  18. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigarroa Rieche Alina Katil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  19. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Katil Sigarroa-Rieche

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.

  20. Gene expression analysis of enzymes of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway involved in β-cryptoxanthin accumulation in wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko

    2017-03-18

    β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry. In the present study, two wild raspberry species were studied-R. palmatus, which accumulates β-Cry in the fruit, and R. crataegifolius, which does not accumulate β-Cry. Four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes derived from these two species were analyzed-phytoene synthase (PSY), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYb), β-carotene hydroxylase (HYb), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). Expression levels of their genes were also assessed to elucidate mechanism underlying β-Cry accumulation. Partial gene sequences of RubPSY, RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP, isolated from immature raspberry fruits of R. palmatus, were used as probes for Northern blot analysis. RubZEP expression ceased as the fruits matured, possibly because of reduced production of zeaxanthin. β-Cry is considered to be an intermediate compound that accumulates in the mature fruits of R. palmatus. High expression of RubPSY was detectable in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius, and the expression of RubLCYb, RubHYb, and RubZEP was detectable during all stages of fruit maturation. In contrast, β-Cry was absent in the mature fruits of R. crataegifolius.

  1. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM Rubus glaucus AND Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain AS AFFECTED BY TEMPERATURE, STORAGE AND WATER ACTIVITY Efecto de la temperatura, almacenamiento y la actividad de agua sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas de Rubus glaucus y Solanum betaceum Cav.dark-red strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M OLAYA

    Full Text Available The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum, as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures ( 25 °C and 40 °C and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35. A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time. The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanins as powdered food-grade colorants.Se comparó el efecto del tiempo de almacenamiento, la temperatura y la actividad de agua (Aw sobre la estabilidad de antocianinas microencapsuladas de Mora de Castilla (Rubus glaucus y tamarillo (Solanum betaceum. Las frutas se sometieron a deshidratación osmótica con etanol y el extracto antociánico se microencapsuló con maltodextrina ED 20 por atomización. La vida media de las antocianinas; los cambios en color, fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante se analizaron durante el almacenamiento a dos temperaturas ( 25 °C y 40 °C y dos niveles de Aw (0,20 y 0,35. Se observó una disminución de la antocianina monomérica en las dos muestras. La vida media de los pigmentos de mora de

  2. Establecimiento y multiplicación in vitro de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus Benth. variedad sin espinas, mediante ápices meristemáticos Stablishment and in vitro multiplication of thornless blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth. by shoot apical meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Katil Sigarroa-Rieche

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una técnica de micropropagación de plantas de mora (Rubus glaucus de la variedad sin espinas, a partir de ápices meristemáticos. En la fase de establecimiento se evaluó un protocolo de desinfección utilizando por 5 min solución de jabón detergente comercial y agua + alcohol 70% por 2 min + hipoclorito 3% con dos tiempos de exposición diferentes: T1 por 5 min y T2 por 10 min. Después de desinfectar las microestacas se extrajeron los ápices meristemáticos y se establecieron in vitro bajo un diseño completamente al azar para evaluar dos medios de cultivo: M1 y M2. A partir de las plántulas desarrolladas se efectuó la multiplicación en los medios de cultivo M1, M3 y M4. Ambos tratamientos de desinfección resultaron efectivos alcanzando 100% de desinfección de los explantes con cada uno de ellos. La siembra de ápices meristemáticos permitió el establecimiento de cultivos asépticos y un adecuado desarrollo de los explantes después de seis semanas de cultivo, con prendimiento de 83.4% para M1 y 66.6% para M2. El análisis de varianza (Anova y la prueba de rangos múltiples mostraron que la multiplicación fue mejor en el medio M1 con una mayor tasa de crecimiento y desarrollo del explante, al obtener coeficientes de multiplicación de 7.5 brotes/plántula y una altura promedio de 1.95 cm.We evaluated a technique of micropropagation in a thornless variety of blackberry (Rubus glaucus from shoot apical meristems. In the establishment phase, we evaluated a disinfection protocol: soapy solution (commercial detergent and water for 5 minutes + 70% alcohol for 2 minutes + 3% hypochlorite with two different exposure times: T1 for 5 minutes and T2 for 10 minutes. When the microcuttings were disinfected, the meristematic shoots were removed and established in vitro in a completely random design to evaluate two cultivation mediums: M1 and M2. From the seedlings developed, the multiplication was performed, which tested three

  3. Rubus wuchuanensis S. Z. He, a new species of the Rosaceae from Guizhou, China%贵州悬钩子属(蔷薇科)一新种--务川悬钩子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何顺志

    2006-01-01

    报道了贵州省务川县发现的悬钩子属Rubus(蔷薇科Rosaceae)一新种--务川悬钩子R.wuchuanensis S.Z.He.该种在体态上与锯叶悬钩子R.wuzhianus L. T.Lu & Boufford相近,区别在于其叶片卵状披针形,边缘疏生小锯齿;叶柄较短,长0.7-1 cm;花序为顶生稀疏总状花序,具花8-10朵;花梗长3.5-5 cm;花瓣先端具骤突尖头.

  4. Studies on the Chemical Components and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil from the Leaves of Rubus corchorifolius%山莓叶挥发油成分分析及抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双德; 陈雪香; 肖苏尧; 雷勇; 王丽兰; 周丽萍; 曹庸

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the chemical components of essential oil from the leaves of Rubus corchorifolius. Methods: The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, and then an analysis was conducted by applying GC-MS and Xcalibur Software. K-B filter paper method was used for their bacteriostasish. Results: 44 compounds were identified, accounting for 88. 52% of the total essential oil. The volatile oil concentration of 50% had a good bactericidal effect and the concentration of 0. 5% still had excellent antibacterial effect Conclusion: It provides the foundation for reasonable utilization and development of the leaves of Rubus corchorifolius.%目的:研究山莓叶挥发油的化学成分及抗菌活性.方法:用水蒸气蒸馏法提取山莓叶挥发油,利用GCMS联用仪和Xcalibur软件对山莓叶挥发油的化学成分进行分析鉴定,并采用K-B滤纸片法对其抗菌活性进行研究.结果:鉴定其中44个化合物,占挥发油总量的88.52%;挥发油浓度为50%时具有很好的杀菌作用;挥发油的浓度为0.5%仍具有很好的抑菌作用.结论:该结果为山莓叶的应用提供了依据.

  5. Colect and Morphologic characterization of samples of blacberry Rubus spp of the producing zones of Valley, Cauca and Nariño departaments. Caracterización morfológica de mora en los departamentos del Valle del Cauca, Cauca y Nariño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flores Jaime Eduardo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available 36 materials of blackberry were collected belonging to three species: Rubus glaucus, Rubus urticifolius and Rubus robustus. The qualitative morphologic characterization identified the three collected species and the describers were generated that allowed to identify in leaves: form, type, margin, apex, color of leaf, and in steam presence of antocianinas and serosity.    The quantitative morphologic characterization allowed to identify characteristic of commercial importance in two materials of the Collection: 3 and 31, with a high fruit weight, few thorns in the stem and high Brix degrees, characters that give them potential so much for the market in fresh as frozen. In the multivaried analysis of the quantitative characters of steam and fruit 5 groups were obtained, mainly the variability of them was get for entrenudos distance, length of pedicels in male branch, length of petioles in female and male branch, wide of leaf, fruit weight, length of the heart of the fruit and number of drupes. The morphologic and molecular characterization was complementary for the study of the present variability in the Collection of Rubus spp. 

    Se colectaron 36 materiales de mora pertenecientes a tres especies: Rubus glaucus, Rubus urticifolius y Rubus robustus. La caracterización morfológica cualitativa identificó las 3 especies colectadas y se generaron los descriptores que permitieron identificar en hojas: forma, tipo, margen, ápice, color del envés, y en tallo presencia de antocianinas y serosidad. 树莓‘沙尼’组培技术%Tissue Culture for Orus of Raspberry (Rubus ideau s L.) Cultivar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍朗宁; 张东升; 贾忠奎

    2015-01-01

    In order to breed and popularize the raspberry efficiently , we focused on the Shawnee , a fine-cultivar of raspberry ( Rbu us ied aus L.) , and studied the technology system of tissue culture .The stem section with a bud is an optimum explant while spring in May is an optimum time with the germination rate of 100%.After soaking with 75%alcohol for 30 s and flushing with sterile water for 3-4 times, 2%NaClO to sterilize 20 min before flushing by sterile water for 3 times is an op-timum program of sterilization without the contamination. MS+6-BA 1.0 mg· L-1+IAA 0.5 mg· L-1 is an optimum early generation culture medium , MS+6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1+NAA 0.05 mg· L-1 is an optimum subculture generation culture me-dium (4.55 proliferation ratio), and 1/2MS+IBA 1.0 mg· L-1 is an optimum strike root culture medium (100%root pro-ductive ratio , two individual of strong roots and mean length of 10 cm) .%应用树莓( Rubus ied aus L.)的优良品种‘沙尼’(‘Shawnee ’)进行组织培养技术的探索和研究,以期为树莓的大量繁育和推广提供技术支撑。结果表明:最佳外植体的选择为带芽茎段,最佳的取材时间为5月份,萌发率可达100%。最佳灭菌体系的流程为75%酒精浸泡30 s后无菌水冲洗3~4次,然后再以2%NaClO灭菌20 min后无菌水冲洗3次,污染率达到0%。‘沙尼’的最佳初代培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg· L-1+IAA 0.5 mg· L-1;最佳继代培养基为MS+6-BA 0.5 mg· L-1+NAA 0.05 mg· L-1,增殖系数为3.49;最佳生根培养基为1/2MS+IBA 1.0 mg· L-1,生根率为100%,植株可平均生出2 cm的健壮根系10条。

  6. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Ringspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), which is spread at a rate of about 6 ft a year in the row by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum) and possibly related species. It is common in red raspberry in the northern Willamette valley in Oregon and in Clark County in southern Washington. Many weeds also are ...

  7. Características físico-químicas y composición de ácidos grasos del aceite crudo extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Álvarez, Mario José

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of oil extracted from blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth residue were determined. Mature fruits from ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, Aragua state, Venezuela harvested on April 2001, were processed to obtain seeds and residues of pulp. This residue was extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method. The crude oil was assayed by means of COVENIN and AOCS methods. The results showed: Iodine index 160.16 cg I2/g, refraction index to 25ºC 1.4780 , saponification value 193.76 mg K0H/g, peroxide value 30.40 meq 02/kg, free fatty acidity 2.83% (oleic acid, insaponifiable value 2.77%, phosphorus content 0.22% and stability 3.09 h (AOM. The major fatty acids found were oleic acid (55.39% and linoleic acid (29.51%.El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar físico-químicamente el aceite extraído de residuos de mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y determinar su composición de ácidos grasos. Frutos maduros procedentes de ‘‘La Colonia Tovar’’, estado Aragua, Venezuela perteneciente a la cosecha Abril 2001, fueron procesados para obtener residuos constituidos por semillas y restos de pulpa. Los residuos fueron sometidos a un proceso de extracción mediante equipo Soxhlet utilizando como solvente n-hexano. El aceite crudo extraído fue caracterizado mediante normas COVENIN y AOCS. Se determinaron valores de índice de Iodo 160,16 cg I2/g; índice de refracción 1,4780 a 25ºC; índice de saponificación 193,76 mg KOH/g; índice de peróxidos 30,40 meq O2/kg; acidez libre oleica 2,83 %; materia insaponificable 2,77 %; fósforo 0,22 % y estabilidad AOM de 3,09 horas. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios encontrados fueron el ácido oleico (55,39% y el ácido linoleico (29,51%.

  8. Composição química, compostos bioativos e dissimilaridade genética entre cultivares de amoreira (Rubus spp. cultivadas no Sul de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Neves Santos Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutos das cultivares Arapaho, Brazos, Caingangue, Cherokee, Choctaw, Comanche, Ébano, Guarani, Tupy e Xavante, e uma espécie de amoreira-vermelha (Rubus rosifolius Smith foram avaliados quanto à composição química. Avaliou-se também a variação genética entre as cultivares de amoreira-preta e a espécie de amoreira-vermelha. Os resultados demonstraram variações na composição química dos frutos estudados. A amora- vermelha apresentou menor teor de umidade e maiores valores para os componentes cinzas, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, açúcares näo redutores, pectina total, pectina solúvel, fenóis, flavonoides, licopeno, β-caroteno e vitamina A. Os teores de umidade e antocianinas, a porcentagem de solubilização e a atividade antioxidante foram maiores nos frutos da cultivar Ébano. Verificou-se que os frutos da amoreira-vermelha e da cultivar Ébano apresentaram o maior grau de divergência genética para as variáveis analisadas. Isto indica a possibilidade de uso das mesmas em programas de melhoramento que visem à melhoria da composição química.

  9. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  10. Efecto de abonos orgánicos en las propiedades químicas del suelo y el rendimiento de la mora (Rubus adenotrichus en dos zonas agroecológicas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco Rodríguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar el efecto de dos abonos orgánicos en las propiedades quími- cas del suelo y el rendimiento de plantas de mora (Rubus adenotrichus cv.’Vino’ en dos zonas de Costa Rica. Para ello se establecieron dos experimentos, uno en Buena Vista de Pérez Zeledón (BVPZ y otro en San Mar tín de León Cor tés (SMLC, ambos en la provin- cia de San José, Costa Rica. La investigación se realizó entre agosto del 2005 y julio del 2008. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos en cada experimen- to: Compost (C y Lombricompost (L, a razón de 4 kg/planta y 3 kg/planta respectivamente, y un testi- go sin abono (T. La frecuencia de aplicación de los abonos a la siembra se dio a los 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses para un total de 6,6 t/ha para el C y 4,9 t/ha para el L. Se tomaron muestras de suelo a los 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 y 35 meses, después de la siembra para su análisis. Los resultados muestran que, en ambos agro-ecosis- temas, la aplicación del C y L incrementó el pH del suelo, redujo la acidez, incrementó la disponibilidad de Ca, Mg, K, N, y P, y favoreció la capacidad de in- tercambio catiónico efectiva (CICE y el porcentaje de materia orgánica. No se observó acumulación de Mn, Cu y Zn. En cuanto al rendimiento, en BVPZ solo se encon- traron diferencias significativas (P=0,00188 entre C (1,8 t/ha y el T (0,9 t/ha; mientras que en SMLC, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas (P

  11. The status of industry development and scientific research of blackberry (Rubus spp.) in the world, with a prospect in China%世界黑莓产业发展和研究现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维林; 吴文龙; 张春红; 闾连飞; 王小敏; 束怀瑞

    2012-01-01

    在查阅大量文献资料的基础上,结合作者的研究成果,对国内外黑莓(Rubus spp.)产业发展及研究现状进行了综述,并分析了存在的问题,阐述了中国黑莓产业的发展优势和产业化前景.目前黑莓在全世界的种植面积约为20 035 hm2,年产量1.5×105 ~2.0×105 t,栽培区域遍及各大洲,其中塞尔维亚的黑莓种植面积位居世界第一,美国的黑莓年产量居世界第一,亚洲仅中国种植黑莓;近几年来,罗马尼亚、波兰、墨西哥、智利、匈牙利、中国以及美国的黑莓种植面积增长较快;因黑莓极不易贮存,绝大多数鲜果用于加工.国外以常规育种技术为主、分子技术为辅培育出许多黑莓品种,栽培技术已经非常成熟,成功实现了机械化采收,并逐步推广黑莓的有机生产体系和大棚栽培技术.国外黑莓生产中面临的主要问题是经济、冻害和病虫害等.黑莓于1986年引入中国,从1994年开始推广,至2010年种植面积约4 500 hm2,主要集中在江苏省的溧水县、赣榆县和溧阳市,90%以上鲜果加工成速冻果出口.在国外引种和国内野生种质资源收集的基础上,中国的研究者开展了黑莓的选种和育种研究,并培育和筛选出适宜于本地种植的黑莓优良品种;黑莓的栽培、加工技术研究也取得了显著的成果,并研制出一些加工产品.当前中国黑莓产业主要面临主栽品种单一、农药残留量超标、栽培条件差等方面的问题,制约了黑莓产业的发展.由于黑莓适于低山丘陵栽培,具有结果早、见效快、营养价值高等优势,在中国具有广阔的发展前景.%On the basis of consulting a lot of literatures and combining with the authors' research results, the status of industry development and scientific research of blackberry ( Rubus spp.) in the world was summarized, the problems were analyzed, and the advantage and developmental potential of blackberry in China were

  12. Medicinal plants used in British Columbia, Canada for reproductive health in pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.

  13. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. 华东覆盆子根中没食子酸的提取工艺优选及含量测定%Extraction Technology Optimization and Content Determination of Gallic Acid in the Roots of Rubus Chin-gii Hu from Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To optimize the extraction technology of gallic acid in the roots of Rubus chingii Hu from eastern China and establish an assay method. Methods:The content of gallic acid was determined by HPLC. Orthogonal design was used to investigate the influence of solid/liquid ratio,extraction time and concentration of hydrochloric acid on the yield of gallic acid. Results:A good linearity of gallic acid was within the range of 4. 082-40. 815 μg·ml-1(r=0. 999 9),and the average recovery was 101. 28%(RSD=1. 08%,n=6). The optimal technology was as follows:extracted with heating circumfluence in 4. 2% hydrochloric acid solution with solid/liquid ratio of 1: 15 for 2. 5h. Conclusion:The optimal extraction technology is simple and feasible,and the assay method is stable and reliable,which can be used in the extraction and determination of gallic acid in the roots of Rubus chingii Hu from eastern China.%目的:优选华东覆盆子根中没食子酸的提取工艺,并建立其含量测定方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定华东覆盆子根中没食子酸的的含量。通过正交设计试验考察料液比、提取时间和盐酸浓度对没食子酸得率的影响。结果:没食子酸在4.082~40.815μg·ml-1(r=0.9999)范围内呈良好的线性关系;平均加样回收率为101.28%,RSD=1.08%(n=6)。最佳提取工艺为料液比1:15,加热回流2.5 h,盐酸浓度4.2%。结论:优选出的提取工艺简单可行,建立的含量测定方法稳定可靠,可用于提取和测定华东覆盆子根中的没食子酸。

  15. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties and Aromatic Profile During Maturation of The Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and The Bilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz / Evaluación las Propiedades Antioxidantes y el Perfil Aromático Durante la Maduración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Juana Bernal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth and thebilberry (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz are natural sourcesof antioxidants; they are known for their preventive role against degenerative diseases. In this study, the aromatic profile was evaluated using an electronic nose, including the antioxidant properties and the vitamin C, phenolic and anthocyanin contents during three stages of blackberry and bilberry ripening. A completely random statistical design was followed and the results presented differences in the aromatic profile: a higher anthocyanin content (1.59 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the bilberry and 0.26 mg of cyn-3-glu g-1 in the blackberry and total phenols (5.57 mg of caffeic acid g-1 bilberry and 2.68 mg caffeic acid g-1 blackberry. The behavior of the evaluated properties was independent in each of the fruits. / Los frutos como la mora (Rubus glaucus Benth y el agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Swartz son fuentes naturales de sustancias antioxidantes reconocidas por su papel preventivo en el desarrollo de enfermedades degenerativas. En este estudio se evaluó el perfil aromático por medio de nariz electrónica, las propiedades antioxidantes y el contenido de vitamina C, fenoles y antocianinas totales, durante tres estados de maduración de mora y agraz. El diseño estadístico que se siguió fue completamente aleatorio y los resultados muestran que las frutas en el último estado de madurez evaluado se diferencian por su perfil aromático, un contenido mayor de antocianinas (1,59 y 0,26 mg cyn-3-glu g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente y fenoles totales (5,57 y 2,68 mg ácido caféico g-1 en agraz y mora, respectivamente. El comportamiento de las propiedades evaluadas es independiente en cada una de las frutas.

  16. Diseño y desarrollo de un medio para la venta, almacenamiento y transporte de helados para el negocio Fresa Frambuesa

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleta C., Lily Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    El sector de alimentos es un sector bastante competido, el cual presenta una entrada significante de nuevos competidores anualmente. Todos éstos están buscando a la vez capturar un espacio en la mente del consumidor, saturando la ciudad de publicidad, promociones, y nuevos productos, generando una batalla constante de precios, donde solo el mejor logra diferenciarse, a través de una propuesta de valor diferente.

  17. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em regiões subtropicais no Brasil Phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars in subtropical regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fenologia e a produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em condições subtropicais, no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado nos municípios de Lavras, MG, e Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. Foram avaliadas sete cultivares, com as espécies Rubus idaeus (vermelhas, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss' e 'Batum'; e amarelas, 'Golden Bliss', em Lavras, e 'Fall Gold', em Marechal Cândido Rondon e R. niveus (framboesa-negra, além de um híbrido (Boysenberry entre R. idaeus e amora-preta (R. ursinus. Foram coletados dados fenológicos (florescimento e período de colheita e produtivos de dois ciclos de produção, e analisadas características físico-químicas dos frutos (dimensão, acidez titulável e conteúdo de sólidos solúveis. As cultivares de R. idaeus e o híbrido interespecífico não se adaptaram às condições climáticas do oeste paranaense, com baixa produção de frutos. No entanto, a framboesa-negra é uma excelente opção de cultivo na região, com alta produtividade (acima de 25 Mg ha-1 e qualidade de frutos (ratio de 9,3. No Sul de Minas, as framboeseiras apresentam boa adaptação, principalmente a framboesa-negra (18,2 Mg ha-1, a framboesa amarela (5 Mg ha-1 e a framboesa vermelha 'Batum' (4,4 Mg ha-1.The objective of this work was to evaluate the phenology and yield of raspberry cultivars under subtropical conditions in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the municipalities of Lavras, in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, and of Marechal Cândido Rondon, in the west of the state of Paraná. Seven raspberry cultivars were evaluated, from the species Rubus idaeus (red raspberries, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss', and 'Batum'; and yellow raspberries, 'Golden Bliss' in Lavras, and 'Fall Gold' in Marechal Cândido Rondon and R. niveus (black raspberry, besides a hybrid (Boysenberry between R. idaeus and blackberry (R. ursinus. Phenological traits (flowering and harvest time

  18. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae, is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.. In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the ground pearl were found in the roots of three cultivated berry plants: blackberry (Rubus spp., raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.. Observed symptoms included: chlorotic leaves, gradual wasting, reduced production, and mortality. Given the increasing popularity of berry orchards in the region, this study serves as an alert for farmers to avoid establishing them in areas infested with the ground pearl and to check for the insects in the root cuttings used to establish berry crops.A pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922 (Hemiptera: Margarodidae é uma cochonilha subterrânea, polífaga, nativa do sul do Brasil, que se alimenta de diversas espécies vegetais causando prejuízos, principalmente à cultura da videira (Vitis spp.. Nesta comunicação, três espécies vegetais são relatadas como novos hospedeiros da praga. Em 2007 e 2010, plantas infestadas foram registradas nos municípios de Farroupilha (29°14'34"S e 51°23'20"W e Vacaria (28°26'30"S e 50°52'59"W, RS. Exemplares da cochonilha foram encontrados em raízes de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., framboeseira (Rubus idaeus L. e mirtileiro (Vaccinium sp.. Os sintomas observados foram folhas cloróticas, definhamento progressivo, diminuição na produção e morte das plantas. Devido à ampliação do cultivo de pequenas frutas na região, essa informação serve de alerta aos produtores para que evitem o plantio em áreas infestadas com a cochonilha e observem a presen

  19. Plant macrofossils analysis from Steregoiu NW Romania: taphonomy, representation, and comparison with pollen analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of macrofossil analysis from the Steregoiu sequence in the Gutaiului Mountains covering the last 8,000 cal BP. The studied peat deposit is characterized by abundant macrofossils. Their diversity is, however, low with most macrofossils coming from plants that grew on the mire and in the forest surrounding the basin (Carex spp., Cyperus sp., Urtica dioica, Potentilla erecta, Filipendula ulmaria, Rubus idaeus, Lycopus europaeus. The concentration of Picea abies macrofossils correlates partially well with its pollen percentages, and only when it has been present on the bog surface. The absence of macrofossils from deciduous trees, which were abundant in the surrounding vegetation according to the pollen data, suggests that these deciduous trees were not growing on the bog or around its margins. The combined macrofossil and the pollen results assists in the understanding of the differences between the local and regional flora.

  1. Em busca da sustentabilidade: células solares sensibilizadas por extratos naturais Toward sustainability: solar cells sensitized by natural extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Otávio T. Patrocínio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the use of anthocyanins extracted from mulberry (Morus Alba L., raspberry (Rubus Idaeus L. and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. The conversion efficiency of these devices is dependent on the extracts employed and can be rationalized in terms of their composition and spectral properties. Solar cells sensitized by the mulberry extract showed the highest efficiency among the fruits investigated. Moreover, a 16 cm² active area solar cell with the mulberry extract has presented fair good efficiency of conversion for natural dye-based solar cells, besides stability over twenty weeks, showing perspectives for developing these low cost devices with a commercial viability.

  2. Volatile compounds of raspberry fruit: from analytical methods to biological role and sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2015-01-30

    Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.) are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.

  3. Volatile Compounds of Raspberry Fruit: From Analytical Methods to Biological Role and Sensory Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Aprea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds play a key role in the formation of the well-recognized and widely appreciated raspberry aroma. Studies on the isolation and identification of volatile compounds in raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L. are reviewed with a focus on aroma-related compounds. A table is drawn up containing a comprehensive list of the volatile compounds identified so far in raspberry along with main references and quantitative data where available. Two additional tables report the glycosidic bond and enantiomeric distributions of the volatile compounds investigated up to now in raspberry fruit. Studies on the development and evolution of volatile compounds during fruit formation, ripening and senescence, and genetic and environmental influences are also reviewed. Recent investigations showing the potential role of raspberry volatile compounds in cultivar differentiation and fruit resistance to mold disease are reported as well. Finally a summary of research done so far and our vision for future research lines are reported.

  4. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  5. Fenologia e produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em regiões subtropicais no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fenologia e a produção de cultivares de framboeseiras em condições subtropicais, no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado nos municípios de Lavras, MG, e Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. Foram avaliadas sete cultivares, com as espécies Rubus idaeus (vermelhas, 'Heritage', 'Polana', 'Autumn Bliss' e 'Batum'; e amarelas, 'Golden Bliss', em Lavras, e 'Fall Gold', em Marechal Cândido Rondon e R. niveus (framboesa-negra, além de um híbrido (Boysenberry entre R. idaeus e amora-preta (R. ursinus. Foram coletados dados fenológicos (florescimento e período de colheita e produtivos de dois ciclos de produção, e analisadas características físico-químicas dos frutos (dimensão, acidez titulável e conteúdo de sólidos solúveis. As cultivares de R. idaeus e o híbrido interespecífico não se adaptaram às condições climáticas do oeste paranaense, com baixa produção de frutos. No entanto, a framboesa-negra é uma excelente opção de cultivo na região, com alta produtividade (acima de 25 Mg ha-1 e qualidade de frutos (ratio de 9,3. No Sul de Minas, as framboeseiras apresentam boa adaptação, principalmente a framboesa-negra (18,2 Mg ha-1, a framboesa amarela (5 Mg ha-1 e a framboesa vermelha 'Batum' (4,4 Mg ha-1.

  6. The genus Rubus (Rosaceae) in Malesia. 3. The subgenus Micranthobatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1987-01-01

    Subgenus Micranthobatus is separated again from subg. Lampobatus sensu Focke (1911). The c.12 species have a scattered area of distribution, suggesting an old Gondwanan history. In Malesia five species are endemic in New Guinea (incl. New Britain), one is distributed in Borneo, the Philippines and C

  7. Gene flow analysis demonstrates that Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi constitutes a distinct species, Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man in 't Veld, Willem A

    2007-01-01

    Isozyme analysis and cytochrome oxidase sequences were used to examine whether differentiation of P. fragariae var. fragariae and P. fragariae var. rubi at the variety level is justified. In isozyme studies six strains of both P. fragariae varieties were analyzed with malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), aconitase (ACO), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), comprising altogether seven putative loci. Five unique alleles (Mdh-1(A), Mdh-2(B), Gpi(A), Aco(B) and Idh-1(B)) were found in strains of P. fragariae var. fragariae, whereas five unique alleles (Mdh-1(B), Mdh-2(A), Gpi(B), Aco(A) and Idh-1(A)) were present in strains of P. fragariae var. rubi. It was inferred from these data that there is no gene flow between the two P. fragariae varieties. Cytochrome oxidase I (Cox I) sequences showed consistent differences at 15 positions between strains of Fragaria and Rubus respectively. Based on isozyme data, cytochrome oxidase I sequences, and previously published differences in restyriction enzyme patterns of mitochondrial DNA, sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, AFLP patterns and pathogenicity, it was concluded that both specific pathogenic varieties of P. fragariae are reproductively isolated and constitute a distinct species. Consequently strains isolated from Rubus idaeus are assigned to Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.

  8. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenols of Aronia in Comparison to other Berry Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Jakobek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of various berries: [aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, blackberry (Rubus fruticosus, red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, and strawberry (Fragaria anannassa] have been evaluated in this study by using Folin-Ciocalteau, pH-differential, and DPPH method. Amount of anthocyanins ranged from 232 to 4341 mg kg-1 in strawberry and aronia, respectively. Total polyphenol content varied from 1005 mg kg-1 in strawberry to 10637 mg kg-1 in aronia. Aronia contains the highest amounts of polyphenols and anthocyanins among the berries studied. It shows the highest antioxidant activity, as well. Therefore, individual polyphenolic compounds of aronia were studied further in more details. The amount of fl avonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and anthocyanins in aronia was determined by using HPLC method. Anthocyanins found in aronia were derivatives of cyanidin of which the most abundant were cyanidin-3- galactoside (68.9% and cyanidin-3-arabinoside (24.5%. Quercetin was the main flavonol, with 93.07 % in total flavonol amount. The level of kaempferol was low (6.93% while myricetin was not identified.

  10. Environ: E00837 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00837 Raspberry Rubus chingii, Rubus crataegifolius, Rubus [TAX:23216] Rosaceae (r...ose family) Rubus aggregate fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rosaceae (rose family) E00837 Raspberry ...

  11. OSMODESHIDRATACIÓN DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth CON TRES AGENTES EDULCORANTES OSMODEHYDRATION OF BLACKBERRY (Rubus glaucus Benth WITH THREE SWEETENING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Giraldo Bedoya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js, sacarosa invertida (jsi y miel de caña (jmc, en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2% que los jarabes de sacarosa invertida (54,5% y sacarosa (50%, medido a partir del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de la mora. Con el proceso de estabilización del producto secado por convección forzada con aire caliente a 1,5 ms-1 de velocidad y 55°C de temperatura, durante 24 horas, logrando disminuir la humedad de los tres productos hasta 27,3%hbh, 30,8%hbh y 25,9%hbh para los jarabes de sacarosa, sacarosa invertida y miel de caña, respectivamente y mejorar las condiciones de empaque y almacenamiento, haciendo más estable el producto al ataque microbiano. Las pruebas preliminares de conservación se efectuaron en envases de vidrio de 250g durante 15 días. Se realizó además una prueba sensorial de ordenación con 10 jueces entrenados para la evaluación de las moras deshidratadas osmóticamente antes y después de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento y como resultado se obtuvo que antes de la prueba de empaque y almacenamiento, el producto de mayor aceptación fue el correspondiente a las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa invertida y luego del empaque, la mayor aceptación fue para las moras osmodeshidratadas en jarabe de sacarosa.Studies of osmotic dehydration of blackberry with three different syrups, sucrose (ss, reverse sucrose (rss, and cane syrup (cs with identical initial concentration conditions, 70°Brix, mean temperature of 20°C, and relative humidity of 65% were undertaken in the Fruit and Vegetable Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, showing that the cane syrup presented greater osmotic potential (69,2% compared to the reverse sucrose (54,5% and sucrose (50%, measured as the percentage weight loss of the blackberry samples. With the product dehydration process of drying with forced convection hot air at 1,5 ms-1 velocity and 55°C during 24 hours, it was possible to reduce the humidity of the three products to 27,3% hbh, 30,8% hbh and 25,9 % hbh for syrups of sucrose, reverse sucrose and cane syrup, respectively and improve the packaging and storage conditions, making the product more stable against microbial attacks. An ordenation sensorial test also was conducted with 10 judges trained for evaluation of osmotically dehydrated blackberries before and after the packing and storage process, the most accepted product was the one corresponding to the blackberries osmodehydrated in inverted sucrose syrup and after packaging the most accepted was blackberries osmodehydrated in sucrose syrup.

  12. Sodium alginate edible coating for blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius fruits / Revestimento comestível de alginato de sódio para frutos de amorapreta (Rubus ulmifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to check the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics changes of blackberries in natura and coated with sodium alginate edible coating during refrigerated storage. Fruits of blackberries cv. Comanche were sanitized and coated with sodium alginate ( % w/w, sodium alginate plus potassium sorbate (0.1% w/w solutions and fruits in natura not sanitized, that served as control. Sensorial, microbiological and physical-chemical analysis of the fruits were made during 18 days storage at 0°C. After this period the fruits showed good acceptance, according to sensorial evaluation of flavor and appearance, and showed maximum counts of 3.0.108 cfu/g for molds and yeasts and .0.107 cfu/g for psicrotrofic microorganisms. Control fruits had microbiological counts lower than the coated ones because they were less manipulated. Blackberry fruits coated with sodium alginate showed sensorial acceptance and physical and chemical characteristics similar of the fruits in natura, being an alternative to produce minimally processed fruits ready-to-eat.O objetivo do trabalho foi acompanhar as alterações das características físicas, químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais de frutos de amora-preta in natura e revestidas com cobertura comestível a base de alginato de sódio ao longo da armazenagem sob refrigeração. Frutos de amora-preta cultivar Comanche foram higienizados e revestidos com solução de alginato de sódio ( % p/p, alginato de sódio ( % p/p + conservador sorbato de potássio (0,1% p/p e frutos in natura sem tratamento fitossanitário, que serviram de controle. As análises sensoriais, microbiológicas e físico-químicas dos frutos foram realizadas ao longo da armazenagem a 0oC por 18 dias. Após este período, tanto os frutos revestidos como os não revestidos apresentaram boa aceitação, de acordo com a avaliação sensorial de sabor e aparência, e apresentaram contagens totais máximas de ,0.108 UFC/g de bolores e leveduras e ,0.107 UFC/g de microrganismos psicrotróficos. Os frutos controle apresentaram contagens microbiológicas menores que os revestidos pois foram menos manipulados. Frutos de amora-preta revestidos com alginato de sódio apresentaram aceitação sensorial e características físicas e químicas semelhantes aos frutos in natura, sendo uma alternativa para produção de frutos minimamente processados prontos para consumo.

  13. Seasonal monitoring for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in California commercial raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, K A; Bolda, M P; Sheehan, M E; Zalom, F G

    2014-08-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) prefer to oviposit on ripe fruit and have become an important pest of California raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) since their detection in Santa Cruz County, CA, in 2008. Preliminary management guidelines included D. suzukii monitoring recommendations, though there was little available information on seasonal occurrence and potential lures for use in raspberries. To address this issue, we trapped adult D. suzukii weekly for 2 yr (including both spring and fall harvests) in multiple raspberry varieties using apple cider vinegar and a yeast-sugar-water mixture as liquid lures, and measured fruit infestation when commercially ripe fruit were available. D. suzukii pressure as measured by larval infestation and adult trap captures was higher during the fall raspberry harvest season. The yeast lure captured significantly more D. suzukii during the fall harvest than the apple cider vinegar, and while both lures tended to capture more females than males, this varied by month of the year and was more pronounced for the yeast lure. Trap captures from each lure correlated well to one another, and often exhibited significant correlation to larval infestation. However, during all seasons and under both conventional and organic management, worrisome outliers were present (high larval infestation with low trap captures) that call into question the reliability of using the systems presented here as a basis for management decisions at this time.

  14. HOST PLANTS AND CLIMATIC PREFERENCES OF THE INVASIVE SPECIES METCALFA PRUINOSA (SAY 1830 (HEMIPTERA: FLATIDAE IN SOME PLACES FROM SOUTHERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Barbuceanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations carried out in May-September 2015 in two sites of Southern Romania reveal a rich spectrum of host plants for Metcalfa pruinosa, which consists of 204 species in 56 families. The species it is noticed on weeds and cultivated plants. The remarkable polyphagia of this species, the lack of natural enemies, and the climatic conditions of 2015 - warm and dry summer, had lead to an invasion of M. pruinosa, in the researched areas; the highest numerical abundances are noticed in shady habitats. Furthermore, on herbs, such as Levisticum officinale, Artemisia dracunculus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spp., usually avoided by pests, were observed colonies of the species. It is recorded high numerical abundance on fruit trees and shrubs: Hippophaë rhamnoides, Juglans regia, Prunus cerasus, Vitis vinifera, Rubus idaeus. The harmful effect occurs on apple trees Romus 1 variety as a result of the association with another pest of American origin, Eriosoma lanigerum, situation that favors the attack of the Erwinia amylovora bacteria, causing the collapse of the tree. It is found that altitudes higher than 200 m do not represent a limitative factor in the spreading of species, one of the investigated sites being located at 304 m altitude.

  15. Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Edirisinghe, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Diet is an essential factor that affects the risk of modern-day metabolic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease. The potential ability of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to reverse or prevent the progression of the pathogenic processes that underlie these diseases has attracted research attention. Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are unique berries with a rich history and nutrient and bioactive composition. They possess several essential micronutrients, dietary fibers, and polyphenolic components, especially ellagitannins and anthocyanins, the latter of which give them their distinctive red coloring. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed various mechanisms through which anthocyanins and ellagitannins (via ellagic acid or their urolithin metabolites) and red raspberry extracts (or the entire fruit) could reduce the risk of or reverse metabolically associated pathophysiologies. To our knowledge, few studies in humans are available for evaluation. We review and summarize the available literature that assesses the health-promoting potential of red raspberries and select components in modulating metabolic disease risk, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and Alzheimer disease-all of which share critical metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory links. The body of research is growing and supports a potential role for red raspberries in reducing the risk of metabolically based chronic diseases. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  17. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  18. Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  19. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols.

  20. STUDY OF RASPBERRY EXTRACT APPLICATIONS AS TEXTILE COLORANT ON NATURAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Diana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  1. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Exploring Perceptions of Raspberries and Blueberries by Italian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Girgenti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting foods that are produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. In the fruit sector, sustainability issues are often associated with imprecisely defined concepts such as “locally grown”, “freshness” and “local product”. This study has investigated raspberries (Rubus idaeus L. and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. purchases in order to identify how berry fruits choice attributes are ranked by consumers in two Italian Regions, using a choice experiment (best-worst methodology. Twelve attributes—that indirectly refer to the concept of environmental sustainability—have been investigated. According to the preferences expressed by our sample of retail purchasers (n = 669, the results show that the reasons for the purchase of berries are associated with numerous parameters among which freshness and product origin are the most important and price was not ranked as so relevant. These findings indirectly testify the consumer attention towards the sustainability of local production and the link between sustainability and territory. Therefore, we can presume that the improvement of consumer familiarity with attributes such as “locally grown” and “local product” could support more eco-friendly consumption of raspberries and blueberries.

  3. Biomass Accumulation and Net Primary Production during the Early Stage of Secondary Succession after a Severe Forest Disturbance in Northern Japan

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    Tomotsugu Yazaki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of biomass accumulation after disturbances in forests are crucially important for elucidating and predicting forest carbon dynamics in order to understand the carbon sink/source activities. During early secondary succession, understory vegetation often affects sapling growth. However, reports on biomass recovery in naturally-regenerating sites are limited in Japan. Therefore, we traced annual or biennial changes in plant species, biomass, and net primary production (NPP in a naturally regenerating site in Japan after windthrow and salvage-logging plantation for nine years. The catastrophic disturbance depleted the aboveground biomass (AGB from 90.6 to 2.7 Mg·ha−1, changing understory dominant species from Dryopteris spp. to Rubus idaeus. The mean understory AGB recovered to 4.7 Mg·ha−1 in seven years with the dominant species changing to invasive Solidago gigantea. Subsequently, patches of deciduous trees (mainly Betula spp. recovered whereas the understory AGB decreased. Mean understory NPP increased to 272 g·C·m−2·year−1 within seven years after the disturbance, but decreased thereafter to 189 g·C·m−2·year−1. Total NPP stagnated despite increasing overstory NPP. The biomass accumulation is similar to that of naturally regenerating sites without increase of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Dense ground vegetation and low water and nutrient availability of the soil in the study site restrict the recovery of canopy-forming trees and eventually influence the biomass accumulation.

  4. Effect of Application Timing of Oxamyl in Nonbearing Raspberry for Pratylenchus penetrans Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A.; Walters, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the Washington raspberry (Rubus idaeus) industry received a special local needs (SLN) 24(c) label to apply Vydate L® (active ingredient oxamyl) to nonbearing raspberry for the management of Pratylenchus penetrans. This is a new use pattern of this nematicide for raspberry growers; therefore, research was conducted to identify the optimum spring application timing of oxamyl for the suppression of P. penetrans. Three on-farm trials in each of 2012 and 2013 were established in Washington in newly planted raspberry trials on a range of varieties. Oxamyl was applied twice in April (2013 only), May, and June, and these treatments were compared to each other as well as a nontreated control. Population densities of P. penetrans were determined in the fall and spring postoxamyl applications for at least 1.5 years. Plant vigor was also evaluated in the trials. Combined results from 2012 and 2013 trials indicated that application timing in the spring was not critical. Oxamyl application reduced root P. penetrans population densities in all six trials. Reductions in P. penetrans population densities in roots of oxamyl-treated plants, regardless of application timing, ranged from 62% to 99% of densities in nontreated controls. Phytotoxicity to newly planted raspberry was never observed in any of the trials. A nonbearing application of oxamyl is an important addition to current control methods used to manage P. penetrans in raspberry in Washington. PMID:27765991

  5. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  6. Elaboración de néctar de zarzamora (Rubus fructicosus L.

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    Cristina Encarnación Valencia Sullca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo de investigación se elaboró y caracterizó fisicoquímicamente néctar de zarzamora. Las operaciones comprendidas en este proceso fueron: selección, clasificación, lavado, desinfección (hipoclorito de sodio 100 ppm de Cloro Libre Residual, pulpeado, refinado, estandarizado, homogeneización, pasteurización y envasado. En la materia prima se encontró: 82,98% de humedad, 0,93% de proteínas,15,74% de carbohidratos, ausencia de grasa, 2,48% de fibra, 0,42% de cenizas, 3,91% de azúcares reductores, 0,93% de acidez, 3,4 de pH, 10,5 de °Brix, 400,67 mg de ácido gálico/100 g muestra de compuestos fenólicos totales, 39,02 μmol Trolox / g de capacidad antioxidante, 109,07 mg cianidina 3-glucósido / 100 g muestra de antocianinas y 14,37 mg / 100 g de vitamina C. Los frutos reportaron un rendimiento de 78,2 % de pulpa. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos preliminares de elaboración de néctar de zarzamora a diferentes diluciones (1:2,5; 1:2,6; 1:2,7; 1:2,8; 1:2,9 y 1:3, grados °Brix (11,12 y 13 y valores de pH (3,4; 3,6 y 3,8. Teniendo en cuenta la mayor aceptación en la evaluación sensorial (prueba de preferencia ampliada con 30 jueces no entrenados cuyos resultados fueron evaluados estadísticamente mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Friedman, se eligió a la que contenía dilución 1:2,7 (pulpa:agua, 12 °Brix, 0,07% de CMC y 3,8 de pH. El néctar obtenido reportó: ausencia de grasa y fibra, 87,3% de humedad, 0,10% de proteínas, 0,10% de cenizas, 4,87% de azúcares reductores, 0,23% de acidez, 3,8 de pH, 115,25 mg ácido gálico/100 g muestra de compuestos fenólicos totales, 3.9 μmol Trolox / g de capacidad antioxidante, 24,33 mg cianidina 3-glucósido / 100 g muestra de Antocianinas y 3,9 mg / 100 g de vitamina C.

  7. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) activates the expression of thermogenic genes in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, M Y; Kim, H L; Park, J; Jung, Y; Youn, D H; Lee, J H; Jin, J S; So, H S; Park, R; Kim, S H; Kim, S J; Hong, S H; Um, J Y

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the anti-obesity effect of Rubi Fructus (RF) extract using brown adipose tissue (BAT) and primary brown preadipocytes in vivo and in vitro. Male C57BL/6 J mice (n=5 per group) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks with or without RF. Brown preadipocytes from the interscapular BAT of mice (age, post-natal days 1-3) were cultured with differentiation media (DM) including isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, T3, indomethacin and insulin with or without RF. In HFD-induced obese C57BL/6 J mice, long-term RF treatment significantly reduced weight gain as well as the weights of the white adipose tissue, liver and spleen. Serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also reduced in the HFD group which received RF treatment. Furthermore, RF induced thermogenic-, adipogenic- and mitochondria-related gene expressions in BAT. In primary brown adipocytes, RF effectively stimulated the expressions of thermogenic- and mitochondria-related genes. In addition, to examine whether LIPIN1, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, is regulated by RF, Lipin1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and RF were pretreated in primary brown adipocytes. Pretreatment with Lipin1 siRNA and RF downregulated the DM-induced expression levels of thermogenic- and mitochondria-related genes. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated AMP-activated protein kinase. Our study shows that RF is capable of stimulating the differentiation of brown adipocytes through the modulation of thermogenic genes. This study demonstrates that RF prevents the development of obesity in mice fed with a HFD and that it is also capable of stimulating the differentiation of brown adipocytes through the modulation of thermogenic genes, which suggests that RF has potential as a therapeutic application for the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  8. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2013-01-01

    Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10-100  μ g/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPK α siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPAR γ , C/EBP α , and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  9. Exogenous tocopherol and ascorbic acid improve in vitro recovery of cryopreserved Rubus shoot tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative processes involved in stresses such as cold temperatures can decrease the viability of plant tissues. Antioxidants that counteract these oxidative reactions could improve plant viability following the stresses involved in cryopreservation. We studied the effects of exogenous vitamin E (V...

  10. Uncommon Trimethoxylated Flavonol Obtained from Rubus rosaefolius Leaves and Its Antiproliferative Activity

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    Marcel Petreanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the evaluation the antiproliferative effect of the extract, fractions, and uncommon compounds isolated from R. rosaefolius leaves. The compounds were identified by conventional spectroscopic methods such as NMR-H1 and C13 and identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8,4′-trimethoxyflavonol (1, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4′-pentamethoxyflavone (2, and tormentic acid (3. Both hexane and dichloromethane fractions showed selectivity for multidrug-resistant ovary cancer cell line (NCI-ADR/RES with total growth inhibition values of 11.1 and 12.6 μg/ml, respectively. Compound 1 also showed selective activity against the same cell line (18.8 μg/ml; however, it was especially effective against glioma cells (2.8 μg/ml, suggesting that this compound may be involved with the in vitro antiproliferative action.

  11. Quality characterization of Andean blackberry fruits (Rubus glaucus Benth. in different maturity stages in Antioquia, Colombia

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    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product quality and safety are two essential characteristics for the fruit market, making it necessary to normalize and standardize processes in order to improve their commercialization. In this study, the quality of two Andean blackberry cultivars grown in two regions of Antioquia (Envigado and Guarne, Colombia, from different maturity stages as defined by the Norma Tecnica Colombiana 7146 (NTC Spanish was characterized. The parameters that were found suitable for the fruit quality characterization were: weight, total solid soluble content (TSS, titratable acidity (TA, maturity index (MI, color index (CI and firmness (F. The equatorial diameter (ED maintained its importance relative to the standard and the market, along with the juice yield (JY. The quotient a*/b* presented the best correlation with the visual color scale as defined in the standard. The TSS ranges defined in NTC 4106 were not verified in this studied for fruits grown in the agro-climatic conditions of Antioquia. Linear regression models are a useful tool for making quick and easy comparisons and estimations of the quality parameters.

  12. CARACTERIZACION FISICOQUÍMICA DE MORA DE CASTILLA (Rubus glaucus Benth. EN SEIS ESTADOS DE MADUREZ

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    LEIDY CAROLINA AYALA S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El interés de productores, comercializadores y consumidores de la región por la mora de Castilla producida en el municipio de Ibagué y la poca información sobre sus cualidades dieron origen a la presente caracterización del fruto en seis estados de madurez. Los resultados morfológicos y fisicoquímicos indican que el grado óptimo de recolección es 5 atendiendo al buen índice de cosecha, firmeza, peso, sólidos solubles totales (SST, rendimiento y material insoluble en alcohol (MIA, en esta fase de maduración la acidez limita el crecimiento bacteriano no obstante persistan problemas fúngicos como Botritys Cinérea. Así mismo, la cosecha en grados de madurez 4 y 6 no son viables, debido a bajo peso y volumen; y fragilidad estructural que con frecuencia incide en la lixiviación, fermentación y magullado de la fruta respectivamente. En general el análisis estadístico pone de manifiesto diferencias significativas entre grados de madurez respecto a peso, diámetro mayor, volumen, acidez, SST, minerales y MIA, ratificando la importante relación entre el momento de cosecha y estado de desarrollo del fruto debido a su incidencia directa en la calidad del producto y competitividad comercial.

  13. Osmodeshidratación de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth) con tres agentes edulcorantes.

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo Bedoya, Diana Patricia; Arango Vélez, Lina María; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2011-01-01

    La investigación sobre la deshidratación osmótica de mora de castilla con tres jarabes diferentes, sacarosa (js), sacarosa invertida (jsi) y miel de caña (jmc), en iguales condiciones iniciales de concentración, 70 grados Brix, temperatura promedio de 20°C, y humedad relativa de 65% desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Frutas y Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, permitió conocer que el jarabe de miel de caña presenta mayor poder osmótico (69,2%) que los jarabes ...

  14. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of phenolics isolated from fruits of Himalayan yellow raspberry (Rubus ellipticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Ritu; Dangwal, Koushalya; Singh, Himani; Garg, Veena

    2014-11-01

    Yellow Himalayan raspberry, a wild edible fruit, was analyzed for phenolic contents, and antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities. Phenolics were extracted using 80 % aqueous solvents containing methanol, acidic methanol, acetone and acidic acetone. Our analysis revealed that the acidic acetone extracts recovered the highest level of total phenolics (899 mg GAE/100 g FW) and flavonoids (433.5 mg CE/100 g FW). Free radical scavenging activities (DPPH, ABTS, superoxide and linoleate hydroperoxide radicals) and ferric reducing activity were highest in the acetone and acidic acetone extracts. No metal chelating or antibacterial activity was detected in any of the extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed potent antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cells (C33A) with an EC50 of inhibition at 5.04 and 4. 9 mg/ml fruit concentration respectively, while showing no cytotoxicity to normal PBMCs cells. Therefore, the present study concluded that the yellow Himalayan raspberry is a potent source of phytochemicals having super antioxidant and potent antiproliferative activities.

  15. Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

    2012-05-01

    The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood.

  16. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  17. Genotyping and phenotyping heat tolerance in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for raspberry continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate, where average summer temperatures range from 30-35°C. Recent research about the health benefits of a polyphenolic-rich di...

  18. Microencapsulation by spray-drying of bioactive compounds extracted from blackberry (rubus fruticosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Renata Trindade; Zapata Noreña, Caciano P

    2016-03-01

    Blackberry aqueous extract acidified with 2 % citric acid was spray-dried using gum Arabic (GA) and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents at concentrations of 10 and 15 % and temperatures of 140 to 160 °C. All powders presented high solubility, ranging from 88.2 to 97.4 %, and the encapsulation conditions did not significantly affect the hygroscopicity. The powders produced with gum Arabic showed higher brightness than those with polydextrose. The anthocyanins retention in the microcapsules was 878.32 to 1300.83 mg/100 g, and the phenolics was 2106.56 to 2429.22 mg (GAE)/100 g. The antioxidant activity was quantified according to DDPH and ABTS methods, with values ​​ranging from 31.28 to 40.26 % and 27 to 45.15 %, respectively. The microscopy showed spherical particles for both encapsulating agents, and smooth surface with some concavities with the gum Arabic, and smooth or slightly rough surface when using polydextrose. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a high correlation between the color parameters, L*, a*, b*, Hue, Chroma and browning index (BI), which were also strongly correlated with anthocyanins. Phenolic presented correlation with DPPH and ABTS values. The results showed that the best encapsulation condition was atomization at 140 °C and 15 % gum Arabic.

  19. Inhibition of A2780 Human Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Proliferation by a Rubus Component, Sanguiin H-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dahae; Ko, Hyeonseok; Kim, Young-Joo; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-02-01

    The effects of a red raspberry component, sanguiin H-6 (SH-6), on the induction of apoptosis and the related signaling pathways in A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells were investigated. SH-6 caused an antiproliferative effect and a severe morphological change resembling that of apoptotic cell death but no effect on the cancer cell cycle arrest. In addition, SH-6 induced an early apoptotic effect and activation of caspases as well as the cleavage of PARP, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. The early apoptotic percentages of A2780 cells exposed to 20 and 40 μM SH-6 were 35.39 and 41.76, respectively. Also, SH-6 caused the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially p38, and the increase of truncated p15/BID. These results in the present study suggest that the apoptosis of A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells by SH-6 is mediated by the MAPK p38 and a caspase-8-dependent BID cleavage pathway.

  20. Sequence analysis of the capsid and polimerase genes of different raspberry bushy dwarf virus (rbdv samples Análisis de la secuencia de nucleótidos del gen de la capside y la polimerasa entre diferentes aislamientos del virus motoso del enanismo de la frambuesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to find sequence variability between capsid and polymerase gene sequences of five RBDV samples. Capsid and polymerase cDNAs were obtained by reverse transcription and PCR (RT-PCR of RNA extracted from plants inoculated with each of the respective isolated samples. The amplified products were cloned in pGEM-T and sequenced. The results showed that the capsid and polymerase sequences varied less than 1% among the isolated samples. These data suggested that capsid and polymerase transgenic sequences that protect against a particular RBDV sample might protect against the others.Este proyecto tuvo como objetivo determinar el grado de variabilidad existente al interior de las secuencias correspondientes al gen de la cápside y de la polimerasa entre cinco aislamientos de RBDV. Para este propósito, el DNA complementario (cDNA, correspondiente al gen de la cápside y de la polimerasa, fueron obtenidos por transcriptasa reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR, a partir de RNA de plantas inoculadas con cada uno de los respectivos aislamientos. El cDNA correspondiente al gen de la cápside y de la polimerasa, obtenido de cada aislamiento de RBDV, mediante esta metodología se clonó en el plásmido pGEM-T para ser secuenciado posteriormente. Los resultados mostraron que tanto el gen de la cápside, como el de la polimerasa, variaron menos del 1% entre estos aislamientos. Por lo tanto, se puede esperar que una secuencia transgénica de RBDV (de la cápside o de la polimerasa que proteja contra un aislamiento de RBDV, podría también proteger contra otras cepas de RBDV.

  1. Characteristics of blackberry and raspberry seeds and oils

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    Dimić Etelka B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the determination of technological quality characteristics of dried pomaces, i.e. blackberry and raspberry seeds, along with the quality parameters, content of total carotenoids and chlorophyl and transparency of crude extracted oil (using organic solvent. Blackberry seeds (Rubus fruticosus L. were obtained from a domestic variety Čačanska bestrna, while the raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus L. were of the variety Willamette. Oil content of the blackberry pomace was 13.97 and 14.34%, while the oil content of the raspberry pomace was 13.44 and 14.33% on dry basis (d.b.. In regard to technological characteristics of the pomaces, i.e. volumetric and specific weight, no considerably difference was found. However, a weight test for 1000 seeds showed a significant difference in weight: 3.5 g (d.b. for the blackberry pomace and 1.5 g for the raspberry pomace (d.b.. Proximate analysis of blackberry seed oil showed that this oil had better quality since the FFA value was 3.43% (sample B1 and 3.53% (sample B2, while the peroxide value was 8.89 and 11.16 mmol/kg, respectively. Raspberry seed oil had higher FFA (8.59 and 8.83% for sample R1 and R2 and peroxide values (13.99 and 13.84 for sample R1 and R2 than the blackberry seed oil. Crude extracted blackberry seed oil had a brown-greenish color due to the high total chlorophyll content (around 3000 mg/kg dissolved in cyclohexane. Raspberry seed oil had a dark yellowishorange color, due to lower chlorophyll content (around 200 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil, while the content of total carotenoids was slightly higher in this oil (around 40 mg/kg compared to the blackberry seed oil (33 mg/kg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014: Development of the new functional confectionery products based on oil crops

  2. Ferrugem em framboesa no estado de Santa Catarina Red raspberry rust in Santa Catarina state

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    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas e frutos de framboesa (Rubus idaeus L. da cultivar Batum coletados de plantas do pomar do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, CAV, município de Lages-SC, apresentando pústulas de ferrugem, foram encaminhados para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do CAV. A diagnose indireta indicou a presença de pústulas com uma massa de esporos de cor amarela na face abaxial das folhas e superfície dos frutos. No exame ao microscópio, observou-se urédia e urediniósporos pequenos, obovados ou elipsoides, medindo 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm sobre a epiderme da folha e frutos, sem a presença de télias. Suspensão de urediniósporos (50.000 esporos mL-1 em água esterilizada foi pulverizada em folhas destacadas da mesma cultivar, mantidas por 24 h no escuro e 12 h de fotoperíodo em câmara úmida a 20ºC. Folhas-controle foram pulverizadas com água esterilizada. Após 10 dias detectaram-se urédias contendo urediniósporos na face abaxial das folhas, cujas características morfológicas e mensuração dos urediniósporos, sintomas e patogenicidade permitiram a identificação do agente causal como sendo Pucciniastrum americanum (Farl. Arthur pela primeira vez no Estado de Santa Catarina.Leaves and fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. of the cultivar Batum collected from the Agriculture and Life Science College - CAV orchard in Lages, SC, presenting rust pustules were analyzed in the CAV Plant Pathology Laboratory. Indirect diagnosis indicated in the abaxial side of the infected leaves and fruits surface pustules filled with masses of yellow spores. Under microscope exam, uredia and small, obovate or elliptical and averaged 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm urediniospores become evident in leaves and fruit surface. Telia were not observed. Urediniopores (50.000 esporos mL-1 were suspended in sterile water and sprayed onto same cultivar leaves that were maintained in a darkened mist chamber at 20ºC for 24 h and transferred to a 20ºC and 12 h

  3. Soil acidification and its impact on ground vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkengren-Grerup, U.

    1989-01-01

    Forest soils in southern Sweden have become more acid during the last decades, partly due to deposition of acidifying substances. The top soil pH has decreased by up to 1.5 units over a period of 35 years (average decrease 0.8). The decrease ocurred not only in the root zone but throughout the whole soil profile, and were particularly marked in the originally less acid soils. The pH decrease has been accompanied by considerable losses of exchangeable Na, K, Mg and Ca, as well as of Zn and Mn ions. The species diversity of the vascular plants in the field layer increased over a 15-35-year period in spite of the acidification of the forest soils. Among species that increased were the nitrophiles, e.g. Rubus idaeus, Aegopodium podagraria and Chamaenerion angustifolium, probably an effect of the increased N-deposition. A few species decreased on a majority of sites, Polygonatum multiflorum, Pulmonaria officinalis, Dentaria bulbifera, while Mercurialis perennis, Lamium galeobdolon, Galium odoratum and Oxalis acetocella decreased at the lower pH levels. The greater abundance of several species is probably caused by the increased nitrogen deposition. The most common species appeared to respond very clearly to the acid properties of the humus layer. Acidification gradients, caused by large stemflow volumes from beech trees, showed that the species cover was closely related to the variation in soil pH. The cover curves of species growing in the narrow stemflow gradients were congruent with those of beech stands with different acidity, spread over a geographical area. (author) (With 36 refs.).

  4. Effect of Prohexadione-Ca and young canes removal on physiological characteristics of leaf and fruit in raspberry cultivar ‘Willamette’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poledica Milena M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate the effect of growth regulator Prohexadione-Ca (ProCa and young canes removal on the changes of photosynthetic pigment content and modification activities of antioxidant enzyme defense system in leaves and fruits of raspberry cultivar ‘Willamette’ (Rubus idaeus L.. The experiment was performed in the period of 2011-2012. It consisted of five treatments: control - no treatment; 2ProCa - with 2 ProCa applications; Z - one removal of young canes; Z+2ProCa - young canes removal with 2 ProCa applications; 2Z - two removals of young canes. The first series of young canes were removed for the first time in mid-April and for the second time at the begining of May. In 2ProCa and Z+2ProCa treatments foliar application of ProCa was carried out twice during the period of April-May in interval of three weeks, i.e. when the primocane growth reached 30 cm in height. The following concentrations of ProCa: 125 ppm (first application and 200 ppm (second application were applied. Significantly higher mean values of chlorophyll b content were registered in the 2ProCa (42.84 μg•g-1 FW and Z+2ProCa (46.12 μg•g-1 FW treatment. The highest SOD and POD activities were found in leaves of new young canes which developed after the young canes removal was applied. Z+2ProCa treatment significantly increased CAT activity in raspberry leaves (63.51 U mg-1 prot.. Both of implemented measures, especially applied in combination, resulted in higher activity of CAT, POD and SOD enzymes in the fruits of the examined cultivar. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46008 i br. 173040

  5. Evaluación de pulpas de mora (Rubus Glaucus) y remolacha (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva) enriquecidas con hierro / Evaluation of pulp blackberry (Rubus glaucus) and beet (Beta vulgaris var. Conditiva) enriched with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Arcos Escobar, Diana Caterinne

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el proceso para la fortificación de pulpa de mora y pulpa de mora – remolacha en proporción 80:20 con sales de hierro aminoquelado. Inicialmente se determino la solubilidad de las sales y esta es mayor cuando se adiciona previamente a la pasterización. El hierro biglicinado aminoquelado tuvo mayor solubilidad que el hierro triglicinado aminoquelado. Al mezclar la sal directamente con al pulpa se encontró que las sales son más solubles en la mezcla de pulpa de mora – remolacha, pero ...

  6. Micropropagação da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp. e efeito de substratos na aclimatização de plântulas = Blackberry micropropagation (Rubus spp. and effects of substrates in plants acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi aprimorar técnicas de propagação in vitro e determinar um melhor substrato para a amoreira-preta. O primeiro experimento consistiu de gemas axilares com cerca de 2 cm, oriundas de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro da cv. Ébano, excisadas e inoculadas em meio MS, suplementado com 5 concentrações de carvão ativado e 5 de BAP. Ambos os experimentos foram inteiramente casualisados, utilizando-se in vitro 3 explantes por repetição e 4 repetições por tratamento e em casa-de-vegetação um fatorial 4x4. O pH do meio foi ajustado para 5,8 antes da adição de 6 g L-1 de ágar e da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Após 70 dias, foram avaliados diversos parâmetros nos explantes. Maior número de folhas e maior número de raízes foram obtidos com 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP. Na presença de 3 g L-1 de carvão ativado, o número e comprimento de raízes foi maior. Maior biomassa fresca foi obtido na ausência de carvão ativado. O segundo experimento consistiu de plântulas da cv. Cherokee mantidas em condições in vitro e transplantadas para bandejas plásticas, contendo os substratos e mantidas em casa-de-vegetação. Foram testados 4 tipos de substratos. Após 100 dias de aclimatização, foram avaliados números de folhas, comprimento das raízes e da parte aérea, peso fresco e seco das raízes e peso fresco e seco da parte aérea. Foi possível concluir que a aclimatização pode ser realizada com sucesso, utilizando-se Plantmax. seguido da mistura de Plantmax. + vermiculita + casca de arroz carbonizada e vermiculita. Houve 92% de sobrevivência de plantas em todos os substratos.The objective of the present study was to achieve the improved techniques in in vitro propagation and to determine a better substrate for the blackberry. The first experiment consisted of nodal segments of plants with ±2 cm of length obtained from in vitro culture cv. Ebano, excised and inoculated in MS culture medium, supplemented with five activated charcoal concentrations and five BAP concentrations. Both experiments were entirely performed in a designrandomized complete block, using in vitro 3 explants by repetition and 4 replications for treatment and in greenhouse, a factorial 4x4. The pH of the culture medium was adjusted to 5.8 before the additionof 6 g L-1 of agar and the sterilization to 121ºC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After 70 days, several parameters in the explants were evaluated. A greater number of leaves and roots were obtained with0.5 mg L-1 of BAP. The number of roots and their length were larger in the presence of 3 g L-1 of activated charcoal. A larger weight of the fresh matter was obtained in the absence of activated charcoal. The second experiment consisted of plants cv. Cherokee maintained in in vitro conditions and transplanted to plastic trays, containing the substrates and kept in greenhouse. Four types of substrates were tested. After 100 days of acclimatization, the leaf number, root length and aerial part, cool and dry root weight and cool and dry aerial part weight had been evaluated. It was concluded that the acclimatization can be successfully performed using Plantmax. followed by the Plantmax. + vermiculita + rind rice carbonized mixture. There was a 92% rate of the plants' survival in allsubstrates.

  7. Proteomics of the ripening of blackberry fruits (Rubus sp. grown in México, a first approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry production in Mexico has increased 200 % in the last decade. The main varieties used have been introduced from other countries, and its establishment under the climatic conditions of México has required considerable adaptations to the agronomic management observed in the regions of origin thereof. The essentialchallenge of managing this product is based on the intrinsic characteristics of its soft fruit and its short shelf life, so that knowledge of their maturation process under their growing conditions in Mexico is imperative to achieve and improve handling productivity and fruit quality unto its final destination. The aim of this work was to first address this problem by establishing the conditions of protocols for the analysis of proteins in blackberry fruits during different ripening stages. To accomplish this goal, six stages of fruit ripening were identified for the comercial variety 'Brazos' (considering a range of development from green, small fruits to fruits fully developed and in harvest maturity, a protein extraction was selected and a protein profile was performed by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. In addition, requirements were established for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE of the extractsobtained by evaluating the conditions of isoelectric focusing and staining methods. According to the results obtained, it was determined to use 400 µg of total protein in IPG strips of 7 cm with a pH range of 3 to 10, using a máximum voltage of 50 000 V, and Coomassie blue staining. A preliminary analysis of the distribution and abundance of the peptides expressed in the six stages of maturation was performed using the KODAK MI software version 4.5, and the results showed that the stage 2 presented the highest number of peptide spots (158, the highest percentage of spots at all stages were observed in a pH range of 5.0 to 6.9 and molecular weight of 30 to 50 kDa. We identified four spots of similar intensity, suggesting its constitutive expression, three of decreasing expression; that could be involved in the initial processes of fruit growth, four spots of induced expression, and six of oscillating degrees of expression during ripening.

  8. Developing expressed sequence tag libraries and the discovery of simple sequence repeat markers for two species of raspberry (Rubus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Due to a relatively high level of codominant inheritance and transferability within and among taxonomic groups, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are important elements in comparative mapping and delineation of genomic regions associated with traits of economic importance. Expressed S...

  9. Almacenamiento refrigerado de frutos de mora de castilla (rubus glaucus benth.) en empaques con atmósfera modificada

    OpenAIRE

    Sora, Ángel Dayron; Fischer, Gerhard; Flórez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Con el objeto de aumentar la vida útil de la mora de Castilla en poscosecha, se colocaron frutos en el grado de madurez (GM) 3 y 5, según Icontec (Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación), en atmósferas modificadas activas con concentraciones de gases de 25% CO2, 5% O2, 70% N2 y 20% CO2, 10% O2, 70% N2, empleando empaques de polietileno de baja densidad (PEBD) y polipropileno (PP), calibre   (0,035 mm). La temperatura de almacenamiento fue 4 ºC, la humedad relativa varió entre...

  10. DOCE EM MASSA DE AMORA PRETA (RUBUS SPP: ANÁLISE SENSORIAL E DE FITOQUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Carolina JACQUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar doces em massas convencional e light de amora preta, avaliar sensorialmente os produtos e verifi car a alteração no conteúdo de fi toquímicos devido ao processo de elaboração dos doces em massa. Utilizou-se a amora preta cv. Tupy, com a qual elaborou-se os doces, sendo uma formulação tradicional e três formulações light. Nas formulações light reduziu-se o teor de açúcares, adicionou-se os edulcorantes ciclamato e sacarina, e alterou-se a presença e quantidade de carboximetilcelulose e sorbitol. A formulação tradicional apresentou os maiores conteúdos em compostos fenólicos e de ácido ascórbico e a maior capacidade antioxidante; no entanto, apresentou a maior inversão de sacarose e o menor conteúdo de tocoferóis. Dentre as formulações de baixo valor calórico, a formulação light contendo apenas sorbitol foi a que apresentou maior retenção de compostos fenólicos, tocoferóis e ácido ascórbico. A formulação tradicional e a formulação light contendo sorbitol e carboximetilcelulose foram as mais aceitas sensorialmente.O doce que obteve a maior aceitação por parte dos julgadores foi a formulação tradicional.

  11. Antioxidant activity of raspberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves extract and its effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Tajik, Raheleh; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2015-08-01

    Efficacy of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilizing sunflower oil during accelerated storage has been studied. Extracts of R. fruticosus were prepared in different solvents which methanolic extract yield with 15.43 % was higher than water and acetone ones (11.87 and 6.62 %, respectively). Methanolic extract was chosen to evaluate its thermal stability at 70 °C in sunflower oil, due to the highest yield, antioxidant and antiradical potential and also high content of phenolic compounds campared to other solvents. So, different concentrations of methanolic extract (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 ppm) were added to sunflower oil. BHA and BHT at 200 ppm served as standards besides the control. Peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of R. fruticosus leaves extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Moreover, antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the extract at 120 °C at rancimat were conducted. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting the highest efficiency of 1,000 ppm of the extract followed by BHT, BHA and other concentrations of the extract. Results reveal the R. fruticosus leaves extract to be a potent antioxidant for stabilization of sunflower oil.

  12. Evaluations of sustained vigor and winter hardiness of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) grown in the Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for fresh berry products continues to grow on the East Coast; however commercial raspberry production in the Southeast is difficult because cultivars are not well adapted to the warm climate and fluctuating winter temperatures, where heat degrades plant vigor and fruit quality, and chilling r...

  13. Mis maitse on maasikvaarikal? / Marge Starast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Starast, Marge, 1967-

    2016-01-01

    Maasikvaarikas Rubus illecebrosus on roosõieliste sugukonda Rosaceae, murakate perekonda Rubus ja vaarikate alamperekonda Idaeobatus kuuluv taimeliik. Tegu pole maasika ja vaarika vahelise hübriidiga, vaid vaarika lähisugulasliigiga

  14. Blackberries: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    lackberries are members of Rubus subgenus Rubus, while raspberries, their close relatives, are grouped in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus. From a horticultural standpoint, each blackberry fruit is an aggregation of drupelets. Each drupelet is derived from one ovary that produces one hard coated seed (pyre...

  15. Multiplicação in vitro de amoreira-preta cultivar Brazos In vitro multiplication of blackberry cv. Brazos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Villa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação da amoreira-preta pode gerar plantas livres de vírus e em curto espaço de tempo. Com o objetivo de aprimorar técnicas de micropropagação de amoreira-preta cultivar Brazos (Rubus idaeus L., segmentos nodais, oriundos de plântulas preestabelecidas in vitro foram excisados e inoculados em meio WPM (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200%, suplementado com diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 4,0 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os explantes foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 27±1ºC, irradiância de 35 mmol m² s¹ e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se de quatro repetições com quatro explantes cada. Maior número de brotos foi proporcionado com 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP associado a 100% de meio WPM e maior comprimento médio dos brotos após 60 dias foi verificado em 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP associado a 200% de meio WPM. Maior peso de matéria seca da parte aérea foi obtido em meio WPM 200% acrescido de 0,5 mg L-1 de BAP.With the objective of multiplying blackberry cv. Brazos, nodal segments, coming from in vitro plants previously selected, were excised and inoculated in WPM culture medium (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200%, supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg L-1. After inoculation, the explants were transferred to culture room, at 27±1ºC temperature, 35 mmol m² s¹ ofirradiance and photoperiod of 16 hours, for 60 days. The experimental was a design randomized complete block, with four replications and four explants each. Greater number of sprouts was provided with 1,0 mg L-1 of BAP associated with 100% WPM culture medium and larger sprouts length average after 60 days were verified in 1,0 mg L-1 of BAP associated with 200% WPM culture medium. Higher dry matter weight of the aerial part was obtained in 200% WPM culture medium added with 0,5 mg L-1 of BAP.

  16. Acarological diagnostic research at the Diagnostic Centre for Plants during the period 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, J; De Bondt, G; Desamblanx, J; Casteels, H

    2007-01-01

    During the period 2004-2006, 1691 samples of different origin were examined at the Diagnostic Centre for Plants. We received 1046 samples of imported plant material for detection and identification of quarantine organisms. More than 200 samples were checked on mites and insects to get a phytosanitary certificate for export and 391 samples were investigated for diagnostic reason. The Berlese-funnel and dissecting microscopy technique were used to separate mites from the samples. For identification, the mites were slide mounted in Berlese-Hoyer's medium and examined by using phase-contrast microscopy. In 3% of the samples examined on the presence of quarantine organisms, phytophagous mites belonging to the superfamily Tetranychoidea were found, but none with the quarantine status in accordance with the EPPO A1/A2 list. Besides Tetranychus urticae detected on different crops, the cassava green mite Mononychellus progresivus was found on cassava (import Cameroon) in 2006. Tenuipalpus elegans (Tenuipalpidae) was found on cut foliage (import South Africa) in 2004. In 19.9% of the investigated samples for diagnostic reason mites were found. In 47.7% of the infested samples mites were definitely the reason for the damage; in 15.9% mites were secondary and in 36.4% the occurrence of mites was not relevant for the injury. An overview of the determined mites will be given. During this 3 years diagnostic research a few new pest mites belonging to families Tetranychidae and Eriophyidae can be reported. In 2006 Panonychus citri was found on Prunus laurocerasus and later on Eleaegnus sp. and Skimmia sp.. Aceria silvicola was determined on Rubus idaeus in 2006 and Aculus ulae and Aceria carpini on Carpinus betulus in 2005. Besides new pest mites, never seen problems with the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Fam. Tarsonemidae) occurred in tree-nurseries in 2005 and 2006. Also 20 samples coming from private persons were investigated. The main problems indoor were caused by

  17. Extração de compostos bioativos do bagaço da amora-preta (Rubus spp.) utilizando líquidos pressurizados

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula da Fonseca Machado

    2014-01-01

    A amora-preta é um fruto rico em compostos fenólicos, com destaque para os pigmentos antociânicos. Além do consumo in natura, a amora-preta é utilizada industrialmente na fabricação de sucos e derivados. Entretanto, este processamento gera cerca de 10 % de resíduos sólidos que contêm ainda uma grande porcentagem de fitoquímicos do fruto. Visando ao aproveitamento desse subproduto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi obter extratos ricos em seus principais compostos bioativos, os polifenóis, emprega...

  18. Blackberry (Rubus spp.: influence of ripening and processing on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the 'Brazos' and 'Tupy' varieties grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Antonio Ferreira Zielinski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits from temperate and tropical climates which have high levels of antioxidant compounds are the source of numerous studies concerning the correlation with benefits to human health. The objectives of this study were to quantify the anthocyanins and phenolic compounds and also to measure the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power - FRAP of blackberries from two varieties grown in southern Brazil ('Brazos' and 'Tupy' at three stages of ripening; unripe, semi-ripe, ripe and their products (pulp and fermented products. During fruit ripening it was observed that weight, size, diameter and sugars increase significantly and acidity decreased significantly. The anthocyanin content ranged from 4.19 (semi-ripe 'Tupy' variety to 205.75mg 100g-1 (ripe 'Brazos' variety. The highest levels of phenolic compounds were observed for the unripe fruit of both varieties, while antioxidant activity showed no significant difference during the ripening stages. The studied pulp showed a high content of phenolic compounds (ten times higher than that found in the ripe fruits. The anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity did not show the same increase due to the degradation of anthocyanins caused by the heat treatment that was used. The alcoholic fermented beverage made from blackberries remained stable (total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity during two years of storage, but the in third year a significant reduction in antioxidant activity was observed. These results can be important for establishing the shelf life of this kind of product made with blackberry

  19. Some aspects of growth and condition index of Saccostrea cuculata (Born), Cerithium rubus (Desh) and Tellina angulata Gmlen from Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V; Govindan, K.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_21.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Fish_Assoc_20_21.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Enraizamiento de mora (Rubus adenotrichus en medio líquido en el sistema de inmersión temporal y su aclimatación en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Flores Mora

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una investigación cuyo objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de tres concentraciones de Ácido Indolbutírico (AIB sobre el enraizamiento in vitro de la mora “vino sin espinas”. Se utilizó un sistema de inmersión temporal automatizado para determinar la sobrevivencia de las plántulas durante la aclimatación. Se empleó un medio de cultivo líquido MS con sales al 50%, sacarosa al 3% y pH 5.7, suplementado con 0.125 (T1, 0.250 (T2 y 0.500 (T3=control mg/L de AIB. En cada recipiente para inmersión temporal se colocaron 200ml de medio y 15 explantes, se programó la inmersión por 5 minutos cada 12 horas, se incubaron a 20°C y 16h luz por ocho semanas. Se aplicó el análisis de ANDEVA y las pruebas de Tukey para evaluar la longitud del tallo, la longitud de las raíces y el número de entrenudos. Las vitroplantas se aclimataron en un sustrato compuesto de suelo, carbón vegetal y granza de arroz (3:1:1 y se determinó el porcentaje de sobrevivencia durante cuatro semanas. T1 registró la mayor longitud del tallo (6.49 cm y fue estadísticamente diferente a T2 y T3. T3 presentó la mayor longitud radical (4.73 cm y fue estadísticamente igual a T1 y T2. Ningún tratamiento mostró diferencia estadística en el número de entrenudos (8 promedio. T2 mostró la mayor sobrevivencia de plántulas a la cuarta semana de aclimatación con un 78.6% seguido del T3 (57.9% y T1 (43.3%. Se concluyó que las plantas provenientes de T2 (0.250 mg/L AIB, las cuales presentaron una longitud promedio de tallo de aproximadamente 6 cm y una longitud promedio de raíz de aproximadamente 4cm, mostraron la mayor sobrevivencia durante la etapa de aclimatación. La investigación se realizó en el Tecnológico de Costa Rica durante el 2008.

  1. Propagación in vitro de materiales seleccionados de Rubus glaucus Benth (mora de Castilla en la provincia de Pamplona, región nororiental de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Orlando Cancino-Escalante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study plant materials were selected in 53 farms belonging to four growers associations of blackberry in the municipalities of Pamplona and Chitagá (North of de Santander, Colombia. Nodal segments were used as initial explants of R. glaucus. For the establishment stage Murashige and Skoog, 1962 (MS media was used and, supplemented with of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0.0 -0.1 mg/L and 6-aminopurine (BAP (0.0 -2.0 mg/L; for the multiplication stage MS was supplemented with GA3 (0.0 -0.03 mg/L and BAP, (0.0 -2.5 mg/L and for the rooting stage MS was supplemented with acid indolbutirico (0.0 -1.0 mg/L. From the data generated during the three stages, an experimental design of incomplete blocks was randomly applied and the treatments averages were statistically analyzed using the Tukey Test. The results indicated average rates of contamination (16.5-49.7 %, multiplication (3.8-4.3 shoots/explant and in vitro rooting (3.3-4.3 roots/plant for the different evaluated materials. These results, achieved first in the Northeastern region of Colombia, are important in that they will feature selected materials available for blackberry growers in the region.

  2. A biorefinery for efficient processing and utilization of spent pulp of Colombian Andes Berry (Rubus glaucus Benth.): Experimental, techno-economic and environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Javier A; Rosenberg, Moshe; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated a model biorefinery for producing phenolic compounds extract, ethanol and xylitol from spent blackberry pulp (SBP). The biorefinery was investigated according to four potential scenarios including mass and heat integrations as well as cogeneration system for supplying part of the energy requirements in the biorefinery. The investigated SBP had 61.54% holocellulose; its total phenolic compounds was equivalent to 2700mg of gallic acid/100g SBP, its anthocyanins content was 126.41mg/kg of SBP and its total antioxidant activity was 174.8μmol TE/g of SBP. The economic analysis revealed that the level of integration in the biorefinery significantly affected the total production cost. The sale-to-total-production-cost ratio indicated that both, mass and heat integrations are of importance relevance. The cost of supplies (enzymes and reagents) had the most significant impact on the total production cost and accounted between 46.72 and 58.95% of the total cost of the biorefinery.

  3. Microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión de aceite de mora (Rubus glaucus extraido con CO2 supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Milena Figueroa Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El aceite de mora es un ingrediente natural con potencial en la industria cosmética y alimentaria, a su vez puede experimentar degradación oxidativa en condiciones ambientales. Por ello, se extrajo aceite a partir de semillas de mora empleando fluidos supercríticos y, posteriormente, se microencapsuló mediante secado por aspersión y se  evaluó la influencia de diferentes condiciones de operación en el rendimiento, y la eficiencia del proceso. Se emplearon como materiales encapsulantes: masterdry, goma arábiga y maltodextrina. Se estudió el tamaño y morfología de las microcápsulas. Se determinó que en el proceso de microencapsulación la temperatura de entrada fue la única variable estadísticamente significativa que afectó el rendimiento y la eficiencia, cuando se usaron como encapsulantes masterdry y goma arábiga. El caudal de alimentación fue estadísticamente significativo sólo para el rendimiento del proceso y lo influenció negativamente cuando se usó maltodextrina. La goma arábiga resultó ser el mejor encapsulante entre los tres estudiados. Se obtuvieron microcápsulas con tamaños entre 8,2 y 14 μm, con superficie continua en las paredes y ausencia de poros. Se comprobó que la microencapsulación con los tres encapsulantes permitió proteger el aceite y conservar mayoritariamente su perfil de ácidos grasos.

  4. Microencapsulación mediante secado por aspersión de aceite de mora (Rubus glaucus) extraido con CO2 supercrítico

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Milena Figueroa Martínez; Andrés Mauricio Hurtado Benavides; Miguel Angel Ceballos Ortíz

    2016-01-01

    El aceite de mora es un ingrediente natural con potencial en la industria cosmética y alimentaria, a su vez puede experimentar degradación oxidativa en condiciones ambientales. Por ello, se extrajo aceite a partir de semillas de mora empleando fluidos supercríticos y, posteriormente, se microencapsuló mediante secado por aspersión y se  evaluó la influencia de diferentes condiciones de operación en el rendimiento, y la eficiencia del proceso. Se emplearon como materiales encapsulantes: master...

  5. Spectroscopy of tiliroside in Rubus Chingii Hu.%覆盆子中有效成分椴树苷的波谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥云; 邢海燕; 杨永

    2009-01-01

    目的 确证覆盆子中有效成分椴树苷的波谱归属.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱和凝胶柱色谱Sephadex LH-20进行分离纯化,通过理化方法和波谱数据进行结构鉴定.结果 利用一维、二维核磁共振,解析椴树苷的结构.结论 确定了椴树苷的1H-NMR、13C-NMR的归属.

  6. Determination of Tiliroside and Kaempferol in Rubus Chingii Hu%HPLC测定覆盆子中椴树苷和山奈酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    建立HPLC测定覆盆子中椴树苷和山奈酚含量的方法.采用高效液相色谱法,SHISEIDO C18色谱柱(4.6 mum×250 mm,5 μm).流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水(52∶48,体积比),流速1mL/min,柱温25℃,检测波长366 nm.覆盆子中椴树苷、山奈酚分离效果良好,线性范围分别为3.2 μg/mL~160 μg/mL和0.168 μg/mL~8.4μg/mL.该方法准确灵敏、稳定可靠,可用于覆盆子的质量控制.

  7. Uptake and bioconcentration of copper and zinc by the molluscs Saccostrea cucullata (Born) and Cerithium rubus (Desh) from the coastal waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R.

    Rate of uptake increased linearly during the initial period of 20-30 days. Compared to the gastropod, the rate of uptake in oyster was 2.2 and 9.4 times more respectively for Cu and Zn. In oysters collected from a polluted area off Bombay Coast...

  8. Effect of quality in the Rubus coreanus wine by different sugar contents%糖添加量对山草莓果酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金铁岩; 权伍荣; 金铁

    2011-01-01

    对糖度为24%,26%,28%的样品发酵过程中的酒精度、pH值、糖度值和发酵结束后的色度进行测定,根据测定结果和感官评定对产品酒精度、口感、风味、色泽进行分析.结果表明:最终酒精含量随着糖添加量的增加而增加,pH值随着糖添加量的增加而降低.色度中CIE a*值、CIE b*值和CIE L*值都随着糖添加量的增加而增加.感官评定结果,糖添加量为28%的山草莓果酒好于其它处理.从理化特性、感官特性的角度来看,山草莓糖添加量以28%为宜.%Experiments mainly on the sample of sugar content is 24%, 26%, 28% ,tested the physical and chemical properties,such as alcohol content, pH value and total soluble solids. And take the sensory characteristics research. The results showed that the final alcohol content and total soluble solids increases following the addition of sugar increases, but the final pH value with the addition of sugar decreases. Color in a* , b* and L* values with the 28% addition of sugar is the best. From physical and chemical properties and sensory point, the wine adding 28% of sugar is the most suitable.

  9. Teor de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante em diferentes genótipos de amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Vizzotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que alguns compostos fenólicos encontrados em amora-preta são benéficos para a saúde humana, este estudo foi conduzido com o propósito de quantificar os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante em diferentes genótipos produzidos por 10 seleções e 4 cultivares de amoreira-preta com ou sem espinhos. Quanto aos resultados, pode-se observar que, dentre as seleções e cultivares de amoreira-preta com espinho, a seleção S16/96 apresentou o maior teor de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante. Dentre as seleções sem espinho, a S17/01 e a S02/96 apresentaram os maiores valores, não diferindo da S12/01 para a atividade antioxidante. Não houve diferença estatística para os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante, quando comparadas entre si as seleções e as cultivares de amoreira-preta com espinhos. A correlação entre o teor de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante nas amoras-pretas estudadas é baixa, indicando presença de outros fitoquímicos e/ou vitaminas que podem influenciar o poder antioxidante.

  10. Planejamento experimental do processo de secagem da amora-preta (Rubus sp. para a produção de farinha enriquecida com compostos bioativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Casarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo do processo de secagem foi realizado a partir da utilização de técnicas de planejamento experimental investigando os seguintes fatores temperatura de secagem (30 a 80 °C, massa da amora (6,0 a 135 g e tempo (16 a 24 h, tendo como variável de resposta a umidade e concentração dos compostos fenólicos. Também foram fixados os fatores: tipo de amostra (triturada e estufa (com circulação de ar para realização dos ensaios experimentais. Os resultados mostraram perdas pequenas de compostos bioativos no processo a 55 °C por 16 horas com 80 g de amostra. De acordo com as análises químicas, a farinha encontra-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira para farinhas (máximo de 15%, podendo ser classificada como produto de alto percentual de fibra (24,33±2,88 g/100 g de farinha. Foram determinadas na farinha através de métodos espectrofotométricos: Fenólicos Totais: 344,94 mg GAE/100 g; Flavonoides Totais 182,82 mg Ce/100 g; Antocianinas Totais 77,93 mg/100 g; Antocianinas Monoméricas 82,41 mg CYD-3-G/100 g; Carotenoides Totais 0,322 mg/100 g; e a Atividade Antioxidante, utilizando o método DPPH, resultando em um EC50 de 21,2 µg/mL. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como um produto rico em compostos bioativos, agregando valor aos alimentos e aos produtos obtidos a partir desta farinha.

  11. Teor de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante em diferentes genótipos de amoreira-preta (Rubus sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Vizzotto; Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira; Marina Couto Pereira; Mariana da Rosa Fetter

    2012-01-01

    Tendo em vista que alguns compostos fenólicos encontrados em amora-preta são benéficos para a saúde humana, este estudo foi conduzido com o propósito de quantificar os teores de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante em diferentes genótipos produzidos por 10 seleções e 4 cultivares de amoreira-preta com ou sem espinhos. Quanto aos resultados, pode-se observar que, dentre as seleções e cultivares de amoreira-preta com espinho, a seleção S16/96 apresentou o maior teor de composto...

  12. 树莓扦插繁殖技术研究%Study on the Cutting Propagation Technique of Rubus spp.Raspberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚颖; 吕跃东; 郭树平; 刘建明; 刘忠玲

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究不同基质不同激素对树莓扦插生根率的影响.[方法]采用不同激素种类、激素浓度及不同基质3个因素完全随机区组试验设计,进行树莓扦插试验,探讨不同基质不同激素对树莓扦插生根率的影响.[结果]激素种类和扦插基质对树莓嫩枝扦插生根率有显著影响,激素浓度影响不显著;适宜的组合为ABT 200 mg/kg+基质河沙.生长激素对于河沙中树莓硬枝扦插效果不显著.[结论]该试验可为树莓工厂化育苗提供参考.

  13. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effect of wild raspberry (Rubus hirsutus Thunb.) extract against acrylamide-induced oxidative damage is potentiated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Su, Hongming; Xu, Yang; Bao, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Raspberry is well known as rich source of antioxidants, such as polyphenols and flavonoids. However, after consumption, the antioxidants are subjected to digestive conditions within the gastrointestinal tract that may result in structural and functional alterations. Our previous study indicated that acrylamide (AA)-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of wild raspberry extract produced before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion against AA-induced oxidative damage is unclear. In the present study, we found that wild raspberry extract produced after digestion (RD) had a pronounced protective effect against AA-induced cytotoxicity compared with that produced before digestion (RE). Further investigation indicated that RD significantly inhibited AA-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse and glutathione (GSH) depletion. Moreover, LC-MS analysis revealed that wild raspberry underwent gastrointestinal digestion significantly increased the contents of esculin, kaempferol hexoside and pelargonidin hexoside.

  15. Effect of black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis L.) extract variation conditioned by cultivar, production site, and fruit maturity stage on colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jodee L; Bomser, Joshua A; Scheerens, Joseph C; Giusti, M Monica

    2011-03-01

    Black raspberries have been shown to inhibit multiple stages of oral, esophageal, and colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate how black raspberry extract variability conditioned by horticultural factors affected the antiproliferative activity of 75 black raspberry extracts using an in vitro colon cancer cell model. HT-29 cells grown in 96-well plates were treated with freeze-dried extracts at 0.6 and 1.2 mg of extract/mL of medium. Percent cell growth inhibition for each concentration of the extracts was determined using the sulforhodamine B assay. All extracts significantly inhibited the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation was significantly influenced by cultivar, production site, and stage of maturity. The lack of correlation between growth inhibition and extract total phenolic and total monomeric anthocyanin assays suggested horticultural parameters influence bioactivity in a complex manner.

  16. Polyphenol compounds and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean black raspberry ( Rubus coreanus Miquel) wines produced from juice supplemented with pulp and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Woong; Hwang, Hyun Joo; Shin, Chul Soo

    2012-05-23

    Three types of Korean black raspberry wine were produced via alcoholic fermentation from juice, juice-pulp, and juice-pulp-seed, respectively. These wines were compared in terms of their anti-inflammatory activities and polyphenol contents. The total content of polyphenol compounds in wines was increased by 22.4% after supplementation with pulp and by 56.7% after supplementation with both pulp and seed. The reduction rate of NO evolution was highest in the order juice-pulp-seed wine, juice-pulp wine, and juice wine. Addition of the juice-pulp-seed wine at a level of 62.5-500 mg/L decreased the NO evolution rate by 40.5-94.2%. Eight fractions were obtained from juice-pulp-seed wine via ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography. Of these, the AF fraction, which exhibited the highest in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, exerted inhibitory effects on ear edema, writhing response, and vein membrane vascular permeability in mice. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid accounted for 37.6% of the total polyphenol content in the AF fraction.

  17. Organización y logística del mercado fresero onubense

    OpenAIRE

    Juan A. Márquez Domínguez

    2001-01-01

    La plena integración de España en la Unión Europea, ha expandido y afianzado patrones de consumo interesados por fresas, frambuesas, arándanos y naranjas que constituyen, en una era de la dieta saludable, “la compra impulsiva de todo consumidor” (Kemp, D., 1995)... y también el gran negocio de la agricultura de vanguardia, alrededor del cual se agrupan multitud de agentes comerciales con estrategias y visiones de mercado diferentes. Desde hace dos décadas, la Tierra Llana de Hu...

  18. La vertebración internacional de los campos de fresas españoles

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Las tendencias actuales de la sociedad opulenta en el consumo de fruta están inclinando la balanza hacia los llamados berrys, donde se encuadran fresas, arándanos, moras, frambuesas..., buenas para la salud y fáciles de consumir. Ello está repercutiendo en intensas transformaciones agrarias, porque la información y el conocimiento creciente sobre la geodiversidad agrícola del planeta aúna nodos de agricultura innovadora, que no necesariamente tienen que tener continuidad geográfica, aunque sí...

  19. Inhibitory effects of sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine and their compounds on pathogenic Aeromonas caviae from cultured Andrias davidianus in vitro%十六种中草药及其复方对大鲵致病性豚鼠气单胞菌的体外抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌空; 王涵; 丁诗华; 吴兴镇

    2015-01-01

    To study the inhibitory effects of sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine and their compounds on pathogenic Aeromonas caviae from cultured Andrias davidianus in vitro, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the mini-mum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of single drug and the compounds on pathogenic A.caviae from A.davidianus were measured with agar double dilution method.Then sixteen kinds of chinese herbal medicine were mixed one by one based on chessboard experimental method to get one hundred and twenty kinds of compounds of Chinese herbal medicine .The results showed that sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicine had antibacterial effect at certain extent on the pathogenic bacteri -a.Terminalia chebula Retz and Rhus chinensis Mil had the best antibacterial activity, followed by Pomegranate Rind, Rheum palmatum L, Sophora japonica L, Rubus idaeus, Scutellaria baicalensis, Rosa laevigata, Cistanche deserticola and Syringa Linn, Radix Cyathulae, Paeonia veitchii, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, DivaricateSaposhnikovia Root, Musk-root Semiaquilegia Root and Momordica grosvenori had the worst antibacterial activity.The study indicated that the rational use of Chinese herbal medicine could increase the inhibitory effects of the drug on A.caviae from A.davidianus in vitro drug Antibacterial activity.%应用二倍稀释法测定了诃子、五倍子、石榴皮等16种中草药及其复方对大鲵(Andrias davidianus)致病性豚鼠气单胞菌(Aeromonas caviae)的最小抑菌浓度和最小杀菌浓度,应用棋盘法设计16种中草药组合的120种双联复方和10种中草药组合的120种三联复方,评估了复方的体外抑菌作用。结果表明:16种中草药对大鲵致病性豚鼠气单胞菌均有一定程度的抑菌作用,抑菌作用强弱依次为诃子、五倍子、石榴皮、大黄、槐角、覆盆子、黄芩、金樱子、肉苁蓉、丁香、川牛膝、赤芍、知母、防风、天葵子及罗汉果;在120个中

  20. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  1. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  2. Weed management, training, and irrigation practices for organic production of trailing blackberry: III. Accumulation and removal of aboveground biomass, carbon, and nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of various production practices on biomass, C, and nutrient content, accumulation, and loss were assessed over 2 years in a mature organic trailing blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus, Watson) production system. Treatments included two irrigation options (no irrigation after harvest and ...

  3. Trailing blackberry genotypes differ in yield and post-harvest fruit quality during establishment in an organic production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) cultivars (‘Obsidian’, ‘Black Diamond’, ‘Metolius’, ‘Onyx’) and two advanced selections (ORUS 1939-4 and ORUS 2635-1) were evaluated during the establishment years of an organic production system for fresh market. The planting was established in sprin...

  4. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in blackberry in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past two decades, several viruses have been identified from Rubus (blackberry and raspberry) in wild and commercial plantings around the world (1) In Ecuador; approximately 14 tons of blackberries (Rubus glaucus) are produced each year in an estimated area of 5,500 hectares. This crop pro...

  5. Concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e períodos de escuro, no enraizamento "in vitro" de amoreira-preta (Rubus sp., cv. ébano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmann Elizete Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de testar a influência do AIB em condições de escuro, no enraizamento in vitro de amoreira-preta cv. Ébano. Utilizaram-se explantes provenientes da propagação in vitro, os quais foram submetidos a duas concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0,5 e 1,0 mM e três períodos de escuro (2; 4 e 6 dias. Os explantes foram cultivados em meio contendo sais e vitaminas de MS (Murashige & Skoog, 1962 com os sais minerais reduzidos à metade, acrescidos de mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1, sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (7g.L-1 e o pH ajustado para 5,9. Os frascos contendo os explantes, após o tratamento de escuro, foram incubados em sala de crescimento com fotoperíodo de 16 horas, densidade de fluxo luminoso de 31,41W.m-2 e temperatura de 25±3ºC, por 30 dias. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de enraizamento, número e comprimento de raízes, e formação de calo na base das brotações. Após os explantes serem aclimatizados, avaliou-se a taxa de sobrevivência. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as porcentagens de enraizamento dos diferentes tratamentos. O número de raízes foi maior em meios sem ácido indolbutírico (5,5 raízes/ explante. As raízes mais longas foram observadas em meios sem ácido indolbutírico e quando submetidas 2-4 dias no escuro. Ocorreu maior intensidade de formação de calo quando adicionado ácido indolbutírico ao meio de cultura. Verificou-se alta porcentagem de sobrevivência das brotações na fase de aclimatização (86 - 97%.

  6. 黑莓Hull、Chester果实生长及品质形成过程的分析%Analysis of fruit development and quality forming behaviors of two kinds of blackberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧芳; 吴文龙; 李维林; 闾连飞; 姚蓓

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate fruit development and quality forming behaviors of two kinds of blackberry cultivars Hull and Chester. Methods Morphological and quality indicators of blackberry fruit during development period were analyzed comparatively by random marking and periodic sampling methods. Results Blackberry fruit development was divided into 3 stages of rapid growth stage, stationary growth stage and mature growth stage. Rapid growth stage sustained 9 to 12 d, during which fruit average diameter increased quickly and all quality indicators decreased. Stationary growth stage sustained 24 d, during which fruit morphological and quality indicators changed slightly except total acid content increased quickly. Mature growth stage sustained only 6 to 9 d, during which fruit weight and anthocyanin content increased quickly, reducing sugar and total sugar content increased and total acid and polyphenol content decreased. Mature growth stage was the critical stage of fruit weight accumulation and quality forming. Conclusion Blackberry fruits growth is shown as single“S”curve which sustains 42 to 45 d. Mature growth stage is the critical stage of fruit quality forming.%目的:研究 Hull、Chester 黑莓果实生长发育及品质形成规律。方法通过随机标记和定期取样的方法,对不同发育期Hull、Cheste黑莓果实的形态指标(横经、纵径、果重)和品质指标(总糖、还原糖、总酸、总多酚、总花色苷含量及DPPH·清除IC50)进行比较分析。结果黑莓Hull和Chester果实生长发育期分为三个阶段,第一阶段为快速生长期,持续9~12 d,果实迅速膨大,各营养物质含量下降。第二阶段为缓慢生长期,持续时间最长,达24 d,除总酸含量迅速升高外,其余形态和品质指标变化较小。第三阶段为成熟期,持续时间最短,仅为6~9 d,果重迅速增加,花色苷含量迅速升高,还原糖和总糖含量升高,总酸和总多酚含量下降,是果重累积和果实品质形成的关键时期。结论黑莓Hull、Chester果实生长呈单“S”型曲线,生长发育期42~45 d,成熟期是果实品质形成的关键时期。

  7. Comparative analyses of seeds of wild fruits or Rubus and Sambucus species from Southern Italy: fatty acid composition of the oil, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazio, A.; Plastina, P.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Gabriele, B.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit seeds are byproducts from fruit processing. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in seeds and evaluation of their potential biological properties is therefore of particular importance in view of a possible valorisation of seeds as a source of health beneficial components. In thi

  8. Purification and Initial Studies of the Water-Soluble Polysaccharide RCP From the Roots of Rubus crataegiflolius Bge%托盘根水溶性多糖的分离纯化及初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 房金波; 梁忠岩

    2005-01-01

    托盘根经热水煮提、醇析、脱淀粉、冻融离心、蛋白酶解、Sevagc法脱蛋白、超滤、凝胶柱层析方法纯化得水溶性多糖RCP,经比旋光度测定、高效液相色谱(HPLC)分析证明RCP为均一组分,分子量7000左右;气相色谱(GC)分析其单糖组成主要为葡萄糖和迹量的鼠李糖.说明RCP是一种中性杂多糖.

  9. Avaliação dos efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da qualidade da polpa de amora-preta (Rubus spp. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Paula da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta é uma fruta que vem despertando a atenção de produtores e consumidores devido ao seu sabor agradável, cor atrativa e por apresentar em sua composição elevado teor de compostos bioativos. O grande entrave para consumo e a comercialização dos frutos da amoreira é sua elevada taxa respiratória, o que reduz sua vida útil. Uma alternativa viável para o aproveitamento econômico dessas frutas consiste em sua industrialização, podendo ser congeladas, enlatadas, processadas na forma de polpa, ou na forma de sucos e geleias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da radiação gama na conservação da polpa de amora. A irradiação foi realizada no laboratório de irradiação gama do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, em uma fonte de cobalto 60, com as seguintes doses de radiação: 0,75 kGy; 1,5 kGy e 3 kGy, sob uma taxa de dose de 3,24 kGy.h-1 . A polpa não irradiada foi utilizada como controle. As polpas de amora irradiadas foram armazenadas à temperatura de 4ºC, sendo avaliadas nos tempos de 0; 7; 15; 30 e 60 dias. Para verificar os efeitos da radiação gama no processamento na polpa, foi realizada a caracterização físico-química e química através das análises de acidez, pH, sólidos solúveis, sólidos totais, teor de antocianinas, atividade antioxidante e cor. Também foi feita análise microbiológica de acordo com a legislação brasileira vigente. O processo de irradiação aumentou a vida útil de prateleira da polpa em até 60 dias, sendo que o tratamento com uma dose de 1,5 kGy foi a que proporcionou a melhor qualidade microbiológica.

  10. Amora-preta (Rubus sp.: otimização do processo de extração para determinação de compostos fenólicos antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Vizzotto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que alguns compostos fenólicos encontrados em amora-preta são benéficos para a saúde humana devido à sua ação antioxidante. Este estudo foi conduzido com o propósito de otimizar o seu processo de extração. As amostras foram submetidas a testes em que variam a relação: amostra:solvente, tempo de maceração, diferentes solventes, misturas de solventes e solventes acidificados. Não houve diferenças nos resultados em relação ao volume de solvente, tempo de maceração, mistura de solventes e acidificação para o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos. Já, dentre os solventes, a acetona foi mais eficiente na extração dos compostos fenólicos. A atividade antioxidante não foi alterada pelo tempo de maceração e pelas misturas de solvente; no entanto, o volume, o tipo de solvente e a acidificação deste afetaram a atividade antioxidante.

  11. Sanitização com produto à Base de Cloro e com Ozônio: Efeito Sobre Compostos Bioativos de Amora-preta ( rubus fruticosus cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Carolina Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a eficiência da sanitização de amora-preta, com diferentes concentrações e tempos de imersão em hipoclorito de sódio e com ozônio, e avaliar a influência do processo sobre os compostos bioativos do produto. Foram feitas análises microbiológicas e a determinação dos compostos bioativos. Os compostos de cloro utilizados na sanitização induziram a perdas significativas dos compostos bioativos (compostos fenólicos, antocianinas, tocoferóis, ácido ascórbico e carotenoides, presentes na amora-preta, sendo eficientes na sanitização contra fungos, quando utilizados na concentração de 200 ppm e por 15 minutos de imersão. Já os frutos sanitizados com ozônio apresentaram adequação aos padrões microbiológicos (fungos, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp estabelecidos pela legislação, e não apresentaram alterações significativas no conteúdo dos compostos bioativos, sendo que a menor concentração de ozônio presente neste estudo apresentou maior eficácia na sanitização dos frutos, comparada com as soluções de cloro utilizadas.

  12. Efecto de un proceso de deshidratación con aire forzado en la composición química y nutricional de la mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez C Carlos Julio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida y contenido de vitamina C, fenoles totales, capacidad antioxidante y actividad acuosa fueron determinadas para mora deshidratada a tres niveles de temperatura (35, 50 y 65C y dos tamaños de partícula (mora troceada y mora licuada. Los resultados mostraron una disminución del contenido de la vitamina C a medida que se incrementó la temperatura de deshidratación, presentándose pérdidas superiores al 50% con respecto a la mora fresca. Tendencia similar mostró el contenido de fenoles totales, donde el tratamiento más severo disminuyó su contenido en un 26,7%. Sin embargo, la capacidad antioxidante de la mora no fue afectada severamente por el proceso de deshidratación, siendo constante su valor y equivalente al 50% en promedio respecto al BHA (Butil Hidroxianisol. La actividad acuosa del producto disminuyó a medida que se incrementó la temperatura de deshidratación, presentando valores de 0,43 para 65C y 0,96 para la mora fresca.

  13. 黔产野生插秧泡果实的营养成分及其利用价值%Nutritional Components and Utilization Values of Wild Rubus coreanus Fruit in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华梅; 石登红; 杨秀群; 田少波; 金春强; 蒋世玲

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine whether R. Coreanus can be exploitated as health fruit, the nutrient constituents of R. Coreanus fruit and apple in Guizhou were compared. The results showed that R. Coreanus fruit is rich in amino acids(6. 16 g/100 g) , essential amino acids(40. 2%) , inorganic elements, Vitamin B2(l. 3 mg/100 g ) and Vitamin E (6. 6 mg/100 g). The contents of nutrient constituents in R. Coreanus fruit are much higher than in apple. The heavy metals contents of arsenic, mercury and lead are lower than limit standard order of heavy metals in food. It is concluded that R. Coreanus fruit have high value on food and health protection, it should be exploitated as health fruit.%为判断插秧泡果实能否作为保健水果进行开发利用,对比分析了黔产插秧泡果实和苹果的营养成分.结果表明:插秧泡果实中氨基酸含量为6.16%,必需氨基酸含量达40.2%;矿物质元素含量丰富;维生素B2、维生素E含量为1.3 mg/100g、6.6 mg/100 g;插秧泡果实营养成分含量均远高于苹果,且其中砷、汞、铅的含量均低于食品卫生标准的限量规定.因此,黔产插秧泡果实具有较高的营养价值和医疗保健作用,可作为保健水果进行合理开发利用.

  14. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Mann

    Full Text Available The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries. Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains, the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  15. Comparative genomics of 12 strains of Erwinia amylovora identifies a pan-genome with a large conserved core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rachel A; Smits, Theo H M; Bühlmann, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Plummer, Kim M; Beer, Steven V; Luck, Joanne; Duffy, Brion; Rodoni, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora can be divided into two host-specific groupings; strains infecting a broad range of hosts within the Rosaceae subfamily Spiraeoideae (e.g., Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus, Sorbus) and strains infecting Rubus (raspberries and blackberries). Comparative genomic analysis of 12 strains representing distinct populations (e.g., geographic, temporal, host origin) of E. amylovora was used to describe the pan-genome of this major pathogen. The pan-genome contains 5751 coding sequences and is highly conserved relative to other phytopathogenic bacteria comprising on average 89% conserved, core genes. The chromosomes of Spiraeoideae-infecting strains were highly homogeneous, while greater genetic diversity was observed between Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains (and among individual Rubus-infecting strains), the majority of which was attributed to variable genomic islands. Based on genomic distance scores and phylogenetic analysis, the Rubus-infecting strain ATCC BAA-2158 was genetically more closely related to the Spiraeoideae-infecting strains of E. amylovora than it was to the other Rubus-infecting strains. Analysis of the accessory genomes of Spiraeoideae- and Rubus-infecting strains has identified putative host-specific determinants including variation in the effector protein HopX1(Ea) and a putative secondary metabolite pathway only present in Rubus-infecting strains.

  16. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Round Garden"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilkina Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition "Round Garden" founded in 2005 by curator of fruit department Tatyana Kirilkina, Ph.D. Landings made in the regular style with radiation (rotary symmetry. This allowed a small area to place more than 70 taxa of traditional and new for Karelia fruit and berry crops. In the center of the exhibition - decorative Malus prunifolia 'Hyvingiensis' with an umbrella form crown. Among the new crop of Karelia - raspberry ( Rubus xanthocarpus Bur et Franch., Tibetan raspberries ( Rubus rosifolius Sm., blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus L., variety selection of Finnish Arctic raspberry ( Rubus arcticus L. and currants, columnar apple trees, apple trees in semi-dwarf rootstocks, ornamental varieties of fruit and others.

  17. Archaeological Investigations in the Upper Tombigbee Valley, Mississippi: Phase I. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    badstraw (Gal ium) blackberries (Rubus) black walnut (Jaglans nigra ) blueberry (Vaccinium-) bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) butternut (Juglans...americana) post oad (Quercus stel lata) pine (Pinus) purselane (Portulaca oleracea) ragweed (Ambrosia) red mulberries ( Morus rubra) sassafras (Sassafras

  18. Explosive Ordnance Disposal Proficiency Range and Multi-Purpose Contingency Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    umbellata), Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Upgrade of the Andrews Air Force Base Airfield Security System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), beggar-ticks (Bidens polylepis), tall fescue (Festuca elatior), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria...wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), autumn olive ( Elaeagnus umbellata

  20. Elaboración de un paquete tecnológico para productores, en manejo cosecha y poscosecha de mora (Rubus Glaucus Benth) aplicando ingeniería de calidad y determinación de las características nutracéuticas de la fruta en precosecha, en el municipio de Silvania – Cundinamarca / Development of a technological package for producers, in harvest and postharvest handling of blackberry (rubus glaucus benth) applying quality engineering and nutraceutical determining characteristics of the fruit in preharvest in the municipality of Silvania - Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    García Pulido, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    La mora es un producto altamente perecedero por lo que se generan altas pérdidas poscosecha (60-70%). Por esta razón el objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue elaborar un paquete tecnológico de manejo cosecha y poscosecha que permitiera disminuir las pérdidas en estas etapas y adicionalmente y como valor agregado, determinar las características nutracéuticas de la mora en la fase precosecha (desde floración a madurez fisiológica). La investigación se desarrolló en el municipio de ...

  1. Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M

    2002-01-01

    Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks.

  2. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    and Gosselink 2007). Tidal wetlands (tidal salt marshes and tidal freshwater marshes) account for approximately 2.7 million hectares in the United...dense shrub mounds, which tended to be composed of Himalayan blackberry (Rubus spp); instead, we noted the species composition of the shrubs. log S...buttercup 21.5 13.7 6.78 1.85 Rubus discolor Himalayan blackberry 0.00 0.00 16.8 3.42 Trifolium pratense, T. repens, T. dubium Red clover, white

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  4. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  5. Genetic diversity of European phytoplasmas of the 16SrV taxonomic group and proposal of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Salar, Pascal; Filippin, Luisa; Carle, Patricia; Angelini, Elisa; Foissac, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    In addition to the grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasmas, other members of taxonomic group 16SrV phytoplasmas infect grapevines, alders and species of the genera Clematis and Rubus in Europe. In order to investigate which phytoplasmas constitute discrete, species-level taxa, several strains were analysed by comparing their 16S rRNA gene sequences and a set of five housekeeping genes. Whereas 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values were >97.5 %, the proposed threshold to distinguish two 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa, phylogenetic analysis of the combined sequences of the tuf, rplV-rpsC, rplF-rplR, map and uvrB-degV genetic loci showed that two discrete phylogenetic clusters could be clearly distinguished. The first cluster grouped flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasmas, alder yellows (AldY) phytoplasmas, Clematis (CL) phytoplasmas and the Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY) phytoplasmas. The second cluster comprised Rubus stunt (RS) phytoplasmas. In addition to the specificity of the insect vector, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma contained specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene. Hence, the Rubus stunt phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene was sufficiently differentiated to represent a novel putative taxon: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'.

  6. Blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberries are in Rosaceae family, the Rubus genus and subgenus (formerly Eubatus).Commercially cultivars are a multispecies complex and generally do not have a species epitaph. The primary progenitor species for the cultivated blackberries are all perennial plants with biennial canes. In these s...

  7. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  8. Habitat Development at Eight Corps of Engineers Sites: Feasibility and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    fruit Lippia spp. Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Greenhaw Crataegus viridus Groundsel tree Baccharis halimifolia Gulf cordgrass Spartina spartinae...Hawthorn Crataegus spathulata Horsesugar Symplocos tinctoria Ironweed Veronia altissima Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Live oak Quercus virginiana...rush Juncus effusus Southern dewberry Rubus trivalis Southern red oak Quercus falcata Stiff dogwood Cornus foemina Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Swamp

  9. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  10. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Verbena braziliensis 1 -- -- Part henocissus quinquefolia 1 3 4 Ptilimniwn capillacewn -- 6 -- Spartina cynosuroides -- 4 - Sonchus oleraceus -- 4...ty Zis castanea -- 2 -- Verbena spp. I- -- Calium hispiduiwn -- I -- Rubus flagilaris -- 1 2 Phytolacca canericana 1 4 Sonchus as per -- I -- Acer

  11. Environmental Impact Statement for the New San Clemente Project, Monterey County, California - Regulatory Permit Application Number 16516S09. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    include: Artemisla dourlaslana (Mugwort), Baeharls pi.uraris (Coyote Bush), Rubus vitifollus (Blackberry), Foeniculum vul-are (Sweet Fennel...Baccharis pilularis), blackberry, mule ft (Saccharis viminea), and sweet(fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare). The most extensive stands of this habitat type occur in

  12. Blackberry production in the Pacific northwestern US: A long history and a bright future

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Pacific Northwest has a long history of blackberry production and research. The breeding program began in the 1920s with Darrow and later Waldo. They utilized the native Rubus ursinus along with ‘Logan’ in their breeding to develop the first commercial cultivars ‘Pacific’ and ‘Cascade’ in the...

  13. Adulteration and its detection of black raspberry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have continually researched improvements for commercially available cultivars of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap). During the past decade, we have analyzed fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes and cultivars, and found that the anthocyanin content to ranged from 39 to 9...

  14. Black raspberry genomic and genetic resource development to enable cultivar improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project incorporates use of phenotypic, genotypic and genomic data to advance and streamline identification of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has...

  15. What’s really in our black raspberry products? – chemotaxonomy by anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. A North American native, it was traditionally used as a food and a natural colorant, but renewed US consumer inter...

  16. Molecular evaluation of aphid-resistant black raspberry germplasm for improved durability in black and red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last century, the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) industry in the U.S. has undergone a slow contraction because of a lack of adapted and disease resistant cultivars. The Pacific Northwest is the major black raspberry production region in North America, with the value of $9.6 million pr...

  17. Developing black raspberry genetic and genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study incorporates field and laboratory components to advance and streamline identification of a variety of traits of economic interest and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). A lack of adapted, disease resistant cultivars has led t...

  18. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of the Antimicrobial Activities of Some Plants Used Traditionally in Ethiopia for the ... Antioxidant Activities of Three Rubus Species Growing in Ethiopia ... In Vivo Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Extracts of Rosa abyssinica ... L. Produces a Non-Sedating Anxiolytic Effect in Mice Models of Anxiety

  20. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  1. Post-Plant nematicides for the control of root lesion nematode in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are currently few registered post-plant nematicides available to control root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans, RLN) in red raspberry (Rubus ideaus). The rate of raspberry decline due to RLN depends upon the nematode population density but usually occurs over a 3- to 4-year period. To ...

  2. Post-plant nematicides for the control of Pratylenchus penetrans in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red raspberries (Rubus ideaus) are a major crop in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, with this region producing over 90% of the nation’s processed raspberries. Pratylenchus penetrans is commonly found in raspberry plantings and has been shown to reduce raspberry vigor and yield. Currentl...

  3. ORGANIZACIÓN Y LOGÍSTICA DEL MERCADO FRESERO ONUBENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Márquez Domínguez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La plena integración de España en la Unión Europea, ha expandido y afianzado patrones de consumo interesados por fresas, frambuesas, arándanos y naranjas que constituyen, en una era de la dieta saludable, “la compra impulsiva de todo consumidor” (Kemp, D., 1995... y también el gran negocio de la agricultura de vanguardia, alrededor del cual se agrupan multitud de agentes comerciales con estrategias y visiones de mercado diferentes. Desde hace dos décadas, la Tierra Llana de Huelva, el sector más meridional de la provincia, se está convirtiendo en el espacio indiscutible de la fresa española y europea, siendo la segunda zona productora del mundo, tras California, por obvias ventajas comparativas de índole natural y humana. Sin embargo, el reducido potencial de consumo, por volumen demográfico de los centros de producción de fresas, hace imprescindible contar con mercados externos, alejados cientos y miles de kilómetros. En este contexto, la logística y organización comercial adquiere un papel relevante en la viabilidad de las explotaciones agrarias, ya que de ellas dependen, en gran medida, la rentabilidad económica.

  4. Cavernomas del neuroeje. Presentación de 4 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandy Prieto Leyras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los cavernomas son tumores vasculares benignos con morfología similar a una frambuesa, comúnmente descritas dentro de las llamadas malformaciones crípticas vasculares, patologías neurológicas poco frecuentes. Constituyen un capítulo polémico dentro de las neurociencias, debido a la variabilidad clínico-topográfica de su presentación y su manejo continúa siendo controversial. Se presentan cuatro pacientes con cavernomas del neuroeje y su caracterización desde el punto vista clínico e imagenológico, hasta su desenlace final. La detección precoz, la comprensión, y el mejor manejo de los cavernomas del neuroeje son fruto del avance tecnológico contemporáneo. La revisión histórica del tema muestra la diferencia entre los pocos casos que se lograban diagnosticar clínicamente y/o por radiología convencional, y el mayor número de lesiones que se detectaban en autopsias o durante la cirugía.

  5. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  6. The Mattassee Lake Sites: Archeological Investigations Along the Lower Santee River in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    340 .- q Fourteen taxa were identified: Woodland features at site 38BK246 yielded GRAMINEAE (Grass family), CYPERACEAE blackberry and dogwood. ( sedge ... sedge , pickerelweed, bayberry and Nyssa or Biplisia spp.), and grape seed (Widmer spp. (if this is tupelo, N. sylvatica). 1976a:36). The seeds were...with the swamp or swamp margin, including americana (poke), Rubus spp. (blackberry), sedge , pickerelweed, bayberry and possibly LEGUMICOSAE (Bean family

  7. Snagging and Clearing for Flood Control, Snake River, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    range from a high of 1080F to a low of -490F. Frost-free days, as observed at the University of Minnesota Experiment Station at Crookston, Minnesota...American plum, and black willow (Salix nigra). Further away from the river a shrub layer is present consisting of chokecherry, raspberry (Rubus strigosus...flood-prone areas or erection of emergency * flood protection. 6.04 The National Weather Service currently provides area officials and local news

  8. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    white oak (Quercus alba), swamp chestnut oak ( . prinus), willow oak (Q. 2.i]lo), water oak (Q. nigra ), elms (Ulmus sp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia...contain- ing numerous species of oaks and i,.ckories as well as walnut (Juglans nigra ), elm, maple, sweetgum, boxelder (Acer negundo) and cypress. Dense...virginiana), paw paw (Asimina triloba), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), crab apple (Malus angustifolia), huckleberry (Vaccinium vacillans), blackberry (Rubus sp

  9. Effects of excess nitrogen on biogeochemistry of a temperate hardwood forest: Evidence of nutrient redistribution by a forest understory species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, Frank S.; Billmyer, Jake H.; Walter, Christopher A.; Peterjohn, William T.

    2016-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) in terrestrial ecosystems can arise from anthropogenically-increased atmospheric N deposition, a phenomenon common in eastern US forests. In spite of decreased N emissions over recent years, atmospheric concentrations of reactive N remain high in areas within this region. Excess N in forests has been shown to alter biogeochemical cycling of essential plant nutrients primarily via enhanced production and leaching of nitrate, which leads to loss of base cations from the soil. The purpose of our study was to investigate this phenomenon using a multifaceted approach to examine foliar nutrients of two herbaceous layer species in one N-treated watershed (WS3-receiving aerial applications of 35 kg N/ha/yr as ammonium sulfate, from 1989 to the present) and two untreated reference watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV, USA. In 1993, we analyzed foliar tissue of Viola rotundifolia, a dominant herb layer species and prominent on all seven sample plots in each watershed. In 2013 and 2014, we used foliar tissue from Rubus allegheniensis, which had become the predominant species on WS3 and had increased, though to a lesser extent, in cover on both reference watersheds. Foliar N and potassium (K) were higher and foliar calcium (Ca) was lower on WS3 than on the reference watersheds for both species. Magnesium (Mg) was lower on WS3 for Viola, but was not different among watersheds for Rubus. Results support the stream chemistry-based observation that excess N lowers plant-available Ca and, to a lesser degree, Mg, but not of K. Foliar manganese (Mn) of Rubus averaged >4 times that of Viola, and was >50% higher on WS3 than on the reference watersheds. A Mn-based mechanism is proposed for the N-meditated increase in Rubus on WS3. Data suggest that excess N deposition not only alters herb community composition and biogeochemical cycling of forest ecosystems, but can do so simultaneously and interactively.

  10. 覆盆子及其混淆品的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金明

    2000-01-01

    @@ 覆盆子为蔷薇科(Rosaceae)植物华东覆盆子Rubus chingii Hu.未充分成熟的干燥果实.性微温,味甘、酸,具益肾固精、缩尿之功效.陈藏器言:"其类有三类,以四月熟,状如覆盆子,味甘美者为是,余不堪入药.

  11. 树梅的生育特性与发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋民; 王际轩

    2008-01-01

    @@ 树莓是蔷薇科(Rosaceae)悬钩子属(Rubus L)多年生半灌木果树,是第三代果树之一.通常把其聚合果成熟时与花托分离的类型称为树莓(Raspberries),而把聚合果成熟时与花托不分离的类型称为黑莓(Blackberries).

  12. Study on the Wild Edible Raspberry Plant Resources and the Utilization in the Eastern Region of Guangdong Province%粤东地区野生可食悬钩子植物资源及利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 悬钩子(Rubus L.)属于蔷薇科Rosaceae悬钩子属植物,在全世界有广泛分布,我国已报道的有194种,其中特有种138种,分布遍及全国各地,分布最为广泛的省(区)有云南、四川、贵州、广西、广东和福建等.

  13. 树莓与黑莓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜利

    2002-01-01

    @@ 树莓和黑莓为蔷薇科(Rosaceae)悬钩子属(Rubus)的一类浆果类经济果树植物,具有结实早,聚合果营养成分丰富,尤其是Ve和SOD(过氧化物歧化酶)含量为水果之最,被称为"第三代果树".

  14. 黑莓的生物学特性、栽培现状及管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉霞; 唐晓华; 张超

    2004-01-01

    黑莓为蔷薇科(Rosaceae)悬钩子属(Rubus)植物,营养成分丰富,尤其是Ve和SOD(过氧化物歧化酶)含量为水果之最,被称为结果最早见效最快的“第三代新兴水果”。

  15. Chemical Composition of Ground Pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echeverri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground pearl (Eurhizococcus colombianus is a crop pest in Colombia, withspecial impact on fig, grass, rubus and tomato plants. The insect is resistant to externalinsecticide application because it produces a thick waxy shell that isolates it from theenvironment. The composition of this shell was determined by NMR and MS as atriglyceride, whose fatty acid is transformed into other products with the metamorphosis ofthe insect. Additionally, several enzymatic inhibitors were assayed to control the insectwith negative results.

  16. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  17. Seed dispersal networks in the Galápagos and the consequences of alien plant invasions

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Rubén H.; Olesen, Jens M.; Nogales, Manuel; Vargas, Pablo; Traveset, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Alien plants are a growing threat to the Galápagos unique biota. We evaluated the impact of alien plants on eight seed dispersal networks from two islands of the archipelago. Nearly 10 000 intact seeds from 58 species were recovered from the droppings of 18 bird and reptile dispersers. The most dispersed invaders were Lantana camara, Rubus niveus and Psidium guajava, the latter two likely benefiting from an asynchronous fruit production with most native plants, which facilitate their consumpt...

  18. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  19. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    leaf tobacco is by far the most important crop grown and is the economic mainstay of the basin. Farming is found almost entirely in tributary areas...nities for wi.i ire are such species as blackberry (Rubus argutus), Japanese honeyscckle (Lonicera japonica), sa2.;afras (Sassafras albidum), black...the understory layer. Birds such as the wood thrush, hooded warbler , and downy wood- pecker inhabit this layer. Gray squirrels, opossums, and suuthern

  20. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  1. Подбор сортимента и совершенствование технологии возделывания ежевики (Rubus subg. Eubatus Focke) в Лесостепи Украины

    OpenAIRE

    Сердюк, Олег; Силенко, Владимир

    2010-01-01

    Приведены результаты исследований хозяйственно-биологических особенностей новых сортов и гибридов ежевики на протяжении 2006...2009 гг., и дана оценка их приспособленности к биотическим и абиотическим факторам правобережной подзоны Западной Лесостепи Украины. Представлена характеристика их по товарным и потребительским качествам ягод и количеству основных питательных веществ в них, а также определены потенциальная продуктивность и урожайность....

  2. Impact of grazing management with large herbivores on forest ground flora and bramble understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytvanck, Jan; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether grazing management with large herbivores is appropriate to reduce expanding bramble ( Rubus sp.) in an ancient forest in Flanders (N. Belgium). We further studied interaction effects of four years (all year-round) grazing and Rubus cover on the presence, cover, and flowering of five forest ground flora species (unpalatable: Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior; palatable: Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Vinca minor and Hedera helix). We collected data on eight transects and in 412 plots in adjacent grazed and ungrazed forest and used baseline datasets of 1996 and 2002 in the same area (i.e. before grazing). In a field experiment, we simulated grazing (by clipping) and trampling (by pressing a weight) in eight homogeneous A. nemorosa vegetation stands. Large Rubus thickets had a clear negative impact on cover and flowering of A. nemorosa due to competition for light. Four years of cattle grazing reduced bramble cover by more than 50%, but then the limiting factor for A. nemorosa cover and flowering shifted to trampling damage. We also found lower cover and flowering of H. non-scripta in grazed plots, as a consequence of direct grazing. The evergreen species V. minor and H. helix totally disappeared from the grazed forest. Simulated once-only effects of grazing and trampling had a small and short term negative impact on cover of A. nemorosa, but flowering was strongly reduced. Grazing reduced biomass with 25-30% in the following years. Year-round grazing with large herbivores is an appropriate measure for bramble control in forests, but negative effects on ground flora are possible if grazing pressure is high. A low or moderate grazing pressure (<0.25 animal units ha -1 y -1) should be maintained in landscape mosaics with grassland and forest; or intermittent periods of non-grazing should be provided to maintain forest ground flora diversity.

  3. Análise química e avaliação das atividades biológicas e comportamentais de extratos de frutas ricas em compostos fenólicos (mirtilo e amora-preta)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosana Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos: determinar o teor dos polifenóis: flavonóides e antocianos totais presentes nos extratos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei) e amora preta (Rubus sp) por espectrofotometria; desenvolver e validar uma metodologia analítica para a caracterização dos extratos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE), identificar, isolar e quantificar os principais compostos; avaliar a atividade anticolinesterásica, antioxidante frente à difenilpicrilhidrazol (DPPH) e an...

  4. Identification of anthocyanins in berries by narrow-bore high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, P; Mondello, L; Errante, G; Zappia, G; Dugo, G

    2001-08-01

    Qualitative determination of anthocyanins in extracts of red fruits by narrow-bore HPLC/ESI-MS was carried out. This method was used to investigate anthocyanin contents of black bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), blackberry (Rubus sp.), and mulberry (Morus nigra). An ultraviolet diode array and a mass spectrometer with ESI source were used for detection. Anthocyanin identifications were made by using retention time data and UV-vis and mass spectra and comparing them with those of commercially available standard compounds. The method allowed the identification of fourteen anthocyanins in black bilberry extract, six anthocyanins in blackberry extract, and five anthocyanins in mulberry extract.

  5. Pentatomids associated with blackberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Paulo Batistella Pasini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the presence of stink bugs in blackberry (Rubus spp. in Brazil is sparse. This study aimed to identify the stink bug species associated with blackberry, to establish the daily dynamics and evaluate the fruits damage. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in blackberry orchard. Presence and evaluations of stink bugs were done weekly through visual and sweeping samplings at different day times. Five species of pentatomids were identified: Piezodorus guildinii, Nezara viridula, Euschistus heros, Dichelops furcatus and Edessa meditabunda. The bugs attack the drupelets producing a dark brown spot and wrinkled berries.

  6. Análisis químico de antocianinas en frutos silvestres colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Santacruz Cifuentes, Liliana Andrea

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio se realizó el análisis químico y cuantificación de pigmentos antocianicos en cuatro frutas tropicales colombianas: uva de árbol (Myrciaria aff cauliflora (Mart.)D.Bery), coral (Hyeronima macrocarpa Mull.Arg), mora pequeña (Rubus megalococcus Focke) y motilón (Hyeronima sp), por cromatografía líquida acoplada a espectrometría de masas con interfase electrospray (LC/MS-ESI) y LC-UV-Vis, respectivamente. / Abstract. This study was carried out chemical analysis and quantification ...

  7. 树莓营养保健功效及开发前景%Health Function of Blue Raspberry and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加; 刘继文

    2008-01-01

    树莓(Raspberry)是近年来备受人们关注的浆果之一,它是蔷薇科(Rasaceae)悬钩子属(Rubus.L)植物,又名覆盆子、马林、木莓、托盘等.树莓果实色泽宜人,营养丰富,被世人誉为"黄金水果".本文对树莓营养特点、主要功效成分和作用及其开发前景等进行了分析和综述.

  8. Ultrastructural changes on Entamoeba histolytica HM1-IMSS caused by the flavan-3-ol, (-)-epicatechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Jacqueline; Gómez, Consuelo; Calzada, Fernando; Ramírez, María Esther

    2010-04-01

    The flavan-3-ol, (-)-epicatechin has been previously identified as the most important antiamoebic compound among the extracts from two medicinal plants: Rubus coriifolius and Geranium mexicanum. Here we report the effects of epicatechin on Entamoeba histolytica morphology, analyzed by electronic microscopy. E. histolytica trophozoites were incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in the presence of 1.9 microg/mL epicatechin and processed for electronic microscopy analysis. Epicatechin induced nuclear and cytoplasmic changes in the treated trophozoites. These morphological alterations are identical to the cellular changes experienced by E. histolytica trophozoites undergoing programmed cell death (PCD), suggesting that epicatechin could be an alternative compound to treat amoebiasis.

  9. Consideraciones orales del síndrome de Kawasaki: Descripción de un caso clínico Oral considerations of Kawasaki syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Figueiredo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es presentar un caso clínico y revisar la literatura existente sobre el Síndrome de Kawasaki (SK tan frecuente en pacientes con necesidades especiales. Las características clínicas de esta patología se observan ya en niños muy jóvenes, en la gran mayoría de los casos menores de 5 años de edad. Esta es una patología que puede llevar al óbito, pues revela un compromiso cardíaco importante. Hay señales y síntomas en la cavidad oral en la fase aguda de la enfermedad, como la lengua de "frambuesa", eritema con fisura labial y eritema en la mucosa oral, siendo importante que el dentista tenga el conocimiento de esta patología y encamine el paciente para tratamiento médico con urgencia. Se observó en este caso una característica peculiar, que es la retención prolongada de la dentición temporaria. Una vez diagnosticado y tratado, el conocimiento del Síndrome de Kawasaki permite al dentista planear con seguridad un tratamiento dentario a largo plazo. Con eso puede evitarse que los dientes permanentes erupcionen ectópicamente, así como también mantener una profilaxis bucal de rutina, preservando la salud oral de los pacientes portadores de este síndrome.The aim of this study is to review what literature presents about Kawasaki Disease (KD, common in patients with special needs. Clinical evidence of this pathology may be observed in young children, who are usually less than five years old. This pathology may lead patients to death since it involves serious heart conditions. There are signs and symptoms in the oral cavity during the acute phase, for example "strawberry" tongue, red lesions with lips fissure and red lesions of oral mucous. Therefore it is important for the dentist to know about this pathology in order to send the patient to urgent medical treatment. A peculiar characteristic was observed in this case, long term retention of temporary dentition. Once the disease has been diagnosed and

  10. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  11. Celdas solares sensibilizadas con colorantes fotosensibles obtenidos de plantas de la región sur de ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cabrera

    Full Text Available Four vegetal species of the southern of Ecuador were used as sensitizers for making dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The effect of type and amount of material, type and time of maceration were tested in order to determine the best conditions of extraction. The extraction of the natural dye was made with acidified ethanol. The sensitizing agents were adsorbed on TiO2 nanoparticles in small solar cells. The DSSCs made with natural dyes from extracts of blackberry (Rubus glaucus B, mortiño (Solanum americanum Mill, escancel (Iresine herbstii Hook and beet (Beta vulgaris L developed an open-circuit tension (Voc 0.65, 0.5, 0.45 and 0.19 V, respectively. The short-circuit currents (Isc varies from 2.05 to 19.68 mA cm-2 and the fill factor ranging from 0.61 to 0.69. The DSSCs sensitized with the extract of Rubus glaucus B offered the highest maximum power of 8.83 mW. Thus, the natural dyes used showed great potential as sensitizers in DSSCs, besides being environmentally friendly and their low cost.

  12. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

  13. 天山野生果树主要病害及其分布%Study on the Wild Fruit Tree Diseases of Tianshan Mountains   and Their Distribution in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎国荣; 许正

    2001-01-01

    This paper reported 29 kinds of diseases and their distribution among more than ten species of wild fruit trees in Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, including Mal us sieversi、Armeniaca vulgaris、Amygdatus ledebouriana、 Juglans regia、Prunus domestica、Padus racemosa、Grataegus songarica、Prunus cerasifera 、Ribes spp.、 Rubus. caesius、Berberis heteropoda.%在对新疆天山山区的野生果树资源进行研究的同时,根据资料和野外调查,报道了在新疆野苹果(Malus sieversii)、野杏(Armeniaca vulgaris)、野扁桃(Amygdatus ledebouriana)、野核桃(Juglans regia)、野生樱桃李(Prunus cerasif era )、野欧洲李(Prunus domestica)、稠李(Padus racemosa)、欧荚 (Viburnum opulus) 、准噶尔山楂(Grataegus songarica)、茶子(Ribes spp.)、黑果悬钩子(Rubus cae sius)、黑果小檗(Berberis heteropoda)等十余种主要野生果树中常发生的29种病害以及分布等特征。

  14. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  15. Study on Production of Useful Metabolites by Development of Advanced Cell Culture Techniques Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. S.; Shyamkumar, B.; An, B. C.; Moon, Y. R.; Lee, E. M.; Lee, M. H.

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Establishment of a tissue culture system (Rubus sp., Lithospermum erythrorhizon, and Rhodiola rosea); characterization of radiation activated gene expression from cultivated bokbunja (Rubus sp.) and Synechocystis sp., identification of gamma-ray induced color change in plants; identification of sensitivity to gamma-ray from Omija (Schisandra chinensis) extract; identification of the response of thylakoid proteins to gamma-ray in spinach and Arabidopsis; identification of gamma-ray induced gene relating to pigment metabolism; characterization of different NPQ changes to gamma-irradiated plants; verification of the effects of rare earth element including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties and as a growth enhancer; identification of changes in the growth of gamma-irradiated Synechocystis; and investigation of liquid cell culture conditions from Rhodiola rosea

  16. Sedimentology and hydrology of a well-preserved paleoriver systems with a series of dam-breach paleolakes at Moa Valles, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salese, Francesco; Di Achille, Gaetano; Neesemann, Adrian; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Hauber, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    Moa Valles is a well-preserved paleodrainage system that is nearly 300-km-long and carved into ancient highland terrains west of Idaeus Fossae. The paleofluvial system apparently originated from fluidized ejecta blankets, and it consists of a series of dam-breach paleolakes with associated fan-shaped sedimentary deposits. This paleofluvial system shows a rich morphological record of hydrologic activity in the highlands of Mars. Based on crater counting the latter activity seems to be Amazonian in age (2.43 - 1.41 Ga). This work is based on a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from Context camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) stereo images. Our goals are to (a) study the complex channel flow paths draining into Idaeus Fossae after forming a series of dam-breach paleolakes and to (b) investigate the origin and evolution of this valley system with its implications for climate and tectonic control. The first part of the system is characterized by many paleolakes, which are interconnected and drain eastward into Liberta crater, forming a complex and multilobate deltaic deposit exhibiting a well-developed channelized distributary pattern with evidence of switching on the delta plain. A breach area, consisting of three spillover channels, is present in the eastern part of the crater rim. These channels connect the Liberta crater to the eastward portion of the valley system, continuing toward Moa Valles with a complex pattern of anabranching channels that is more than 180-km-long. Our crater counting results and hydrological calculations of infilling and spillover discharges of the Liberta crater-lake suggest that the system is the result of an Early Amazonian water-rich environment that was likely sustained by relatively short fluvial events (<102 years), thereby supporting the hypotheses that water-related erosion might have been active on Mars (at least locally) during the Amazonian. The most important water source for the system could

  17. Importance of ambient saturation deficits in an epizootic of the fungus Neozygites floridana in cassava green mites (Mononychellus tanajoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Sam L; De Moraes, Gilberto J; Mumford, John D

    2002-01-01

    The mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana Fisher (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) is considered to have potential for the biological control of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar). However, its activity is sporadic and laboratory data suggest a strong dependence on night-time saturation deficits for transmission. We report on an epizootic of this fungus in a mite population in northeastern Brazil. During the epizootic, host populations appeared to he limited by a combination of the pathogen and a predatory mite Neoseiulus idaeus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). When temperatures increased, the epizootic finished and the host population began to grow. Abiotic conditions could not explain the variation in host mortality following pickup of infective propagules in this epizootic. However, night-time saturation did help to explain the variation in transmission from infective cadavers to newly killed hosts. This supports laboratory observations that horizontal transmission between hosts is determined mainly by saturation deficits, while the process of infection is little affected by abiotic conditions. A further field observation was the near-absence of resting spores in dead mites (ca. 0.1% of cadavers), suggesting that the pathogen population was unsuccessful in producing inoculum to infect future M. tanajoa populations. The implications are that this pathogen will only be effective as a biological control agent in periods of high relative humidity, and establishment in new areas may be limited by resting spore formation.

  18. Potential of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) for control of the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S L; de Moraes, G J; Delalibera, I; da Silva, C A; Tamai, M A; Mumford, J D

    2000-06-01

    The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), is an exotic pest in Africa and is the target of a classical biological control programme. Field data from the Neotropics, where it is indigenous, are presented for the first time, charting the variation in abundance of M. tanajoa over several seasons. This was highly variable, with a characteristic trough mid-year and a peak at the turn of the year. This pattern corresponded positively with rainfall levels, appearing to fit a phenology also characteristic of African studies, where rainfall at the start of the wet season promotes a leaf flush and so growth in M. tanajoa populations. Analyses implied some impact of leaf-inhabiting predatory mites (predominantly Neoseiulus idaeus Denmark & Muma) and a considerable impact of the fungal pathogen Neozygites floridana Fisher on M. tanajoa populations. This pathogen was not observed in the host population for several (generally dry) periods implying survival outside the host, perhaps as resting spores. This is a particularly desirable characteristic of a biological control agent. It is therefore proposed that N. floridana might be of particular use in drier cassava-growing areas where rainfall at the outset of the wet season is not sufficiently intense to cause heavy M. tanajoa mortality but may be sufficient to stimulate epizootics of the fungal pathogen, protecting the flush of new cassava growth.

  19. Detection of Stolbur phytoplasma on blackberry: A new natural host in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the late summer of 2007, a severe phytoplasma-like disease was observed for the first time in blackberry plants (Rubus fruticosus, commercial cv. Čačanska beztrna. Redness and downward rolling of leaves were symptoms observed in three localities in Central Serbia. The presence of Stolbur phytoplasma, belonging to the taxonomic subgroup 16SrXII-A, in diseased samples was confirmed by the PCR - RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA genes and elongation factor Tu (tuf gene. A sequence analysis of the tuf gene confirmed homology with phytoplasmas stolbur tuf-type II detected previously in Italian grapevines and red clovers in the Czech Republic. This is the first report of Stolbur phytoplasma 16SrXII-A group tuf-type II on blackberries in Serbia.

  20. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrecengost, J. D. [Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Rome, GA (United States); Kilgo, J. C. [USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Mallard, D. [Fort Benning, GA (United States); Ray, H. Scott [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Miller, K. V. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Abstract - Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  1. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  2. 第三代新兴水果——树莓

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田家祥

    2000-01-01

    树莓是蔷薇科[Rosaceae]植物,在果树分类上属浆果类树莓属[Rubus]多年生小灌木落叶果树。根据果实成熟时的颜色,栽培上将树莓分成黑树莓、红树莓、黄树莓、蓝树莓等,简称黑莓、红莓、黄莓、蓝莓等。树莓果实营养丰富,所含的各种成分易被人体所吸收,而且具有促进人体对其它营养物质的吸收、改

  3. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  4. Clarifying the identity of the main ellagitannin in the fruit of the strawberry, Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa Duch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovsek, Urska; Guella, Graziano; Gasperotti, Mattia; Pojer, Elisa; Zancato, Mirella; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2012-03-14

    Although the composition of strawberry fruit has been extensively studied, especially for the most abundant phenolic compounds, agrimoniin has never been univocally identified as one of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the fruit. In this study agrimoniin was isolated in the fruit of Fragaria vesca and its structure characterized. Furthermore, its presence was definitively established to be the main ellagitannin in both F. vesca and Fragaria ananassa D. fruit. The presence of sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C as minor compounds was confirmed in both F. vesca and F. ananassa D. samples. For the first time here is reported the full NMR assignments for agrimoniin. These data should represent a point of reference for NMR analysis of this and other structurally related ellagitannins. Finally, the establishment of an HPLC protocol for separation provided information making it possible to avoid confusion with sanguiin H-6, the main ellagitannin in Rubus species, which is also present in strawberries but at a much lower concentration.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the East Asian genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Ceutorhynchinae

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    Junhao Huang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Scleropteroides Colonnelli, 1979 (Ceutorhynchinae: Scleropterini was revised on the basis of detailed morphological observations. The genus was redefined to include three species from East Asia: S. hypocrita (Hustache, 1916 is redescribed and recorded from northeastern China and northern Korea for the first time; S. horridulus (Voss, 1958 is redescribed with new records from southern Korea; S. insularis Voss, 1971 was moved from synonymy with S. hypocrita to that with S. horridulus (syn. n., and S. longiprocessus Huang & Yoshitake, sp. n. is described as new, sympatric with S. hypocrita in Japan. All the species are associated with woody Rubus species (Rosaceae. A key to species, habitus photographs, illustrations of important characters, and distribution maps are provided for each species.

  6. The colour of plant reproduction: A macroecological perspective

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    Kevin C. Burns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and fruits are often vividly coloured. An obvious explanation for fruit and flower pigmentation is that it serves to attract animal mutualists. However, decades of research has produced surprising little support for this hypothesis. Exciting new research into geographic variation in flower colours suggests an alternative explanation - flower pigments protect gametes against the damaging effects of solar radiation. Here, I present several new analyses suggesting that a similar explanation might apply to Rubus spectabilis, a much studied but poorly understood bird-dispersed fruit species. These and other recent results provide a new perspective on the colour of plant reproduction. In addition to signalling to animals, fruit and flower colours might often play vital roles in protecting plants against the harmful effects of solar radiation.

  7. The blackberry value chain in Caldas, Colombia: Impacts and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías Tobasura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The value chain approach analyzes the overall performance of the subsystems including agricultural, industrial agro-industrial and commercial articulated to a particular production process. The cultivation of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth peculiar activities to farm production has grown in area and productivity in the department of Caldas. The article is a detailed follow-up on blackberry production in the municipalities of Aguadas, Aranzazu and Manzanares. The value chain was developed under government sponsored programs, whereby farmers are organized in village associations, as well as local and regional intermediaries, and few agroindustries that transform and distribute the production in the domestic market. The study shows a concentration of negative impacts and social benefits in the production link, and a concentration of economic benefits towards agribusiness in the transformation link.

  8. Influence of fertilizing on the {sup 137}Cs soil-plant transfer in a spruce forest of Southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de; Klemt, E.; Konopleva, I. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten (Germany); Konoplev, A. [Scientific Production Association ' TYPHOON' , Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Fertilization with 2.5 t/ha limestone: (83% CaCO{sub 3}, 8% MgO, 6% K{sub 2}O, 3% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) reduces the {sup 137}Cs transfer from spruce forest soil into plants like fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) by a factor of 2-5 during at least 11 years as measured by the aggregated transfer factor T{sub ag}. In 1997 and 2006 these results were confirmed by additional measurements of the {sup 137}Cs transfer factor TF, related to the root zone (O{sub h} horizon), which were explained by the selective sorption of {sup 137}Cs in the root zone by measurements of the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) in fertilized (RIP > 179 meq/kg) and non-fertilized soils (RIP < 74 meq/kg)

  9. The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Obón, C

    1995-05-01

    The ethnopharmacology of Madeira and Porto Santo Islands is extremely interesting because of the cultural and biogeographic features of this region, which make it a centre of medicinal plant diversity (richness of endemic flora, geographical isolation in the Atlantic sea, crosscultural influences, and past abundance of local healers). The medicinal flora of Madeira is composed of 259 species. Some noteworthy medicinal taxa, endemic or locally relevant, are: Acanthus mollis, Aeonium glandulosum, Aeonium glutinosum, Bidens pilosa, Borago officinalis, Chamaemelum nobile var. discoideum, Culcita macrocarpa, Echium nervosum, Euphorbia platiphylla, Helichrysum melaleucum, Helichrysum obconicum, Hypericum glandulosum, Hypericum humifussum, Kleinia repens, Laurus azorica, Monizia edulis, Ocotea foetens, Psoralea bituminosa, Rubus bollei, Rumex maderensis, Sambucus lanceolata, Scilla maderensis, Sedum brissemoretii, Sedum farinosum, Sedum nudum, Sibthorpia peregrina, Teucrium betonicum, Thymus caespititius, Trifolium squamosum and Vaccinium padifolium. Among the medicinal cryptogams, one can underline the parasitic fungus Laurobasidium lauri, which grows on the stems of Laurus azorica and is used as an antirheumatic, haemostatic, emmenagogue, insecticide and analeptic.

  10. Habitat and nest site preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jannie K.; Sell, Henrik; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluate nest site and habitat preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in the national park Mols Bjerge, Denmark. In total, 28 nests were found during 2010 and 2011. To determine nesting site preferences, the species composition of vegetation in scrub used for nesting...... was compared to that of nearest unused scrub. To evaluate habitat preferences, a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) was modelled based on presence/absence data. The habitat factors were represented by Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) derived measures of vegetation height and topographic wetness...... as well as distance to nearest road/path, as an indicator of human disturbance. Scrub used as nesting sites were characterized by thorny shrub species such as Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. RSPF showed that shrike presence was positively correlated with vegetation heterogeneity and high topographic...

  11. Saturnispora quitensis sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A; Cadet, Geneviève M; Barriga, Enrique Javier Carvajal; Barahona, Patricia Portero; Cross, Kathryn; Bond, Christopher J; Roberts, Ian N

    2011-12-01

    A single strain, CLQCA-10-114(T), representing a novel yeast species belonging to the genus Saturnispora was isolated from the fruit of an unidentified species of bramble (Rubus sp.), collected from the Maquipucuna cloud forest reserve, near Quito, in Ecuador. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the large-subunit rRNA gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region indicated that the novel species is most closely related to the recently described species Saturnispora gosingensis, isolated from the fruiting body of a mushroom collected in Taiwan, and Saturnispora hagleri, a Drosophila-associated yeast found in Brazil. The name Saturnispora quitensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this strain; the type strain is CLQCA-10-114(T) (=CBS 12184(T)=NCYC 3744(T)).

  12. Antiviral properties from plants of the Mediterranean flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, G; Farci, P; Busonera, B; Murgia, G; La Colla, P; Giliberti, G

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are a successful source in drug discovery, playing a significant role in maintaining human health. We investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of extracts from 18 traditionally used Mediterranean plants. Noteworthy antiviral activity was found in the extract obtained from the branches of Daphne gnidium L. against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (EC50 = 0.08 μg/mL) and coxsackievirus B5 (EC50 = 0.10 μg/mL). Other relevant activities were found against BVDV, YFV, Sb-1, RSV and HSV-1. Interestingly, extracts from Artemisia arborescens L. and Rubus ulmifolius Schott, as well as those from D. gnidium L., showed activities against two different viruses. This extensive antiviral screening allowed us to identify attractive activities, offering opportunities to develop lead compounds with a great pharmaceutical potential.

  13. Exito reproductivo de plantas ornitócoras en un relicto de selva subtropical en Argentina Reproductive success of bird-dispersed plants in a subtropical forest relict in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORBERTO H. MONTALDO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En un relicto de selva ribereña situado en la región central de Argentina (Punta Lara, provincia de Buenos Aires se estudió la fenología reproductiva, y la producción y dispersión de diásporas de cinco especies arbóreas nativas y de dos malezas exóticas (Rubus ulmifolius y Ligustrum lucidum. Además se determinó el poder germinativo de las semillas y la tasa de reclutamiento y características de las plántulas. En el último medio siglo las malezas invadieron la selva, amenazando actualmente con destruirla. El elenco de aves frugívoras del área es reducido y está integrado por siete especies residentes y una migratoria. Hay plantas nativas que manifiestan limitaciones reproductivas por escasa producción y/o dispersión de diásporas. Si bien las plantas exóticas no superan significativamente a las nativas en las relaciones fruto/ flor y frutos consumidos/ frutos disponibles, las primeras tienen ventajas en la cantidad de semillas que incorporan al medio por unidad (m2 de superficie de copa (ca. 1700 vs. 800 en la nativa que más dispersa, y en su germinación abundante (Ligustrum o en la habilidad competitiva de sus plántulas (Rubus. El éxito de las malezas se explicaría en gran parte por su agresividad intrínseca y por la situación de marginalidad ecológica de esta comunidad selvática, ya que muchas especies se encuentran en el extremo meridional de su distribuciónReproductive phenology, diaspore production, diaspore removal, and seed-dispersal by birds of five indigenous and two alien (Rubus ulmifolius and Ligustrum lucidum woody species were studied in a riparian forest relict located in central Argentina (Punta Lara, Buenos Aires Province. Seed germination, recruitment, and seedling traits of these plants were also determined. During the last half century the weeds heavily invaded the forest, presently constituting a serious threat to the survival of this natural community. In the area the fruit-eating bird assemblage

  14. In vivo antigiardial activity of three flavonoids isolated of some medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Elizabeth; Calzada, Fernando; Campos, Rafael

    2007-02-12

    Mexican traditional medicine uses a great variety of plants in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea. In order to understand the properties of some of their chemical constituents, three flavonoids (kaempferol, tiliroside and (-)-epicatechin) isolated from Geranium mexicanum, Cuphea pinetorum, Helianthemum glomeratum, and Rubus coriifolius, were assayed to demonstrate their in vivo antiprotozoal activity; using an experimental infection of Giardia lamblia in suckling female CD-1 mice. Compounds tested showed antigiardial activity with values of ED(50) (micromol/kg) 0.072 for (-)-epicatechin, 2.057 for kaempferol and 1.429 for tiliroside. The most active flavonoid was the (-)-epicatechin, its activity was higher than metronidazole and emetine, drugs used as positive controls. In the case of kaempferol and tiliroside their potency was close to that of the metronidazole, but far less than emetine.

  15. Microsatellite isolation and characterization for Colletotrichum spp, causal agent of anthracnose in Andean blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulanda, M L; López, A M; Isaza, L; López, P

    2014-09-26

    The genus Colletotrichum, comprised of pathogenic fungi that affect plants grown worldwide, causes the disease known as anthracnose in several fruit and vegetable species. Several studies conducted on plants have shown that the disease is characterized by the presence of one or several species of the fungus attacking the fruit or other organs of the same host. To develop and implement effective control strategies, it is vital to understand the genetic structure of the fungus in agricultural systems, identify associated Colletotrichum species, and define the subpopulations responsible for the disease. Molecular tools were accordingly developed to characterize genotypic populations of Colletotrichum spp, causal agent of anthracnose in commercial crops of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.). A microsatellite-enriched library for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was developed to identify and characterize microsatellite loci among isolates collected in R. glaucus plantations. Thirty microsatellites were developed and tested in 36 isolates gathered from eight different blackberry-production areas of Colombia. Ten pairs of microsatellites were polymorphic.

  16. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2006-11-01

    PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea110, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: E. amylovora MR1, which is pathogenic only on Rubus spp.; Erwinia pyrifoliae Ep1/96, the causal agent of shoot blight of Asian pears; and Erwinia sp. strain Ejp556, the causal agent of bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components, hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. In addition, we identified an Ea110-specific sequence with homology to a type III secretion apparatus component of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius, as well as an Ep1/96-specific sequence with homology to the Yersinia pestis effector protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH.

  17. A record of Horned viper Vipera ammodytes (L. in the diet of the Stone marten Martes foina (Erxl. (Mammalia: Mustelidae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among undigested prey remains in Stone marten’s Martes foina (Erxl. faeces (n=47, collected in Sakar Mountain (near Sladun Village a single lower jaw from a Horned viper (Vipera ammodytes was found. The rest of taxa registered in the Rock marten’s diet among the faecas were: Insceta indet., Lacerta sp., Pseudopus apodus, Aves indet., Dryomis nitedula, Sylvaemus sp., Arvicola terrestris, Microtus sp., and fruits of Rosa sp., Rubus sp., and Pyrus sp. The percent frequency of the main prey groups in the faeces were as follows: Mammalia (n=35, 74.5%, Aves (n=16, 34.0%, Reptilia (n=4, 8.5%, Insecta (n=4, 8.5%, and fruits (n=5, 10.6%.

  18. 野珍珠汁的急性毒性和致突变性试验研究%THE STUDY ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY AND MUTAGENICITY OF THE YEZHENZHU JUICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令福; 罗洁; 张茂玉; 吴紫华; 张精碧

    2001-01-01

    The yezhenzhu juice was made of the fruit of the rubus multibracteatus level, et vant. The juice is rich in nutrients, such as VB1, VB2, VC, iron etc. It may be useful in making beverages and health food. In this paper, it was examined by the acute toxicity test, Aems test, Micronuclei test of bone marrow cell and sperm shape abnormality test in mice, according to the toxicological assessment procedures on food safety. The results showed that the LDs0 of Yezhenzhu juice was more than 21.5g/kg body weight, and that it was not found any mutagenecities in the three mutagenic tests.%野珍珠汁为天然植物大乌泡(Rubus multibracteatus level. et Vant.)的果实所榨取的原汁,富含VB1、VB2、VC、铁等营养素,可作饮料和保健食品。根据《食品安全性毒理学评价程序》的要求,采用小鼠急性毒性试验、Ames试验、小鼠微核试验、小鼠精子畸变试验对其急性毒性和致突变性进行了测试。试验结果:野珍珠汁经口急性毒性(LD5o)大于21.5g/kg体重,属实际无毒物质;在Ames试验、小鼠微核试验、小鼠精子畸变试验中均未呈现致突变性。

  19. 覆盆子复合果汁饮料的制备%Preparation of Raspberry Compound Juice Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁魁景; 魏淑珍

    2013-01-01

    采用酶解提取、醇解提取、水解提取和复合式提取4种方法获得覆盆子(Rubus chingii)果实提取液,将覆盆子果实提取液与果汁饮料按不同比例混合制得覆盆子果汁饮料,考察原料配比对覆盆子果汁饮料稳定性的影响.结果表明,复合式提取法得到的覆盆子果实提取液中有效成分含量高,且提取液较为澄清透明,呈金黄色,富有光泽,气味纯正和谐.覆盆子果实提取液与果汁按5:20的体积比混合得到的复合果汁饮料稳定性好.%Raspberry (Rubus chingii) fruit extract was obtained by methods of enzyme extract,alcohol extract,water extract and complex extract,which was then mixed with juice to prepare raspberry compound juice beverage.The effects of ratio of raspberry fruit extract and juice on stability of raspberry was studied.The results showed that the nutrient component in raspberry fruit extract obtained by complex extract method was high; and the extract was clear and crystal,with gold color and luster,pure and harmonious smell.Raspberry compound juice beverage was stable when volume ratio of raspberry extract and juice was 5:20.

  20. Differential physiological responses to environmental change promote woody shrub expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary; Greaves, Heather; Kornfeld, Ari; Gough, Laura; Atkin, Owen K; Turnbull, Matthew H; Shaver, Gaius; Griffin, Kevin L

    2013-05-01

    Direct and indirect effects of warming are increasingly modifying the carbon-rich vegetation and soils of the Arctic tundra, with important implications for the terrestrial carbon cycle. Understanding the biological and environmental influences on the processes that regulate foliar carbon cycling in tundra species is essential for predicting the future terrestrial carbon balance in this region. To determine the effect of climate change impacts on gas exchange in tundra, we quantified foliar photosynthesis (A net), respiration in the dark and light (R D and R L, determined using the Kok method), photorespiration (PR), carbon gain efficiency (CGE, the ratio of photosynthetic CO2 uptake to total CO2 exchange of photosynthesis, PR, and respiration), and leaf traits of three dominant species - Betula nana, a woody shrub; Eriophorum vaginatum, a graminoid; and Rubus chamaemorus, a forb - grown under long-term warming and fertilization treatments since 1989 at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Under warming, B. nana exhibited the highest rates of A net and strongest light inhibition of respiration, increasing CGE nearly 50% compared with leaves grown in ambient conditions, which corresponded to a 52% increase in relative abundance. Gas exchange did not shift under fertilization in B. nana despite increases in leaf N and P and near-complete dominance at the community scale, suggesting a morphological rather than physiological response. Rubus chamaemorus, exhibited minimal shifts in foliar gas exchange, and responded similarly to B. nana under treatment conditions. By contrast, E. vaginatum, did not significantly alter its gas exchange physiology under treatments and exhibited dramatic decreases in relative cover (warming: -19.7%; fertilization: -79.7%; warming with fertilization: -91.1%). Our findings suggest a foliar physiological advantage in the woody shrub B. nana that is further mediated by warming and increased soil nutrient availability, which may facilitate shrub expansion and

  1. Diet composition of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa volcanic zone (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work outlines the results of a study on the food consumed by roe deer carried out in the Natural Park of the Garrotxa Volcanic Zone, where 49 roe deer were reintroduced from 1995 to 1998. This is a protected area of about 12,000 ha, in which oak and beech forests predominate. Faecal analysis was chosen as the most appropriate method for sampling diet composition despite the scarcity of faecal samples encountered from 1998 to 2001 (n=30. A total of 7,500 epidermal fragments were identified from these samples. Results showed that ivy (Hedera helix and bramble (Rubus sp. formed the bulk of the diet (23% and 21%, respectively. Woody species also formed an important part, reaching 33% of total fragments. Herbs and grasses were only notable in the spring-summer period. Some major vegetation components such as beech (Fagus sylvatica were rarely consumed by deer.

    [fr]
    Voici le résultat d'une étude sur l'alimentation du chevreuil dans le Parc Naturel de la Zone Volcanique de la Garrotxa, où 49 individus furent introduits entre 1995 et 1998. Il s'agit d'un espace protégé de 12 000 ha environ, dominé par les forêts de chênes et de hêtres. Malgré le nombre très bas d'excréments rencontrés entre 1998 et 2001 (n=30, leur analyse nous a paru la meilleure méthode pour tester la composition de l'alimentation. À partir de ces échantillons, nous avons identifié 7 500 fragments d'épiderme. Les résultats nous montrent que le lierre (Hedera helix et la ronce (Rubus sp. sont l'alimentation principale (23 et 21% respectivement. Toutefois, les espèces ligneuses sont également à considérer, puisqu'elles forment 33% des fragments totaux. Les herbes et les graminées s'avèrent importantes au cours du printemps-été. Il est à noter que les principaux composants de la végétation tel le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica étaient très rarement consommés.
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  2. Plant Community and Ecological Environment in Truffle Producing Area of Miyi, Panzhihua, Sichuan%四川攀枝花米易县块菌产区植物群落及生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 清源; 贾定洪; 郑林用

    2014-01-01

    调查了四川省攀枝花市米易县块菌产区的植物群落及生态环境情况.结果表明,米易县块菌产区的优势物种共有蕨类植物3科3属3种及种子植物29科52属64种,其中裸子植物2科3属3种,双子叶植物25科41属51种,单子叶植物4科11属13种,.该区域植物群落结构表现一定多样性,主要优势植物为云南松(Pinusyunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)等乔木,马桑(Coriaria nepalensis)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii、南烛(Vaccinium bracteatum)、羊耳菊(Inula cappa)、紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora)、地果(Ficus tikoua)等灌木及草本,蕨萁(Botrychium virginianum)、蕨(Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var.latiusculum)及翠云草(Selaginella uncinata)等蕨类植物.该区域块菌的寄主主要为栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis、青冈、云南松、槲栎(Quercus aliena、白栎(Quercus fabri)、厚皮香(Ternstroemia gymnanthera)及刺叶高山栎(Quercus spinosa等.影响样地分布的植物种类主要为云南油杉、青冈、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis gracilis)、桤木、黄果悬钩子(Rubus xanthocarpus)、凉山悬钩子(Rubus fockeanus)、厚皮香、羊耳菊、紫茎泽兰、地果、蕨萁及蕨等植物;影响样地分布的主要生态因子依次为坡度、乔灌木盖度、郁闭度及植被盖度.

  3. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  4. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira Biology of South American fruit fly in blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.The objective of this work was to describe the biology of Anastrepha fraterculus in blueberry (Vaccinium ashei, blackberry (Rubus spp., strawberry guava (Psidium cattleyanum and Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora fruits. The experiment was carried out in laboratory under controlled conditions of temperature (25±2ºC, relative humidity (70±10%, and photophase (12 hours to determine insect biological parameters in immature and adult development stages. Anastrepha fraterculus finishes its biological cycle in all studied hosts; however, the Brazilian native fruits (strawberry guava and Surinam cherry provide better conditions for development of the insect. Biological parameters determined for immature development stadium were similar in the four hosts. Insects reared in Surinam cherry and strawberry guava showed, in the

  5. 基于ICD-10的药用植物种类统计分析%Statistical Analysis of Medicinal Plants Based on ICD-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 卢大丽; 袁万清; 钱津; 熊源新

    2013-01-01

    A total of 4 258 species of medicinal plants in Guizhou Province, are analyzed according to the Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases (ICD - 10) in the current investigation. Dominant families, genera, species of medical plants in Guizhou province are carried out statistical analysis. Twenty one families contain more than 50 species play a role in most diseases. The most proportion of dominant family is Polygonaceae. The genera of the most species including Polygonum, Rubus, Rhododendron etc. The most proportion of dominant genera including Asplenium and Selaginella. Among which 21 species including Aristolo-chia debilis, Polygonum chinense, Croton tiglium and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa etc show curative effect for more than 15 diseases.%根据世界卫生组织ICD-10(《国际疾病分类系统》第十次修订本International Classification of Diseases)的分类内容对贵州4258种药用植物进行了统计分析.对其中涉及疾病最多的科、属、种进行了分析;对重要的科、属、种涉及的疾病也进行了分析.含药用植物种数大于50种的有21科,涉及疾病最多、疾病种类比例最高的科是蓼科Polygonaceae.含药用植物种类最多的属包括蓼属(Polygonum)、悬钩子属(Rubus)、杜鹃花属(Rhododendron)等,涉及疾病种类属的比例最高的是铁角蕨属Asplenium和卷柏属Selaginella.能对15种以上的疾病有疗效的药用植物有21种,包括马兜铃Aristolochia debilis、火炭母Polygonum chinense、巴豆Croton tiglium、桃金娘Rhodomyrtus tomentosa等.

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE RUTAS PARA EL TRANSPORTE DE PRODUCTOS PERECEDEROS EN EL SECTOR RURAL EVALUATION OF TRANSPORT ROUTES OF PERISHABLE PRODUCTS IN THE RURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ANDRÉS ARCOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se identificó, mediante herramientas tecnológicas de tiempo real (GPS, las zonas de producción de cada uno de los agricultores que se encuentran agremiados en los principales municipios productores de mora de castilla (Rubus glaucus en el sur del Departamento del Huila. Lo anterior, con el fin de tener datos detallados para la planeación de rutas de distribución, rutas alternas, ubicación de centros de acopio y otros puntos geográficos relevantes para definir la logística de transporte. Para el desarrollo de los objetivos propuestos se identificó, mediante la referenciación con GPS, la ubicación de las zonas de producción de mora y de los centros de acopio, se analizaron las rutas posibles para la movilización del producto hacia el mercado y se definió la ruta con el menor tiempo de recorrido, así como la determinación de la mejor opción en la prestación del servicioIt was identified, by means of technological tools of real time (GPS, the production areas of each one of the farmers that you/they are unionized in the main municipalities producing of moorish of castilla (Rubus glaucus in the south of the Department of the Huila. The above-mentioned, with the purpose of having detailed data for the planeación of distribution routes, alternating routes, location of storing centers and other outstanding geographical points to define the logistics of transport. For the development of the proposed objectives it was identified, by means of the referentiation with GPS, the location of the production areas of Moorish and of the storing centers, the possible routes were analyzed for the mobilization of the product toward the market and of it defined the route with the smallest time of journey, as well as the determination of the best option in the benefit of the service

  7. Study on the Screening of Plants for Ecological Restoration of Rock Side Slope in Huangshi City%黄石市岩质边坡生态修复植物筛选应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建新; 吴彩琼; 周琼; 张衡; 周贤军; 张洪钢

    2011-01-01

    Taking the No. 5 quarry in the northern Huangjingshan Mountain in Huangshi City as the research object, we casted the plant slots in the slope surface, so as to create the basic conditions for plants growing, such as soil, water and fertilizer. Then the plants were planted in the slots for the research of the survival rate, the height growth, the ground diameter growth, the crown growth and so on. The results show that the appropriate plants for ecological restoration of rock slope in Huangshi city are :(1) the tree species : Leucaena leucocephala, Ligustrum lucidum ; (2) the shrub species : Liqustrum quihoui, Pyracantha fortuneana, Nerium indicum, Jasminum mesnyi, Cudrania tricuspidata ; (3) the vine species: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Rubus coreanus, Mucuna sempervirens, Eunoymus fortunei%以黄石市黄荆山北麓5号采石场岩质边坡为研究对象,在坡面上浇筑飘板种植槽,创造植物生长所需的土壤、水分、肥料等基本生长条件,种植并筛选适宜的边坡绿化植物,观察其成活率、高生长量、地径生长量、冠幅生长量、覆盖度等。综合比较结果表明,适宜黄石市岩质边坡生态修复的植物为:①乔木种类:银合欢(Leucaena leucocephala)、大叶女贞(Ligustrum lucidum);②灌木种类为:小叶女贞(Liqustrum quihoui)、火棘(Pyracantha fortuneana)、夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)、云南黄素馨(Jasminum mesnyi)、柘木(Cudrania tricuspidata);③藤本植物为:五叶地锦(Parthenocissus quinquefolia)、野蔷薇(Rubus coreartus)、常春油麻藤(Mucuna sempervirens)、扶芳藤(Eunoymus fortunei)。

  8. In vitro evaluation of silver nanoparticles cytotoxicity on Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and their antioxidant activity: Green approach for fabrication and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Seqqat, Rachid; Benalcazar, Karen; Grijalva, Marcelo; Cumbal, Luis

    2016-06-01

    In this article, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Andean Mora (Rubus glaucus Benth.) leaf has been reported. Different analytical techniques including UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for the characterization of AgNPs. The initial appearance of color change with the intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands around 440-455 in UV-visible spectra revealing the formation of AgNPs. The TEM image showed the AgNPs to be anisotropic, quasi-spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 12-50nm. On the other hand, XRD studies revealed the formation of face-centered cubic structure for AgNPs. The surface modified AgNPs showed no cytotoxicity at the concentration ranging from 0.01μM to 1.0μM on the Hepatic cancer (Hep-G2) cell line and observed antioxidant efficacy >70% at the concentration 0.05mM/0.20mL against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that AgNPs could be used effectively in future drug delivery systems and other biomedical concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 绿茶用作饮食补充剂和口腔卫生用品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳(摘)

    2006-01-01

    本品以绿茶提取物为基本成分,再添加罗汉果提取物、甜叶菊Stevia rebaudiana(Bert.)Bert.叶提取物或甜茶Rubus suavissimus S.Lee叶提取物及适量的天然增香剂。具抗氧化作用、抗癌作用以及对肾、肝、心脏的保健作用,且疗效好。可用作饮食补充剂、口腔卫生用品或营养性饮料。配以增稠剂或凝胶可加工成牙膏、洁齿的凝胶或漱口液,且香味宜人。绿茶与增香的天然添加物合用可提高绿茶的疗效。

  10. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Rubi Fructus extracts on hepatic steatosis development in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Mi Kyung; Choi, Hye Ran; Cho, Jin Sook; Cho, Soo Min; Ha, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Ryu, Hee-Young; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the potential effects of the unripened dried fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq., Rubi Fructus (RF), on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Rubi Fructus extract (RFex) fed mice demonstrated a reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight. RFex fed mice also demonstrated decreased aminotransferase levels, lipid contents [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)], leptin content and increased high‑density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL‑C) contents in the plasma. These effects were accompanied by a decreased expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, liver X receptor, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl‑CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase and decreased lipogenic enzyme FAS and 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutamyl coenzyme reductase enzyme activities, while elevating carnitine palmitoyltrasferase-1 activity. Based on these results, the present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect on hepatic steatosis of RFex is the result of the suppression of lipid synthesis in mice fed with HFD, suggesting that RFex may be beneficial in preventing hepatic steatosis and liver lipotoxicity.

  12. Evaluation of solvent effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities from the berries: application of principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Joana Schuelter; Barizão, Erica Oliveira; E Silva, Beatriz Costa; Montanher, Paula Fernandes; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solvent on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from black mulberry (Morus nigra), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Different extracts of each berry were evaluated from the determination of total phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity, and data were applied to the principal component analysis (PCA) to gain an overview of the effect of the solvent in extraction method. For all the berries analyzed, acetone/water (70/30, v/v) solvent mixture was more efficient solvent in the extracting of phenolic compounds, and methanol/water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) showed the best values for anthocyanin content. Mixtures of ethanol/water (50/50, v/v), acetone water/acetic acid (70/29.5/0.5, v/v/v) and acetone/water (50/50, v/v) presented the highest antioxidant capacities for black mulberries, blackberries and strawberries, respectively. Antioxidants extractions are extremely affected by the solvent combination used. In addition, the obtained extracts with the organic solvent-water mixtures were distinguished from the extracts obtained with pure organic solvents, through the PCA analysis.

  13. Mediterranean shrub diversity and its effect on food intake in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean ecosystem offers a variety of shrubs that were over long periods of time involved in the evolution of complex plant-animal interactions. Biochemical components of these plants enter different metabolic pathways after digestion and absorption, resulting in development of dietary preferences in browsing animals. Herbivores in general were found to perform better when grazing in a mixed plant community composed of diverse species, and show preferential feeding behaviours for mixed vs single species diet. Our findings demonstrate an asymptotic relationship among Mediterranean shrubs species diversity and their voluntary intake by goats. Shrub biomass intake showed linear increase when number of different shrubs in diet increased from one to three. However, goats did not further increase intake when the number of shrub species increased from four to eight. As the number of shrub species offered increased, goats exhibited more preferential feeding behaviour for Quercus pubescens, Fraxinus ornus, Rubus heteromorphus and Arbutus unedo and decreased the intake of Hedera helix, Juniperus oxycedrus and Helichrysum italicum. This asymptotic relationship indicates that the maintenance of plant species richness in Mediterranean shrublands can overall benefit domestic goat farming, goat’s productive performance, and the conservation of plant biodiversity.

  14. 果树基因克隆技术进展%Advances on Gene Cloning Techniques in Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓梅; 夏更寿; 陈绍清

    2001-01-01

    @@ 转基因植物研究始于20世纪70年代末80年代初.1983年,Mare Van Montagn等对根癌农杆菌及发根农杆菌进行改造,切去癌基因,转基因后获得了转化植株,标志着基因工程的开始.在果树上的研究起步较晚,1988年McGranagan对核桃进行的外源基因的转化研究取得突破,获得了核桃的转基因植株,随后在苹果(Malus domestica)、草莓(Fragara ananassa)、欧洲李(Prunus domestica)、桃(Prunus persica)、杏(Prunus ameniaca)、葡萄(Vitissp)、树莓(Rubus sp)、蔓越桔(Veccinnim macrocarpon)、美味猕猴桃(Actinidiadeliciosa)和柑桔(Citrus sp)等果树上都获得了转基因植株.

  15. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity.

  16. Polyphenolic glycoconjugates from medical plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family protect human lymphocytes against γ-radiation-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szejk, Magdalena; Poplawski, Tomasz; Sarnik, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Czechowski, Franciszek; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia; Gancarz, Roman; Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Radioprotective effects of the water-soluble polyphenolic glycoconjugates, isolated from flowers of Sanguisorba officinalis L.(SO) and Erigeron canadensis L.(EC), and from leaves of Fragaria vesca L. (FV) and Rubus plicatus Whe. Et N. E. (RP), against γ-radiation-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Cell treatment with glycoconjugates (1, 5 and 25μg/mL) prior exposure to 10/15Gy radiation resulted in concentration-dependent reduction of DNA damage including oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay), substantial inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and restoration of superoxide dismutase and S-glutathione transferase activities. Glycoconjugates isolated from SO and EC ensured better protection versus these from RP and FV, with the SO product potential comparable to that of the reference quercetin. Strong antioxidant/radioprotective activity of the SO and EC glycoconjugates could be attributed to high abundance of syringol-type and ferulic acid units in their matrices, respectively. Moreover, polyphenolic glycoconjugates (25μg/mL), including RP and FV products, significantly decreased DNA damage when applied post-radiation suggesting their modulating effects on DNA repair pathways. Preliminary data on the glycoconjugate phenolic structural units, based on GLC/MS of the products of pyrolysis and in situ methylation, in relation to application of plant products as potential radioprotectors is promising and deserves further investigation.

  17. Poda drástica de verão e produção de cultivares de amoreira-preta em região subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraisa Hellen Tadeu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o manejo de podas em cultivares de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., submetidas à poda drástica de verão, em regiões subtropicais. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2x7 (podas x cultivares, no Município de Lavras, MG. Foram utilizadas as cultivares Comanche, Caingangue, Choctaw, Tupy, Guarani, Brazos e Cherokee, que receberam poda convencional (controle e poda drástica de verão. Foram avaliados dados fenológicos, vegetativos e produtivos nos ciclos de produção 2012/2013 e 2013/2014, além de características físico-químicas dos frutos e da incidência de doenças, no último ciclo de produção. A poda drástica de verão aumenta a produção das cultivares em regiões subtropicais. Não há diferença na qualidade dos frutos colhidos de plantas submetidas aos sistemas de poda avaliados. A poda drástica de verão não é eficiente na redução ou no controle de doenças.

  18. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  19. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  20. The melliferous potential of apiflora of southwestern Vojvodina (Serbia

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    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual and community-level melliferous potential of apiflora was evaluated in southwestern Vojvodina in order to assess its significance and contribution to the bee pasture. Seven plant communities belonging to ruderal, segetal and floodplain type of vegetation, with a total of 279 plant species were registered. Apifloristic and phytocoenological investigations included the determination and analysis of honey plants using the following parameters: total number, percentage, abundance and frequency of these species in the communities, as well as their intensity of pollen and nectar production. The coenotic coefficient of melliferousness (CCm indicating the melliferous potential of each community, was calculated based on the above parameters. Although the greatest number of melliferous species was found in the ass. Chenopodio-Ambrosietum artemisiifoliae (132, the highest percentage (80% of them was registered in the ass. Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis. Considering the coefficients of nectar and pollen production, the most valuable honey plants commonly present in the majority of communities were: Cirsium arvense, Rubus caesius, Lythrum salicaria, Daucus carota, Trifolium pratense, Dipsacus laciniatus, Medicago sativa, Asclepias syriaca, Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum officinale. The low abundance and frequency of melliferous species within the Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis, Polygonetum convolvulo-avicularis and Populetum nigrae-albae communities indicated their poor contribution to the bee pasture. Within ruderal vegetation, the highest CCm was registered in Amorpho-Typhaetum, providing, theoretically, the richest food resource for the honeybees in the investigated area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009 i br. 173018

  1. Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

    2005-11-01

    The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

  2. Population structure and temporal maintenance of the multihost fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea: causes and implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne-Sophie; Gladieux, Pierre; Decognet, Véronique; Fermaud, Marc; Confais, Johann; Roudet, Jean; Bardin, Marc; Bout, Alexandre; Nicot, Philippe C; Poncet, Christine; Fournier, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the causes of population subdivision is of fundamental importance, as studying barriers to gene flow between populations may reveal key aspects of the process of adaptive divergence and, for pathogens, may help forecasting disease emergence and implementing sound management strategies. Here, we investigated population subdivision in the multihost fungus Botrytis cinerea based on comprehensive multiyear sampling on different hosts in three French regions. Analyses revealed a weak association between population structure and geography, but a clear differentiation according to the host plant of origin. This was consistent with adaptation to hosts, but the distribution of inferred genetic clusters and the frequency of admixed individuals indicated a lack of strict host specificity. Differentiation between individuals collected in the greenhouse (on Solanum) and outdoor (on Vitis and Rubus) was stronger than that observed between individuals from the two outdoor hosts, probably reflecting an additional isolating effect associated with the cropping system. Three genetic clusters coexisted on Vitis but did not persist over time. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated that outdoor populations were regularly recombining, whereas clonality was predominant in the greenhouse. Our findings open up new perspectives for disease control by managing plant debris in outdoor conditions and reinforcing prophylactic measures indoor.

  3. Control techniques for invasive alien plants

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    Michele de Sá Dechoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are recognized as a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity. These species should be managed based on local and regional environmental conditions. Control techniques were tested for ten invasive species in Santa Catarina State: the trees Casuarina equisetifolia, Hovenia dulcis, Psidium guajava, Syzygium cumini, and Terminalia catappa, and shrubs and herbs Rubus fruticosus, Furcraea foetida, Hedychium coronarium, Impatiens walleriana, and Tradescantia zebrina. Treatments applied for trees were cut stump, frill and girdling or ring-barking followed by herbicide application, while the other species were treated with foliar spray, application of herbicide on the root system, cut stump and herbicide injection. The active ingredients tested were Triclopyr, Glyphosate, and the combination of Triclopyr + Fluroxipyr in concentrations from 2 to 6%, according to the species. The cut stump method was efficient for all of the woody species, while ring-barking and frilling followed by herbicide application and basal bark application resulted in different levels of efficiency for the species tested. The most efficient method for herbs and shrubs was foliar spray, and the least efficient methods were cut stump and herbicide injection.

  4. Mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative effects of berry components in in vitro models of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma M; Gill, Chris I R; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of several cancers, particularly colorectal cancer, possibly linked to their phytochemical content, which is of interest due to several proposed health benefits, including potential anticancer activity. Epidemiological data suggests that cancers of the digestive tract are most susceptible to dietary modification, possibly due to being in direct contact with bioactive food constituents and therefore investigating the effects of these bioactive compounds on the prevalent colorectal cancer is feasible. Berries are a common element of Western diets, with members of the Rubus, Fragria, Sorbus, Ribes and Vaccinum genus featuring in desserts, preserves, yoghurts and juices. These soft fruit are rich in bioactive phytochemicals including several classes of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols) and phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Whilst there is little data linking berry consumption to reduced risk of colorectal cancer, in vitro evidence from models representing colorectal cancer suggests that berry polyphenols may modulate cellular processes essential for cancer cell survival, such as proliferation and apoptosis. The exact mechanisms and berry constituents responsible for these potential anticancer activities remain unknown, but use of in vitro models provides a means to elucidate these matters.

  5. Chemical characterization and mineral levels in the fruits of blackberry cultivars grown in a tropical climate at an elevation - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.16630

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    Mayara Neves Santos Guedes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensorial attributes such as color, texture, acidity and nutritional composition are essential quality components for blackberry (Rubus spp.. The mineral content and quality of fruits of different blackberry cultivars produced in Lavras, Southern Minas Gerais, in a tropical climate at an elevation (Cwb, according to Köppen were analyzed. The analyzed minerals were phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and iron (Fe. Additionally, chemical characteristics, the total acidity (citric acid, pH, soluble solids (°Brix and vitamin C (ascorbic acid level, and sensory characteristics, color (L*a*b and firmness (N were also evaluated. According to the results, the Choctaw and Xavante blackberry cultivars demonstrated the highest mineral contents, the Caingangue cultivar showed the highest soluble solid content, and the Ebano cultivar exhibited the highest vitamin C concentration and firmer fruits. The chemical variables in the fruits of the different blackberry cultivars presented little significant correlation with the contents of macrominerals present, whereas the opposite was obtained for the micronutrients. However, the chemical characteristics combined with the nutritional characteristics can be proposed as an excellent tool for the selection of cultivars of superior quality and high nutritional value.

  6. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  7. Using Shrub Clearing, Draining, and Herbivory to Control Bramble Invasion in Mediterranean Dry Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Solène; Mesléard, François; Dutoit, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    For centuries, the dry grassland of the plain of La Crau (south-eastern France) has been subjected to numerous disturbances resulting in the destruction and the fragmentation of this emblematic rangeland ecosystem of the Mediterranean. Today, this ecosystem is facing a new threat from a proliferating native species, the bramble ( Rubus ulmifolius Schott), which preferentially colonizes areas that were formerly cultivated and/or exposed to water infiltration. To identify a strategy for effective control of this colonization, in situ experiments testing disturbance regimes (shrub clearing and/or mixed grazing by sheep and goats) combined with the control of access to water resources (with or without drainage trenches) were undertaken between 2010 and 2013. Only clearing and grazing combined over 3 years led to significant changes in vegetation height and bramble cover as well as modifications in the floristic composition, diversity, similarity, and richness of the plant community. Neither a clearing operation carried out in 2010 alone, nor grazing alone, reduced bramble cover, and neither treatment increased the species richness of the plant community. Similarly, digging drainage trenches had no significant impact either on the plant community or on bramble cover. Our study suggests that only annual mechanical clearing coupled with sheep and goats grazing can significantly reduce bramble cover. This combined restoration treatment needs to be applied for at least 3 consecutive years to induce significant changes and enable this ecosystem to return to the dry grassland succession.

  8. Caracterización morfológica de mora en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Cauca y Nariño, de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zamorano M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron 36 materiales de mora pertenecientes a las especies Rubus glaucus , R. urticifolius y R. robustus . La caracterización cualitativa separó las 3 especies y generó descriptores que permitieron identificar forma, tipo, margen, ápice y color del envés en las hojas, y presencia de antocianinas y cerosidad en tallos. La caracterización cuantitativa identificó particularidades de importancia comercial (alto peso de fruto, pocas espinas en el tallo y altos grados Brix en los materiales 3 y 31 de la Colección. El análisis multivariado de caracteres cuantitativos de tallo y fruto conformó 5 grupos que variaron en distancia de entrenudos, longitud de peciolulo en rama macho, longitud de pecíolo en rama hembra y macho, ancho de folíolo, peso de fruto, longitud del corazón del fruto y número de drupas.

  9. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described.

  10. Algunas Enfermedades de La Mora, El Guamo, La Cabuya y La Cebolla

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    Obregon Botero Rafael

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas pertenecientes al Género Rubus son muy abundantes en la Flora Natural de Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá, Centroamérica y México, denominándoseles con los nombres comunes de “Moras” y “Mora de Castilla” y “Zarzamora” en español: en inglés “Blackberry” y “Brombeer” en alemán. Solamente la mora de castilla puede ser explotada en una forma económica y enlatada, ya que las otras especies tienen frutos de sabor menos agradable, son más duros y pequeños. Por sus múltiples ventajas ha demostrado ser una fruta de condiciones buenas para la exportación a los mercados norteamericanos y europeos, y el cultivo puede hacerse también en pequeños predios familiares, pudiendo obtenerse producciones hasta de 7.000 kilos por hectárea. Por serpues una planta que tiene un futuro halagador para las tierras templadas y frías del trópico, especialmente las de ambiente un poco húmedo, el estudio de las enfermedades es de mucha importancia, ya que pueden disminuir la producción y aun anularla.

  11. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

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    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  12. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

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    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  13. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  14. Migration and bioavailability of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil of southern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopleva, I.; Klemt, E. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten (Germany); Konoplev, A. [Scientific Production Association ' TYPHOON' , Obninsk (Russian Federation); Zibold, G. [Hochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten, University of Applied Sciences, 88250 Weingarten (Germany)], E-mail: zibold@hs-weingarten.de

    2009-04-15

    To give a quantitative description of the radiocaesium soil-plant transfer for fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), physical and chemical properties of soils in spruce and mixed forest stands were investigated. Of special interest was the selective sorption of radiocaesium, which was determined by measuring the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP). Forest soil and plants were taken at 10 locations of the Altdorfer Wald (5 sites in spruce forest and 5 sites in mixed forest). It was found that the bioavailability of radiocaesium in spruce forest was on average seven times higher than in mixed forest. It was shown that important factors determining the bioavailability of radiocaesium in forest soil were its exchangeability and the radiocaesium interception potential (RIP) of the soil. Low potassium concentration in soil solution of forest soils favors radiocaesium soil-plant transfer. Ammonium in forest soils plays an even more important role than potassium as a mobilizer of radiocaesium. The availability factor - a function of RIP, exchangeability and cationic composition of soil solution - characterized reliably the soil-plant transfer in both spruce and mixed forest. For highly organic soils in coniferous forest, radiocaesium sorption at regular exchange sites should be taken into account when its bioavailability is considered.

  15. Differentiation of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae strains with single nucleotide polymorphisms and by synthesis of dihydrophenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-07-01

    Fire blight has spread from North America to New Zealand, Europe, and the Mediterranean region. We were able to differentiate strains from various origins with a novel PCR method. Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Erwinia amylovora genome were characteristic of isolates from North America and could distinguish them from isolates from other parts of the world. They were derived from the galE, acrB, and hrpA genes of strains Ea273 and Ea1/79. These genes were analyzed by conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) with differential primer annealing temperatures. North-American E. amylovora strains were further differentiated according to their production of L: -2,5-dihydrophenylalanine (DHP) as tested by growth inhibition of the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis. E. amylovora fruit tree (Maloideae) and raspberry (rubus) strains were also differentiated by Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism analysis. Strains from the related species Erwinia pyrifoliae isolated in Korea and Japan were all DHP positive, but were differentiated from each other by SNPs in the galE gene. Differential PCR is a rapid and simple method to distinguish E. amylovora as well as E. pyrifoliae strains according to their geographical origin.

  16. Les indicateurs de la pression du cerf élaphe sur la végétation du sous-bois en forêt feuillue tempérée (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehaire, F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of red deer pressure on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. A review. During recent decades, populations of large herbivores have increased. Consequently, their pressure on forest vegetation has been exacerbated and, in some forests, has reached levels that have reduced the diversity of forest ecosystem services. Assessing the balance between timber production and hunting remains a crucial question for forest users (foresters, hunters and requires reliable tools such as ecological indicators. This paper reviews the ecological indicators that characterize the pressure of red deer (Cervus elaphus L. on understory vegetation in temperate deciduous forest. Such indicators monitor the cover, height, stem density, biomass and species diversity of different indicator plant groups. These plant groups embrace species belonging to the herbaceous stratum, forest regeneration or particular species such as bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. and bramble (Rubus fruticosus L.. As the choice of indicator plants affects considerably the performance of the ecological indicator of deer pressure on understory vegetation, such decisions must be carried out with caution, taking into account plant abundance and palatability. The reviewed indicators help us to understand the relationship between biodiversity, carrying capacity and deer populations. They are intended for use by forest managers who would like to monitor red deer pressure in relation to forest management goals and forest sustainability.

  17. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Blanco, Emilio; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Lastra, Juan José; San Miguel, Elia; Morales, Ramón

    2007-06-07

    We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca) and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile). The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  19. Cytotoxic effect of sanguiin H-6 on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dahae; Baek, Seon-Eun; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kang, Ki Sung; Jang, Tae Su; Lee, Hye Lim; Song, Ji Hoon; Yoo, Jeong-Eun

    2017-09-15

    Sanguiin H-6 is a dimer of casuarictin linked by a bond between the gallic acid residue and one of the hexahydroxydiphenic acid units. It is an effective compound extracted from Rubus coreanus. It has an anticancer effect against several human cancer cells; however, its effect on breast cancer cells has not been clearly demonstrated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effect and mechanism of action of sanguiin H-6 against two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). We found that sanguiin H-6 significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. It also increased the rates at which MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, sanguiin H-6 induced the cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-3, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which resulted in apoptosis. However, cleavage of caspase-9 was only detectable in MCF-7 cells. In addition, sanguiin H-6 increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that sanguiin H-6 is a potent therapeutic agent against breast cancer cells. In addition, it exerts its anticancer effect in an estrogen-receptor-independent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Method development for determination of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin by micellar electrokinetic chromatography: annual characterization of field grown blackberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Marcel; García-Seco, Daniel; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Gutiérrez-Mañero, Javier; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

    2013-08-01

    Berries are a rich source of antioxidants compounds, among which is the catechin group. Determination of the monomers (catechin and epicatechin) in fruits is a first step in the way to establish a relationship between polyphenols and their effects on human health. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to determine free catechins in blackberry by MEKC and to characterize levels of catechins in fresh fruits of Rubus fruticosus var. Lochness throughout the annual production period. A methanolic extract was prepared from fresh fruit. Then, it was evaporated and the residue was extracted with diethyl ether. MEKC conditions: phosphoric acid, 30 mmol/L; SDS, 40 mmol/L and triethylamine, 0.1% v/v at pH 2.3; -15 kV of voltage; 10-s hydrodynamic injection; 25°C temperature; and detection at 200 nm. Instrumental and interday precision were lower than 4.7 and 10% RSD, respectively. Only (-)-epicatechin was quantified in blackberries and ranged from 120 to 620 mg/kg fresh weight, which were the lowest values in December and the highest in June. A solid-liquid extraction and an MEKC method were successfully applied to determine (-)-epicatechins in blackberry for the first time. A strong dependence of (-)-epicatechin on the annual average temperature was observed.

  1. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  2. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.

  3. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dénes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.

  4. 海南省菠萝蜜主要病虫害识别与防治%Control of Jackfruit Main Pests and Diseases in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱勤; 桑利伟; 孙世伟; 谭乐和; 苟亚峰; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    分别介绍了目前在海南省菠萝蜜上发生的6种主要病虫害,炭疽病、花果软腐病、蒂腐病和榕八星天牛、桑粒肩天牛及黄翅绢野螟,以及6种病虫害的症状、病原或害虫、发生规律及防治措施,为促进菠萝蜜产业健康可持续发展提供技术参考。%There were six kinds of Jackfruit serious diseases that included jackfruit anthracnose, jackfruit Diplodia artocarp rot, jackfi'uit Rhizopus nigricans fi'uit rot, jackfi'uit Batocera rubus L., jackfruit Apriona germari Hope and jackfruit D. caescdis Walker. In this paper the symptom, pathogen, occurring rule and control measures were introduced to these diseases.

  5. Biologia da mosca‑das‑frutas sul‑americana em frutos de mirtilo, amoreira‑preta, araçazeiro e pitangueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Bisognin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a biologia de Anastrepha fraterculus em frutos de mirtilo (Vaccinium ashei, amoreira‑preta (Rubus spp., araçazeiro (Psidium cattleyanum e pitangueira (Eugenia uniflora. O experimento foi realizado em laboratório, em condições controladas de temperatura (25±2ºC, umidade relativa (70±10% e fotófase (12 horas, para determinação dos parâmetros biológicos do inseto nos estágios de desenvolvimento imaturos e adultos. Anastrepha fraterculus completa o ciclo biológico em todos hospedeiros estudados, embora os frutos nativos (pitanga e araçá ofereçam melhores condições para seu desenvolvimento. Os parâmetros biológicos determinados para as fases imaturas foram semelhantes nos quatro hospedeiros. Insetos criados em pitanga e araçá apresentam, na fase adulta, maior período de oviposição, fecundidade e longevidade de fêmeas, em comparação aos criados em mirtilo e amora‑preta. O ritmo diário de oviposição é mais prolongado e uniforme nos insetos criados em araçá e pitanga, o que mostra que A. fraterculus está mais bem adaptada a estas frutas, nativas da região Sul.

  6. Practical procedure for discriminating monofloral honey with a broad pollen profile variability using an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mara E B C; Dias, Luís G; Veloso, Ana C A; Estevinho, Letícia; Peres, António M; Machado, Adélio A S C

    2014-10-01

    Colour and floral origin are key parameters that may influence the honey market. Monofloral light honey are more demanded by consumers, mainly due to their flavour, being more valuable for producers due to their higher price when compared to darker honey. The latter usually have a high anti-oxidant content that increases their healthy potential. This work showed that it is possible to correctly classify monofloral honey with a high variability in floral origin with a potentiometric electronic tongue after making a preliminary selection of honey according their colours: white, amber and dark honey. The results showed that the device had a very satisfactory sensitivity towards floral origin (Castanea sp., Echium sp., Erica sp., Lavandula sp., Prunus sp. and Rubus sp.), allowing a leave-one-out cross validation correct classification of 100%. Therefore, the E-tongue shows potential to be used at analytical laboratory level for honey samples classification according to market and quality parameters, as a practical tool for ensuring monofloral honey authenticity.

  7. Non-timber Forest Products, Their Vulnerability and Conservation in a Designated UNESCO Heritage Site of Arunanchal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Apatani, non-nomadic tribe, have evolved an ecologically sustainable system of rural forestry in Ziro Valley, a proposed heritage site of UNESCO. They have been using non-timber forest products (NTFPs grown in homestead and nearby forests for a very long period. The present study was aimed at identification of priority NTFPs and uses, their availability status and availability trend, conservation need, and sustainability interventions. Qualitative methods of research like, exploratory survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key informants, etc. were employed for data collection. The Apatani used 112 priority NTFPs for food supplement, herbal medicine, house building material and other purposes. However, on the basis of ecological importance such NTFPs were categorized as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high vulnerable species. Twenty vulnerable species like Antiitari ayi (Actinidia callosa, Biiling (Choerospondias axillaris, Henchi (Rubus niveus, Jojuru ayi (Coccinia grandis, Ngiilyang Khiiko (Centella asiatica etc. should be conserved and seventeen not vulnerable species at this stage like, Padii hamang (Cardamine hirsute, Sankhe (Quercus griffithii, Bije (Phyllostachys manii, Hiigu hamang (Oenanthe javanica, Kiira (Quercus dealbata , etc. could be commercialized. However, a balance needed to be struck between commercialization and conservation by adopting a comprehensive policy based on scientific and traditional Apatani knowledge for harvesting and regeneration of NTFPs. Homegardening or community farming is recommended for sustainable supply of commercially important species to be domasticated.

  8. Botanical Characteristics of Polish Honeys from Natura 2000 Habitats

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen samples of honeys which were harvested over several beekeeping seasons from apiaries located in the area of the “Kózki” Nature Reserve (central-eastern Poland were the subject of the present study. The “Kózki” Nature Reserve is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 program. A microscopic analysis of the pollen sediment in the honeys showed the presence of 61 pollen types from 32 botanical families in the investigated material. There were represented by nectariferous (72.1% and nonnectariferous plants (27.9% and both entomophilous and anemophilous ones. The total number of pollen taxa in individual samples ranged from 13 to 37. The main sources of nectar from trees and shrubs were: Frangula alnus, Prunus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus, Salix, Tilia. The main sources of nectar from herbaceous plants were: Anthriscus, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea cyanus, Taraxacum, and Trifolium repens. Four unifloral honeys (three fruit tree honeys and one lime honey and fourteen multifloral honeys, with a significant percentage of pollen from several nectariferous plant taxa, were distinguished in the studied material.

  9. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  10. Identificación de ácidos grasos contenidos en los aceites extraídos a partir de semillas de tres diferentes especies de frutas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Cerón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se midió el rendimiento de aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos presentes en semillas de las frutas andinas tropicales: lulo de la variedad castilla (Solanum quitoense, mora de la variedad castilla (Rubus glaucus y maracuyá (Passiflora edulis. La extracción se hizo con solventes en un extractor Soxhlet utilizando éter etílico al 99.8% de pureza y punto de ebullición 40 - 60 °C. Para identificar los ácidos grasos se empleó cromatografía de gases con detector FID (GC-FID. Los rendimientos en aceite fueron de 8.5% para lulo, 12.2% para mora y 21.2% para maracuyá. Los ácidos grasos encontrados en semillas de lulo fueron palmítico (15.6% y linoléico (58.1%; en semillas de mora linoléico (50.1% y linolénico (25.1% y en las de maracuyá palmítico (15.44%, oleico (15.47% y linoléico (63.1%. El contenido graso de las semillas evaluadas evidenció su potencial como materia prima oleaginosa y por sus contenidos de ácidos grasos se pueden considerar una fuente importante de componentes para las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética.

  11. Cloudberry cultivation in cutover peatlands: hydrological and soil physical impacts on the growth of different clones and cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Théroux Rancourt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L. cultivation is receiving increasing attention as a means of revitalising regional economy and rehabilitating cutover peatlands. The study reported here investigated the necessary soil physical and hydrological conditions, the compatibility of cloudberry cultivation with restoration of mined peatlands, and the performance of newly commercialised Norwegian cultivars in North America. Terraces at two levels were landscaped in peatland after vacuum extraction of peat to create different growing conditions in terms of hydrology and soil properties, then planted with two Norwegian cultivars (Fjordgull and Fjellgull and two local (east Canadian clones of cloudberry in a randomised block experiment. After three years, both the clones and the cultivars grown on the lower terrace had more leaves per m2 due to lower soil bulk density combined with higher average water level. Mulching, inherent to restoration, reduced the number of leaves produced during the year following planting. The Fjordgull cultivar had a higher survival rate than Fjellgull and local clones. Overall, the number of living rhizomes decreased over the years following planting. These results suggest that soil properties (bulk density and porosity significantly influence cloudberry establishment and growth. Rhizomes should be planted two or three years after peatland restoration to avoid the initial negative effects of the mulch.

  12. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  13. Eradication and Sensitization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to Methicillin with Bioactive Extracts of Berry Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Peng, Mengfei; Joo, Jungsoo; Teramoto, Hironori; Biswas, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    The therapeutic roles of phenolic blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomace (commercial byproduct) extracts (BPE) and their mechanism of actions were evaluated against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Five major phenolic acids of BPE, e.g., protocatechuic, p. coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, and gallic acids, as well as crude BPE completely inhibited the growth of vegetative MRSA in vitro while BPE+methicillin significantly reduced MRSA biofilm formation on plastic surface. In addition, BPE restored the effectiveness of methicillin against MRSA by down-regulating the expression of methicillin resistance (mecA) and efflux pump (norA, norB, norC, mdeA, sdrM, and sepA) genes. Antibiogram with broth microdilution method showed that MIC of methicillin reduced from 512 μg/mL to 4 μg/mL when combined with only 200 μg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/mL of BPE. Significant reduction in MRSA adherence to and invasion into human skin keratinocyte Hek001 cells were also noticed in the presence of BPE. BPE induced anti-apoptosis and anti-autophagy pathways through overexpression of Bcl-2 gene and down-regulation of TRADD and Bax genes (inducers of apoptosis pathway) in Hek001 cells. In summary, novel and sustainable prophylactic therapy can be developed with BPE in combination with currently available antibiotics, especially methicillin, against skin and soft tissue infections with MRSA. PMID:28270804

  14. Using herbicides in spring rapeseed and effect on quantity and quality parameters of yeald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, P; Marinković, R; Marisavljević, D; Pavlović, D; Dolovac, E Pfaf

    2011-01-01

    Possibility to chemically control weeds in spring rapeseed has been tested in two locations ( Novi Sad and Kragujevac) and following herbicides (a.i.) : trifluralin, clomazone, quizalofop-p-ethyl and clopyralid. We tested the effect of the herbicides on yield and hectoliter weight of seed and oil and protein contents in seed. In the trial in Kragujevac, a large number of weed species were present, with somewhat increased density and uneven distribution of weed plants. This was particularly evident with grassy weeds and with the species Rubus caesius in several plots. Rapeseed yield and quality were determined by measuring and analyzing the following parameters: grain yield (kg/plot (30 m2), hectoliter weight, oil content (%) and protein content (%) in seed.Basic statistical calculations of rapessed yield and quality were done by the t-test. The tested herbicides showed no adverse effect on the yield and hectoliter weight of seed in either location, with the exception of quizalofop-p-ethyl in Kragujevac, which affected the control variants. Oil content was negatively affected by the combination, trifluralin + clopyralid in the location of Novi Sad and by quizalofop-p-ethyl in the other location. Trifluralin and quizalofop-p-ethyl exhibited a negative effect on protein content in the location of Novi Sad, while there were no statistically significant negative effects in the other location.

  15. Bioconversion of Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside to Cyanidin-3-Glucoside in Black Raspberry by Crude α-L-Rhamnosidase from Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taehwan; Jung, Hana; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-11-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) has been known to be more bioavailable than cyanidin-3- rutinoside (C3R), the most abundant anthocyanin in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). The aim of this study was to enhance the bioavailability of anthocyanins in black raspberry by cleaving L-rhamnose in C3R using crude enzyme extracts (CEEs) from Aspergillus usamii KCTC 6956, A. awamori KCTC 60380, A. niger KCCM 11724, A. oryzae KCCM 12698, and A. kawachii KCCM 32819. The enzyme activities of the CEEs were determined by a spectrophotometric method using rho-nitrophenyl-rhamnopyranoside and rho-nitrophenyl-glucopyranoside. The CEE from A. usamii had the highest α-L-rhamnosidase activity with 2.73 U/ml at 60°C, followed by those from A. awamori and A. niger. When bioconversion of C3R to C3G in black raspberry was analyzed by HPLC-DAD, the CEEs from A. usamii and A. awamori hydrolyzed 95.7% and 95.6% of C3R to C3G, respectively, after 2 h incubation. The CEEs from A. kawachii and A. oryzae did not convert C3R to C3G in black raspberry.

  16. Black Raspberry Extract Increased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improved Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Kim, Sohyeon; Hong, Soon Jun; Choi, Seung Cheol; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Park, Chi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Young; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-04-01

    Administration of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is known to improve vascular endothelial function in patients at a high risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. We investigated short-term effects of black raspberry on circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and arterial stiffness in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 51) were prospectively randomized into the black raspberry group (n = 26, 750 mg/day) and placebo group (n = 25) during the 12-week follow-up. Central blood pressure, augmentation index, and EPCs, such as CD34/KDR(+), CD34/CD117(+), and CD34/CD133(+), were measured at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Radial augmentation indexes were significantly decreased in the black raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-5% ± 10% vs. 3% ± 14%, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (19 ± 109/μL vs. -28 ± 57/μL, P raspberry group compared to the placebo group (-0.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL vs. -0.1 ± 1.1 pg/mL, P raspberry group. The use of black raspberry significantly lowered the augmentation index and increased circulating EPCs, thereby improving CV risks in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.

  17. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  18. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Phartyal, Shyam S.; Koedam, Nico

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we examined the composition and distribution across three soil layers of the buried soil seed bank under three different overstory types ( Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris) and in logging areas in a 4383-ha forest in central Belgium. The objectives were: (1) to investigate whether species composition and species richness of soil seed banks are affected by different forest stands; (2) to examine how abundant are habitat-specific forest species in seed banks under different planted tree layers. The study was carried out in stands which are replicated, managed in the same way (even-aged high forest), and growing on the same soil type with the same land-use history. In the investigated area, the seed bank did show significant differences under oak, beech, pine and in logging areas, respectively in terms of size, composition and depth occurrence. All species and layers taken together, the seed bank size ranked as follows: oakwood > beechwood > logging area > pinewood. The same pattern was found for forest species. Seed numbers of Betula pendula, Calluna vulgaris, Dryopteris dilatata and Rubus fruticosus were significantly higher under the beech canopy. Carex remota, Impatiens parviflora and Lotus sp. showed a significantly denser seed bank in logging areas, while Digitalis purpurea seeds were significantly more abundant in soils under the oak canopy. The fact that the seed bank of an originally homogeneous forest varies under different planted stands highlights that a long period of canopy conversion can affect the composition and depth of buried seeds.

  19. 阜新地区发展树莓产业前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤淑丽

    2007-01-01

    一、生物学特性 树莓也称托盘、覆盆子,是蔷薇科(Posa ceae)悬钩子属(Rubus L.)小灌木。多年生浆果,在分类中,按成熟后果实与花托是否分离。分为树莓和黑莓两类。树莓又分为红树莓、黄树莓、紫树莓和黑树莓。但以红树莓为主。树莓适应性强,易于管理.主要分布在北半球的温带和寒带。在一般土壤上都能生长良好。树莓果实甜芳香,有很高的营养价值,既是很好的鲜果食品也可加工成果汁、果酒、果干蜜饯等食品。

  20. Mediterranean Berries as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Porcine Burger Patties Subjected to Cooking and Chilled Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Ganho; Mario Estvez; Mnica Armenteros; David Morcuende

    2013-01-01

    The efifciency of extracts from Arbutus unedo L. (AU), Crataegus monogyna L. (CM), Rosa canina L. (RC), and Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (RU) to inhibit lipid oxidation in raw, cooked and cooked and chilled (2°C/12 d) porcine burger patties, was investigated. The modiifcation of the fatty acid proifle during processing treatments (cooking and chilling), the quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS), and lipid-derived volatiles, were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) gradually decreased during cooking and the subsequent storage of cooked burger patties with this decrease being signiifcantly greater (P<0.05) in control patties than in those with added berry extracts. In accordance, the control patties showed signiifcantly higher TBA-RS numbers and counts of lipid-derived volatiles in all treatments when compared to the berry-added counterparts (P<0.05). Results from the present work show, for the ifrst time, that extracts from A. unedo, C. monogyna, R. canina, and R. ulmifolius are promising antioxidants which could enhance the nutritional, safety and sensory properties of porcine burger patties.

  1. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Yoko Miyasaki

    Full Text Available The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  3. Anthocyanin composition of wild Colombian fruits and antioxidant capacity measurement by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Liliana; Carriazo, José G; Almanza, Ovidio; Osorio, Coralia

    2012-02-15

    The qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin composition of four wild tropical fruits from Colombia was studied. Compounds of "mora pequeña" ( Rubus megalococcus Focke.), "uva de árbol" ( Myrciaria aff. cauliflora O. Berg), coral, and motilón ( Hyeronima macrocarpa Mull. Arg.) fruits were separately extracted with methanol-acetic acid (95:5, v/v). The anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) were obtained by selective adsorption on Amberlite XAD-7. Each extract was analyzed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-HRESI-MS(n) with LCMS-IT-TOF equipment in order to characterize the anthocyanin pigments and the coinjection in HPLC using standards allowed identifying the major constituents in each extract. The antioxidant activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopy, using ABTS and DPPH free radicals. The ARE of motilón ( H. macrocarpa Müll. Arg) exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity in comparison to the other extracts. A second-order kinetic model was followed in all of the cases. These results suggested that the studied fruits are promising not only as source of natural pigments but also as antioxidant materials for food industry.

  4. Effects of forest road clearings on understory diversity beneath Alnus subcordata L. stands in Iran

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    Seyed A. Hosseini

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Darab Kola forest which is located east of Sari city. After confirming the identity of Alder trees (Alnus subcordata L., Betulaceae at the edge of forest roads, the cross section geometry was classified into without earth works and with earth works. Road clearing limits were divided into less than 10 metres and 10-15 metres. The understory density and canopy cover underneath Alder stands were measured in 20 micro plots. The diversity of woody and herbaceous plant species was calculated by the Simpson index. The results indicated that the canopy cover at the edge of cross sections without earth works was greater than that of sections with earth works at a probability level of 5%. In both classes, the percentage of Rubus hyrcanus L. canopy cover on filled slopes was more than that on cut slopes, whereas the percentage of canopy cover of this species and of bare soil was similar, as well as the biodiversity indices for both sides of cross sections without earth works.

  5. Inventory of Invasive Plant Species along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi, East Java

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    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in November 2013 to inventory invasive plant species present along the corridor of Kawah Ijen Nature Tourism Park exploratively. Result showed that there were 11 plant species found abundantly along the corridor. Typical native species were dominated by Cyathea contaminans, Casuarina junghuhniana and Vaccinium varingiaefolium. Three species were determined as invasive alien species i.e. Chromolaena odorata, Acacia decurrens and Blumea lacera whereas five species were determined as native species but potential invaders i.e. Rubus moluccanus, Melastoma malabatrichum, Polygonum barbatum, Debregeasia longifolia and Pteridium aquilinum. In term of tourism particularly on nature-based destinations enable moving in and out of invasive alien species due to opening the access of some natural protected areas. The environmental impact of an alien species whether it becomes invasive at its destination depends on its biological key point,  what ecological role the species may play, and on additional factors such as its tolerance of the gross features of the environment in the new range. Keyword: invasive plants, corridor, Kawah Ijen, Nature Tourism Park, Banyuwangi

  6. Invasive Shrub Mapping in an Urban Environment from Hyperspectral and LiDAR-Derived Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Curtis M; Coops, Nicholas C; Plowright, Andrew A; Tooke, Thoreau R; Christen, Andreas; Aven, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Proactive management of invasive species in urban areas is critical to restricting their overall distribution. The objective of this work is to determine whether advanced remote sensing technologies can help to detect invasions effectively and efficiently in complex urban ecosystems such as parks. In Surrey, BC, Canada, Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) and English ivy (Hedera helix) are two invasive shrub species that can negatively affect native ecosystems in cities and managed urban parks. Random forest (RF) models were created to detect these two species using a combination of hyperspectral imagery, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. LiDAR-derived predictor variables included irradiance models, canopy structural characteristics, and orographic variables. RF detection accuracy ranged from 77.8 to 87.8% for Himalayan blackberry and 81.9 to 82.1% for English ivy, with open areas classified more accurately than areas under canopy cover. English ivy was predicted to occur across a greater area than Himalayan blackberry both within parks and across the entire city. Both Himalayan blackberry and English ivy were mostly located in clusters according to a Local Moran's I analysis. The occurrence of both species decreased as the distance from roads increased. This study shows the feasibility of producing highly accurate detection maps of plant invasions in urban environments using a fusion of remotely sensed data, as well as the ability to use these products to guide management decisions.

  7. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  8. The diet of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in the forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine

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    Krasnov Volodymyr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The botanical composition of the European roe deer diet in the radioactively contaminated forest ecosystems of Zhytomirske Polesie of the Ukraine was investigated. Deer were caught monthly over a two–year period on three plots in forest habitats typical for Zhytomirske Polesie (fresh and moist mixed coniferous forests and mixed broadleaved forests. An analysis of the stomach contents of hunted deer showed that they consumed leafy as well as leafless stems, grasses, fruits and mushrooms depending on the season and availability of forest plants. Each season was characterized by one major dietary component. In the spring, the main component of the deer diet was the stems of woody plants. 44 species of vascular plants (3% of the natural flora of the region were identified in the roe deer diet including 41 species of Magnoliophyta, of which 34 species of Magnoliopsida and 7 species of Liliopsida, 2 species of Polipodiophyta and one species of Pinophyta. Species such as aspen (Populus tremula, oak (Quercus robur, blackberry (Rubus nessensis and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus were consumed year-round.

  9. Cloreto de potássio e fosfato de sódio na multiplicação in vitro de amoreira-preta cv. Tupy Effect of KCl and NaH2PO4.H2O on in vitro multiplication of blackberry cv. Tupy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Villa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação da amoreira-preta pode gerar plantas livres de vírus e em curto espaço de tempo. Com o objetivo de aprimorar técnicas de micropropagação de amoreira-preta cv. Tupy (Rubus spp., segmentos nodais com cerca 2 cm e 2 gemas axilares, oriundos de plantas pré estabelecidas in vitro, foram excisados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com diferentes concentrações de fosfato de sódio (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1000 mg L-1 e de cloreto de potássio (0, 125, 250, 500 e 1000 mg L-1. O pH foi ajustado para 5,8 antes da adição de 6 g L-1 de ágar e da autoclavagem a 121ºC e 1 atm por 20 minutos. Após a inoculação, os explantes foram transferidos para sala de crescimento a 25 ± 1ºC, irradiância de 35 mmol m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, onde permaneceram por 60 dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualisado, utilizando-se de quatro repetições constituídas de três tubos de ensaio contendo um explante cada. O número de brotos e o comprimento da parte aérea das plantas foi menor em função de maiores concentrações de cloreto de potássio. Melhores resultados foram obtidos na ausência de KCl e na presença de fosfato de sódio, principalmente para comprimento e matéria fresca da parte aérea.The micropropagation of blackberry can generate virus-free plants in short time. In order to improve micropropagation techniques of blackberry cv. Tupy (Rubus spp., nodal segments with 2 cm length and 2 axillary buds originating from plants in vitro were excised and inoculated in MS culture medium, supplemented with different concentrations of sodium phosphate (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1 and potassium chloride (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 before the addition of 6 g L-1 agar and sterilization at 121ºC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. After the inoculation, the explants were transferred to growth room at 25 ± 1ºC, 35 mmol m-2 s-1 irradiance and photoperiod of

  10. Identificación de ácidos grasos contenidos en los aceites extraídos a partir de semillas de tres diferentes especies de frutas Identification of fatty acids contained in the oils extracted from seeds of three different species of fruit

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    Andrés Felipe Cerón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se midió el rendimiento de aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos presentes en semillas de las frutas andinas tropicales: lulo de la variedad castilla (Solanum quitoense, mora de la variedad castilla (Rubus glaucus y maracuyá (Passiflora edulis. La extracción se hizo con solventes en un extractor Soxhlet utilizando éter etílico al 99.8% de pureza y punto de ebullición 40 - 60 °C. Para identificar los ácidos grasos se empleó cromatografía de gases con detector FID (GC-FID. Los rendimientos en aceite fueron de 8.5% para lulo, 12.2% para mora y 21.2% para maracuyá. Los ácidos grasos encontrados en semillas de lulo fueron palmítico (15.6% y linoléico (58.1%; en semillas de mora linoléico (50.1% y linolénico (25.1% y en las de maracuyá palmítico (15.44%, oleico (15.47% y linoléico (63.1%. El contenido graso de las semillas evaluadas evidenció su potencial como materia prima oleaginosa y por sus contenidos de ácidos grasos se pueden considerar una fuente importante de componentes para las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética.The objective of the study was to determine yield in oil and composition in the fatty acids present in three different seeds from Andean fruits: Lulo castilla variety (Solanum quitoense; blackberry castilla variety (Rubus glaucus, and the passion fruit or maracuya (Passiflora edulis. The extraction was carried out by solvent extraction method with a Soxhlet extractor using ethyl ether as solvent at 99.8% to purity and boiling point of 40 - 60 ° C. To identify the fatty acids gas chromatography with FID detector (GC-FID was used. Oil yields were obtained from 8.5% for lulo, 12.2% for blackberry and 21.2% for maracuya. The fatty acids found were the follow: In seeds of lulo were found palmitic acid 15.6% and linoleic acid 58.1%; in seeds of blackberry 50.1% of linoleic acid and linolenic acid 25.1%; in seeds of maracuya, palmitic acid 15.44%, oleic acid 15.47% and linoleic 63

  11. Physical and chemical changes during ripening of blackberry fruits Mudanças físicas e químicas durante a maturação de frutos de amora preta

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    Ilkay Tosun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus L. is a naturally growing fruit in Anatolia. Consumption of fresh and frozen blackberries has increased in the past few years in Turkey. The aim of this study is to analyze blackberry at three levels of ripeness taking into account some physical and chemical properties (color, dry matter, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, pH, total phenolics, total anthocyanin, and minerals in order to understand this behavior during the ripening process. Blackberry fruits were harvested at green, red and ripe (mature stages. The determination of fruit maturity was based on fruit surface color. The dry matter, total phenolics and Hunter L, b values decreased but soluble solids, total sugar and total anthocyanins increased with maturity. In the early fruit ripening stages, pH decreased, titratable acidity and Hunter a value increased while in the later stages, pH increased, titratable acidity and Hunter a value decreased considerably. Analysis of variance revealed (P Amora preta (blackberry, Rubus L. é uma fruta que cresce naturalmente na península de Anatolia. O consumo de suas frutas frescas ou congeladas aumentou nos últimos anos na Turquia. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar amoras pretas colhidas em três níveis de maturação, levando em conta propriedades físicas e químicas das frutas (cor, matéria seca, sólidos solúveis, açúcar total, acidez titulável, pH, fenóis totais, antocianina total e sais minerais para melhor compreender o processo de maturação. As frutas foram colhidas nos estágios verde, vermelho e maduro. A determinação do estágio maduro foi baseada na cor da superfície das frutas. A materia seca, os fenóis totais e os valores de Hunter L, b diminuiram mas os sólidos solúveis, açúcares totais e total de antocianina decresceram em função do nível de maturação. Nos estágios iniciais de maturação, o pH decresceu, a acidez titulável e o valor a de Hunter aumentaram enquanto nos

  12. Aislamiento de consorcios de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares de plantas medicinales y su efecto en el crecimiento de vinca (Catharanthus roseus Isolation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi consortia from medicinal plants and their effectiveness on growth of vinca (Catharanthus roseus

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    CLAUDIA DE LA ROSA-MERA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consistió en propagar e identificar hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (HMA recolectados de plantas medicinales (PM de áreas naturales de bosques mixtos, y seleccionar consorcios micorrícicos con base en la promoción del crecimiento de vinca Catharanthus roseus (L G. Don, planta medicinal cuyos alcaloides tienen propiedades antineoplásicas. En la primera fase experimental se recolectaron raíces y suelo rizosférico de 13 PM establecidas en campo para evaluar el porcentaje de colonización total (PCT y cuantificar el número de esporas; además, se tomó una parte del suelo para establecer plantas trampa en invernadero durante 10 meses, y posteriormente evaluar el PCT e identificar los principales géneros de HMA. Todas las PM en su condición natural presentaron colonización micorrícica, observándose cuatro géneros de HMA (Glomus, Acaulospora, Gigaspora y Scutellospora, de los cuales Acaulospora y Glomus fueron los predominantes. En la segunda fase experimental se seleccionaron ocho consorcios con base en el PCT (> 40 % obtenido en las plantas trampa, que correspondieron a las muestras recolectadas de Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Castilleja tenuiflora Benth., Erigeron karvinskianus DC., Pimpinella anisum L., Plantago major L., Ricinus communis L., Rubus fruticosus L. y Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Estos consorcios fueron inoculados en plántulas de C. roseus para evaluar su capacidad de estimular el crecimiento de esta especie en condiciones de invernadero. Después de 70 días, a pesar de presentar un solo género predominante (Glomus, el consorcio aislado de R. mexicanus promovió de manera más consistente el crecimiento de C. roseus (número de hojas, área foliar y peso seco foliar en comparación con el resto de los consorcios micorrícicos.This study consisted on propagating and identifying arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF collected from medicinal plants (MP of natural areas of mixed forest (Estado de Mexico, and

  13. 江西官山2种苔藓植物叶片氮磷化学计量学特征%The leaf nitrogen:phosphorus stoichiometry of two bryophyte species in Guanshan Mountain, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昕; 欧阳明; 黄兰; 徐佳文; 林国江; 杨清培

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) stoichiometry is crucial to plant growth, development and adaptive capacity. Bryophytes belong to ancient plant groups, can adapt to the change of the natural environment for a long time. However, The leaf N and P stoichiometry and adaptation mechanism for bryophytes are still unclear. In this study, two typical bryophytes (Marchantia polymorpha, Hypnum plumaeforme) and two kinds of angiosperms (Rubus buergeri, Schima superba) which as a control were selected in Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi province, then comparatively analyzed the leaf N and P content, leaf N:P and coefficients of variation and so on. Results showed that: (1) Bryophytes leaf P average content was 2.58 mg/g, significantly higher than that was 1.97 mg/g in two angiosperms, while leaf N:P average was 5.99, obviously lower than 8.35 of angiosperms. (2) The variation range was great of leaf N, P and N:P in bryophytes, whose variation coefficients were 18.94%, 22.05%and 18.52%, respectively were higher than 13.16%, 10.69%, and 13.00% of angiosperms. Above results indicated that bryophytes owned high P content, low N:P and had strong plasticity, we suggest that the ecological adaptation and environmental transformation function of bryophyte should be continue to study in depth.%氮(N)、磷(P)化学计量学特征对植物的生长发育及适应能力至关重要,苔藓植物属古老的植物类群,能够长期适应自然环境的变化,但其氮磷化学计量学特征及适应机制尚不清楚. 本文在江西省官山国家级自然保护区选择2种典型苔藓植物地钱(Marchantia polymorpha) 和大灰藓(Hypnum plumaeforme), 并以2种被子植物寒莓(Rubus buergeri)和木荷(Schima superb)为对照,比较分析了叶片的N、P含量、N:P和变异系数等指标. 结果表明:(1)与2种被子植物相比,苔藓植物P含量较高,N:P较低,其叶片P含量平均值为2.58 mg/g显著高于被子植物的1.97 mg/g,而其

  14. Substratos no enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de amora-preta Xavante Substrates on rooting of blackberry Xavante herbaceous cuttings

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    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A amora-preta (Rubus spp. destaca-se entre as espécies que apresentam boas perspectivas de cultivo em áreas de agricultura familiar. Visando a otimizar a multiplicação de mudas dessa espécie, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de substratos e concentrações do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas de amora-preta Xavante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3x2 (três tipos de substratos e duas concentrações de AIB, com cinco repetições de sete estacas, sendo adotados os fatores: tipos de substratos (casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita grânulos médios e fibra de coco e tratadas ou não com AIB (0 e 1000mg L-1. Após 80 dias, foram avaliadas as variáveis: sobrevivência das estacas; retenção foliar; estacas enraizadas; número de raízes por estaca; comprimento da maior raiz; massa seca das raízes por estaca; e pH; condutividade elétrica; densidade e capacidade de retenção de água dos substratos. Não houve influência dos substratos e da aplicação de AIB sobre a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, verificando-se alta eficiência no enraizamento das estacas de amora-preta Xavante (86,2%. Para a porcentagem de sobrevivência das estacas, o melhor resultado foi obtido sem a aplicação de AIB. Conclui-se que a amora-preta Xavante pode ser propagada por estaquia herbácea com eficiência, sem o uso de AIB, utilizando-se preferencialmente o substrato casca de arroz carbonizada como opção de baixo custo.The blackberry (Rubus spp. stands out among the species that have good prospects for cultivation in areas of family farm agriculture. In order to optimize the multiplication of seedlings of this species, the aim of this research was to evaluate the use of different substrates and concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA on the rooting of cuttings of blackberry Xavante. The experiment was performed using the completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial

  15. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  16. [Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the dominant plants growing in Huayuan manganese and lead/zinc mineland, Xiangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Tian, Qi-Jian; Liang, Shi-Chu; Zhou, Yao-Yu; Zou, Hui-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental problem of mine wasteland. Finding out the tolerant plants, which can adapt to the local climate and the soil conditions, is the premise of vegetation restoration. An extensive vegetation survey and sampling were conducted in Huayuan Mn and Pb/Zn mineland, 76 species belonging to 69 genera and 39 families were recorded. The main dominant species and their associated soils were determined for heavy metal concentrations. The results showed that soil Pb, Zn and Cd levels exceeded the threshold levels of Class II of China Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, which suggested minesoils might be polluted by the three elements. The main dominant plants can adapt to the unfavorable edaphic conditions of mineland and were tolerant to heavy metals. There were great variations of metal uptake and accumulation among different plant species. They were classified into three types according to the metal concentrations in the plant shoots and roots: the accumulator, e. g. Camellia oleifera and Dicranopteris dichotoma, absorbed a large amount of heavy metals by the roots and transported to the shoots, which can be used to clean up the soils containing light to moderate toxic metal concentration and with high-value; the root compartment, e. g. Rubus tephrodes, R. corchorifolius, R. chroosepalus, Artemisia princeps and Pteridium aquilinum also absorbed a large amount of heavy metals but held in the roots; and the excluder, e. g. Miscanthus sinensis, Imperata cylindrica, Indocalamus tessellatus and Toddalia asiatica, absorbed less heavy metals than the accumulators. The root compartment and the excluder were more suitable for remediation of the mine wastelands with high heavy metal concentration, low-value and extensive area.

  17. Conocimiento de seis especies arbustivas utilizadas como plantas nodrizas en el occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En la restauración de ecosistemas, una técnica es utilizar arbustos de la sucesión como nodriza. En la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, se ha recurrido al menos a seis de ellos en el establecimiento de pino y pinabete: arrayán (Baccharis vaccinoides Kunth, salvia (Buddleia megalocephala Donn. Sm., mozote (Acaena elongata L., chicajol (Stevia polycephala Bertol, mora (Rubus trilobus Ser. y malacate (Symphoricarpos microphyllus Kunth. Se carece de la documentación de su comportamiento y características que puedan servir para utilizarlas ampliamente como plantas protectoras. En esta investigación se estudió características in situ y reproductivas de estas especies. Entre los principales resultados está que la altura de plantas es de 1.17 a 2.64 m y cobertura de 0.34 a 2.77 m2, con una amplia variación entre y dentro de especies. La cantidad de frutos/planta va desde 90 en S. microphyllus a 59,400 en B. vaccinioides. La propagación vegetativa en campo estuvo entre 48 a 92 %, mayor que cuando se realizó en vivero, donde B. vaccinoides, S. microphyllus y R. trilobus tuvieron mejor respuesta. La propagación por semilla muestra que las seis especies pueden reproducirse adecuadamente. Estos resultados permiten su reproducción en viveros para su uso en restauración ecológica.

  18. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

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    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MERCURY AS WELL AS CADMIUM AND ANTHOCYANIN CONTENTS IN WILD FOREST FRUITS FROM ENVIRONMENTALLY BURDEN REGION OF THE SLOVAKIA

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    Stanislav Zupka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between total mercury as well as cadmium contents and total anthocyanins content in wild forest fruit berries collected in environemtally burden region of Stredny Spis in the Slovakia was investigated in this study. From the sampling points of different localities of this region small berries were sampled: blackberries (6 localities, blackthorns (5 localities, rosehips (6 localities, hawthorn fruits. Metal determinations were performed in a Varian AA240Z (Varian, Australia atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman background correction. Total anthocyanin content (TA in fruits was determined spectrophotometrically using the spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV/VIS – 1240, Japan. With exception of three samples in all other fruit samples the hygienic limit for Cd (30 μg/kg given for foodstuffs by Slovak Republic Food Codex was exceeded. Only in one fruit sample the determined Hg content was higher than hygienic limit (30 μg/kg. Total anthocyanin content expressed as mg cyanidin equivalents/kg of fresh matter (mg CE/kg FM was in range 370 – 830 in blackberries (Rubus Fruticosus, 2500 – 3000 in rosehips (Rosa rubiginosa, 213 in raspberries (Prunus spinosa and 317 mg CE/kg FM in hawthorn berries (Crataegus laevigata. The strong statistical dependences between investigated parameters: Hg – TA in blackthorns, , Cd – TA in raspberries, Hg – TA in raspberries, Cd – TA in hawthorn and Hg – TA in hawthorn were confirmed based on the values of correlation coefficients (R= 0.6958, R= 0.9633, R= 0.9163, R= 0.8587 and R= 0.8938 , respectively.

  20. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

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    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

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    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  2. Caracterización morfológica de mora en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Cauca y Nariño, de Colombia Morphologic characterization of blackberry on the departments of Valle, Cauca y Nariño of Colombia

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    Adriana Zamorano M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron 36 materiales de mora pertenecientes a las especies Rubus glaucus , R. urticifolius y R. robustus . La caracterización cualitativa separó las 3 especies y generó descriptores que permitieron identificar forma, tipo, margen, ápice y color del envés en las hojas, y presencia de antocianinas y cerosidad en tallos. La caracterización cuantitativa identificó particularidades de importancia comercial (alto peso de fruto, pocas espinas en el tallo y altos grados Brix en los materiales 3 y 31 de la Colección. El análisis multivariado de caracteres cuantitativos de tallo y fruto conformó 5 grupos que variaron en distancia de entrenudos, longitud de peciolulo en rama macho, longitud de pecíolo en rama hembra y macho, ancho de folíolo, peso de fruto, longitud del corazón del fruto y número de drupas.36 materials of blackberry belonging to three species: R. glaucus , R. urticifolius and R. robustus were collected. The qualitative characterization separated the three species and it generated describers that allowed to identify form, type, margin, apex, color of leaf in the leaves, and presence of antocianinas and serosity in steams. The quantitative characterization identified characteristics of commercial importance (high fruit weight, few thorns in the stem and high Brix degrees in the materials 3 and 31 of the Collection. The multivaried analysis of quantitative characters for stem and fruit conformed 5 groups that varied in distance of internodes, length of pedicels in the male branch, length of petioles in female and male branch, wide of leaf, fruit weight, length of the heart of the fruit and number of drupes.

  3. Seeds Recovered from the Droppings at Latrines of the Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus): The Possibility of Seed Dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuka; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2015-04-01

    Medium-sized carnivorous mammals are important seed dispersers of fleshy fruits. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) often feeds on fleshy fruits and forms latrines. This behavior may potentially lead to seed dispersal. To determine if this is the case, we studied 1) seed recovery in the droppings of raccoon dogs, and 2) the transportation of seeds between habitats using plastic markers in a western suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In total, 32,473 seeds of 50 plant taxa were recovered from 120 raccoon dog droppings during a year, and 95.7% of the seeds were found to be those of fleshy fruits. The species most frequently recovered were the eurya (Eurya japonica, 52.6%), the brambles (Rubus spp., 17.4%), and the black night shade (Solanum nigrum, 16.0%). A total of 7,412 plastic markers were embedded in baits at 14 bait plots and were recovered in the feces of the raccoon dogs at 22 latrines. The "transportation rates" were calculated in 50-m distance classes and found that most seeds (43.5%) were deposited within 50 m from the bait point, suggesting very short seed dispersal distances. Inter-habitat transportation was observed: 64.9% of the retrieved markers deposited in the forest were transported to other places within the forest. In contrast, almost all of the markers (99.4%) deposited in the open site were transported within the same habitat. These findings suggest that the seeds of forest plants bearing berries can be dispersed out of the forest to open areas by raccoon dogs.

  4. Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens to Blackberry under Field Conditions Improves Fruit Quality by Modifying Flavonoid Metabolism.

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    Daniel Garcia-Seco

    Full Text Available Application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4, to roots of blackberries (Rubus sp. is part of an optimised cultivation practice to improve yields and quality of fruit throughout the year in this important fruit crop. Blackberries are especially rich in flavonoids and therefore offer potential benefits for human health in prevention or amelioration of chronic diseases. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway and its regulation during ripening have not been studied in detail, in this species. PGPR may trigger flavonoid biosynthesis as part of an induced systemic response (ISR given the important role of this pathway in plant defence, to cause increased levels of flavonoids in the fruit. We have identified structural genes encoding enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways catalysing the conversion of phenylalanine to the final products including flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins from blackberry, and regulatory genes likely involved in controlling the activity of pathway branches. We have also measured the major flavonols, anthocyanins and catechins at three stages during ripening. Our results demonstrate the coordinated expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes with the accumulation of anthocyanins, catechins, and flavonols in developing fruits of blackberry. Elicitation of blackberry plants by treatment of roots with P.fluorescens N21.4, caused increased expression of some flavonoid biosynthetic genes and an accompanying increase in the concentration of selected flavonoids in fruits. Our data demonstrate the physiological mechanisms involved in the improvement of fruit quality by PGPR under field conditions, and highlight some of the genetic targets of elicitation by beneficial bacteria.

  5. A Survey of Plant Species Diversity and Ecological Species Group from the Coastal Zone Of Boujagh National Park, Guilan, Iran

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    Shahryar Saeidi Mehrvarz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the ecological species groups and investigate the diversity among them. The research area comprises in a coastal system of Boujagh National Park, inNorthern of Guilan Province, Iran. Vegetation sampling was carried out along 6 shoreperpendicular transects, ween minimum 153 m and maximum 5562 m long. A total of 52 plot of 25square meters were taken in transects. In each sampled plot, the cover percentage value of eachspecies was estimated using Bran-Blanquet scales. Vegetation classified using Two-Way IndicatorSpecies Analysis (TWINSPAN. Classification of plots showed four vegetation groups: Convolvuluspersicus - Crepis foetida, Argusia sibirica, Eryngium caucasicum - Juncus acutus, Rubus sanctus. Plantdiversity in these vegetation groups have been evaluated. The comparison of diversity indicesamong groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results of analysis of variance in speciesdiversity indices showed significant differences among the groups in terms of biodiversity indices.The survey of variation in the groups showed that group 3 had the highest and group 2 had thelowest Shannon-Wiener’s, Simpson’s and Fisher’s diversity indices respectively. In Menhinink’sand Margalef’s richness indices group 2 and 3 had the highest and group 1 had the lowest measure.In Sheldon’s evenness index group 2 had the highest and group 3 had the lowest measure. Finally,the overall survey of indices showed that groups 1 and 2 had less diversity but had more evennessthan groups 3 and 4.This shows that despite suitable living conditions for the growth anddevelopment of vegetation in the groups 3 and 4, the abundance of species has declined Because ofthe destruction done in this section.

  6. Adubação nitrogenada e características agronômicas em amoreira-preta

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    Ivan dos Santos Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de doses crescentes de nitrogênio sobre o crescimento vegetativo, a produção e os níveis foliares de nutrientes da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.. O experimento foi realizado com as cultivares Tupy e Xavante, na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, de 2008 a 2012. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de cinco doses de N (0,0, 7,5, 15,0, 22,5 e 30,0 g por planta, aplicados na adubação de manutenção, após a implantação da lavoura. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis: densidade de hastes, massa de matéria seca de poda, índice de clorofila, produção por planta, número de frutos e composição nutricional das folhas (N, K, Ca, Mg e S. A adubação nitrogenada influenciou significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, a produção e a composição nutricional das folhas. As cultivares apresentaram resposta distinta à aplicação de N, em que 'Tupy' foi mais exigente que 'Xavante'. As doses de N atualmente recomendadas para a cultura da amoreira-preta são satisfatórias para a máxima produção de 'Xavante', mas insuficientes para 'Tupy'.

  7. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal): a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Blanco, Emilio; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Lastra, Juan José; San Miguel, Elia; Morales, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca) and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile). The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity. PMID:17555572

  8. The use of wild plants as food in pre-industrial Sweden

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    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the actual gathering and use of wild edible plants in the 18th and 19th centuries, with a brief concluding discussion on the present day use of wild plants as food within Sweden. The peasants and the nomads in pre-industrial Sweden utilised very few wild plant taxa as food. Many even despised the wild fruits and green plants. Some plants and fruits were earlier mostly eaten fresh on the spot, or gathered for consumption in bread, gruel or soup. Other fruits were dried or preserved in other ways. In times of food shortages the amount of wild plants increased in the diet, but still the peasantry and nomads were often able to use fish and game to provide enough nutrients. With access to cheap sugar in the early 20th century wild fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., and Rubus chamaemorus L. increased in importance, especially among urban-dwellers and within food industry. In the last few decades fungi have also become part of the urban diet. Fifty years ago working class people gathered only Cantharellus cibarius (Fr. and occasionally Boletus edulis Bull. Nowadays more taxa are utilised within the Swedish households, and especially the easy to pick Cantharellus tubaeformis (Pers. has become very popular recently. Harvesting fruits and mushrooms in the forests is a popular pastime for many urban people, but also a source of income for immigrants and especially foreign seasonal labour. The only traditional green wild food plant that is regularly eaten in contemporary Sweden is Urtica dioica L.

  9. Virulence Factors of Erwinia amylovora: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Núria; Miñana-Galbis, David; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2015-06-05

    Erwinia amylovora, a Gram negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is the causal agent of fire blight, a devastating plant disease affecting a wide range of host species within Rosaceae and a major global threat to commercial apple and pear production. Among the limited number of control options currently available, prophylactic application of antibiotics during the bloom period appears the most effective. Pathogen cells enter plants through the nectarthodes of flowers and other natural openings, such as wounds, and are capable of rapid movement within plants and the establishment of systemic infections. Many virulence determinants of E. amylovora have been characterized, including the Type III secretion system (T3SS), the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran, biofilm formation, and motility. To successfully establish an infection, E. amylovora uses a complex regulatory network to sense the relevant environmental signals and coordinate the expression of early and late stage virulence factors involving two component signal transduction systems, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and quorum sensing. The LPS biosynthetic gene cluster is one of the relatively few genetic differences observed between Rubus- and Spiraeoideae-infecting genotypes of E. amylovora. Other differential factors, such as the presence and composition of an integrative conjugative element associated with the Hrp T3SS (hrp genes encoding the T3SS apparatus), have been recently described. In the present review, we present the recent findings on virulence factors research, focusing on their role in bacterial pathogenesis and indicating other virulence factors that deserve future research to characterize them.

  10. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W

    2012-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East), host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains from the

  11. Erwinia amylovora CRISPR elements provide new tools for evaluating strain diversity and for microbial source tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle C McGhee

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs comprise a family of short DNA repeat sequences that are separated by non repetitive spacer sequences and, in combination with a suite of Cas proteins, are thought to function as an adaptive immune system against invading DNA. The number of CRISPR arrays in a bacterial chromosome is variable, and the content of each array can differ in both repeat number and in the presence or absence of specific spacers. We utilized a comparative sequence analysis of CRISPR arrays of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora to uncover previously unknown genetic diversity in this species. A total of 85 E. amylovora strains varying in geographic isolation (North America, Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East, host range, plasmid content, and streptomycin sensitivity/resistance were evaluated for CRISPR array number and spacer variability. From these strains, 588 unique spacers were identified in the three CRISPR arrays present in E. amylovora, and these arrays could be categorized into 20, 17, and 2 patterns types, respectively. Analysis of the relatedness of spacer content differentiated most apple and pear strains isolated in the eastern U.S. from western U.S. strains. In addition, we identified North American strains that shared CRISPR genotypes with strains isolated on other continents. E. amylovora strains from Rubus and Indian hawthorn contained mostly unique spacers compared to apple and pear strains, while strains from loquat shared 79% of spacers with apple and pear strains. Approximately 23% of the spacers matched known sequences, with 16% targeting plasmids and 5% targeting bacteriophage. The plasmid pEU30, isolated in E. amylovora strains from the western U.S., was targeted by 55 spacers. Lastly, we used spacer patterns and content to determine that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora from Michigan were low in diversity and matched corresponding streptomycin-sensitive strains

  12. Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer H; Clark, Suzanne J; Denholm, Ian; Goulson, Dave; Stoate, Chris; Osborne, Juliet L

    2009-12-01

    In the UK, the flowers of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants provide a succession of pollen and nectar for flower-visiting insects for much of the year. The fruits of hedgerow plants are a source of winter food for frugivorous birds on farmland. It is unclear whether recent declines in pollinator populations are likely to threaten fruit-set and hence food supply for birds. The present study investigates the pollination biology of five common hedgerow plants: blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), dog rose (Rosa canina), bramble (Rubus fruticosus) and ivy (Hedera helix). The requirement for insect pollination was investigated initially by excluding insects from flowers by using mesh bags and comparing immature and mature fruit-set with those of open-pollinated flowers. Those plants that showed a requirement for insect pollination were then tested to compare fruit-set under two additional pollination service scenarios: (1) reduced pollination, with insects excluded from flowers bagged for part of the flowering period, and (2) supplemental pollination, with flowers hand cross-pollinated to test for pollen limitation. The proportions of flowers setting fruit in blackthorn, hawthorn and ivy were significantly reduced when insects were excluded from flowers by using mesh bags, whereas fruit-set in bramble and dog rose were unaffected. Restricting the exposure of flowers to pollinators had no significant effect on fruit-set. However, blackthorn and hawthorn were found to be pollen-limited, suggesting that the pollination service was inadequate in the study area. Ensuring strong populations of insect pollinators may be essential to guarantee a winter fruit supply for birds in UK hedgerows.

  13. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  14. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  15. Spatio-temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soft mast is an important resource for many wild populations in the Southern Appalachians, yet the way clear-cutting affects availability of soft mast though time is not fully understood. We tested a theoretical model of temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts using empirical data on percent cover and berry production of Gaylussacia, Vaccinium, and Rubus spp. plants in 100 stands that were clearcut (0-122 years old) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled the relationship between soft mast availability and stand age, evaluated the effects of topography and forest type on soft mast, developed statistical models for predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of soft mast, and tested the hypothesis that percent cover of berry plants and berry production provided similar information about soft mast availability. We found temporal dynamics explained berry production better than it predicted percent plant cover, whereas topographic variables influenced percent plant cover more than they influenced berry production. Berry production and percent plant cover were highest in ???2-9-year-old stands. Percent plant cover was lowest in 10-69-year-old stands and intermediate in 70+-year-old stands. Three of our spatio-temporal models performed well during model testing and they were not biased by the training data, indicating the inferences about spatio-temporal availability of soft mast extended beyond our sample data. The methods we used to estimate the distribution of soft mast may be useful for modeling distributions of other resources. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of grazing on natural regeneration of tree and herb species of Kheyroud forest in northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Javanmiri Pour; Mohmmad Reza Marvie Mohadjer; Vahid Etemad; Mahmoud Zobeiri

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of grazing on natural regeneration,quantity,and diversity of woody species and dominant herb species in Kheyroud forest in northern Iran.We sampled vegetation in 5m2 plots in custom units,which are demarcated resource areas traditionally used by local livestock producers.The authors quantified number of species,height of seedlings,and diameter of seedlings.Height classes were 0-30 cm,30-130 cm,and >130 cm,and diameter classes were 0-2.5 cm,2.5-5 cm and 5-7.5 cm.The density of seedlings declined with distance from corral until reaching the custom unit boundary.Most seedlings had diameters of 0-2.5 cm and heights of 0-30 cm.Predominant species,Carpinus betulus and Acer capadocicum,were in plots near the centers of custom units,Fagus orientalis,Acer velutinum,Quercus castanifolia species were dominant in plots near the custom unit boundary.Plant species such as Oplismenus undulatifolius,Euphorbia amygdaloides,Rubus fruticos and Pteridium aquilinum were dominant in plots nearer to forest corral.Healthy seedlings were more numerous in plots nearest the corral,while defective and deformed seedlings were more abundant away from the corral.We conclude that grazing had negative effects on the quantity and quality of vegetative regeneration.Continuation of overgrazing will not only endanger the sustainability of forest ecosystems,but also will increase the challenge of sustainable forest management.

  17. Prioritizing fodder species based on traditional knowledge: a case study of mithun (Bos frontalis) in Dulongjiang area, Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yanfei; Hu, Guoxiong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Wang, Yuhua; Bu, Dengpan; Pei, Shengji; Ou, Xiaokun; Lu, Yang; Ma, Xuelan; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-05-04

    Livestock rearing is one of the oldest and most important types of smallholder farming worldwide. The sustainability of livestock production depends on the efficient utilization of locally available resources. Some traditional methods of raising livestock may offer valuable lessons in this regard. This study documented and evaluated local knowledge of wild forage plants in the Dulongjiang area in Southwest China in the context of rearing mithun (Bos frontalis) in order to provide a sound evidence base for tree fodder selection and the establishment of integrated tree-crop-livestock systems. The snowball technique was used to identify key informants with specific knowledge about the topic. Free listing and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 households. Participatory investigation and transit walks were used to investigate potential fodder species. Ethnobotanical information was collected, documented and organized. Overall, 142 wild forage plants from 58 families and 117 genera were identified. Species of the Poaceae, Rosaceae and Urticaceae families were most abundant, with 16, 14 and 11 species respectively identified as fodder plants. Our results indicated that tree/shrub forage plays a major role in the diet of mithun, unlike that of other ruminants. Mithun prefers to browse and move around the forest in search of food, particularly rough and even barbed leaves. Tree species like Debregeasia orientalis, Saurauia polyneura and Rubus species were identified as being important fodder sources. Farmers in this area have traditionally relied on common property resources such as community-managed forests and grasslands to feed their livestock. Farmers have strong incentive to raise mithuns rather than other livestock species due to Dulong people's cultural preferences. The wide variety of plants cited by the informants demonstrate the importance of traditional knowledge in gathering information about forage resources. This diversity also offers the

  18. Bioactive extracts from berry byproducts on the pathogenicity of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaheen, Serajus; Jaiswal, Ekta; Joo, Jungsoo; Peng, Mengfei; Ho, Ryan; OConnor, Danielle; Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Jose Helim; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) in the presence of lethal and sublethal concentrations (SLC2LOG) of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) pomace extracts. Antimicrobial susceptibility, physicochemical properties, motility, biofilm formation ability, virulence gene expression patterns, and the ability of ST to colonize in chick cecum were evaluated in the presence of these bioactive extracts. HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the phenolics in the berry pomace extracts consisted, but not limited to, flavan, flavanone, flavones, glucuronides, glucosides, quinolones, catechol, coumarin, phenols, luteolines, tannins, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, and xanthoxic acid. The SLC2LOG of both berry pomace extracts increased the rates of injured ST by ~50%; significantly decreased the hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation, cellular motility, and invasion into cultured INT407, HD11, and DF1 cells. The relative expression of type III secretion system regulated genes, hilA, hilC, invA, invF, sirA, and sirB was significantly downregulated in ST. In addition, natural colonization ability of Salmonella in chick cecum was reduced by more than two logs in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0gGallicAcidEquivalent/L berry pomace extracts when provided as water supplement. Findings from this study reveal the high potential of phenolic extracts from berry pomaces as a green antimicrobial against enteric pathogen Salmonella and application in the reduction of pre-harvest colonization level of Salmonella in poultry gut. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Los carábidos (Coleoptera: Carabidae asociados a los remanentes de bosque nativo en la Reserva Natural Municipal Laguna de los Padres, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío P. PORRINI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frente a la amenaza que ha provocado la expansión de la exótica zarzamora (Rubus ulmifolius (Schott en la Reserva Natural Municipal Laguna de los Padres (RNMLP, surgió la necesidad de estudiar los ensambles de carábidos asociados a los remanentes de bosque nativo de “curro” (Colletia paradoxa ((Spreng. Escal., tala (Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch Liebm. y sauce (Salix humboldtiana (Willd que aún persisten. Se encontró que la riqueza específica es mayor en el bosque de S. humboldtiana (DE, seguida por el bosque de C. paradoxa (BC y luego por los bosques de C. ehrenbergiana con distinto uso antrópico (Talar de uso recreativo (TR y Talar antropizado (TA. BC y DE localizados dentro de la zona intangible y de conservación, tomados en conjunto, aportaron más del 85% (53 especies de la riqueza específica total relevada, mientras que TR y TA ubicados fuera de estas zonas aportaron un 56% (35 especies. Los ensambles de carábidos fueron diferentes a lo largo del año y entre sí para los distintos bosques. La especie más abundante fue Argutoridius bonariensis (Dejean y dominó los ensambles de TA y TR durante las cuatro estaciones. En DE y BC se destacaron especies propias y un endemismo para el DE. Los predadores constituyeron el gremio trófico más abundante para todos los sitios. Se discutió para cada bosque su estado de conservación y los posibles factores naturales o artificiales que condicionan la diversidad de carábidos encontrada.

  20. Effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han Saem; Hong, Soon Jun; Lee, Tae-Bum; Kwon, Ji-Wung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Joo, Hyung Joon; Park, Jae Hyoung; Ahn, Chul-Min; Yu, Cheol Woong; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) has been known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. However, short-term effects of black raspberry on lipid profiles and vascular endothelial function have not been investigated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 77) were prospectively randomized into a group with black raspberry (n = 39, 750 mg/day) and a placebo group (n = 38) during a 12-week follow-up. Lipid profiles, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (baFMD), and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 were measured at the baseline and at the 12-week follow-up. Decreases from the baseline in the total cholesterol level (-22.8 ± 30.4 mg/dL vs. -1.9 ± 31.8 mg/dL, p raspberry than in the placebo group. Increases in baFMD at the 12-week follow-up were significantly greater in the group with black raspberry than in the placebo group (0.33 ± 0.44 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.35 mm, p raspberry. The use of black raspberry significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level and inflammatory cytokines, thereby improving vascular endothelial function in patients with metabolic syndrome during the 12-week follow-up.