WorldWideScience

Sample records for fragmentation function contribution

  1. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  2. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  3. Phenomenological relation between distribution and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Boqiang; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques; Yang Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    We study the relation between the quark distribution function q(x) and the fragmentation function D q (z) based on a general form D q (x)=C(z)z α q(z) for valence and sea quarks. By adopting two known parametrizations of quark distributions for the proton, we find three simple options for the fragmentation functions that can provide a good description of the available experimental data on proton production in e + e - inelastic annihilation. These three options support the revised Gribov-Lipatov relation D q (z)=zq(z) at z→1, as an approximate relation for the connection between distribution and fragmentation functions. The three options differ in the sea contributions and lead to distinct predictions for antiproton production in the reaction p+p→p-bar+X, thus they are distinguishable in future experiments at RHIC-BNL

  4. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  5. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  6. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  7. Medium modification of fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezza, Pasquale Di

    2007-01-01

    Deep Inelastic Scattering is the cleanest process to investigate the space-time evolution of the hadronization. This was studied by the influence of the nuclear medium on lepto-production of hadrons at the Hermes experiment at DESY in semi-inclusive DIS of 27.6 GeV positrons off deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The differential multiplicity for heavy targets relative to that of deuterium has been measured for the first time for various identified hadrons (φ + , φ - , φ 0 , k + , k - , p and anti-p) as a function of the virtual photon energy ?, the fraction z of this energy transferred to the hadron, and the hadron transverse momentum squared p 2 t . The distribution of the hadron transverse momentum is broadened towards high p 2 t in the nuclear medium, in a manner resembling the Cronin effect observed in collisions of heavy ions and protons with nuclei. The pt -broadening results give also important information about the pre-hadron formation time. Moreover, by studying the hadron attenuation of the leading and sub-leading hadrons, we report, for the first time, the possibility to better understand the hadron absorption and the energy loss contributions to the attenuation mechanism. (Author)

  8. Dihadron fragmentation function and its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.; Wang Xinnian

    2004-01-01

    Dihadron fragmentation functions and their evolution are studied in the process of e + e - annihilation. Under the collinear factorization approximation and facilitated by the cut-vertex technique, the two hadron inclusive cross section at leading order is shown to factorize into a short distance parton cross section and a long distance dihadron fragmentation function. We provide the definition of such a dihadron fragmentation function in terms of parton matrix elements and derive its Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation at leading log. The evolution equation for the nonsinglet quark fragmentation function is solved numerically with a simple ansatz for the initial condition and results are presented for cases of physical interest

  9. Jet Fragmentation Function Moments in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Salam, Gavin P; Soyez, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area based techniques proposed in the past for jet p_t's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p_t and to its particle content are easily corrected for.

  10. Jet fragmentation function moments in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacciari, Matteo [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); Salam, Gavin P. [UPMC Univ. Paris 6 et CNRS UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CERN, Department of Physics, Theory Unit, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Princeton University, Department of Physics, Princeton, NJ (United States); Soyez, Gregory [CNRS URA 2306, Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-03-15

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However, the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area-based techniques proposed in the past for jet p{sub t} 's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p{sub t} and to its particle content are easily corrected for. (orig.)

  11. Jet fragmentation function moments in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, Matteo; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Salam, Gavin P.; Soyez, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The nature of a jet's fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions has the potential to cast light on the mechanism of jet quenching. However, the presence of the huge underlying event complicates the reconstruction of the jet fragmentation function as a function of the momentum fraction z of hadrons in the jet. Here we propose the use of moments of the fragmentation function. These quantities appear to be as sensitive to quenching modifications as the fragmentation function directly in z. We show that they are amenable to background subtraction using the same jet-area-based techniques proposed in the past for jet p t 's. Furthermore, complications due to correlations between background-fluctuation contributions to the jet's p t and to its particle content are easily corrected for. (orig.)

  12. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  13. Determination of diquark fragmentation functions in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Beavis, D

    1981-01-01

    The recent data of the Aachen-CERN-Harvard-Munich-Northwestern- Riverside collaboration on pp collisions involving a high-p/sub T/ pion trigger at 30 degrees with forward production of pion and proton in the same hemisphere is analyzed in terms of fragmentation functions of the forward diquark and a quantum-chromodynamic model for the ejected parton. The pion diquark fragmentation functions obtained from leptoproduction give excellent fits to the data and confirm the conclusions of ACHMNR that the diquark within a proton act as a single entity. This single-entity hypothesis can also explain proton fragmentation. The gluon contribution (triquark fragmentation) is significant in the proton distribution and accounts for the difference in pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ distributions. Its importance in backward-hemisphere production of hadrons with the same pion trigger is emphasized and the cross sections are predicted. (8 refs).

  14. Contributing to Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...

  15. Kaon fragmentation function from NJL-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The NJL-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters [1]. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within this framework showed good qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation function and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation function exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark's. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  16. arXiv Generalized Fragmentation Functions for Fractal Jet Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-15

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phen...

  17. On the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Wei; Wang Jianxiong

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the uncertainties induced by different definitions of the momentum fraction z in the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function. We numerically calculate the initial g→J/ψ fragmentation functions by using the non-covariant definitions of z with finite gluon momentum and find that these fragmentation functions have strong dependence on the gluon momentum k. As |k|→∞, these fragmentation functions approach to the fragmentation function in the light-cone definition. We find that when |k| is small (for instance in the typical energy scale (about 4-20GeV) of the gluon production at the hadron colliders, such as Tevatron and LHC), large uncertainty remains while the in-covariant definitions of z are employed in the application of the fragmentation functions. (authors)

  18. Fragmentation functions of polarized heavy quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the production of polarized heavy quarkonia in terms of recently proposed QCD factorization formalism requires the knowledge of a large number of input fragmentation functions (FFs) from a single parton or a heavy quark-antiquark pair to a polarized heavy quarkonium. We study these universal FFs at the input factorization scale μ 0 ≳2m Q , with heavy quark mass m Q , in the framework of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. We express these FFs in terms of perturbatively calculable coefficients for producing a heavy quark-antiquark pair in all possible NRQCD states, multiplied by corresponding NRQCD long-distance matrix elements for the pair to transmute into a polarized heavy quarkonium. We derive all relevant NRQCD operators for the long-distance matrix elements based on symmetries, and introduce a self-consistent scheme to define them in arbitrary d-dimensions. We compute, up to the first non-trivial order in α s , the perturbative coefficients for producing a heavy quark pair in all possible S-wave and P-wave NRQCD states. We also discuss the role of the polarized FFs in generating QCD predictions for the polarization of J/ψ produced at collider energies.

  19. Next-To-Leading Order Determination of Fragmentation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bourhis, L; Guillet, J P; Werlen, M

    2001-01-01

    We analyse LEP and PETRA data on single inclusive charged hadron cross-sections to establish new sets of Next-to-Leading order Fragmentation Functions. Data on hadro-production of large-$p_{\\bot}$ hadrons are also used to constrain the gluon Fragmentation Function. We carry out a critical comparison with other NLO parametrizations.

  20. A theoretical study of the c and b fragmentation function in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We present an analysis of the c and b fragmentation functions which includes in a consistent fashion leading and next-to-leading perturbative contributions, effects due to soft gluon emission and a parametrization of effects of non-perturbative origin. We show that the data on D meson production at intermediate energy constrain the parametrization of the effects of non-perturbative nature. We can therefore make a prediction for the B fragmentation function. Results for the B, D and D * fragmentation functions at LEP energy are given, and compared with existing data. (orig.)

  1. Quark fragmentation function and the nonlinear chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.K.

    1993-01-01

    The scaling law of the fragmentation function has been proved in this paper. With that, we show that low-P T quark fragmentation function can be studied as a low energy physocs in the light-cone coordinate frame. We therefore use the nonlinear chiral quark model which is able to study the low energy physics under scale Λ CSB to study such a function. Meanwhile the formalism for studying the quark fragmentation function has been established. The nonlinear chiral quark model is quantized on the light-front. We then use old-fashioned perturbation theory to study the quark fragmentation function. Our first order result for such a function shows in agreement with the phenomenological model study of e + e - jet. The probability for u,d pair formation in the e + e - jet from our calculation is also in agreement with the phenomenological model results

  2. Calculation of parton fragmentation functions from jet calculus: gluon applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila, K.E.; Ng, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculation of general parton fragmentation functions based on jet calculus plus meson and baryon wave functions. Results for gluon fragmentation into mesons and baryons are discussed and related to recent information on upsilon decay into gluons. The expressions derived can be used directly in e + e - cross section predictions and will need to be folded in with baryon parton distribution functions when used in p-barp collisions. (author)

  3. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Coe Girão

    Full Text Available Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots. As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated. The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores for pollination systems (-30.3%, floral types (-23.6%, and floral sizes (-20.8% in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and

  4. Quark fragmentation functions in NJL-jet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Matevosyan, Hrayr; Thomas, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. We report on our studies of quark fragmentation functions in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) - jet model. The results of Monte-Carlo simulations for the fragmentation functions to mesons and nucleons, as well as to pion and kaon pairs (dihadron fragmentation functions) are presented. The important role of intermediate vector meson resonances for those semi-inclusive deep inelastic production processes is emphasized. Our studies are very relevant for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent quark distribution functions from measured scattering cross sections. Supported by Grant in Aid for Scientific Research, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Project No. 20168769.

  5. First Measurement of the Quark-to-Photon Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, J

    1995-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic $Z$ decays attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include hard photon production {\\em inside} hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine democratically to form hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy $z\\geq 0.7$. After statistical subtraction of non-prompt photons, the quark- to-photon fragmentation function, $D(z)$, is extracted directly from the measured prompt production rate. By taking into account the perturbative contributions to $D(z)$ obtained from an $\\cal{O}(\\alpha \\alpha_S)$ QCD calculation, the unknown non-perturbative component of $D(z)$ is determined at high $z$. This measurement is compared with an earlier theoretical parametrisation widely used to determine the level of quark bremsstrahlung present in prompt photon production at the hadron colliders.

  6. First measurement of the quark-to-photon fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; Bonis, I. de

    1996-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic Z decays, attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include hard photon production inside hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine democratically to form hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy z ≥ 0.7. After statistical subtraction of non-prompt photons, the quark-to-photon fragmentation function, D(z), is extracted directly from the measured 2-jet rate. By taking into account the perturbative contributions to D(z) obtained from an O(αα S ) QCD calculation, the unknown non-perturbative component of D(z) is then determined at high z. Provided due account is taken of hadronization effects near z = 1, a good description of the other event topologies is then found. (orig.)

  7. NJL-jet model for quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Bentz, W.; Cloeet, I. C.; Thomas, A. W.; Yazaki, K.

    2009-01-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q→qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the crossed process π→qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Taking into account cascadelike processes in a generalized jet-model approach, we then show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally, without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. We present results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in the invariant mass regularization scheme and compare them with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that the NJL-jet model, developed herein, provides a useful framework with which to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  8. Experimental studies on the heavy quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethke, S.

    1985-07-01

    The influence of perturbative QCD gluon radiation and initial state photon radiation on the experimental determination of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is studied in order to extract , the mean of the charm fragmentation function, from the recent measurements of inclusive Dsup(*) production in e + e - annihilation processes. The result is =0.71+-0.014+-0.03, which is scale invariant in the c.m. energy range of 10 GeV to 34 GeV. This result is interpreted in terms of kinematical calculations on heavy quark fragmentation and also compared with results from ν-N-reactions and from investigations of inclusive lepton production in e + e - annihilation. Results of a QCD shower model are in good agreement with the data and offer an alternative description of phenomenological fragmentation functions. (orig.)

  9. Anthropogenic Matrices Favor Homogenization of Tree Reproductive Functions in a Highly Fragmented Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Magda Silva; Campos, Caroline Cambraia Furtado; Beijo, Luiz Alberto; Ramos, Flavio Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwest Brazil. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwestern Brazil. In each fragment, all individual trees were sampled that had a diameter at breast height ≥3 cm, in ten plots (0.2 ha) and, classified within 26 reproductive functional types (RFTs). The process of functional homogenization was evaluated using additive partitioning of diversity. Additionally, the effect of landscape composition on functional diversity and on the number of individuals within each RFT was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. appeared to be in a process of functional homogenization (dominance of RFTs, alpha diversity lower than expected by chance and and low beta diversity). More than 50% of the RFTs and the functional diversity were affected by the landscape parameters. In general, the percentage of forest cover has a positive effect on RFTs while the percentage of coffee matrix has a negative one. The process of functional homogenization has serious consequences for biodiversity conservation because some functions may disappear that, in the long term, would threaten the fragments. This study contributes to a better understanding of how landscape changes affect the functional diversity, abundance of individuals in RFTs and the process of functional homogenization, as well as how to

  10. Heavy quark fragmentation functions in the heavy quark effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The fragmentation of b-bar-antiquark into polarized B c * -mesons and b-quark into P-wave (c-bar b) states in the Heavy Quark Effective Theory. The heavy quark fragmentation functions in longitudinally and transversely polarized S-wave b-bar c-states and P-wave mesons containing b-, c-quarks also, with the exact account of corrections of first order in 1/m b . 20 refs., 2 figs

  11. Fragmentation of single-particle states and neutron strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation of one-particle states in odd deformed nuclei is studied in the framework of a model based on the interaction between quasiparticles and phonons. A principally new semi-microscopic method for calculation of force functions using the data on fragmentation of one-particle states is suggested. Calculated s- and p-wave neutron force functions in 239 U and 169 Er are in good agreement with experiment. The correct description of the s-wave neutron force function in the vicinity of is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes/ of its minimum is obtained in particular for Sn isotopes

  12. Strength functions for fragmented doorway states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function

  13. Predicting Hydrologic Function With Aquatic Gene Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, S. P.; URycki, D. R.; Crump, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    Recent advances in microbiology techniques, such as genetic sequencing, allow for rapid and cost-effective collection of large quantities of genetic information carried within water samples. Here we posit that the unique composition of aquatic DNA material within a water sample contains relevant information about hydrologic function at multiple temporal scales. In this study, machine learning was used to develop discharge prediction models trained on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences from six large arctic rivers. We term this approach "genohydrology," and show that OTU relative abundances can be used to predict river discharge at monthly and longer timescales. Based on a single DNA sample from each river, the average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) for predicted mean monthly discharge values throughout the year was 0.84, while the NSE for predicted discharge values across different return intervals was 0.67. These are considerable improvements over predictions based only on the area-scaled mean specific discharge of five similar rivers, which had average NSE values of 0.64 and -0.32 for seasonal and recurrence interval discharge values, respectively. The genohydrology approach demonstrates that genetic diversity within the aquatic microbiome is a large and underutilized data resource with benefits for prediction of hydrologic function.

  14. Confronting fragmentation function universality with single hadron inclusive production at HERA and e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Sandoval, C.

    2006-11-01

    Predictions for light charged hadron production data in the current fragmentation region of deeply inelastic scattering from the H1 and ZEUS experiments are calculated using perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, and using fragmentation functions obtained by fitting to similar data from e + e - reactions. General good agreement is found when the magnitude Q 2 of the hard photon's virtuality is sufficiently large. The discrepancy at low Q and small scaled momentum x p is reduced by incorporating mass effects of the detected hadron. By performing quark tagging, the contributions to the overall fragmentation from the various quark flavours in the ep reactions are studied and compared to the contributions in e + e - reactions. The yields of the various hadron species are also calculated. (orig.)

  15. Resummation of soft gluon logarithms in the DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Ochs, W.

    2005-10-01

    We define a general scheme for the evolution of fragmentation functions which resums both soft gluon logarithms and mass singularities in a consistent manner and to any order, and requires no additional theoretical assumptions. Using the Double Logarithmic Approximation and the known perturbative results for the splitting functions, we present our scheme with the complete contribution from the double logarithms, being the largest soft gluon logarithms. We show that the resulting approximation is more complete than the Modified Leading Logarithm Approximation even with the fixed order contribution calculated to leading order only, and find, after using it to fit quark and gluon fragmentation functions to experimental data, that this approximation in our scheme gives a good description of the data from the largest χ p values to the peak region in ξ=ln(1/χ p ), in contrast to other approximations. In addition, we develop a treatment of hadron mass effects which gives additional improvements at large ξ. (orig.)

  16. Charmed-hadron fragmentation functions from CERN LEP1 revisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.

    2006-07-01

    In Phys. Rev. D 58, 014014 (1998) and 71, 094013 (2005), we determined non-perturbative D 0 , D + , D *+ , D s + , and Λ c + fragmentation functions, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MS factorization scheme, by fitting e + e - data taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. The starting points for the evolution in the factorization scale μ were taken to be μ 0 -2m Q , where Q = c, b. For the reader's convenience, in this Addendum, we repeat this analysis for μ 0 =m Q , where the flavor thresholds of modern sets of parton density functions are located. (Orig.)

  17. How to learn about polarized lambda-baryon fragmentation functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, J.

    1999-01-01

    We study the inclusive production of Λ (Λ-bar) in several high energy collision processes (e + e - , e ± p, ν(ν-bar)p, pp), in view of an accurate determination of the polarized fragmentation functions of a quark into a Λ (Λ-bar). We will recall that present data are unable to distinguish between various theoretical models, in particular for the spin transfer mechanisms and we will indicate how future measurements will provide ways to discriminate between them and also how to achieve a necessary quark flavor separation

  18. Jet shape and fragmentation function measurements with CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Yaxian

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the jet fragmentation functions and transverse momentum profiles (shapes) in PbPb collisions at √(s NN )=2.76 TeV per nucleon-pair center-of-mass energy with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed by the anti-k T sequential clustering algorithm with a resolution parameter of 0.3, using particle-flow objects that combine tracking and calorimetric information. In this proceedings the jet properties of inclusive jets with transverse momentum p T >100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions are measured for reconstructed charged particles with p T >1 GeV/c in a cone of radius √(Δϕ 2 +Δη 2 )=0.3 around the jet axis. A data sample of PbPb collisions collected in 2011 at a center-of-mass energy of √(s NN )=2.76 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 μb −1 is used. The results for PbPb collisions as a function of collision centrality are compared to reference distributions based on the full 2013 pp statistics collected at the same collision energy. Centrality-dependent modifications of the fragmentation functions and shapes are revealed

  19. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c-quark to split into S-wave D{sup 0} -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO. (orig.)

  20. On the Q2-dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Q 2 -dependence of quark and diquark fragmentation functions is studied by means of evolution equations and compared with the experimental data. Some comments on the evolution of charm quark fragmentation are also presented. 20 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  1. Calculating kaon fragmentation functions from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the NJL model within this framework showed qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation functions and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation functions exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  2. Contributions of secondary fragmentation by carbon ion beams in water phantom: Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C K; Bolst, David; Tran, Linh T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Kamil, W A

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy is currently very popular because of its superior conformality in terms of dose distribution and higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, carbon ion beams produce a complex mixed radiation field, which needs to be fully characterised. In this study, the fragmentation of a 290 MeV/u primary carbon ion beam was studied using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit. When the primary carbon ion beam interacts with water, secondary light charged particles (H, He, Li, Be, B) and fast neutrons are produced, contributing to the dose, especially after the distal edge of the Bragg peak. (paper)

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  4. On the next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of flavour-singlet fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasy, A.A.; Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the third-order contributions to the quark-gluon and gluon-quark timelike splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. These quantities have been derived by studying physical evolution kernels for photon- and Higgs-exchange structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering and their counterparts in semi-inclusive annihilation, together with constraints from the momentum sum rule and the supersymmetric limit. For this purpose we have also calculated the second-order coefficient functions for one-hadron inclusive Higgs decay in the heavy-top limit. A numerically tolerable uncertainty remains for the quark-gluon splitting function, which does not affect the endpoint logarithms for small and large momentum fractions. We briefly discuss these limits and illustrate the numerical impact of the third-order corrections. Compact and accurate parametrizations are provided for all third-order timelike splitting functions.

  5. On the next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of flavour-singlet fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasy, A.A.; Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    We present the third-order contributions to the quark-gluon and gluon-quark timelike splitting functions for the evolution of fragmentation functions in perturbative QCD. These quantities have been derived by studying physical evolution kernels for photon- and Higgs-exchange structure functions in deep-inelastic scattering and their counterparts in semi-inclusive annihilation, together with constraints from the momentum sum rule and the supersymmetric limit. For this purpose we have also calculated the second-order coefficient functions for one-hadron inclusive Higgs decay in the heavy-top limit. A numerically tolerable uncertainty remains for the quark-gluon splitting function, which does not affect the endpoint logarithms for small and large momentum fractions. We briefly discuss these limits and illustrate the numerical impact of the third-order corrections. Compact and accurate parametrizations are provided for all third-order timelike splitting functions. (orig.)

  6. Proton fragmentation functions considering finite-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleymaninia, M. [Payame Noor Universtiy, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maktoubian, A. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We present new sets of proton fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of protons from the gluon and each of the quarks, obtained by the NLO QCD fits to all relevant data sets of single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation. Specifically, we determine their uncertainties using the Gaussian method for error estimation. Our analysis is in good agreement with the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data. We also include finite-mass effects of the proton in our calculations, a topic to which very little attention is paid in the literature. Proton mass effects turn out to be appreciable for gluon and light quark FFs. The inclusion of finite-mass effects tends to improve the overall description of the data by reducing the minimized χ{sup 2} values significantly. As an application, we apply the extracted FFs to make predictions for the scaled-energy distribution of protons inclusively produced in top quark decays at next-to-leading order, relying on the universality and scaling violations of FFs. (orig.)

  7. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FUNCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY OF FISHES ... The exact phylogeny of the chimaeroids is obscure due to difficulties encountered in ...... species was obtained from the University of Cape Town Ecological Records;.

  8. Direct fragmentation of quarkonia including Fermi motion using light-cone wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobary, M.A. Gomshi [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran); A.E.O.I., Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran); Javadi, B. [Razi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the effect of Fermi motion on the direct fragmentation of the J/{psi} and {upsilon} states employing a light-cone wave function. Consistent with such a wave function we set up the kinematics of a heavy quark fragmenting into quarkonia such that the Fermi motion of the constituents splits into a longitudinal as well as a transverse direction and thus calculate the fragmentation functions for these states. In the framework of our investigation, we estimate that the fragmentation probabilities of J/{psi} and {upsilon} may increase at least up to 14 percent when including this degree of freedom. (orig.)

  9. Screening of a Novel Fragment Library with Functional Complexity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Federica; Zuccotto, Fabio; Fletcher, Daniel; Convery, Maire A; Fernandez-Menendez, Raquel; Bates, Robert; Encinas, Lourdes; Zeng, Jingkun; Chung, Chun-Wa; De Dios Anton, Paco; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Mackenzie, Claire; Green, Simon R; Huggett, Margaret; Barros, David; Wyatt, Paul G; Ray, Peter C

    2018-04-06

    Our findings reported herein provide support for the benefits of including functional group complexity (FGC) within fragments when screening against protein targets such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA. We show that InhA fragment actives with FGC maintained their binding pose during elaboration. Furthermore, weak fragment hits with functional group handles also allowed for facile fragment elaboration to afford novel and potent InhA inhibitors with good ligand efficiency metrics for optimization. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Collins fragmentation function for pions and kaons in a spectator model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchetta, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gamberg, L.P. [Penn State Univ., Berks, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Goldstein, G.R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mukherjee, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Physics Dept.

    2007-07-15

    We calculate the Collins fragmentation function in the framework of a spectator model with pseudoscalar pion-quark coupling and a Gaussian form factor at the vertex. We determine the model parameters by fitting the unpolarized fragmentation function for pions and kaons. We show that the Collins function for the pions in this model is in reasonable agreement with recent parametrizations obtained by fits of the available data. In addition, we compute for the first time the Collins function for the kaons. (orig.)

  11. Davorin Jenko and Stevan st. Mokranjac. Biographical fragments. A contribution to cultural remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the marking of the centenary of the death of two significant composers and conductors - Davorin Jenko (1835-1914 and Stevan St. Mokranjac (1856-1914. Although belonging to different generations, Jenko and Mokranjac were simultaneously active in Serbian culture over the course of almost four decades. This was a very dynamic and fruitful period, marked by historical and political unrests and by the intense processes of searching for Serbian national/ cultural identity. Divided into several fragments, the article identifies the points of intersection in their biographies, examining the delicate nature of their relationship in the context of the discourses of nationalism. Special attention is paid to the facts from the history of the Belgrade Singing Society and the National Theatre, but also to the manifestations by means of which a tradition of cultural remembrance of these two artists is maintained in Serbia in 2014. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  12. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  13. Improved production and function of llama heavy chain antibody fragments by molecular evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der R.H.; Geus, de B.; Frenken, G.J.; Peters, H.; Verrips, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve production level of llama heavy chain antibody fragments (V (HH)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae while retaining functional characteristics. For this purpose, the DNA shuffling technique was used on llama V (HH) fragments specific for the azo-dye reactive red-6. In

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-jet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The recently developed Nambu-Jona-Lasinio--jet model is used as an effective chiral quark theory to calculate the quark fragmentation functions to pions, kaons, nucleons, and antinucleons. The effects of the vector mesons ρ, K * , and φ on the production of secondary pions and kaons are included. The fragmentation processes to nucleons and antinucleons are described by using the quark-diquark picture, which has been shown to give a reasonable description of quark distribution functions. We incorporate effects of next-to-leading order in the Q 2 evolution, and compare our results with the empirical fragmentation functions.

  15. Extraction of Fragmentation Functions from Charged Kaon and Pion Production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Panknin, Regine Antje

    Quark helicity distributions can be accessed by measuring spin asymmetries in polarised deep-inelastic scattering, but for a full flavour separation the precise knowledge of quark fragmentation functions is essential. Those can only be inf erred from experimental data, and are still poorly determined today. The few existing para metrisations of fragmentation functions are derived from world data (mainly on electron-positron annihilation), and often differ considerably, most notably for strange quarks. This thesis presents an independent evaluation of fragmentation functions from deep- inelastic scattering data recorded at the COMPASS experiment. A method of extraction was developed, based on the relation between hadron multiplicities, r h ( x, z ), unpolarised parton distribution functions, q ( x ), and quark fragmentation functions into hadrons, D h d ( z ). (In this work x stands for the Bjorken scaling variable, and z for the fraction of the quark momentum that is transferred to the pro duced hadron.) Mult...

  16. Resonance contribution to electromagnetic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowling, A.L. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The part of the pion and proton electromagnetic structure functions due to direct channel resonances in the virtual Compton amplitude is discussed. After a phenomenological discussion, based on the work of Bloom and Gilman, of resonance production in inelastic electroproduction, the single resonance contribution to the pion and proton structure functions is expressed in terms of transition form factors. Froissart-Gribov representations of the Compton amplitude partial waves are presented and are used to specify the spin dependence of the transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on momentum transfer and resonance mass is assumed on the basis of the behavior of exclusive resonance electroproduction. The single resonance contributions are summed in the Bjorken limit, and the result exhibits Bjorken scaling. Transverse photons are found to dominate in the Bjorken limit, and the threshold behavior of the resonant part of the structure functions is related to the asymptotic behavior of exclusive form factors at large momentum transfer. The resonant parts of the annihilation structure functions are not in general given by simple analytic continuation in the scaling vari []ble ω' of the electroproduction structure functions. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  17. Fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD using closed-time path integral formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we implement the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD in accordance to the definition of the Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high-p T parton in QCD medium at initial time τ 0 with an arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(vector (p)) fragmenting to a hadron. We formulate the parton-to-hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final-state interactions with the medium via a modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to the study of hadron production from a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. (orig.)

  18. LHC data challenges the contemporary parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Helenius, Ilkka; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive high-pT charged-particle production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The experimental data are compared to the NLO perturbative QCD calculations employing various sets of parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions. Most of the theoretical predictions are found to disastrously overpredict the measured cross sections, even if the scale variations and PDF errors are accounted for. The problem appears to arise from the presently too hard gluon-to-hadron fragmentation functions.

  19. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-haim, Eli [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2004-12-01

    production at CDF is ongoing. It makes use of ~ 6000 B± candidates, from 333 pb-1 of data registered by the CDF experiment, fully reconstructed in the decay channel B± → J/ΨK±. Characteristics of B mesons and for accompanying tracks have been examined, in the perspective of understanding the effect of fragmentation. These studies, done in the framework of the PYTHIA event generator, also involve the contributions from different b$\\bar{b}$ production mechanisms. Distributions from a fully reconstructed Monte Carlo sample have been compared to data, and the agreement has been found to be reasonable. The analysis is ongoing, and the goal is to fit the fragmentation function parameters and/or the relative contributions from different production mechanisms to improve the agreement between data and Monte Carlo. A measurement of the b quark production cross section has been obtained using the same data. The analysis is still under way, and therefore the result is preliminary.

  20. Scale breaking parton fragmentation functions, analytical parametrizations and comparison with charged multiplicities in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlt, H.

    1980-01-01

    Scale breaking quark and gluon fragmentation functions obtained by solving numerically Altarelli-Parisi type equations are presented. Analytical parametrizations are given for the fragmentation of u and d quarks into pions. The calculated Q 2 dependent fragmentation functions are compared with experimental data. With these scale breaking fragmentation functions the average charged multiplicity is calculated in e + e - annihilation, which rises with energy more than logarithmically and is in good agreement with experiment. (author)

  1. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions in the effective theory of heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effective theory of heavy quarks is used to study b-bar-antiquark fragmentation in polarized Bc* mesons and b-quark fragmentation into P-wave (c-barb) states. The functions of heavy-quark fragmentation into longitudinally and transversely polarized S-wave (b-barc) states and into P-wave mesons containing b and c quarks are calculated. First-order corrections in 1/mb are taken into account exactly in these calculations. The results are shown to be consistent with the corresponding QCD calculations

  2. Incorporation of charge transfer into the explicit polarization fragment method by grand canonical density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2011-08-28

    Molecular fragmentation algorithms provide a powerful approach to extending electronic structure methods to very large systems. Here we present a method for including charge transfer between molecular fragments in the explicit polarization (X-Pol) fragment method for calculating potential energy surfaces. In the conventional X-Pol method, the total charge of each fragment is preserved, and charge transfer between fragments is not allowed. The description of charge transfer is made possible by treating each fragment as an open system with respect to the number of electrons. To achieve this, we applied Mermin's finite temperature method to the X-Pol wave function. In the application of this method to X-Pol, the fragments are open systems that partially equilibrate their number of electrons through a quasithermodynamics electron reservoir. The number of electrons in a given fragment can take a fractional value, and the electrons of each fragment obey the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The equilibrium state for the electrons is determined by electronegativity equalization with conservation of the total number of electrons. The amount of charge transfer is controlled by re-interpreting the temperature parameter in the Fermi-Dirac distribution function as a coupling strength parameter. We determined this coupling parameter so as to reproduce the charge transfer energy obtained by block localized energy decomposition analysis. We apply the new method to ten systems, and we show that it can yield reasonable approximations to potential energy profiles, to charge transfer stabilization energies, and to the direction and amount of charge transferred. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Fragmentation contributions to hadroproduction of prompt $J/\\psi$, $\\chi_{cJ}$, and $\\psi(2S)$ states

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Hee Sok

    2016-01-01

    We compute leading-power fragmentation corrections to hadroproduction of charmonium states J/ψ, χcJ , and ψ(2S) in the nonrelativistic QCD factorization formalism. We include fragmentation functions through order α 2 s and parton production cross sections through order α 3 s . We also resum leading logarithms of the transverse momentum divided by the charm-quark mass to all orders in αs . We find that the fragmentation corrections have a significant impact on the hadroproduction cross section of charmonia. We obtain good fits to the hadroproduction cross sections measured at the Tevatron and the LHC. Using the long-distance matrix elements obtained from the fits, we make predictions for prompt J/ψ polarization that are in good agreement with the LHC data.

  4. Study of multifragmentation: contribution of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fevre, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E * =12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author)

  5. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: heavy quark energy loss and modified fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benwei; Wang, Enke; Wang Xinnian

    2005-01-01

    Multiple scattering, induced radiative energy loss and modified fragmentation functions of a heavy quark in nuclear matter are studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD. Modified heavy quark fragmentation functions and energy loss are derived in detail with illustration of the mass dependencies of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal interference effects and heavy quark energy loss. Due to the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the nuclear size dependencies of nuclear modification of the heavy quark fragmentation function and heavy quark energy loss are found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss of the heavy quark is also significantly suppressed due to limited cone of gluon radiation imposed by the mass. Medium modification of the heavy quark fragmentation functions is found to be limited to the large z region due to the form of heavy quark fragmentation functions in vacuum

  6. Measurements of flavour dependent fragmentation functions in $Z^{0} \\to q\\overline{q}$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    Fragmentation functions for charged particles in Z -> qq(bar) events have been measured for bottom (b), charm (c) and light (uds) quarks as well as for all flavours together. The results are based on data recorded between 1990 and 1995 using the OPAL detector at LEP. Event samples with different flavour compositions were formed using reconstructed D* mesons and secondary vertices. The \\xi_p = ln(1/x_E) distributions and the position of their maxima \\xi_max are also presented separately for uds, c and b quark events. The fragmentation function for b quarks is significantly softer than for uds quarks.

  7. Next-to-leading QCD calculation of the heavy quark fragmentation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, B.; Nason, P.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of a next-to-leading order QCD calculation of the fragmentation function of b flavoured hadrons at LEP. We find that the addition of the next-to-leading effects improves the stability of the result under changes of the evolution scale and does not alter drastically the leading order prediction. Our next-to-leading calculation suggests that, if we neglect non-perturbative effects, the b fragmentation function is peaked at fairly large values of x, even if the average value of x is not necessarily large. (orig.)

  8. A simple model for the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiden, A.

    1977-01-01

    Using some simple assumptions, a calculation is presented of the quark fragmentation functions seen in deep inelastic processes. The results provide evidence for the conjecture that both jets seen in high p(perpendicular) reactions at the ISR stem from similar parents. The calculated functions are in excellent agreement with the inclusive distributions seen in γp and anti γp scattering, and in particular explain the puzzling presence of leading π - 's from the fragmentation of a leading up quark. The results are also in agreement with the charge ratios extracted from deep inelastic electron scattering. (Auth.)

  9. $D^{0}, D^{+}, D_{s}^{+}$, and $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ Fragmentation Functions from CERN LEP1

    CERN Document Server

    Kniehl, Bernd A; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    We present new sets of nonperturbative fragmentation functions for D^0, D^+, and D_s^+ mesons as well as for Lambda_c^+ baryons, both at leading and next-to-leading order in the MSbar factorization scheme with five massless quark flavors. They are determined by fitting data of e^+e^- annihilation taken by the OPAL Collaboration at CERN LEP1. We take the charm-quark fragmentation function to be of the form proposed by Peterson et al. and thus obtain new values of the epsilon_c parameter, which are specific for our choice of factorization scheme.

  10. Fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids in ESI-MSn by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhi-Hui; Sun, Chang-Hai; Fang, Hong-Zhuang

    2017-07-01

    This work aims to analyze the electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS n ) fragmentation characteristics of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) in negative ion mode. The geometric parameters, energies, natural bond orbitals and frontier orbitals of fragments were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) to investigate mass spectral fragmentation mechanisms. The results showed that proton transfer always occurred during fragmentation of HCAs; their quasi-molecular ions ([M - H] - ) existed in more than one form and were mainly with the lowest energy. The fragmentation characteristics included the followings: (1) according to the different substitution position of phenolic hydroxyl group, the ring contraction reaction by CO elimination from benzene was in an increasingly difficult order: m-phenolic hydroxyl > p-phenolic hydroxyl > o-phenolic hydroxyl; and (2) ortho effect always occurred in o-dihydroxycinnamic acids (o-diHCAs), i.e. one phenolic hydroxyl group offered H + , which combined with the other one to lose H 2 O. In addition, there was a nucleophilic reaction during ring contraction in diHCAs that oxygen atom attacked the carbon atom binding with the other phenolic hydroxyl to lose CO 2 . The fragmentation characteristics and mechanism of HCAs could be used for analysis and identification of such compounds quickly and effectively, and as reference for structural analogues by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Heavy-quark fragmentation functions at next-to-leading perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sartipi Yarahmadi, P. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is well known that the dominant mechanism to produce hadronic bound states with large transverse momentum is fragmentation. This mechanism is described by the fragmentation functions (FFs) which are the universal and process-independent functions. Here, we review the perturbative FFs formalism as an appropriate tool for studying these hadronization processes and detail the extension of this formalism at next-to-leading order (NLO). Using Suzuki's model, we calculate the perturbative QCD FF for a heavy quark to fragment into a S-wave heavy meson at NLO. As an example, we study the LO and NLO FFs for a charm quark to split into the S-wave D-meson and compare our analytic results both with experimental data and well-known phenomenological models. (orig.)

  12. Contributions of computational chemistry and biophysical techniques to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalbes, Rafael; Carbajo, Rodrigo J; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has evolved from a novel approach in the search of new hits to a valuable alternative to the high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns of many pharmaceutical companies. The increasing relevance of FBDD in the drug discovery universe has been concomitant with an implementation of the biophysical techniques used for the detection of weak inhibitors, e.g. NMR, X-ray crystallography or surface plasmon resonance (SPR). At the same time, computational approaches have also been progressively incorporated into the FBDD process and nowadays several computational tools are available. These stretch from the filtering of huge chemical databases in order to build fragment-focused libraries comprising compounds with adequate physicochemical properties, to more evolved models based on different in silico methods such as docking, pharmacophore modelling, QSAR and virtual screening. In this paper we will review the parallel evolution and complementarities of biophysical techniques and computational methods, providing some representative examples of drug discovery success stories by using FBDD.

  13. Improved functional immobilization of llama single-domain antibody fragments to polystyrene surfaces using small peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Fijten, H.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of different fusion domains on the functional immobilization of three llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) after passive adsorption to polystyrene in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Three VHHs produced without any fusion domain were efficiently adsorbed to

  14. Measurement of the charm fragmentation function in D* photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2008-12-01

    The charm fragmentation function has been measured in D * photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The fragmentation function is measured versus z=(E+p parallel ) D * /2E jet , where E is the energy of the D * meson and p parallel is the longitudinal momentum of the D * meson relative to the axis of the associated jet of energy E jet . Jets were reconstructed using the k T clustering algorithm and required to have transverse energy larger than 9 GeV. The D * meson associated with the jet was required to have a transverse momentum larger than 2 GeV. The measured function is compared to different fragmentation models incorporated in leading-logarithm Monte Carlo simulations and in a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation. The free parameters in each fragmentation model are fitted to the data. The extracted parameters and the function itself are compared to measurements from e + e - experiments. (orig.)

  15. Fab antibody fragment-functionalized liposomes for specific targeting of antigen-positive cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ohradanova-Repic, A.; Nogueira, E.; Hartl, I.; Gomes, A.C.; Preto, A.; Steinhuber, E.; Muehlgrabner, V.; Repic, M.; Kuttke, M.; Zwirzitz, A.; Prouza, M.; Suchánek, M.; Wozniak-Knopp, G.; Hořejší, Václav; Schabbauer, G.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Stockinger, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2018), s. 123-130 ISSN 1549-9634 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Active targeting * Liposome functionalization * Immunoliposome * Antibody engineering * Recombinant Fab antibody fragment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 5.720, year: 2016

  16. Transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function at next-to-next-to-leading order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, M.; Scimemi, I.; Vladimirov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the unpolarized transverse momentum dependent fragmentation function at next-to-next-to-leading order, evaluating separately the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor and the TMD collinear correlator. For the first time, the cancellation of spurious rapidity divergences in a

  17. Measurement of the charm fragmentation function in D{sup *} photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The charm fragmentation function has been measured in D{sup *} photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The fragmentation function is measured versus z=(E+p {sub parallel}){sup D{sup *}}/2E{sup jet}, where E is the energy of the D{sup *} meson and p {sub parallel} is the longitudinal momentum of the D{sup *} meson relative to the axis of the associated jet of energy E{sup jet}. Jets were reconstructed using the k{sub T} clustering algorithm and required to have transverse energy larger than 9 GeV. The D{sup *} meson associated with the jet was required to have a transverse momentum larger than 2 GeV. The measured function is compared to different fragmentation models incorporated in leading-logarithm Monte Carlo simulations and in a next-to-leading-order QCD calculation. The free parameters in each fragmentation model are fitted to the data. The extracted parameters and the function itself are compared to measurements from e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments. (orig.)

  18. Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor baryons and single heavy hyperon polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, G R

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. $\\Lambda_b$ , $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are calculated and, where possible, compared with experiment. A different approach, also relying on a heavy quark-diquark model, is proposed for the small momentum transfer inclusive production of polarized heavy flavor hyperons. The predicted $\\Lambda_c$ polarization is roughly in agreement with experiment.

  19. Structural fragment clustering reveals novel structural and functional motifs in α-helical transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of an organism's genome encodes for membrane proteins. Membrane proteins are important for many cellular processes, and several diseases can be linked to mutations in them. With the tremendous growth of sequence data, there is an increasing need to reliably identify membrane proteins from sequence, to functionally annotate them, and to correctly predict their topology. Results We introduce a technique called structural fragment clustering, which learns sequential motifs from 3D structural fragments. From over 500,000 fragments, we obtain 213 statistically significant, non-redundant, and novel motifs that are highly specific to α-helical transmembrane proteins. From these 213 motifs, 58 of them were assigned to function and checked in the scientific literature for a biological assessment. Seventy percent of the motifs are found in co-factor, ligand, and ion binding sites, 30% at protein interaction interfaces, and 12% bind specific lipids such as glycerol or cardiolipins. The vast majority of motifs (94% appear across evolutionarily unrelated families, highlighting the modularity of functional design in membrane proteins. We describe three novel motifs in detail: (1 a dimer interface motif found in voltage-gated chloride channels, (2 a proton transfer motif found in heme-copper oxidases, and (3 a convergently evolved interface helix motif found in an aspartate symporter, a serine protease, and cytochrome b. Conclusions Our findings suggest that functional modules exist in membrane proteins, and that they occur in completely different evolutionary contexts and cover different binding sites. Structural fragment clustering allows us to link sequence motifs to function through clusters of structural fragments. The sequence motifs can be applied to identify and characterize membrane proteins in novel genomes.

  20. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    By the use of data from the annihilation process of electron-positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, charged particles multiplicity distribution is obtained and fitted with the KNO scaling. Then, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution with respect to the jet axis are obtained, and the results are compared to the different models of QCD; also, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations are studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jets are stronger than the quark ones. One of the reasons for such case is that splitting function of quarks is larger than splitting function of gluon.

  1. Next-to-next-to-leading order evolution of non-singlet fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitov, A.; Moch, S.; Vogt, A.

    2006-04-01

    We have investigated the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections to inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation and the related parton fragmentation distributions, the 'time-like' counterparts of the 'space-like' deep-inelastic structure functions and parton densities. We have re-derived the corresponding second-order coefficient functions in massless perturbative QCD, which so far had been calculated only by one group. Moreover we present, for the first time, the third-order splitting functions governing the NNLO evolution of flavour non-singlet fragmentation distributions. These results have been obtained by two independent methods relating time-like quantities to calculations performed in deep-inelastic scattering. We briefly illustrate the numerical size of the NNLO corrections, and make a prediction for the difference of the yet unknown time-like and space-like splitting functions at the fourth order in the strong coupling constant. (Orig.)

  2. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  3. Heavy quark fragmentation functions for D-wave quarkonium and charmed beauty mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.; Yuan, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    At the large transverse momentum region, the production of heavy-heavy bound-states such as charmonium, bottomonium, and anti bc mesons in high energy e + e - and hadronic collisions is dominated by parton fragmentation. The authors calculate the heavy quark fragmentation functions into the D-wave quarkonium and anti bc mesons to leading order in the strong coupling constant and in the non-relativistic expansion. In the anti bc meson case, one set of its D-wave states is expected to lie below the open flavor threshold. The total fragmentation probability for a anti b antiquark to split into the D-wave anti bc mesons is about 2 x 10 -5 , which implies that only 2% of the total pseudo-scalar ground state B c comes from the cascades of these orbitally excited states

  4. Ionization and fragmentation of DNA-RNA bases: a density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadr-Arani, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) cross human tissue, deposit energy and dissipate fragmenting molecules. The resulting fragments may be highlighted by mass spectrometry. Despite the amount of information obtained experimentally by the interpretation of the mass spectrum, experience alone cannot answer all the questions of the mechanism of fragmentation of DNA/RNA bases and a theoretical study is a complement to this information. A theoretical study allows us to know the weakest bonds in the molecule during ionization and thus may help to provide mechanisms of dissociation and produced fragments. The purpose of this work, using the DFT with the PBE functional, is to study the ionization and fragmentation mechanisms of DNA/RNA bases (Uracil, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine) and to identify the cations corresponding to each peak in mass spectra. For all RNA bases, the retro Diels-Alder reaction (elimination of HNCO or NCO*) is a major route for dissociating, with the exception of adenine for which there is no atom oxygen in its structure. Loss of NH 3 (NH 2 *) molecule is another common way to all bases that contain amine group. The possibility of the loss of hydrogen from the cations is also investigated, as well as the dissociation of dehydrogenated cations and protonated uracil. This work shows the interest of providing DFT calculation in the interpretation of mass spectra of DNA bases. (author)

  5. Analytical Core Mass Function (CMF) from Filaments: Under Which Circumstances Can Filament Fragmentation Reproduce the CMF?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yueh-Ning; Hennebelle, Patrick [IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chabrier, Gilles, E-mail: yueh-ning.lee@cea.fr [École normale supérieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, Université de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2017-10-01

    Observations suggest that star formation in filamentary molecular clouds occurs in a two-step process, with the formation of filaments preceding that of prestellar cores and stars. Here, we apply the gravoturbulent fragmentation theory of Hennebelle and Chabrier to a filamentary environment, taking into account magnetic support. We discuss the induced geometrical effect on the cores, with a transition from 3D geometry at small scales to 1D at large ones. The model predicts the fragmentation behavior of a filament for a given mass per unit length (MpL) and level of magnetization. This core mass function (CMF) for individual filaments is then convolved with the distribution of filaments to obtain the final system CMF. The model yields two major results. (i) The filamentary geometry naturally induces a hierarchical fragmentation process, first into groups of cores, separated by a length equal to a few filament Jeans lengths, i.e., a few times the filament width. These groups then fragment into individual cores. (ii) Non-magnetized filaments with high MpL are found to fragment excessively, at odds with observations. This is resolved by taking into account the magnetic field (treated simply as additional pressure support). The present theory suggests two complementary modes of star formation: although small (spherical or filamentary) structures will collapse directly into prestellar cores, according to the standard Hennebelle–Chabrier theory, the large (filamentary) ones, the dominant population according to observations, will follow the aforedescribed two-step process.

  6. Charmed-meson fragmentation functions with finite-mass corrections and their application in various processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneesch, Torben

    2010-12-15

    We have calculated the single-inclusive production cross section of massive quarks in electron-positron-annihilation with next-to-leading order QCD corrections. With these results we have extracted fragmentation functions for the fragmentation from partons into D{sup 0}, D{sup +} and D{sup *} mesons, where we have used experimental data from the B factories Belle and CLEO and from the ALEPH and OPAL experiments at the LEP collider. In our analysis we have included the masses of c and b quarks and of the D mesons and tested the evolution of fragmentation functions with a global fit spanning the B factories' center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10.5 GeV to LEP's run at the Z boson resonance at M{sub Z}. We have applied this fragmentation functions in deep inelastic scattering for comparisons with HERA data using parton cross sections from the literature available in program form. We have then modified this cross section to calculate predictions for deep inelastic two-photon-scattering. By applying the Weizsaecker-Williams spectrum on the real photon we have calculated predictions for LEP1, LEP2 and the future ILC experiments. For ILC we have also included a beamstrahlung spectrum. Finally we have calculated production cross sections for the planned e{gamma} mode of the ILC with the help of a Compton spectrum. (orig.)

  7. The transverse momentum dependence of quark fragmentation functions from cascade models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, E.H. de; Engels, J.

    1979-01-01

    A covariant generalization of the onedimensional cascade model for quark fragmentation functions is presented, so as to include the transverse momentum behaviour and the possibility to produce different particles at different vertices along the chain. In the scaling limit the exact solution is given, if the primordial function is of the type αZsup(α-1). T(pT). For the more general case of factorizing primordial functions an analytic expression for the seagull effect is derived, which turns out to be independent of the function T(pT). (orig.) [de

  8. Transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet functions with applications to quarkonium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, Reggie; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Dr., Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2016-11-23

    We introduce the transverse momentum dependent fragmenting jet function (TMDFJF), which appears in factorization theorems for cross sections for jets with an identified hadron. These are functions of z, the hadron’s longitudinal momentum fraction, and transverse momentum, p{sub ⊥}, relative to the jet axis. In the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) we derive the TMDFJF from both a factorized SCET cross section and the TMD fragmentation function defined in the literature. The TMDFJFs are factorized into distinct collinear and soft-collinear modes by matching onto SCET{sub +}. As TMD calculations contain rapidity divergences, both the renormalization group (RG) and rapidity renormalization group (RRG) must be used to provide resummed calculations with next-to-leading-logarithm prime (NLL’) accuracy. We apply our formalism to the production of J/ψ within jets initiated by gluons. In this case the TMDFJF can be calculated in terms of NRQCD (Non-relativistic quantum chromodynamics) fragmentation functions. We find that when the J/ψ carries a significant fraction of the jet energy, the p{sub T} and z distributions differ for different NRQCD production mechanisms. Another observable with discriminating power is the average angle that the J/ψ makes with the jet axis.

  9. Natural aminoacyl tRNA synthetase fragment enhances cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E McCormick

    Full Text Available A naturally-occurring fragment of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS has been shown in higher eukaryotes to 'moonlight' as a pro-angiogenic cytokine in addition to its primary role in protein translation. Pro-angiogenic cytokines have previously been proposed to be promising therapeutic mechanisms for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Here, we show that systemic delivery of the natural fragment of TyRS, mini-TyrRS, improves heart function in mice after myocardial infarction. This improvement is associated with reduced formation of scar tissue, increased angiogenesis of cardiac capillaries, recruitment of c-kitpos cells and proliferation of myocardial fibroblasts. This work demonstrates that mini-TyrRS has beneficial effects on cardiac repair and regeneration and offers support for the notion that elucidation of the ever expanding repertoire of noncanonical functions of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases offers unique opportunities for development of novel therapeutics.

  10. Active fragments from pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins have distinct membrane behavior reflecting their functional divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Guillemin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BCL-2 family of proteins includes pro- and antiapoptotic members acting by controlling the permeabilization of mitochondria. Although the association of these proteins with the outer mitochondrial membrane is crucial for their function, little is known about the characteristics of this interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we followed a reductionist approach to clarify to what extent membrane-active regions of homologous BCL-2 family proteins contribute to their functional divergence. Using isolated mitochondria as well as model lipid Langmuir monolayers coupled with Brewster Angle Microscopy, we explored systematically and comparatively the membrane activity and membrane-peptide interactions of fragments derived from the central helical hairpin of BAX, BCL-xL and BID. The results show a connection between the differing abilities of the assayed peptide fragments to contact, insert, destabilize and porate membranes and the activity of their cognate proteins in programmed cell death. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BCL-2 family-derived pore-forming helices thus represent structurally analogous, but functionally dissimilar membrane domains.

  11. Generalizing the DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions to the smallest x values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Ochs, W.

    2005-03-01

    An approach which unifies the double logarithmic approximation at small x and the leading order DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions at large x is presented. This approach reproduces exactly the modified leading logarithm approximation, but is more complete due to the degrees of freedom given to the quark sector and the inclusion of the fixed order terms. We find that data from the largest x values to the peak region can be better fitted than with other approaches. (orig.)

  12. Inclusive Analysis of the b Quark Fragmentation Function in Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Cohen, I.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    A study of b quark hadronisation is presented using inclusively reconstructed B hadrons in about four million hadronic Z decays recorded in 1992-2000 with the OPAL detector at LEP. The data are compared to different theoretical models, and fragmentation function parameters of these models are fitted. The average scaled energy of weakly decaying B hadrons is determined to be =0.7193+-0.0016(stat)+0.0036-0.0031(syst)

  13. Patterns of bird functional diversity on land-bridge island fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhifeng; Feeley, Kenneth J; Wang, Yanping; Pakeman, Robin J; Ding, Ping

    2013-07-01

    The loss of species diversity due to habitat fragmentation has been extensively studied. In contrast, the impacts of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity remains relatively poorly understood. We conducted bird functional diversity studies on a set of 41 recently isolated land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. We analysed differences in bird species richness and a recently developed suite of complementary functional diversity indices (FRic, volume of functional space occupied; FEve, evenness of abundance distribution in the functional trait space; FDiv, divergence in the distribution of abundance in the trait volume) across different gradients (island area and isolation). We found no correlations between FRic and FEve or FEve and FDiv, but negative correlations between FRic and FDiv. As predicted, island area accounted for most of the variation in bird species richness, whereas isolation explained most of the variation in species evenness (decreasing species evenness with increasing isolation). Functional diversity appears to be more strongly influenced by habitat filtering as opposed to limiting similarity. More specifically, across all islands, both FRic and FEve were significantly lower than expected for randomly assembled communities, but FDiv showed no clear patterns. FRic increased with island area, FEve decreased with island area and FDiv showed no clear patterns. Our finding that FEve decreases with island area at TIL may indicate low functional stability on such islands, and as such large islands and habitat patches may deserve extra attention and/or protection. These results help to demonstrate the importance of considering the effects of fragmentation on functional diversity in habitat management and reserve design plans. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  14. Fragmentation: Loss of global coherence or breakdown of modularity in functional brain architecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan evan den Berg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses characterised by disorganized cognition, such as schizophrenia, have been described in terms of fragmentation and hence understood as reduction in functional brain connectivity, particularly in prefrontal and parietal areas. However, as graph-theory shows, relatively small numbers of nonlocal connections are sufficient to ensure global coherence in the modular small world network structure of the brain. We reconsider fragmentation in this perspective. Computational studies have shown that for a given level of connectivity in a model of coupled nonlinear oscillators, modular small-world networks evolve from an initially random organization. Here we demonstrate that with decreasing connectivity, the probability of evolving into a modular small-world network breaks down at a critical point, which scales to the percolation function of random networks with a universal exponent of α=1.17. Thus, according to the model, local modularity systematically breaks down before there is loss of global coherence in network connectivity. We therefore propose that fragmentation may involve, at least in its initial stages, the inability of a dynamically evolving network to sustain a modular small-world structure. The result is in a shift in the balance in schizophrenia from local to global functional connectivity.

  15. Measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, D.

    1999-12-01

    The authors present results of a new measurement of the inclusive b quark fragmentation function in Z decays using a novel kinematic B hadron energy reconstruction technique. The measurement is performed using 150,000 hadronic Z events recorded in the SLD experiment at SLAC between 1996 and 1997. The small and stable SLC beam spot and the CCD-based vertex detector are used to reconstruct topological B-decay vertices with high efficiency and purity, and to provide precise measurements of the kinematic quantities used in this technique. The authors measure the B energy with good efficiency and resolution over the full kinematic range. While comparing the scaled B energy distribution with predictions of several models of b quark fragmentation, the authors also test several functional forms of the B energy distribution. Several fragmentation models and functional forms are excluded by the data. The mean of the scaled energy distribution of the weakly decaying B hadron is measured to be x{sub B} = 0.714{+-}0.00(stat){+-}0.007(syst){+-}0.002 (model).

  16. Adaptive frozen orbital treatment for the fragment molecular orbital method combined with density-functional tight-binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshio; Fedorov, Dmitri G.

    2018-02-01

    The exactly analytic gradient is derived and implemented for the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method combined with density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) using adaptive frozen orbitals. The response contributions which arise from freezing detached molecular orbitals on the border between fragments are computed by solving Z-vector equations. The accuracy of the energy, its gradient, and optimized structures is verified on a set of representative inorganic materials and polypeptides. FMO-DFTB is applied to optimize the structure of a silicon nano-wire, and the results are compared to those of density functional theory and experiment. FMO accelerates the DFTB calculation of a boron nitride nano-ring with 7872 atoms by a factor of 406. Molecular dynamics simulations using FMO-DFTB applied to a 10.7 μm chain of boron nitride nano-rings, consisting of about 1.2 × 106 atoms, reveal the rippling and twisting of nano-rings at room temperature.

  17. Study of multifragmentation: contribution of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments; Etude de la multifragmentation: apport des correlations en vitesse reduite entre particules et fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fevre, A. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-05-14

    This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E{sup *}=12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author) 90 refs.

  18. Effects of matrix characteristics and interpatch distance on functional connectivity in fragmented temperate rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-04-01

    The connectivity of remnant patches of habitat may affect the persistence of species in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of the structural connectivity of forest patches (i.e., distance between patches) and matrix class (land-cover type) on the functional connectivity of 3 bird species (the White-crested Elaenia [Elaenia albiceps], the Green-backed Firecrown Hummingbird [Sephanoides sephaniodes], and the Austral Thrush [Turdus falklandii]). We measured functional connectivity as the rate at which each species crossed from one patch to another. We also evaluated whether greater functional connectivity translated into greater ecological connectivity (dispersal of fruit and pollen) by comparing among forest patches fruit set of a plant pollinated by hummingbirds and abundance of seedlings and adults of 2 plants with bird- and wind-dispersed seeds. Interpatch distance was strongly associated with functional connectivity, but its effect was not independent of matrix class. For one of the bird-dispersed plants, greater functional connectivity for White-crested Elaenias and Austral Thrushes (both frugivores) was associated with higher densities of this plant. The lack of a similar association for the wind-dispersed species suggests this effect is linked to the dispersal vector. The abundance of the hummingbird-pollinated species was not related to the presence of hummingbirds. Interpatch distance and matrix class affect animal movement in fragmented landscapes and may have a cascading effect on the distribution of some animal-dispersed species. On the basis of our results, we believe effort should be invested in optimizing patch configuration and modifying the matrix so as to mitigate the effects of patch isolation in fragmented landscapes. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Fragment approach to constrained density functional theory calculations using Daubechies wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliff, Laura E.; Genovese, Luigi; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions are optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e., without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical precision to the required positions and used as projectors for the charge weight function. We demonstrate the interest of this approach to express highly precise and efficient calculations for preparing diabatic states and for the computational setup of systems in complex environments

  20. Fragment approach to constrained density functional theory calculations using Daubechies wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Laura E., E-mail: lratcliff@anl.gov [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Genovese, Luigi; Mohr, Stephan; Deutsch, Thierry [Université de Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INAC-SP2M, L-Sim, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-06-21

    In a recent paper, we presented a linear scaling Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) code based on Daubechies wavelets, where a minimal set of localized support functions are optimized in situ and therefore adapted to the chemical properties of the molecular system. Thanks to the systematically controllable accuracy of the underlying basis set, this approach is able to provide an optimal contracted basis for a given system: accuracies for ground state energies and atomic forces are of the same quality as an uncontracted, cubic scaling approach. This basis set offers, by construction, a natural subset where the density matrix of the system can be projected. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of this minimal basis formalism in providing a basis set that can be reused as-is, i.e., without reoptimization, for charge-constrained DFT calculations within a fragment approach. Support functions, represented in the underlying wavelet grid, of the template fragments are roto-translated with high numerical precision to the required positions and used as projectors for the charge weight function. We demonstrate the interest of this approach to express highly precise and efficient calculations for preparing diabatic states and for the computational setup of systems in complex environments.

  1. CALCULATION OF FRAGMENTATION FUNCTIONS IN TWO-HADRON SEMI-INCLUSIVE PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIANCONI, A.; BOFFI, S.; BOER, D.; JAKOB, R.; RADICI, M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the properties of interference fragmentation functions arising from the emission of two leading hadrons inside the same jet for inclusive lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering. Using an extended spectator model for the mechanism of the hadronization, we give a complete calculation and numerical estimates for the examples of a proton-pion pair produced with invariant mass on the Roper resonance, and of two pions produced with invariant mass close to the ρ mass. We discuss azimuthal angular dependence of the leading order cross section to point up favourable conditions for extracting transversity from experimental data

  2. Removal of oxidative fragments from chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Whitby, Raymond; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mohd Sofian Alias; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Yusof Hamzah; Mohd Faizal Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Acid oxidized multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by refluxing MWCNTs with nitric acid (70 %). To remove the oxidative fragment/ debris, in which partially attached onto the carbon nano tubes lattice, the functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs) then were refluxed with NaOH (1M) and followed with HCl (1M) wash. The presence of carboxylic group that covalently attached onto the MWCNTs lattice are confirmed with acid-base titration. The TEM image shows the comparison of pure MWCNTs, f-MWCNTs and base-acid wash of f-MWCNTs. (author)

  3. Diquark fragmentation functions in hadron-nucleon interactions at 19 GeV/c and other energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.

    New data on pion production in pn-interactions at 19 GeV/c are used, together with earlier data on pion production in pn (π + n) at other energies, to determine the diquark fragmentation functions Dsup(π) +- sub(dd)(=Dsup(π) +- sub(uu)) and Dsup(π)sub(ud) in the neutron and proton fragmentation regions. Typical high energy data on pion production in pp-interactions are also considered. The unfavoured fragmentation function Dsup(π) + sub(dd)(x) is found to be much smaller than the favoured fragmentati ion function Dsup(π) - sub(dd)(x) and to have a steeper x-dependence. The diquark fragmentation functions agree very well with those from v(v - )- proton interactions as expected from quark parton models

  4. Advantages of crystallographic fragment screening: functional and mechanistic insights from a powerful platform for efficient drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha; Bauman, Joseph D; Arnold, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has been an under-appreciated screening tool for fragment-based drug discovery due to the perception of low throughput and technical difficulty. Investigators in industry and academia have overcome these challenges by taking advantage of key factors that contribute to a successful crystallographic screening campaign. Efficient cocktail design and soaking methodologies have evolved to maximize throughput while minimizing false positives/negatives. In addition, technical improvements at synchrotron beamlines have dramatically increased data collection rates thus enabling screening on a timescale comparable to other techniques. The combination of available resources and efficient experimental design has resulted in many successful crystallographic screening campaigns. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the bound fragment complexed to its target, a direct result of the screening effort, enables structure-based drug design while revealing insights regarding protein dynamics and function not readily obtained through other experimental approaches. Furthermore, this "chemical interrogation" of the target protein crystals can lead to the identification of useful reagents for improving diffraction resolution or compound solubility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Advantages of Crystallographic Fragment Screening: Functional and Mechanistic Insights from a Powerful Platform for Efficient Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha; Bauman, Joseph D.; Arnold, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    X-ray crystallography has been an under-appreciated screening tool for fragment-based drug discovery due to the perception of low throughput and technical difficulty. Investigators in industry and academia have overcome these challenges by taking advantage of key factors that contribute to a successful crystallographic screening campaign. Efficient cocktail design and soaking methodologies have evolved to maximize throughput while minimizing false positives/negatives. In addition, technical improvements at synchrotron beamlines have dramatically increased data collection rates thus enabling screening on a timescale comparable to other techniques. The combination of available resources and efficient experimental design has resulted in many successful crystallographic screening campaigns. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the bound fragment complexed to its target, a direct result of the screening effort, enables structure-based drug design while revealing insights regarding protein dynamics and function not readily obtained through other experimental approaches. Furthermore, this “chemical interrogation” of the target protein crystals can lead to the identification of useful reagents for improving diffraction resolution or compound solubility. PMID:25117499

  6. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  7. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  8. Low functional richness and redundancy of a predator assemblage in native forest fragments of Chiloe island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M

    2011-07-01

    1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the

  9. Unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from SIDIS multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Gonzalez, H. J.O.; Melis, S.; Prokudin, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a y-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered

  10. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution/Fragmentation Functions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Mckeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; Schweitzer, P.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D ((bar D)) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the sea quark region along with a study of their evolution.

  11. Higher twist contributions to deep-inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2008-07-01

    We report on a recent extraction of the higher twist contributions to the deep inelastic structure functions F ep,ed 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the large x region. It is shown that the size of the extracted higher twist contributions is strongly correlated with the higher order corrections applied to the leading twist part. A gradual lowering of the higher twist contributions going from NLO to N 4 LO is observed, where in the latter case only the leading large x terms were considered. (orig.)

  12. The gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.; Roberts, R.G.

    1990-08-01

    As with all parton distributions in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the separation of polarised nucleon structure functions into gluon and quark contributions must be specified. We consider a definition of the gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions based on exclusive processes which is explicitly gauge invariant, has no regularisation ambiguities, is insensitive to infrared singularities and can be related to other polarised scattering processes. We discuss the relationship of this gluon definition to others that have recently been used and to the estimates that have been made of the gluon contribution using current algebra and other methods. A quantitative analysis of the structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) for polarised deep inelastic scattering is carried out, with the aim of examining the importance of the gluon contribution. Using the positivity of parton distributions the magnitude of Δg(x,Q 2 ) is constrained by a realistic estimate of the unpolarised glue. With the appropriate choice of the hard scattering cross-section, Δσ γg , we find that even with a maximally polarised glue (for x > 0.1), some polarised strange quark contribution is still needed by the data of the EMC. (author)

  13. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  14. Biological activity of the functional epitope of ciguatoxin fragment AB on the neuroblastoma sodium channel in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Y; Chun, K E; Campora, C E; Higa, N; Suma, C; Hamajima, A; Isobe, M

    2006-01-01

    It is well established that the targeted receptor for ciguatoxin (CTX) in mammalian tissues is the sodium channel, affecting the influx of sodium into cells and altering the action potential and function of the cell. Since the syntheses of fragments of CTX has become available, our focus has been on the receptor functions of the west sphere AB and east sphere JKLM fragments using the neuroblastoma cell assay, guinea pig atrium assay, and the membrane immunobead assay (MIA). The data presented here suggest that the west sphere AB of the ciguatoxin molecule is the active portion and is responsible for the activation of the sodium channels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. How storage and executive functions contribute to children's reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouwens, S.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study we investigated the contribution of storage and separate measures of executive functions to reading comprehension in Dutch 5th graders, while controlling for word recognition and vocabulary. In addition we investigated the relationship between this model and working memory as

  16. The effect of vector meson decays on di-hadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matevosyan, H.H.; Thomas, A.W.; Bentz, W.

    2014-01-01

    Di-hadron Fragmentation Functions (DFF) provide a vast amount of information on the intricate details of the parton hadronization process. Moreover, they provide a unique access to the 'clean' extraction of nucleon transversity parton distribution functions in semi inclusive deep inelastic two hadron production process with a transversely polarised target. On the example of the u → π + π - we analyse the properties of unpolarized DFFs using their probabilistic interpretation. We use both the NJL-jet hadronization model and PYTHIA 8.1 event generator to explore the effect of the strong decays of the vector mesons produced in the quark hadronization process on the pseudoscalar DFFs. Our study shows that, even though it is less probable to produce vector mesons in the hadronization process than pseudo scalar mesons of the same charge, the products of their strong decays drastically affect the DFFs for pions because of the large combinatorial factors. Thus, an accurate description of both vector meson production and decays are crucial for theoretical understanding of DFFs. (authors)

  17. A determination of the fragmentation functions of pions, kaons, and protons with faithful uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan [VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Carrazza, Stefano [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Nocera, Emanuele R. [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The NNPDF Collaboration

    2017-08-15

    We present NNFF1.0, a new determination of the fragmentation functions (FFs) of charged pions, charged kaons, and protons/antiprotons from an analysis of single-inclusive hadron production data in electron-positron annihilation. This determination, performed at leading, next-to-leading, and next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, is based on the NNPDF methodology, a fitting framework designed to provide a statistically sound representation of FF uncertainties and to minimise any procedural bias. We discuss novel aspects of the methodology used in this analysis, namely an optimised parametrisation of FFs and a more efficient χ{sup 2} minimisation strategy, and validate the FF fitting procedure by means of closure tests. We then present the NNFF1.0 sets, and discuss their fit quality, their perturbative convergence, and their stability upon variations of the kinematic cuts and the fitted dataset. We find that the systematic inclusion of higher-order QCD corrections significantly improves the description of the data, especially in the small-z region. We compare the NNFF1.0 sets to other recent sets of FFs, finding in general a reasonable agreement, but also important differences. Together with existing sets of unpolarised and polarised parton distribution functions (PDFs), FFs and PDFs are now available from a common fitting framework for the first time. (orig.)

  18. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellereau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author) [fr

  19. Displaced trochanteric fragments lead to poor functional outcome in pertrochanteric fractures treated by cephalomedullary nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Suhm, Norbert; Wang, Qing; Rosenthal, Rachel; Saleh, Hatem Al-Fadel; Jakob, Marcel

    2015-12-01

    The importance of the greater trochanter and its attached abductor muscles for physiological gait is well accepted. However the influence of a displaced greater trochanter fracture after a pertrochanteric fracture is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine if there is an association between the greater trochanter position and the level of patient mobility following internal fixation of pertrochanteric fractures. One hundred and thirty-three consecutive elderly patients with a median age of 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 79-91) years, who were treated for pertrochanteric fractures at a level I trauma centre, were recruited. AO 31 A3.1 and A3.2 fracture types were excluded from the statistical analysis. Patient mobility was prospectively assessed before the fracture and one year following fracture treatment using the Parker mobility score. In a multivariable analysis, the influence of a displaced greater trochanter on patient mobility at one-year follow-up was assessed. The analysis was adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, AO fracture classification, varus-/valgus malposition of the neck-shaft fragments, and Parker mobility score before fracture. Post-operative X-rays were available in 125 patients, out of which 66 (53%) patients were identified with a displaced or migrated greater trochanter. One year mortality rate was 22% (n=27). In the 82 patients who had functional assessment one year post-operatively, the median Parker mobility score before fracture and at one-year follow-up was 7 (IQR 4-9) and 7 (IQR 3-9) in patients without, and 7 (IQR 4-9) and 3 (IQR 2-5) in patients with a displaced greater trochanter. In multivariable analysis, a displaced greater trochanter was significantly associated with a lower Parker mobility score (-1.74, 95% confidence interval -2.37, -1.12, pfractures with a cephalomedullary nail is associated with a poor functional outcome. Greater attention to achieve adequate reduction and stabilisation

  20. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. An Efficient Genome Fragment Assembling Using GA with Neighborhood Aware Fitness Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Kikuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To decode a long genome sequence, shotgun sequencing is the state-of-the-art technique. It needs to properly sequence a very large number, sometimes as large as millions, of short partially readable strings (fragments. Arranging those fragments in correct sequence is known as fragment assembling, which is an NP-problem. Presently used methods require enormous computational cost. In this work, we have shown how our modified genetic algorithm (GA could solve this problem efficiently. In the proposed GA, the length of the chromosome, which represents the volume of the search space, is reduced with advancing generations, and thereby improves search efficiency. We also introduced a greedy mutation, by swapping nearby fragments using some heuristics, to improve the fitness of chromosomes. We compared results with Parsons’ algorithm which is based on GA too. We used fragments with partial reads on both sides, mimicking fragments in real genome assembling process. In Parsons’ work base-pair array of the whole fragment is known. Even then, we could obtain much better results, and we succeeded in restructuring contigs covering 100% of the genome sequences.

  2. Measurement of hadron multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering and extraction of quark fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel-Garcia, Quiela-Marina

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the COMPASS experience is the study of the nucleon spin structure. Data were taken from a polarized muon beam (160 GeV/c) scattering off a polarized target ( 6 LiD or NH 3 ). In this context, the need of a precise knowledge of quark Fragmentation Functions (final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h, FFs) was raised. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS). This thesis presents the measurement of charged hadrons (pions and kaons) multiplicities from SIDIS data collected in 2006. The data cover a large kinematical range: Q 2 ≥1 (GeV/c)2, y belongs to [0.1,0.9], x belongs to [0.004,0.7] and W belongs to [5,17] GeV. These multiplicities provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the FFs determination. (author) [fr

  3. Dihadron fragmentation functions in the quark-jet model: Transversely polarized quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2018-01-01

    Within the most recent extension of the quark-jet hadronization framework, we explore the transverse-polarization-dependent dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFFs) H1∢ and H1⊥ of a quark into π+π- pairs. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are employed to model polarized quark hadronization and calculate the corresponding number densities. These, in turn, are used to extract the Fourier cosine moments of the DiFFs H1∢ and H1⊥. A notable finding is that there are previously unnoticed apparent discrepancies between the definitions of the so-called interference DiFF (IFF) H1∢ , entering the cross sections for two-hadron semi-inclusive electroproduction, and those involved in the production of two pairs of hadrons from back-to-back jets in electron-positron annihilation. This manuscript completes the studies of all four leading-twist DiFFs for unpolarized hadron pairs within the quark-jet framework, following our previous work on the helicity-dependent DiFF G1⊥.

  4. Functional display of platelet-binding VWF fragments on filamentous bacteriophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yee

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (VWF tethers platelets to sites of vascular injury via interaction with the platelet surface receptor, GPIb. To further define the VWF sequences required for VWF-platelet interaction, a phage library displaying random VWF protein fragments was screened against formalin-fixed platelets. After 3 rounds of affinity selection, DNA sequencing of platelet-bound clones identified VWF peptides mapping exclusively to the A1 domain. Aligning these sequences defined a minimal, overlapping segment spanning P1254-A1461, which encompasses the C1272-C1458 cystine loop. Analysis of phage carrying a mutated A1 segment (C1272/1458A confirmed the requirement of the cystine loop for optimal binding. Four rounds of affinity maturation of a randomly mutagenized A1 phage library identified 10 and 14 unique mutants associated with enhanced platelet binding in the presence and absence of botrocetin, respectively, with 2 mutants (S1370G and I1372V common to both conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of filamentous phage for studying VWF protein structure-function and identify a minimal, contiguous peptide that bind to formalin-fixed platelets, confirming the importance of the VWF A1 domain with no evidence for another independently platelet-binding segment within VWF. These findings also point to key structural elements within the A1 domain that regulate VWF-platelet adhesion.

  5. Measurement of the quark to photon fragmentation function through the inclusive production of prompt photons in hadronic $Z^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J R; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, S; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, I J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, F; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, R J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R J; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, M; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D; Kartvelishvili, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, M J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, A; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Plinks, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, o B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, a N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1998-01-01

    The inclusive production of prompt photons with energy above 10 GeV is measured using the OPAL detector in hadronic Z^0 decays at LEP. In contrast to previous measurements, the prompt photons were not required to be isolated. The production rate and energy spectrum are found to be in agreement with QCD predictions for the quark-to-photon fragmentation function.

  6. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  7. Defining the contributions of permanent electrostatics, Pauli repulsion, and dispersion in density functional theory calculations of intermolecular interaction energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Paul R., E-mail: prhorn@berkeley.edu; Mao, Yuezhi; Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In energy decomposition analysis of Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations, the so-called frozen (or pre-polarization) interaction energy contains contributions from permanent electrostatics, dispersion, and Pauli repulsion. The standard classical approach to separate them suffers from several well-known limitations. We introduce an alternative scheme that employs valid antisymmetric electronic wavefunctions throughout and is based on the identification of individual fragment contributions to the initial supersystem wavefunction as determined by an energetic optimality criterion. The density deformations identified with individual fragments upon formation of the initial supersystem wavefunction are analyzed along with the distance dependence of the new and classical terms for test cases that include the neon dimer, ammonia borane, water-Na{sup +}, water-Cl{sup −}, and the naphthalene dimer.

  8. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E≥ 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author)

  9. Lower sperm DNA fragmentation after r-FSH administration in functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvolo, Giovanni; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Brucculeri, Anna Maria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Cittadini, Ettore; Bosco, Liana

    2013-04-01

    An observational clinical and molecular study was designed to evaluate the effects of the administration of recombinant human FSH on sperm DNA fragmentation in men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In the study were included 53 men with a non-classical form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. In all patients, sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) in situ DNA nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay, was evaluated before starting the treatment with 150 IU of recombinant human FSH, given three times a week for at least 3 months. Patients' semen analysis and DNA fragmentation index were re-evaluated after the 3-month treatment period. After recombinant human FSH therapy, we did not find any differences in terms of sperm count, motility and morphology. The average DNA fragmentation index was significantly reduced (21.15 vs 15.2, p15 %), while no significant variation occurred in the patients with DFI values ≤ 15 %. Recombinant human FSH administration improves sperm DNA integrity in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia men with DNA fragmentation index value >15 % .

  10. Diquark contributions to the nucleon deep inelastic structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Leader, E.; Soares, J.

    1990-01-01

    The contributions of diquarks to the nucleon structure functions are discussed in the framework of the parton model and in the most general case of both vector and scalar diquarks inside unpolarized and polarized nucleons. The vector diquark anomalous magnetic moment and the scalar-vector and vector-scalar diquark transitions are also taken into account. The properties of the diquarks and of their form factors, required in order for the resulting scaling violations to be compatible with the observed ones, are discussed. (author)

  11. Jet reconstruction and measurement of identified fragmentation functions in Pb-Pb and pp collisions with the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo; Busch, Oliver [Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Jets are defined in QCD as cascades of consecutive emission of partons from an initial hard scattering. The process of parton showering and subsequent hadronisation is broadly known as fragmentation. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions allow us to probe parton fragmentation within a QCD medium and the properties of this medium via the modification of the jet spectrum and jet structure. Jet reconstruction in pp collisions provides an elementary baseline and allows to investigate perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of particle production. In addition to inclusive probes, identified particles in the final states provide an enhanced sensitivity to the flavor dependence of fragmentation and nuclear modifications. ALICE at the CERN LHC is a general-purpose heavy ion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the Quark-Gluon-Plasma. It has an excellent tracking and particle identification performance over a wide momentum range. In this talk we present results on inclusive jet observable as well as the novel measurements of identified fragmentation functions in pp and Pb-Pb collisions. The results are confronted with theory predictions.

  12. A measurement of the b quark fragmentation function at √Q2 = 45.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Presented here is a measurement of the b quark fragmentation function D b (X), taken from a sample of 504 semi-leptonic B decays which were selected from the 150,000 Z 0 decays collected between 1993 and 1995 at the SLD at SLAC. The energy of each tagged B hadron is reconstructed using missing jet energy, based on the information from the lepton and a partially-reconstructed charm-decay vertex. Account is taken of the effect of primary orbitally excited mesons (B**s). An iterative unfolding procedure is used which serves to effectively extract the true fragmentation function from the reconstructed B energy spectrum. The final result is shown to be compatible with many theoretical models. A comparison is made with other b fragmentation function measurements at 45.6 GeV, and this measurement is shown to be consistent with those results. The average scaled energy is found to be (x E ) = 0.697± 0.017(stat) ± 0.034(sys)

  13. A measurement of the b quark fragmentation function at {radical}Q{sup 2} = 45.6 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, E.D.

    1996-06-01

    Presented here is a measurement of the b quark fragmentation function D{sub b}(X), taken from a sample of 504 semi-leptonic B decays which were selected from the 150,000 Z{sup 0} decays collected between 1993 and 1995 at the SLD at SLAC. The energy of each tagged B hadron is reconstructed using missing jet energy, based on the information from the lepton and a partially-reconstructed charm-decay vertex. Account is taken of the effect of primary orbitally excited mesons (B**s). An iterative unfolding procedure is used which serves to effectively extract the true fragmentation function from the reconstructed B energy spectrum. The final result is shown to be compatible with many theoretical models. A comparison is made with other b fragmentation function measurements at 45.6 GeV, and this measurement is shown to be consistent with those results. The average scaled energy is found to be (x{sub E}) = 0.697{+-} 0.017(stat) {+-} 0.034(sys).

  14. Effects of growth form and functional traits on response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, R M; Zanne, A E; Gallagher, R V; Cornwell, W; Rossetto, M; O'Connor, P; Parkes, E A; Catterall, C F; Laffan, S W; Lusk, C H

    2013-12-01

    The conservation implications of large-scale rainforest clearing and fragmentation on the persistence of functional and taxonomic diversity remain poorly understood. If traits represent adaptive strategies of plant species to particular circumstances, the expectation is that the effect of forest clearing and fragmentation will be affected by species functional traits, particularly those related to dispersal. We used species occurrence data for woody plants in 46 rainforest patches across 75,000 ha largely cleared of forest by the early 1900s to determine the combined effects of area reduction, fragmentation, and patch size on the taxonomic structure and functional diversity of subtropical rainforest. We compiled species trait values for leaf area, seed dry mass, wood density, and maximum height and calculated species niche breadths. Taxonomic structure, trait values (means, ranges), and the functional diversity of assemblages of climbing and free-standing plants in remnant patches were quantified. Larger rainforest patches had higher species richness. Species in smaller patches were taxonomically less related than species in larger patches. Free-standing plants had a high percentage of frugivore dispersed seeds; climbers had a high proportion of small wind-dispersed seeds. Connections between the patchy spatial distribution of free-standing species, larger seed sizes, and dispersal syndrome were weak. Assemblages of free-standing plants in patches showed more taxonomic and spatial structuring than climbing plants. Smaller isolated patches retained relatively high functional diversity and similar taxonomic structure to larger tracts of forest despite lower species richness. The response of woody plants to clearing and fragmentation of subtropical rainforest differed between climbers and slow-growing mature-phase forest trees but not between climbers and pioneer trees. Quantifying taxonomic structure and functional diversity provides an improved basis for

  15. Cell-free synthesis of functional antibody fragments to provide a structural basis for antibody-antigen interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Matsuda

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of therapeutic antibodies offer excellent treatment strategies for many diseases. Elucidation of the interaction between a potential therapeutic antibody and its target protein by structural analysis reveals the mechanism of action and offers useful information for developing rational antibody designs for improved affinity. Here, we developed a rapid, high-yield cell-free system using dialysis mode to synthesize antibody fragments for the structural analysis of antibody-antigen complexes. Optimal synthesis conditions of fragments (Fv and Fab of the anti-EGFR antibody 059-152 were rapidly determined in a day by using a 30-μl-scale unit. The concentration of supplemented disulfide isomerase, DsbC, was critical to obtaining soluble antibody fragments. The optimal conditions were directly applicable to a 9-ml-scale reaction, with linear scalable yields of more than 1 mg/ml. Analyses of purified 059-152-Fv and Fab showed that the cell-free synthesized antibody fragments were disulfide-bridged, with antigen binding activity comparable to that of clinical antibodies. Examination of the crystal structure of cell-free synthesized 059-152-Fv in complex with the extracellular domain of human EGFR revealed that the epitope of 059-152-Fv broadly covers the EGF binding surface on domain III, including residues that formed critical hydrogen bonds with EGF (Asp355EGFR, Gln384EGFR, H409EGFR, and Lys465EGFR, so that the antibody inhibited EGFR activation. We further demonstrated the application of the cell-free system to site-specific integration of non-natural amino acids for antibody engineering, which would expand the availability of therapeutic antibodies based on structural information and rational design. This cell-free system could be an ideal antibody-fragment production platform for functional and structural analysis of potential therapeutic antibodies and for engineered antibody development.

  16. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  17. Quantum gravitational contributions to the beta function of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felipe, Jean Carlos Coelho; Brito, Luis Cleber Tavares de; Nemes, Maria Carolina; Sampaio, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Because of the negative mass dimension of the coupling constant perturbative Einstein quantum gravity (EQG) is nonrenormalizable. However, one can still make sense of EQG if it's interpreted as an effective field theory within a low energy expansion of a more fundamental theory. In an effective field theory all interactions compatible with its essential symmetry content are in principle allowed into the Lagrangian and thus it establishes a systematic framework to calculate quantum gravitational effects. This approach has been used to study the asymptotic behavior at high energies of quantum field theories that incorporate the gravitational field. Some studies analyze the asymptotic freedom for the coupling constants of some theories including gravitation near the Planck scale. For example, Robinson and Wilczek suggest that the gravitational field improve the asymptotic freedom of pure Yang-Mills near the Planck scale. Already , a similar calculation in the Maxwell-Einstein theory suggest that such conclusion is gauge dependence. This result was obtained by Pietrykowski. D. Toms say what the effective action is calculated in a gauge-condition independent version of the background field method using dimensional regularization it's argued that the gravitational field plays no role in the beta function of the Yang-Mills coupling. Another calculation done by Ebert, Plefka and Rodigast using conventional diagrammatic methods confirms the result obtained by Toms. In a recent publication, again published by Toms in 2010, claimed that quadratic divergent contributions were responsible to improve asymptotic freedom of fine structure constant by quantum gravity effects by using proper time cutoff regularization and effective action methods. However, the physical reality of the result in Tom's was questioned in recent work. This purpose of this work is to shed light on the origin of such controversies using only a diagrammatic analysis. As an effective model EQG is

  18. Density functional theory fragment descriptors to quantify the reactivity of a molecular family: application to amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senet, P; Aparicio, F

    2007-04-14

    By using the exact density functional theory, one demonstrates that the value of the local electronic softness of a molecular fragment is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the fragment. Our finding generalizes to a chemical group a formal relation between these molecular descriptors recently obtained for an atom in a molecule using an approximate atomistic model [P. Senet and M. Yang, J. Chem. Sci. 117, 411 (2005)]. In addition, a practical ab initio computational scheme of the Coulomb hole and related local descriptors of reactivity of a molecular family having in common a similar fragment is presented. As a blind test, the method is applied to the lateral chains of the 20 isolated amino acids. One demonstrates that the local softness of the lateral chain is a quantitative measure of the similarity of the amino acids. It predicts the separation of amino acids in different biochemical groups (aliphatic, basic, acidic, sulfur contained, and aromatic). The present approach may find applications in quantitative structure activity relationship methodology.

  19. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eSalgado-Negret

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher LMA (leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in soil moisture availability established over short distances (<500 m facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and soil moisture in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  20. RISC-interacting clearing 3'- 5' exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-05-02

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5' products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC.

  1. A Fab fragment directed against the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 enhances functional recovery after injury of the adult mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loers, Gabriele; Cui, Yi-Fang; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schachner, Melitta; Skerra, Arne

    2014-06-15

    Lack of permissive mechanisms and abundance of inhibitory molecules in the lesioned central nervous system of adult mammals contribute to the failure of functional recovery, which leads to severe disabilities in motor functions or pain. Previous studies have indicated that the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration. In the present study, we describe the cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli cells and purification of a recombinant αL1 Fab fragment that binds to L1 with comparable activity as the function-triggering monoclonal antibody 557.B6 and induces neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cultured neurons, despite its monovalent function. Infusion of αL1 Fab into the lesioned spinal cord of mice enhanced functional recovery after thoracic spinal cord compression injury. αL1 Fab treatment resulted in reduced scar volume, enhanced number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive axons and increased linear density of VGLUT1 (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) on motoneurons. Furthermore, the number and soma size of ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)-positive motoneurons and the linear density of ChAT-positive boutons on motoneurons as well as parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the lumbar spinal cord were elevated. Stimulation of endogenous L1 by application of the αL1 Fab opens new avenues for recombinant antibody technology, offering prospects for therapeutic applications after traumatic nervous system lesions.

  2. The b Quark Fragmentation Function, From LEP to TeVatron

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Eli; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore

    2004-01-01

    The b quark fragmentation distribution has been measured, using data registered by the DELPHI experiment at the Z pole, in the years 1994-1995. The measurement made use of 176000 inclusively reconstructed B meson candidates. The uncertainties of this measurement are dominated by systematic effects, the principal ones being related to the energy calibration. The distribution has been established in a nine bin histogram. Its mean value has been found to be = 0.704±0.001(stat.)±0.008(syst.) Using this measurement, and other available analyses of the b-quark fragmentation distribution in e +e − collisions, the non-perturbative QCD component of the distribution has been extracted independently of any hadronic physics modeling. This distribution depends only on the way the perturbative QCD component has been defined. When the perturbative QCD component is taken from a parton shower Monte-Carlo, the non-perturbative QCD component is rather similar with those obtained from the Lund or Bowler models. When the pert...

  3. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  4. Scaling violations of quark and gluon jet fragmentation functions in $e^{+}e{-}$ annihilations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 91.2 and 183-209 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the p...

  5. Expression of a humanized SZ-63 McAb functional recombinant Fab fragment in E. Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijun; Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaoming; Liu Yue; Wan Haiying; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1995-06-01

    MRNA was selected on oligo(dT)-cellulose from total RNA isolated from SZ-63 hybridoma cells by CsCl ultracentrifugation. cDNA coding for heavy and light variable regions were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified fragments were then cloned and sequenced by the 32 P labelled sanger dideoxy-mediated chain-termination method. The nucleotides of VH and Vκ are 354 and 321 respectively, the amino acid sequence of heavy and light chain of SZ-63 were also deduced. Then, linking the variable genes of SZ-63 with human immunoglobulin γ 1 CH and κ VL genes, constructing pHEN1-63 Fab/Hu chimera for expression and transforming E. coli HB2151. The expressed chimeric SZ-63 Fab was soluble. Both ELISA and Western blot results showed the expression products could specifically bind with cross-linked fibrin and the content in expression culture was about 225 μg/L. (5 figs.)

  6. Contribution to the study of low fragments correlations during Au + Au collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV; Contribution a l`etude des correlations entre fragments legers dans les collisions Au+Au a 150 et 400 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbel, I.

    1994-06-01

    The study of fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momenta can give informations on the space-time extend of the emitting source, and on the nuclear density, which is one of the variables used in the equation of state. This analysis shows the experimental results obtained with the FOPI detector at GSI-Darmstadt, for Au + Au central collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV. These results are the first studies at such high energies and for heavy systems. Two fragments correlation functions are compared with theoretical calculations of D.H. Boal, including the size of the source as a parameter. We must take into account effects of experimental biases (namely the relative momentum resolution) on the theoretical correlation function, in order to make a comparison with experimental results. The extracted experimental radii correspond to the final phase of the expansion, and the obtained densities are smaller that normal density of nuclear matter. In the final state of the interaction, intermediate mass fragments and their excited states are observed. We note a shift of these excited states at 400 A.MeV, which can be explained by the detector effects. We observe a weak sensibility of the source size versus the centrality of the collision. That can be explained either by a mixing of sources, or by the observation of a source at the end of expansion whose the radius is quite independent of the initial centrality. Energetic particles correspond to smaller size of the source, which can be explained as a higher compression, or as a different stage of the collision. We give some prospectives for the future experiments at GSI-Darmstadt. (author). 117 refs.

  7. Functional improvement of antibody fragments using a novel phage coat protein III fusion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Larsen, Martin; Pedersen, Jesper Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    Functional expressions of proteins often depend on the presence of host specific factors. Frequently recombinant expression strategies of proteins in foreign hosts, such as bacteria, have been associated with poor yields or significant loss of functionality. Improvements in the performance of het......(s) of the filamentous phage coat protein III. Furthermore, it will be shown that the observed effect is neither due to improved stability nor increased avidity....

  8. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  9. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  10. Immobilization and functional reconstitution of antibody Fab fragment by solid-phase refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Yoichi; Hamasaki, Kyoto; Nakagawa, Aya; Sasaki, Eiju; Shirai, Tatsunori; Okumura, Masahiro; Inoue, Manami; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2013-12-31

    In this study, we demonstrated the successful preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized hydrophilic polystyrene (phi-PS) plate via one- and two-step solid-phase refolding methods. Both polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag)-fused Fd fragment of heavy chain (Fab H-PS) and full-length of light-chain (Fab L-PS) were individually produced in insoluble fractions of Escherichia coli cells, and they were highly purified in the presence of 8M of urea. Antigen-binding activities of Fab antibody immobilized were correctly recovered by the one-step solid-phase refolding method that a mixture of Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS was immobilized in the presence of 0.5-2M urea, followed by surface washing of the phi-PS plate with PBST. These results indicate that by genetic fusion of a PS-tag, a complex between Fab H and Fab L was efficiently immobilized on the surface of a phi-PS plate even in the presence of a low concentration of urea, and was then correctly refolded to retain its high antigen-binding activity via removal of the urea. A two-step solid-phase refolding method whereby Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS were successively refolded on the surface of a phi-PS plate also resulted in Fab antibody formation on the plate. Furthermore, both the binding affinity and the specificity of the Fab antibody produced by the two-step method were highly maintained, according to the results of sandwich ELISA and competitive ELISA using Fab antibody-immobilized plate via two-step solid-phase refolding. Thus, the solid-phase refolding method demonstrated in this study should be quite useful for the preparation of a Fab antibody-immobilized PS surface with high efficiency from individually produced Fab H-PS and Fab L-PS. This method will be applicable to the preparation of a large Fab antibody library on the surface of a PS plate for use in antibody screening. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bulk-plasmon contribution to the work function of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, F A; DIaz-Valdes, J; Jouin, H

    2007-01-01

    By consideration of the Koopmans theorem expression for the work function of a metal, we find that the total height of the surface barrier potential equals the value of the bulk-plasmon energy of pure metals. As a consequence a simple formula for the work function is obtained which shows better agreement with the experimental data than the most complete existent theories

  12. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA, 5001 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated 'grafting-from' process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  13. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with polystyrene via surface initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Thomas; Gibson, Christopher T.; Constantopoulos, Kristina; Shapter, Joseph G.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the covalent attachment of vertically aligned (VA) acid treated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto a silicon substrate via dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) coupling chemistry. Subsequently, the pendant carboxyl moieties on the sidewalls of the VA-SWCNTs were derivatized to acyl chlorides, and then finally to bis(dithioester) moieties using a magnesium chloride dithiobenzoate salt. The bis(dithioester) moieties were then successfully shown to act as a chain transfer agent (CTA) in the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a surface initiated “grafting-from” process from the VA-SWCNT surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) verified vertical alignment of the SWCNTs and the maintenance thereof throughout the synthesis process. Finally, Raman scattering spectroscopy and AFM confirmed polystyrene functionalization.

  14. Structural analysis of a functional DIAP1 fragment bound to grim and hid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J W; Cocina, A E; Chai, J; Hay, B A; Shi, Y

    2001-07-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP1 suppresses apoptosis in Drosophila, with the second BIR domain (BIR2) playing an important role. Three proteins, Hid, Grim, and Reaper, promote apoptosis, in part by binding to DIAP1 through their conserved N-terminal sequences. The crystal structures of DIAP1-BIR2 by itself and in complex with the N-terminal peptides from Hid and Grim reveal that these peptides bind a surface groove on DIAP1, with the first four amino acids mimicking the binding of the Smac tetrapeptide to XIAP. The next 3 residues also contribute to binding through hydrophobic interactions. Interestingly, peptide binding induces the formation of an additional alpha helix in DIAP1. Our study reveals the structural conservation and diversity necessary for the binding of IAPs by the Drosophila Hid/Grim/Reaper and the mammalian Smac proteins.

  15. Involving Corporate Functions: Who Contributes to Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schaltegger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature claims that corporate sustainable development is a cross-functional challenge, which requires all functional units to be involved. However, it remains uncertain to what extent and in which way different corporate functions are actually involved in corporate sustainability management. To bridge this research gap, our paper draws on a concept of involvement introduced in the field of consumer behavior. Based on this previous research, our paper distinguishes two components of involvement: first, a cognitive-affective component, incorporating being affected by sustainability issues and being supportive of corporate sustainability; and second, a behavioral component, represented by the application of sustainability management tools. We use this concept to empirically analyze the involvement of corporate functions in sustainability management and find considerable differences in large German companies. Whereas public relations and strategic management are heavily involved, finance, accounting and management control appear not to be involved. A multinomial logistic regression shows that the cognitive-affective component significantly influences the behavioral component, with a functional unit being affected influencing the application of tools the most. Building on the model proposed, the paper provides implications on how to increase a functional unit’s involvement in sustainability management.

  16. Measurement of jet fragmentation functions and of their moments in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074876; Kabana, Sonja; Shabetai, Alexandre; Zhou, Daicui

    A cross-over between ordinary nuclear matter and a state of de-confined quarks and gluons, the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is predicted by lattice QCD calculations at low chemical potential and high temperature in the nuclear phase diagram. Experimentally, ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are used to produce and study the hot and dense QGP medium. Produced in a hard scattering at the early stage of the collision a highly energetic parton is first expected to lose energy in the medium before fragmenting into a hadronic spray of particles called jet. A detailed study of the modification of the jet structure and of its fragmentation pattern in vacuum and in medium should provide insights into the QGP properties. The jet fragmentation functions describe the momentum distribution of hadrons inside a reconstructed jet. In proton-proton ($pp$) collisions their measurement is important for understanding the mechanisms of parton fragmentation. Such measurements also provide a test of perturbative Quantum Chro...

  17. Kinetic chain contributions to elbow function and dysfunction in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kibler, W; Sciascia, Aaron

    2004-10-01

    The elbow functions in throwing and other athletic activities as a link in the kinetic chain of force development, regulation, and transfer. Efficient function, with maximal performance and minimal injury risk, requires optimum activation of all the link in the kinetic chain. Injury is often associated with alterations in force production or regulation capabilities in links that may be distant to the site of injury. Evaluation of injured athletes should include screening examinations for these areas, and treatment and conditioning should also include these areas.

  18. Using Variable-Length Aligned Fragment Pairs and an Improved Transition Function for Flexible Protein Structure Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hu; Lu, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid growth of known protein 3D structures in number, how to efficiently compare protein structures becomes an essential and challenging problem in computational structural biology. At present, many protein structure alignment methods have been developed. Among all these methods, flexible structure alignment methods are shown to be superior to rigid structure alignment methods in identifying structure similarities between proteins, which have gone through conformational changes. It is also found that the methods based on aligned fragment pairs (AFPs) have a special advantage over other approaches in balancing global structure similarities and local structure similarities. Accordingly, we propose a new flexible protein structure alignment method based on variable-length AFPs. Compared with other methods, the proposed method possesses three main advantages. First, it is based on variable-length AFPs. The length of each AFP is separately determined to maximally represent a local similar structure fragment, which reduces the number of AFPs. Second, it uses local coordinate systems, which simplify the computation at each step of the expansion of AFPs during the AFP identification. Third, it decreases the number of twists by rewarding the situation where nonconsecutive AFPs share the same transformation in the alignment, which is realized by dynamic programming with an improved transition function. The experimental data show that compared with FlexProt, FATCAT, and FlexSnap, the proposed method can achieve comparable results by introducing fewer twists. Meanwhile, it can generate results similar to those of the FATCAT method in much less running time due to the reduced number of AFPs.

  19. Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-01-01

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it ...

  20. Contribution of cellular autolysis to tissular functions during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamez, Sacha; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-02-01

    Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Infra-red ghost contribution to the gluon Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccanoni, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Schwinger-Dyson equations for the ghost propagator and the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex function are studied in the Landau gauge. A confining infra-red singularity is assumed for the gluon propagator and a suitable approximation is devised for the solution of the integral equations. It is found that the bare values of the ghost propagator and coupling cannot be a consistent solution of either equation. It is determined a possible behaviour of the correction factor for the ghost propagator in the small-momentum limit and discussed the consistency of the approximation schemes for the gluon propagator that neglet Faddeev-Popov ghost

  2. Tissue-transglutaminase contributes to neutrophil granulocyte differentiation and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Zoltán; Csomós, Krisztián; Vámosi, György; Szántó, Attila; Lanotte, Michel; Fésüs, László

    2006-09-15

    Promyelocytic NB4 leukemia cells undergo differentiation to granulocytes following retinoic acid treatment. Here we report that tissue transglutaminase (TG2), a protein cross-linking enzyme, was induced, then partially translocated into the nucleus, and became strongly associated with the chromatin during the differentiation process. The transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link content of both the cytosolic and the nuclear protein fractions increased while NB4 cells underwent cellular maturation. Inhibition of cross-linking activity of TG2 by monodansylcadaverin in these cells led to diminished nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) positivity, production of less superoxide anion, and decreased expression of GP91PHOX, the membrane-associated subunit of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils isolated from TG2(-/-) mice showed diminished NBT reduction capacity, reduced superoxide anion formation, and down-regulation of the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, compared with wild-type cells. It was also observed that TG2(-/-) mice exhibited increased neutrophil phagocytic activity, but had attenuated neutrophil chemotaxis and impaired neutrophil extravasation with higher neutrophil counts in their circulation during yeast extract-induced peritonitis. These results clearly suggest that TG2 may modulate the expression of genes related to neutrophil functions and is involved in several intracellular and extracellular functions of extravasating neutrophil.

  3. Sleep and immune function: glial contributions and consequences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingiosi, Ashley M; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2013-10-01

    The reciprocal interactions between sleep and immune function are well-studied. Insufficient sleep induces innate immune responses as evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain and periphery. Conversely, immune challenges upregulate immunomodulator expression, which alters central nervous system-mediated processes and behaviors, including sleep. Recent studies indicate that glial cells, namely microglia and astrocytes, are active contributors to sleep and immune system interactions. Evidence suggests glial regulation of these interactions is mediated, in part, by adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate actions at purinergic type 1 and type 2 receptors. Furthermore, microglia and astrocytes may modulate declines in sleep-wake behavior and immunity observed in aging. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  5. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  6. Domino reactions initiated by intramolecular hydride transfers from tri(di)arylmethane fragments to ketenimine and carbodiimide functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajarin, Mateo; Bonillo, Baltasar; Ortin, Maria-Mar; Sanchez-Andrada, Pilar; Vidal, Angel; Orenes, Raul-Angel

    2010-10-21

    The ability of triarylmethane and diarylmethane fragments to behave as hydride donors participating in thermal [1,5]-H shift/6π-ERC tandem processes involving ketenimine and carbodiimide functions is disclosed. C-Alkyl-C-phenyl ketenimines N-substituted by a triarylmethane substructure convert into a variety of 3,3,4,4-tetrasubstituted-3,4-dihydroquinolines, as structurally related carbodiimides transform into 3,4,4-trisubstituted-3,4-dihydroquinazolines via transient ortho-azaxylylenes. The first step of these one-pot conversions, the [1,5]-H shift, is considered to be a hydride migration on the basis of the known hydricity of the tri(di)arylmethane fragment and the electrophilicity of the central heterocumulenic carbon atom, whereas the final electrocyclization involves the formation of a sterically congested C-C or C-N bond. In the cases of C,C-diphenyl substituted triarylmethane-ketenimines the usual 6π-ERC becomes prohibited by the presence of two phenyl rings at each end of the azatrienic system. This situation opens new reaction channels: (a) following the initial hydride shift, the tandem sequence continues with an alternative electrocyclization mode to give 9,10-dihydroacridines, (b) the full sequence is initiated by a rare 1,5 migration of an electron-rich aryl group, followed by a 6π-ERC which leads to 2-aryl-3,4-dihydroquinolines, or (c) a different [1,5]-H shift/6π-ERC sequence involving the initial migration of a hydrogen atom from a methyl group at the ortho position to the nitrogen atom of the ketenimine function. Diarylmethane-ketenimines bearing a methyl group at the benzylic carbon atom experience a tandem double [1,5]-H shift, the first one being the usual benzylic hydride transfer whereas the second one involves the methyl group at the initial benzylic carbon atom, the reaction products being 2-aminostyrenes. Diarylmethane-ketenimines lacking such a methyl group convert into 3,4-dihydroquinolines by the habitual tandem [1,5]-H shift/6

  7. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele

    2013-10-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1

  8. A contribution to renal function evaluation using radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da.

    1990-11-01

    A prospective study was done in 32 volunteers and 40 patients intending to check the modifications done in the adapted Gates method and the Single Normalized Point, simultaneously performed in 32 volunteers after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-DTPA. The volunteers were divided in three groups. Optimal correlations were obtained with both techniques. The analyses of the linear regression showed the correlations coefficients are: r = 0,61, t = 2,78 (p > 0,05) for Group I (control), r = 0,92, t = 5,27 (p 99m Tc-DMSA. Two groups were analyzed. Group I formed of 20 patients without nephropaties and Group II, also formed of 20 patients who had abnormal levels of creatinine in the serum. The comparison of both methods showed linear correlation coefficient, r = 0,84, t = 6,59 (p < 0,01), in Group I and r = 0,99, t = 39,99 (p < 0,01, in the Group II. It was extended the Gates method from 6 to 30 minutes, and effectuated the radioactive renogram in the 72 cases to illustrating. This test is a good parameter and in the medical literature it is well recognized to the semi-quantitative analyses of kidney function. (author). 137 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Cooperation and Noise in Public Goods Experiments: Applying the Contribution Function Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Schram, A.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new design for experiments with the voluntary contributions mechanism for public goods. Subjects report a complete con-tri-bution function in each period, i.e., a contribution level for various marginal rates of transformation between a public and a private good. The results show that

  10. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  11. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  12. Ligand-receptor assay for evaluation of functional activity of human recombinant VEGF and VEGFR-1 extracellular fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopol'd, A V; Baklaushev, V P; Korchagina, A A; Shein, S A; Grinenko, N F; Pavlov, K A; Ryabukhin, I A; Chekhonin, V P

    2012-04-01

    cDNA encoding VEGF and Ig-like extracellular domains 2-4 of VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1(2-4)) were cloned into prokaryotic expression vectors pET32a and pQE60. Recombinant proteins were purified (metal affinity chromatography) and renatured. Chemiluminescent study for the interaction of recombinant VEGF and sFlt-1(2-4) showed that biotinylated VEGF specifically binds to the polystyrene-immobilized receptor extracellular fragment. Biotinylated recombinant sFlt-1 interacts with immobilized VEGF. Analysis of the interaction of immobilized recombinant VEGFR-1 and VEGF with C6 glioma cells labeled with CFDA-SE (vital fluorescent dye) showed that recombinant VEGFR-1 also binds to native membrane-associated VEGF. Recombinant VEGF was shown to bind to specific receptors expressed on the surface of C6 glioma cells. Functional activity of these proteins was confirmed by ligand-receptor assay for VEGF and VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1) and quantitative chemiluminescent detection.

  13. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5–treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  14. Dual therapeutic functions of F-5 fragment in burn wounds: preventing wound progression and promoting wound healing in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Ayesha; O'Brien, Kathryn; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex; Garner, Warren; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity including prolonged hospitalization, disfigurement, and disability. Currently there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved burn therapeutics. A clinical distinction of burn injuries from other acute wounds is the event of the so-called secondary burn wound progression within the first week of the injury, in which a burn expands horizontally and vertically from its initial boundary to a larger area. Therefore, an effective therapeutics for burns should show dual abilities to prevent the burn wound progression and thereafter promote burn wound healing. Herein we report that topically applied F-5 fragment of heat shock protein-90α is a dual functional agent to promote burn wound healing in pigs. First, F-5 prevents burn wound progression by protecting the surrounding cells from undergoing heat-induced caspase 3 activation and apoptosis with increased Akt activation. Accordingly, F-5-treated burn and excision wounds show a marked decline in inflammation. Thereafter, F-5 accelerates burn wound healing by stimulating the keratinocyte migration-led reepithelialization, leading to wound closure. This study addresses a topical agent that is capable of preventing burn wound progression and accelerating burn wound healing.

  15. First determination of D* -meson fragmentation functions and their uncertainties at next-to-next-to-leading order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymaninia, Maryam; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi

    2018-04-01

    We present, for the first time, a set of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of charmed-meson D* from partons. Exploiting the universality and scaling violations of FFs, we extract the NLO and NNLO FFs through a global fit to all relevant data sets from single-inclusive e+e- annihilation. The uncertainties for the resulting FFs as well as the corresponding observables are estimated using the Hessian approach. We evaluate the quality of the SKM18 FFs determined in this analysis by comparing with the recent results in literature and show how they describe the available data for single-inclusive D*±-meson production in electron-positron annihilation. As a practical application, we apply the extracted FFs to make our theoretical predictions for the scaled-energy distributions of D*±-mesons inclusively produced in top quark decays. We explore the implications of SKM18 for LHC phenomenology and show that our findings of this study can be introduced as a channel to indirect search for top-quark properties.

  16. EFFECT OF PROSTATILEN® AC ON SPERM DNA FRAGMENTATION DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND CONCOMITANT DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Borovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to analyze the effect of Prostatilen® AC on sperm DNA fragmentation during treatment of patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and concomitant disorders of the reproductive function.Materials and methods. The study is based on the results of treatment of 25 men aged 24 to 45 years (mean age 35.3 ± 4.4 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and complaints of early-stage missed miscarriage in a spouse/sexual partner. All patients received Prostatilen® AC daily in rectal suppositories formulation. The duration of treatment was 10 days with retreatment after 20 days. In all patients before treatment and 20 days after it, spermiogram parameters (5th ed., WHO, 2010 and sperm DNA fragmentation level using SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay by FACSCantoll with monoclonal antibodies (Roche, Germany were determined, and all patients underwent the MAR (mixed antiglobulin reaction test with normal value considered to be 10 % or less. The normal value of sperm DNA fragmentation was considered to be 15 % or less (low risk of fertility impairment. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics program 22.Results. Before the treatment, pathologic level of sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 6 (43 % of 14 patients with normozoospermia and in 7 (63 % of 11 patients with pathozoospermia (χ² = 1.06; p <0.3. Thus, there weren’t any significant difference between the rates of occurrence of increased sperm DNA fragmentation in patients with normo- and pathozoospermia. A correlation was found between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and the results of MAR test before treatment (r = 0.8, p <0.05, which varied between 0 and 99 % (mean 16.48 ± 31.64 %. Meanwhile, increased sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 7 (53 % of 13 patients with pathological MAR test results, and in 2 (40 % of 5 patients with normal MAR test results (χ² = 0.67; p <0.01. The level

  17. On the twist-2 and twist-3 contributions to the spin-dependent electroweak structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1997-01-01

    The twist-2 and twist-3 contributions of the polarized deep-inelastic structure functions are calculated both for neutral and charged current interactions using the operator product expansion in lowest order in QCD. The relations between the different structure functions are determined. New integral relations are derived between the twist-2 contributions of the structure functions g 3 (x,Q 2 ) and g 5 (x,Q 2 ) and between combinations of the twist-3 contributions to the structure functions g 2 (x,Q 2 ) and g 3 (x,Q 2 ). The sum rules for polarized deep-inelastic scattering are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  18. Cytosolic expression of functional Fab fragments in Escherichia coli using a novel combination of dual SUMO expression cassette and EnBase® cultivation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, F; Davami, F; Mansouri, K; Agha Amiri, S; Fazel, R; Mahdian, R; Davoudi, N; Enayati, S; Azizi, M; Khalaj, V

    2017-05-08

    The Escherichia coli expression system is highly effective in producing recombinant proteins. However, there are some limitations in this system, especially in obtaining correctly folded forms of some complex proteins such as Fab fragments. To improve the solubility and folding quality of Fab fragments, we have examined the effect of simultaneous application of a SUMO fusion tag, EnBase ® cultivation mode and a redox mutant strain in the E. coli expression system. A bicistronic gene construct was designed to express an antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Fab fragment as a model system. The construct contained a dual SUMO fusion gene fragment to encode SUMO-tagged heavy and light chains. While the expression of the construct in batch cultures of BL21 or SHuffle ® transformants produced insoluble and unfolded products, the induction of the transformants in EnBase ® medium resulted in soluble and correctly folded Fab fragment, reaching as high as 19% of the total protein in shuffle strain. The functional assays indicated that the biological activity of the target Fab is similar to the commercial anti-VEGF, Lucentis ® . This study demonstrated that the combination of SUMO fusion technology, EnBase ® cultivation system and recruiting a redox mutant of E. coli can efficiently enhance the solubility and productivity of recombinant Fab fragments. The presented strategy provides not only a novel method to produce soluble and active form of an anti-VEGF Fab but also may use in the efficient production of other antibody fragments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Investigation of prompt gamma-ray yields as a function of mass and charge of 236U fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel', A.A.; Gundorin, N.A.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Kliman, Ya.; Krishtiak, J.

    1987-01-01

    New experimental results determining yields of the prompt gamma-rays from the excited states decay of fission fragments are presented. 80 gamma-transitions were observed in 51 fission fragments. The measurements were performed by Ge(Li)-spectrometry in coincidence with fast ionization chamber (10g 235 U). The beam of the resonance neutrons with energy range from 0.7 to 36 eV was used

  20. Dimensional crossover in fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.

  1. Comparison by restriction fragment pattern analyses and molecular characterization of some European isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1: A contribution to strain differentiation of European isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig

    1988-01-01

    Eleven European isolates of Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV-1) were compared by restriction fragment pattern analyses and Southern blot hybridization using different genomic probes. The presence of strain discriminative 4 major genome types and several subtypes as well as the molecular distinctions...

  2. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  3. Correlation between CD16a binding and immuno effector functionality of an antigen specific immunoglobulin Fc fragment (Fcab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, Manuela; Antes, Bernhard; Wiederkum, Susanne; Wozniak-Knopp, Gordana; Bauer, Anton; Rüker, Florian; Woisetschläger, Max

    2012-10-15

    Antigen binding immunoglobulin Fc fragments (Fcab) are generated by engineering loop regions in the CH3 domain of human IgG1 Fc. Variants of an Fcab specific for Her-2 were designed to display either enhanced (S239D:A330L:I332E) or diminished (L234A:L235A) binding affinities to the Fc receptor CD16a based on mutations described previously. The two mutant Fcab proteins demonstrated the expected modulation of CD16a binding. Interaction with recombinant or cell surface expressed Her-2 was unaffected in both mutants compared to the parental Fcab. Binding affinities for CD16a correlated with the ADCC-potencies of the Fcab variants. Additional studies indicated that the L234A:L235A variant Fcab had equivalent structural features as the unmodified Fcab since their DSC profiles were similar and antigen binding after re-folding upon partial heat denaturation had not changed. Introduction of the S239D:A330L:I332E mutations resulted in a significant reduction of the CH2 domain melting temperature, a moderate decrease of the thermal transition of the CH3 domain and lower antigen binding after thermal stress compared to the parental Fcab. We conclude that the known correlation between CD16a binding affinity and ADCC potency is also valid in Fcab proteins and that antigen specific Fcab molecules can be further engineered for fine tuning of immuno effector functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  5. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zavaglia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA, to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS. The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’.

  6. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a 'map of stroke'.

  7. Mapping causal functional contributions derived from the clinical assessment of brain damage after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Forkert, Nils D.; Cheng, Bastian; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion analysis reveals causal contributions of brain regions to mental functions, aiding the understanding of normal brain function as well as rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. We applied a novel lesion inference technique based on game theory, Multi-perturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), to a large clinical lesion dataset. We used MSA to analyze the lesion patterns of 148 acute stroke patients together with their neurological deficits, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The results revealed regional functional contributions to essential behavioral and cognitive functions as reflected in the NIHSS, particularly by subcortical structures. There were also side specific differences of functional contributions between the right and left hemispheric brain regions which may reflect the dominance of the left hemispheric syndrome aphasia in the NIHSS. Comparison of MSA to established lesion inference methods demonstrated the feasibility of the approach for analyzing clinical data and indicated its capability for objectively inferring functional contributions from multiple injured, potentially interacting sites, at the cost of having to predict the outcome of unknown lesion configurations. The analysis of regional functional contributions to neurological symptoms measured by the NIHSS contributes to the interpretation of this widely used standardized stroke scale in clinical practice as well as clinical trials and provides a first approximation of a ‘map of stroke’. PMID:26448908

  8. Does Impaired Gallbladder Function Contribute to the Development of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassr, Ayman O

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD.

  9. Chameleon fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  10. Chameleon fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  11. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Participation in School Activities of Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerevich, Chaya; Patricia D., LaVesser

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the contribution of executive functions to participation in school activities of children diagnosed with ASD ages 6-9 years while controlling for sensory processing. Twenty-four children, ages 73-112 months (S.D. = 11.4), diagnosed with high functioning ASD were assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Their teachers…

  12. Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1990-08-01

    One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: ''intrinsic'' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and ''extrinsic'' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discussed several aspects of deep inelastic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; the separation of the quark structure function of the proton onto intrinsic ''bound-valence'' and extrinsic ''non-valence'' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. 49 refs., 5 figs

  13. Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: 'intrinsic' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and 'extrinsic' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discuss several aspects of deep inealstic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: (1) the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; (2) the separation of the quark structure function of the proton into intrinsic 'bound-valence' and extrinsic 'non-valence' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; (3) the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and (4) a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. (orig.)

  14. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  15. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  16. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, A.; Adam, W.; Mašík, Jiří; Němeček, Stanislav; Řídký, Jan; Todorovová, Šárka; Trávníček, Petr; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2011), 1-50 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : parton: shower s * bottom: fragmentation function * jet: hadronization * CERN * LEP * DELPHI * quantum chromodynamics * PYTHIA * ALEPH * OPAL * SLD Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.631, year: 2011

  17. The Fragmentation of Heavy Nuclei by 13.8 GeV/c Protons as a Contribution to the Study of the Interaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Perez, D.

    1967-01-01

    We present he re an global study of the interaction between high- energy particles and heavy nuclei, an interaction which holds obvious interest in relation to the problems of nuclear fragmentation and which, up lo now has only been studied piecemeal. We have used three stacks of photographic emulsions which were irradiated by 13.8 GeV/c protons, 17 GeV/c negative pions and 24 GeV/c protons. All three irradiations took place in a 180 K.G. magnetic field using CERN beams. (Author) 20 refs

  18. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  19. On the twist-2 contributions to polarized structure functions and new sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.

    1996-03-01

    The twist-2 contributions to the polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering are calculated including the exchange of weak bosons and using both the operator product expansion and the covariant parton model. A new relation between two structure functions leading to a sequence of new sum rules is found. The light quark mass corrections to the structure functions are derived in lowest order QCD. (orig.)

  20. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandell, D.J.; Ward, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in

  1. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  2. Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated thermophilic crenarchaeotes from a subsurface gold mine as revealed by analysis of genome fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunoura, Takuro; Hirayama, Hisako; Takami, Hideto; Oida, Hanako; Nishi, Shinro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yohey; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2005-12-01

    Within a phylum Crenarchaeota, only some members of the hyperthermophilic class Thermoprotei, have been cultivated and characterized. In this study, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a microbial mat formation in a subsurface hot water stream of the Hishikari gold mine, Japan, and sequenced genome fragments of two different phylogroups of uncultivated thermophilic Crenarchaeota: (i) hot water crenarchaeotic group (HWCG) I (41.2 kb), and (ii) HWCG III (49.3 kb). The genome fragment of HWCG I contained a 16S rRNA gene, two tRNA genes and 35 genes encoding proteins but no 23S rRNA gene. Among the genes encoding proteins, several genes for putative aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase represented a potential clue with regard to the yet unknown metabolism of HWCG I Archaea. The genome fragment of HWCG III contained a 16S/23S rRNA operon and 44 genes encoding proteins. In the 23S rRNA gene, we detected a homing-endonuclease encoding a group I intron similar to those detected in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and Bacteria, as well as eukaryotic organelles. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree based on the 23S rRNA gene sequence reinforced the intermediate phylogenetic affiliation of HWCG III bridging the hyperthermophilic and non-thermophilic uncultivated Crenarchaeota.

  3. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  4. Zeta Function Regularization in Casimir Effect Calculations and J. S. Dowker's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-07-01

    A summary of relevant contributions, ordered in time, to the subject of operator zeta functions and their application to physical issues is provided. The description ends with the seminal contributions of Stephen Hawking and Stuart Dowker and collaborators, considered by many authors as the actual starting point of the introduction of zeta function regularization methods in theoretical physics, in particular, for quantum vacuum fluctuation and Casimir effect calculations. After recalling a number of the strengths of this powerful and elegant method, some of its limitations are discussed. Finally, recent results of the so called operator regularization procedure are presented.

  5. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  6. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  7. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  8. RISC-interacting clearing 3’- 5’ exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5’ products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24466.001 PMID:28463111

  9. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex: functional contributions and dysfunction in psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.J.R

    2008-01-01

    The current paper examines the functional contributions of the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the evidence that the functioning of these systems is compromised in individuals with psychopathy. The amygdala is critical for the formation of stimulus–reinforcement associations, both punishment and reward based, and the processing of emotional expressions. vmPFC is critical for the representation of reinforcement expectancies and, owing to this, decision making. Neuropsyc...

  10. The endothelial αENaC contributes to vascular endothelial function in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarjus, Antoine; Maase, Martina; Jeggle, Pia

    2017-01-01

    The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) is a key player in renal sodium homeostasis. The expression of α β γ ENaC subunits has also been described in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, suggesting a role in vascular function. We recently demonstrated that endothelial ENaC is involved in aldo......-mediated dilation. Our data suggest that endothelial αENaC contributes to vascular endothelial function in vivo....

  11. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience to understanding functional mechanisms of visual search.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, G.W.; Hodsoll, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Yoon, E.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that cognitive neuroscience can contribute not only information about the neural localization of processes underlying visual search, but also information about the functional nature of these processes. First we present an overview of recent work on whether search for form - colour

  12. The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to

  13. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, James I.; Geleijnse, Marianne; Kroon, Paul A.; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. Methods and results: In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years)

  14. Novel Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Supercapacitor Materials: Contribution to the Supercapacitor TIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    which are effectively the dielectric material . Thus, each electrode of a supercapacitor is in essence a conventional capacitor, and in full cell, the...promise as supercapacitor electrode materials . SWNTs, which exist in bundles of ropes, exhibit very large surface area (~1300 m2/g) [2]. Effective...Novel functionalized carbon nanotube supercapacitor materials Contribution to the supercapacitor TIF Trisha Huber

  15. Fine Motor Skills and Executive Function Both Contribute to Kindergarten Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on 6 standardized assessments in a sample of middle-socioeconomic status kindergarteners. Three- and 4-year-olds' (n = 213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten, EF was measured at fall…

  16. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  17. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  18. Construction and expression of a functional monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for GMP-140 chimeric fab fragment in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jianming; Zhang Xiaomin; Xia Lijun; Wan Haiying; Liu Yue; Li Peixia; Ruan Changgeng

    1996-04-01

    The variable region cDNAs of a monoclonal antibody SZ-51 specific for α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of activated human platelets were spliced with the constant region cDNA of the heavy chain CH1 and light chain k of human Ig G by means of the gene recombination techniques. The above recombinant gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression vector of phage plasmid pHEN1 SZ-51 Fab/Hu was constructed. The pHEN1-51 Fab/Hu was introduced into non-suppressor E. coli HB2151. The amount of expression of SZ-51 chimeric Fab/Hu measured by quantitative ELISA was about 500 μg/L. Western blot demonstrated that the SZ-51 chimeric Fab fragment could specifically bind to GMP-140. (2 figs.)

  19. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  20. Proteolytic processing of the cilium adhesin MHJ_0194 (P123J ) in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae generates a functionally diverse array of cleavage fragments that bind multiple host molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benjamin B A; Jenkins, Cheryl; Seymour, Lisa M; Tacchi, Jessica L; Widjaja, Michael; Jarocki, Veronica M; Deutscher, Ania T; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Padula, Matthew P; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the aetiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, regulates the presentation of proteins on its cell surface via endoproteolysis, including those of the cilial adhesin P123 (MHJ_0194). These proteolytic cleavage events create functional adhesins that bind to proteoglycans and glycoproteins on the surface of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and to the circulatory host molecule plasminogen. Two dominant cleavage events of the P123 preprotein have been previously characterized; however, immunoblotting studies suggest that more complex processing events occur. These extensive processing events are characterized here. The functional significance of the P97 cleavage fragments is also poorly understood. Affinity chromatography using heparin, fibronectin and plasminogen as bait and peptide arrays were used to expand our knowledge of the adhesive capabilities of P123 cleavage fragments and characterize a novel binding motif in the C-terminus of P123. Further, we use immunohistochemistry to examine in vivo, the biological significance of interactions between M. hyopneumoniae and fibronectin and show that M. hyopneumoniae induces fibronectin deposition at the site of infection on the ciliated epithelium. Our data supports the hypothesis that M. hyopneumoniae possesses the molecular machinery to influence key molecular communication pathways in host cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Flavor singlet contribution to the structure function g1 at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The singlet contribution to the g 1 (x, Q 2 ) structure function are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD in the region x s ln 2 (1/x)) k which are not included in the GLAP evolution equations are shown to give a power-like rise at small-x which is much stronger than the extrapolation of the GLAP expressions. The dominant contribution is due to the gluons which, in contrast to the unpolarized case, mix with the fermions also in the region x<<1. The two main reasons why the small-x behavior of the double logarithmic approximation is so much stronger than the usual GLAP evolution are: the larger kinematical region of integration (in particular, no ordering in transverse momentum) and the contributions from non-ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  2. Asymmetric functional contributions of acidic and aromatic side chains in sodium channel voltage-sensor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Elstone, Fisal D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2014-01-01

    largely enigmatic. To this end, natural and unnatural side chain substitutions were made in the S2 hydrophobic core (HC), the extracellular negative charge cluster (ENC), and the intracellular negative charge cluster (INC) of the four VSDs of the skeletal muscle sodium channel isoform (NaV1......Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels mediate electrical excitability in animals. Despite strong sequence conservation among the voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) of closely related voltage-gated potassium (KV) and NaV channels, the functional contributions of individual side chains in Nav VSDs remain.......4). The results show that the highly conserved aromatic side chain constituting the S2 HC makes distinct functional contributions in each of the four NaV domains. No obvious cation-pi interaction exists with nearby S4 charges in any domain, and natural and unnatural mutations at these aromatic sites produce...

  3. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  4. Cut contribution to momentum autocorrelation function of an impurity in a classical diatomic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming B.

    2018-02-01

    A classic diatomic chain with a mass impurity is studied using the recurrence relations method. The momentum autocorrelation function of the impurity is a sum of contributions from two pairs of resonant poles and three branch cuts. The former results in cosine function and the latter in acoustic and optical branches. By use of convolution theorem, analytical expressions for the acoustic and optical branches are derived as even-order Bessel function expansions. The expansion coefficients are integrals of elliptic functions in the real axis for the acoustic branch and along a contour parallel to the imaginary axis for the optical branch, respectively. An integral is carried out for the calculation of optical branch: ∫0 ϕ dθ/√((1 - r 1 2 sin2 θ)(1 - r 2 2 sin2 θ)) = igsn -1 (sin ϕ) ( r 2 2 > r 1 2 > 1, g is a constant).

  5. Use of polarization measurements in evaluating cascade contributions to optical excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConkey, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in theory and experimental measurements of rotational line polarization fractions of diatomic molecules following electron impact are used to show how in some instances cascade free optical excitation functions can be derived without additional measurements of the cascading contribution. The Lyman system of H 2 is presented as an example and some previously conflicting excitation cross-section measurements obtained by different techniques are reconciled

  6. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  7. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.

  9. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  10. Antibody fragments directed against different portions of the human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 act as inhibitors or activators of L1 function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays important roles in neuronal migration and survival, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. L1 has also been found in tumors of different origins, with levels of L1 expression correlating positively with the metastatic potential of tumors. To select antibodies targeting the varied functions of L1, we screened the Tomlinson library of recombinant human antibody fragments to identify antibodies binding to recombinant human L1 protein comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. We obtained four L1 binding single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs, named I4, I6, I13, and I27 and showed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA that scFvs I4 and I6 have high affinity to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig domains 1-4 of L1, while scFvs I13 and I27 bind strongly to the fibronectin type III homologous (Fn domains 1-3 of L1. Application of scFvs I4 and I6 to human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and transmigration of these cells. Treatment of SK-N-SH cells with scFvs I13 and I27 enhanced cell proliferation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and protected against the toxic effects of H(2O(2 by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In addition, scFvs I4 and I6 inhibited and scFvs I13 and I27 promoted phosphorylation of src and Erk. Our findings indicate that scFvs reacting with the immunoglobulin-like domains 1-4 inhibit L1 functions, whereas scFvs interacting with the fibronectin type III domains 1-3 trigger L1 functions of cultured neuroblastoma cells.

  11. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex: functional contributions and dysfunction in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2008-08-12

    The current paper examines the functional contributions of the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the evidence that the functioning of these systems is compromised in individuals with psychopathy. The amygdala is critical for the formation of stimulus-reinforcement associations, both punishment and reward based, and the processing of emotional expressions. vmPFC is critical for the representation of reinforcement expectancies and, owing to this, decision making. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data from individuals with psychopathy are examined. It is concluded that these critical functions of the amygdala and vmPFC, and their interaction, are compromised in individuals with the disorder. It is argued that these impairments lead to the development of psychopathy.

  12. Adler function and hadronic contribution to the muon g-2 in a nonlocal chiral quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, Alexander E.

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the vector Adler function at spacelike momenta is studied in the framework of a covariant chiral quark model with instantonlike quark-quark interaction. This function describes the transition between the high-energy asymptotically free region of almost massless current quarks to the low-energy hadronized regime with massive constituent quarks. The model reproduces the Adler function and V-A correlator extracted from the ALEPH and OPAL data on hadronic τ lepton decays, transformed into the Euclidean domain via dispersion relations. The leading order contribution from the hadronic part of the photon vacuum polarization to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, a μ hvp(1) , is estimated

  13. Collins Fragmentation and the Single Transverse Spin Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We study the Collins mechanism for the single transverse spin asymmetry in the collinear factorization approach. The correspondent twist-three fragmentation function is identified. We show that the Collins function calculated in this approach is universal. We further examine its contribution to the single transverse spin asymmetry of semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that the transverse momentum dependent and twist-three collinear approaches are con...

  14. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  15. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E.K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, P.; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E^weak_B. The average value of x^weak_B = E^weak_B/E_beam is measured to be 0.699 +/- 0.011. The resulting x^weak_B distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA~6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84^{+0.23}_{-0.21} and b=0.642^{+0.073}_{-0.063} GeV^-2, with a correlation factor rho = 92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL a...

  16. The plant functional traits that explain species occurrence across fragmented grasslands differ according to patch management, isolation, and wetness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janečková, Petra; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka; Götzenberger, Lars; Horník, J.; Lepš, J.; de Bello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2017), s. 791-805 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12243S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Functional traits * Isolation * Management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  17. Functional priorities reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy: contribution to the pediatric rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Brandão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborative actions between family and therapist are essential to the rehabilitation process, and they can be a catalyst mechanism to the positive outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Objectives: To describe functional priorities established by caregivers of CP children by level of severity and age, and to assess changes on performance and satisfaction on functional priorities reported by caregivers, in 6-month interval. Method: 75 CP children, weekly assisted at Associação Mineira de Reabilitação, on physical and occupational therapy services. The following information was collected: gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System-GMFCS and functional priorities established by caregivers (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-COPM. Data were collected in two moments, with a 6-month interval. Results: The main functional demands presented by caregivers were related to self-care activities (48.2%. Parents of children with severe motor impairment (GMFCS V pointed higher number of demands related to play (p=0.0036, compared to the other severity levels. Parents of younger children reported higher number of demands in mobility (p=0.025 and play (p=0.007, compared to other age groups. After 6 months, there were significant increase on COPM performance (p=0.0001 and satisfaction scores (p=0.0001. Conclusions: Parents of CP children identified functional priorities in similar performance domains, by level of severity and age. Orienting the pediatric rehabilitation process to promote changes in functional priorities indentified by caregivers can contribute to the reinforcement of the parent-therapist collaboration.

  18. Function Self-Efficacy Scale-FSES: Development, Evaluation, and Contribution to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovel, Hava; Carmel, Sara

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Function Self-Efficacy Scale (FSES) for assessing the degree of confidence in self-functioning while facing decline in health and function (DHF). The FSES was evaluated in two studies of older Israelis, aged 75+ years. Data were collected by structured home interviews. Exploratory factor analyses conducted in both studies clearly revealed two underlying factors: emotion self-efficacy and action self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit criteria. The shortened final 13-item FSES had good internal consistency and satisfactory criterion and convergent validity. Multiple regression analyses, conducted to predict subjective well-being in each of the studies, showed that function self-efficacy had a positive and significant contribution to the explanation of well-being, while controlling for general self-efficacy, self-rated health, and sociodemographic variables. We propose that appropriate interventions can strengthen function self-efficacy, thus improving the well-being of elderly persons and their ability to cope with DHF. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  20. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  1. Modelling the fragmentation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of high amplitude collective motion in the nuclear fragmentation by using semi-classical macroscopic, as well as, microscopic simulations (BUU). These studies are motivated by the search of instabilities responsible for nuclear fragmentation. Two cases were examined: the bubble formation following the collective expansion of the compressed nucleus in case of very central reactions and, in the case of the semi-central collisions, the fast fission of the two partners issued from a binary reaction, in their corresponding Coulomb field. In the two cases the fragmentation channel is dominated by the inter-relation between the Coulomb and nuclear fields, and it is possible to obtain semi-quantitative predictions as functions of interaction parameters. The transport equations of BUU type predicts for central reactions formation of a high density transient state. Of much interest is the mechanism subsequent to de-excitation. It seems reasonable to conceive that the pressure stocked in the compressional mode manifests itself as a collective expansion of the system. As the pressure is a increasing function of the available energy one can conceive a variety of energy depending exit channels, starting from the fragmentation due the amplification of fluctuations interior to the spinodal zone up to the complete vaporization of the highly excited system. If the reached pressure is sufficiently high the reaction final state may preserve the memory of the entrance channel as a collective radial energy superimposed to the thermal disordered motion. Distributions of particles in the configuration space for both central and semi-central reactions for the Pb+Au system are presented. The rupture time is estimated to the order of 300 fm/c, and is strongly dependent on the initial temperature. The study of dependence of the rupture time on the interaction parameters is under way

  2. Investigating the contribution of VAPB/ALS8 loss of function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Edor; El Oussini, Hajer; Bercier, Valérie; Gros-Louis, François; Valdmanis, Paul N; McDearmid, Jonathan; Mejier, Inge A; Dion, Patrick A; Dupre, Nicolas; Hollinger, David; Sinniger, Jérome; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Camu, William; Meininger, Vincent; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; René, Frédérique; Drapeau, Pierre; Rouleau, Guy A; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-06-15

    The mutations P56S and T46I in the gene encoding vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B/C (VAPB) cause ALS8, a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Overexpression of mutant forms of VAPB leads to cytosolic aggregates, suggesting a gain of function of the mutant protein. However, recent work suggested that the loss of VAPB function could be the major mechanism leading to ALS8. Here, we used multiple genetic and experimental approaches to study whether VAPB loss of function might be sufficient to trigger motor neuron degeneration. In order to identify additional ALS-associated VAPB mutations, we screened the entire VAPB gene in a cohort of ALS patients and detected two mutations (A145V and S160Δ). To directly address the contribution of VAPB loss of function in ALS, we generated zebrafish and mouse models with either a decreased or a complete loss of Vapb expression. Vapb knockdown in zebrafish led to swimming deficits. Mice knocked-out for Vapb showed mild motor deficits after 18 months of age yet had innervated neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Importantly, overexpression of VAPB mutations were unable to rescue the motor deficit caused by Vapb knockdown in zebrafish and failed to cause a toxic gain-of-function defect on their own. Thus, Vapb loss of function weakens the motor system of vertebrate animal models but is on its own unable to lead to a complete ALS phenotype. Our findings are consistent with the notion that VAPB mutations constitute a risk factor for motor neuron disease through a loss of VAPB function.

  3. Large-nf contributions to the four-loop splitting functions in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Davies

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have computed the fourth-order nf2 contributions to all three non-singlet quark–quark splitting functions and their four nf3 flavour-singlet counterparts for the evolution of the parton distributions of hadrons in perturbative QCD with nf effectively massless quark flavours. The analytic form of these functions is presented in both Mellin N-space and momentum-fraction x-space; the large-x and small-x limits are discussed. Our results agree with all available predictions derived from lower-order information. The large-x limit of the quark–quark cases provides the complete nf2 part of the four-loop cusp anomalous dimension which agrees with two recent partial computations.

  4. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributions of individual domains to function of the HIV-1 Rev response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ina P; Thappeta, Yashna; Fan, Lixin; Ramirez-Valdez, Edric A; Smith, Sean; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2017-08-16

    The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a 351-base element in unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA; binding of the RRE by the viral Rev protein induces nuclear export of RRE-containing RNAs, as required for virus replication. It contains one long, imperfect double helix (domain I), one branched domain (domain II) containing a high-affinity Rev-binding site, and two or three additional domains. We previously reported that the RRE assumes an "A" shape in solution and suggested that the location of the Rev binding sites in domains I and II, opposite each other on the two legs of the A, is optimal for Rev binding and explains Rev's specificity for RRE-containing RNAs. Using SAXS and a quantitative functional assay, we have now analyzed a panel of RRE mutants. All the results support the essential role of the A shape for RRE function. Moreover, they suggest that the distal portion of domain I and the three crowning domains all contribute to the maintenance of the A shape. Domains I and II are necessary and sufficient for substantial RRE function, provided they are joined by a flexible linker that allows the two domains to face each other. IMPORTANCE Retroviral replication requires that some of the viral RNAs transcribed in the cell nucleus be exported to the cytoplasm without being spliced. To achieve this, HIV-1 encodes a protein, Rev, which binds to a complex, highly structured element within viral RNA, the Rev Response Element (RRE), and escorts RRE-containing RNAs from the nucleus. We previously reported that the RRE is "A"-shaped and suggested that this architecture, with the 2 legs opposite one another, can explain the specificity of Rev for the RRE. We have analyzed the functional contributions of individual RRE domains, and now report that several domains contribute, with some redundancy, to maintenance of the overall RRE shape. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the opposed placement of the 2 legs is essential for RRE function. Copyright © 2017

  6. The Contribution of Generative Leisure Activities to Cognitive Function among Sri Lankan Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna Hodzic; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although a substantive body of research has shown a protective association between leisure activities and cognitive function, consistent evidence is lacking about which specific types of activities should be promoted. The objective of this analysis was to examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by “a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation” (Erikson). DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling adults aged 60+ (n=252). MEASUREMENTS Main predictors were leisure activities grouped into generative, social, or solitary. Main outcome was cognitive function assessed with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). RESULTS We found that more frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the impact of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured with the MoCA (β =0.47 (0.11 to 0.83) and the IQCODE (β = -0.81 (-1.54 to -0.09)). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline with the MoCA (β =0.40 (0.16, 0.64), but not with IQCODE (β =-0.38 (-0.88, 0.12)); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully by gender. CONCLUSION Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline among the elderly. PMID:25139145

  7. Developmental changes in fact and source recall: Contributions from executive function and brain electrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Rajan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood.

  8. Measurement of the jet fragmentation function and transverse profile in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; de la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Dani\\|{e}l Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin--Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Hong, Van Nguyen Thi; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Ruhr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tom\\'{a}\\v{s}; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    The jet fragmentation function and transverse profile for jets with 25 GeV < ptJet < 500 GeV and etaJet<1.2 produced in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV are presented. The measurement is performed using data with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb^-1. Jets are reconstructed and their momentum measured using calorimetric information. The momenta of the charged particle constituents are measured using the tracking system. The distributions corrected for detector effects are compared with various Monte Carlo event generators and generator tunes. Several of these choices show good agreement with the measured fragmentation function. None of these choices reproduce both the transverse profile and fragmentation function over the full kinematic range of the measurement.

  9. K-Cl cotransport function and its potential contribution to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2007-12-01

    K-Cl cotransport is the coupled electroneutral movement of K and Cl ions carried out by at least four protein isoforms, KCC1-4. These transporters belong to the SLC12A family of coupled cotransporters and, due to their multiple functions, play an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Significant information exists on the overall function of these transporters, but less is known about the role of the specific isoforms. Most functional studies were done on K-Cl cotransport fluxes without knowing the molecular details, and only recently attention has been paid to the isoforms and their individual contribution to the fluxes. This review summarizes briefly and updates the information on the overall functions of this transporter, and offers some ideas on its potential contribution to the pathophysiological basis of cardiovascular disease. By virtue of its properties and the cellular ionic distribution, K-Cl cotransport participates in volume regulation of the nucleated and some enucleated cells studied thus far. One of the hallmarks in cardiovascular disease is the inability of the organism to maintain water and electrolyte balance in effectors and/or target tissues. Oxidative stress is another compounding factor in cardiovascular disease and of great significance in our modern life styles. Several functions of the transporter are modulated by oxidative stress, which in turn may cause the transporter to operate in either "overdrive" with the purpose to counteract homeostatic changes, or not to respond at all, again setting the stage for pathological changes leading to cardiovascular disease. Intracellular Mg, a second messenger, acts as an inhibitor of K-Cl cotransport and plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of protein kinases and phosphatases, which, in turn, regulate a myriad of cellular functions. Although the role of Mg in cardiovascular disease has been dealt with for several decades, this chapter is evolving nowadays at a faster

  10. Contribution of generative leisure activities to cognitive function in elderly Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselko, Joanna; Sebranek, Matthew; Mun, Mirna H; Perera, Bilesha; Ahs, Jill; Ostbye, Truls

    2014-09-01

    To examine the unique contribution of generative leisure activities, defined as activities motivated by a concern for others and a need to contribute something to the next generation. Cross-sectional survey. Peri-urban and rural area in southern Sri Lanka. Community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older (N = 252). The main predictors were leisure activities, grouped into generative, social, or solitary. The main outcome was cognitive function, assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). More-frequent engagement in generative leisure activities was associated with higher levels of cognitive function, independent of the effect of other social and solitary leisure activities. In a fully adjusted model combining all three leisure activities, generative activities independently predicted cognitive function as measured using the MoCA (β = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.83) and the IQCODE (β = -0.81, 95% CI = -1.54 to -0.09). In this combined model, solitary activities were also independently associated with slower cognitive decline using the MoCA (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.16-0.64) but not the IQCODE (β = -0.38, 95% CI = -0.88-0.12); the association with social activities did not reach statistical significance with either measure. These associations did not differ meaningfully according to sex. Generative leisure activities are a promising area for the development of interventions aimed at reducing cognitive decline in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Explosive fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vledouts, Alexandre; Graña-Otero, José; Quinard, Joel; Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2013-11-01

    We report on an experiment consisting in forcing the fast radial expansion of a spherical liquid shell. The shell is formed by the capillary pinch off of a water thin annular jet surrounding a jet of reactive gaseous mixture at ambient pressure. The encapsulated gas in the resulting water bubble is a mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen in controlled relative proportions, which is ignited by a laser plasma aimed at the center of the bubble. The strongly exothermic combustion of the mixture induces the expansion of the hot burnt gas, pushing the shell radially outwards in a violently accelerated motion. That motion triggers the instability of the shell, developing thickness modulations ultimately piercing it in a number of holes. The capillary retraction of the holes concentrates the liquid constitutive of the shell into a web of ligaments, whose breakup leads to stable drops. We document the overall process, from the kinematics of the shell initial expansion, to the final drops size distribution as a function of the composition of the gas mixture and bubble shell thickness.

  12. Point-by-point model description of average prompt neutron data as a function of total kinetic energy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudora, A.

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of total kinetic energy of fragments <ν>(TKE) exhibit, especially in the case of 252 Cf(SF), different slopes dTKE/dν and different behaviours at low TKE values. The Point-by-Point (PbP) model can describe these different behaviours. The higher slope dTKE/dν and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE exhibited by a part of experimental data sets is very well reproduced when the PbP multi-parametric matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a double distribution Y(A,TKE). The lower slope and the almost linear behaviour over the entire TKE range exhibited by other data sets is well described when the same matrix ν(A,TKE) is averaged over a single distribution Y(A). In the case of average prompt neutron energy in SCM as a function of TKE, different dTKE/dε slopes are also obtained by averaging the same PbP matrix ε(A,TKE) over Y(A,TKE) and over Y(A). The results are exemplified for 3 fissioning systems benefiting of experimental data as a function of TKE: 252 Cf(SF), 235 U(n th ,f) and 239 Pu(n th ,f). In the case of 234 U(n,f) for the first time it was possible to calculate <ν>(TKE) and <ε>(TKE) at many incident energies by averaging the PbP multi-parametric matrices over the experimental Y(A,TKE) distributions recently measured at IRMM for 14 incident energies in the range 0.3- 5 MeV. The results revealed that the slope dTKE/dν does not vary with the incident energy and the flattening of <ν> at low TKE values is more pronounced at low incident energies. The average model parameters dependences on TKE resulted from the PbP treatment allow the use of the most probable fragmentation approach, having the great advantage to provide results at many TKE values in a very short computing time compared to PbP and Monte Carlo treatments. (author)

  13. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The dynamics of fragment formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, D.

    1994-09-01

    We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac's BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy

  15. Measurement of the open-charm contribution to the diffractive proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Loizides, J.H.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kind, O.; Meyer, U.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Wang, M.; Weber, A.; Bailey, D.S.; Brook, N.H.; Cole, J.E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Ning, Y.; Paganis, S.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Adler, V.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Goettlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hillert, S.; Kahle, B.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramberger, G.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Moritz, M.; Nguyen, C.N.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Raval, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Stoesslein, U.; Wessoleck, H.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Hamilton, J.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Gialas, I.; Bodmann, B.; Carli, T.; Holm, U.; Klimek, K.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Stonjek, S.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Tapper, A.D.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; Del Peso, J.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Gliga, S.; Lainesse, J.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Coppola, N.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Pellegrino, A.; Schagen, S.; Tiecke, H.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Ling, T.Y.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Ferrando, J.; Grzelak, G.; Patel, S.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E.A.; Metlica, F.; Oh, B.Y.; Whitmore, J.J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kagawa, S.; Kohno, T.; Tawara, T.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Monaco, V.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T.W.; Lightwood, M.S.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L.K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Riveline, M.; Kcira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D.D.; Savin, A.A.; Smith, W.H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Straub, P.B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.D.; Fourletov, S.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.

    2003-01-01

    Production of D* ± (2010) mesons in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb -1 . Diffractive events were identified by the presence of a large rapidity gap in the final state. Differential cross sections have been measured in the kinematic region 1.5 2 2 , 0.02 P T (D* ± )>1.5 GeV and |η(D* ± )|<1.5. The measured cross sections are compared to theoretical predictions. The results are presented in terms of the open-charm contribution to the diffractive proton structure function. The data demonstrate a strong sensitivity to the diffractive parton densities

  16. Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Murrah, William M.; Bell, Lindsay H.; Worzalla, Samantha L.; Grissmer, David; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of executive function (EF) and multiple aspects of fine motor skills to achievement on six standardized assessments in a sample of middle-SES kindergarteners. 3- and 4-year-olds’ (N=213) fine and gross motor skills were assessed in a home visit before kindergarten; EF was measured at fall of kindergarten; and Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Academic Achievement were administered at fall and spring. Correlations indicated that EF and fine motor skills appeared distinct. Further, controlling for background variables, higher levels of both EF and fine motor skills, specifically design copy, predicted higher achievement on multiple subtests at kindergarten entry, as well as improvement from fall to spring. Implications for research on school readiness are discussed. PMID:22537276

  17. Impaired neural structure and function contributing to autonomic symptoms in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M; Harper, Rebecca K; Ogren, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover, or hypoxic exposure.

  18. Impaired Neural Structure and Function Contributing to Autonomic Symptoms in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M Harper

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover

  19. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  20. Non-equilibrium versus equilibrium emission of complex fragments from hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Yennello, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The relative contributions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium mechanisms for intermediate-mass fragment emission have been deduced for Z=3-14 fragments formed in 3 He- and 14 N-induced reactions on Ag and Au targets. Complete inclusive excitation function measurements have been performed for 3 He projectiles from E/A=67 to 1,200 MeV and for 14 N from E/A=20 to 50 MeV. The data are consistent with a picture in which equilibrated emission is important at the lowest energies, but with increasing bombarding energy the cross sections are increasingly dominated by non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium emission is also shown to be favored for light fragments relative to heavy fragments. These results are supported by coincidence studies of intermediate-mass fragments tagged by linear momentum transfer measurements

  1. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  2. A functional TOC complex contributes to gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Allison K; Barrett-Wilt, Greg A; Masson, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid sedimentation has long been recognized as important for a plant's perception of gravity, it was recently shown that plastids play an additional function in gravitropism. The Translocon at the Outer envelope membrane of Chloroplasts (TOC) complex transports nuclear-encoded proteins into plastids, and a receptor of this complex, Toc132, was previously hypothesized to contribute to gravitropism either by directly functioning as a gravity signal transducer or by indirectly mediating the plastid localization of a gravity signal transducer. Here we show that mutations in multiple genes encoding TOC complex components affect gravitropism in a genetically sensitized background and that the cytoplasmic acidic domain of Toc132 is not required for its involvement in this process. Furthermore, mutations in TOC132 enhance the gravitropic defect of a mutant whose amyloplasts lack starch. Finally, we show that the levels of several nuclear-encoded root proteins are altered in toc132 mutants. These data suggest that the TOC complex indirectly mediates gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis and support the idea that plastids are involved in gravitropism not only through their ability to sediment but also as part of the signal transduction mechanism.

  3. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation

  4. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Matsumori, Haruka [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel [Department of Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Goldberg, Ilya G. [Image Informatics and Computational Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriko [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Harata, Masahiko, E-mail: mharata@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  5. Nutritional support contributes to recuperation in a rat model of aplastic anemia by enhancing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Lifen; Liu, Bing; Shan, Yujia; Li, Yang; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2018-02-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease that leads to hematopoietic disorder and peripheral blood pancytopenia. We investigated whether nutritional support is helpful to AA recovery. We established a rat model with AA. A nutrient mixture was administered to rats with AA through different dose gavage once per day for 55 d. Animals in this study were assigned to one of five groups: normal control (NC; group includes normal rats); AA (rats with AA); high dose (AA + nutritional mixture, 2266.95 mg/kg/d); medium dose (1511.3 mg/kg/d); and low dose (1057.91 mg/kg/d). The effects of nutrition administration on general status and mitochondrial function of rats with AA were evaluated. The nutrient mixture with which the rats were supplemented significantly improved weight, peripheral blood parameters, and histologic parameters of rats with AA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that the number of mitochondria in the liver, spleen, kidney, and brain was increased after supplementation by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Nutrient administration also improved mitochondrial DNA content, adenosine triphosphate content, and membrane potential but inhibited oxidative stress, thus, repairing the mitochondrial dysfunction of the rats with AA. Taken together, nutrition supplements may contribute to the improvement of mitochondrial function and play an important role in the recuperation of rats with AA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of soil fauna to soil functioning in degraded environments: a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Moradi, Jabbar; Kukla, Jaroslav; Jandová, Kateřina; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The restoration of the soil functions is essential for the recovery of highly degraded sites and, consequently, the study of the soil fauna role in the soil development in such environments has great potential from a practical point of view. The soils of the post-mining sites represent unique models for the study of the natural ecological succession because mining creates similar environments characterized by the same substrate, but by different ages according to the year of closure of mines. The aim of this work was to assess the contribution of different species of macrofauna on the evolution of soil structure and on the composition and activity of the microbial community in soil samples subjected to ecological restoration or characterized by spontaneous ecological succession. For this purpose, an experimental test was carried out in two sites characterized by different post-mining conditions: 1) natural succession, 2) reclamation with planting trees. These sites are located in the post-mining area of Sokolov (Czech Republic). For the experimental test repacked soil cores were prepared in laboratory with sieved soil sampled from the two sites. The soil cores were prepared maintaining the sequence of soil horizons present in the field. These samples were inoculated separately with two genera of earthworms (Lumbricus and Aporrectodea) and two of centipedes (Julida and Polydesmus). In particular, based on their body size, were inoculated for each cylinder 2 individuals of millipedes, 1 individual of Lumbricus and 4 individuals of Aporrectodea. For each treatment and for control samples 5 replicates were prepared and all samples were incubated in field for 1 month in the two original sampling sites. After the incubation the samples were removed from the field and transported in laboratory in order to perform the analysis of microbial respiration, of PLFA (phospholipid-derived fatty acids) and ergosterol contents and finally for the characterization of soil structure

  7. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTPγS), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37 0 C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTPγS forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTPγS, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTPγS dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45 0 C is decreased by GTPγS. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A 1 fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified

  8. Distinct contributions of functional and deep neural network features to representational similarity of scenes in human brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Iris Ia; Greene, Michelle R; Baldassano, Christopher; Fei-Fei, Li; Beck, Diane M; Baker, Chris I

    2018-03-07

    Inherent correlations between visual and semantic features in real-world scenes make it difficult to determine how different scene properties contribute to neural representations. Here, we assessed the contributions of multiple properties to scene representation by partitioning the variance explained in human behavioral and brain measurements by three feature models whose inter-correlations were minimized a priori through stimulus preselection. Behavioral assessments of scene similarity reflected unique contributions from a functional feature model indicating potential actions in scenes as well as high-level visual features from a deep neural network (DNN). In contrast, similarity of cortical responses in scene-selective areas was uniquely explained by mid- and high-level DNN features only, while an object label model did not contribute uniquely to either domain. The striking dissociation between functional and DNN features in their contribution to behavioral and brain representations of scenes indicates that scene-selective cortex represents only a subset of behaviorally relevant scene information.

  9. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kean

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF). EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis) and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion). Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the plastic nature of

  10. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Adolescence: Development and Contributions to Important Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean Poon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant theoretical advancement in the area of child neuropsychology, limited attention has been paid to the developmental features of adolescence. The present study intends to address this issue in relation to executive function (EF. EF refers to the psychological processes that underlie goal-directed behavior; recent studies separate cool EF (psychological process involves pure logic and critical analysis and hot EF (psychological process driven by emotion. Although neurological findings suggest that adolescence is a sensitive period for EF development, data on comparing the developmental progression in hot or cool EFs is highly missing. Moreover, while evidence has confirmed the relationships between EF and day-to-day functioning, whether and how hot and cool EFs contribute to core developmental outcomes in adolescence is still remained unknown. The current study aims to enhance our understanding of the development and impacts of hot and cool EFs in adolescence. A total of 136 typically developing adolescents from age 12 to 17 completed four cool EF tasks including Backward digit span, Contingency naming test, Stockings of Cambridge, and Stroop Color and Word test, and one hot task on Cambridge gambling task. Data on academic performance and psychological adjustment was also collected. Results showed that cool and hot EF exhibited different patterns of age-related growth in adolescence. Specifically, cool EF ascended with age while hot EF showed a bell-shaped development. Moreover, there were correlations among cool EF measures but no association between cool and hot EFs. Further, cool EF was a better predictor of academic performance, while hot EF uniquely related to emotional problems. The results provide evidence for the association among cool EF tests and the differentiation of hot and cool EFs. The bell-shaped development of hot EF might suggest a period of heightened risk-taking propensity in middle adolescence. Given the

  11. Dissecting molecular descriptors into atomic contributions in density functional reactivity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Chunying [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China) and Key Laboratory of Resource Fine-Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Lu, Tian [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Liu, Shubin, E-mail: shubin@email.unc.edu [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Research (Ministry of Education of China) and Key Laboratory of Resource Fine-Processing and Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Research Computing Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3420 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) employs the electron density of a molecule and its related quantities such as gradient and Laplacian to describe its structure and reactivity properties. Proper descriptions at both molecular (global) and atomic (local) levels are equally important and illuminating. In this work, we make use of Bader's zero-flux partition scheme and consider atomic contributions for a few global reactivity descriptors in DFRT, including the density-based quantification of steric effect and related indices. Earlier, we proved that these quantities are intrinsically correlated for atomic and molecular systems [S. B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191107 (2007); ibid. 126, 244103 (2007)]. In this work, a new basin-based integration algorithm has been implemented, whose reliability and effectiveness have been extensively examined. We also investigated a list of simple hydrocarbon systems and different scenarios of bonding processes, including stretching, bending, and rotating. Interesting changing patterns for the atomic and molecular values of these quantities have been revealed for different systems. This work not only confirms the strong correlation between these global reactivity descriptors for molecular systems, as theoretically proven earlier by us, it also provides new and unexpected changing patterns for their atomic values, which can be employed to understand the origin and nature of chemical phenomena.

  12. Contribution of elastic tissues to the mechanics and energetics of muscle function during movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Muscle force production occurs within an environment of tissues that exhibit spring-like behavior, and this elasticity is a critical determinant of muscle performance during locomotion. Muscle force and power output both depend on the speed of contraction, as described by the isotonic force-velocity curve. By influencing the speed of contractile elements, elastic structures can have a profound effect on muscle force, power and work. In very rapid movements, elastic mechanisms can amplify muscle power by storing the work of muscle contraction slowly and releasing it rapidly. When energy must be dissipated rapidly, such as in landing from a jump, energy stored rapidly in elastic elements can be released more slowly to stretch muscle contractile elements, reducing the power input to muscle and possibly protecting it from damage. Elastic mechanisms identified so far rely primarily on in-series tendons, but many structures within muscles exhibit spring-like properties. Actomyosin cross-bridges, actin and myosin filaments, titin, and the connective tissue scaffolding of the extracellular matrix all have the potential to store and recover elastic energy during muscle contraction. The potential contribution of these elements can be assessed from their stiffness and estimates of the strain they undergo during muscle function. Such calculations provide boundaries for the possible roles these springs might play in locomotion, and may help to direct future studies of the uses of elastic elements in muscle. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Contribution of TyrB26 to the Function and Stability of Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Phillips, Nelson B.; Rege, Nischay; Lawrence, Michael C.; Whittaker, Jonathan; Weiss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to receptor domains have defined the primary hormone-receptor interface. We investigated the role of TyrB26, a conserved aromatic residue at this interface. To probe the evolutionary basis for such conservation, we constructed 18 variants at B26. Surprisingly, non-aromatic polar or charged side chains (such as Glu, Ser, or ornithine (Orn)) conferred high activity, whereas the weakest-binding analogs contained Val, Ile, and Leu substitutions. Modeling of variant complexes suggested that the B26 side chains pack within a shallow depression at the solvent-exposed periphery of the interface. This interface would disfavor large aliphatic side chains. The analogs with highest activity exhibited reduced thermodynamic stability and heightened susceptibility to fibrillation. Perturbed self-assembly was also demonstrated in studies of the charged variants (Orn and Glu); indeed, the GluB26 analog exhibited aberrant aggregation in either the presence or absence of zinc ions. Thus, although TyrB26 is part of insulin's receptor-binding surface, our results suggest that its conservation has been enjoined by the aromatic ring's contributions to native stability and self-assembly. We envisage that such classical structural relationships reflect the implicit threat of toxic misfolding (rather than hormonal function at the receptor level) as a general evolutionary determinant of extant protein sequences. PMID:27129279

  14. Dissecting molecular descriptors into atomic contributions in density functional reactivity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Liu, Shubin

    2014-01-01

    Density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) employs the electron density of a molecule and its related quantities such as gradient and Laplacian to describe its structure and reactivity properties. Proper descriptions at both molecular (global) and atomic (local) levels are equally important and illuminating. In this work, we make use of Bader's zero-flux partition scheme and consider atomic contributions for a few global reactivity descriptors in DFRT, including the density-based quantification of steric effect and related indices. Earlier, we proved that these quantities are intrinsically correlated for atomic and molecular systems [S. B. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 191107 (2007); ibid. 126, 244103 (2007)]. In this work, a new basin-based integration algorithm has been implemented, whose reliability and effectiveness have been extensively examined. We also investigated a list of simple hydrocarbon systems and different scenarios of bonding processes, including stretching, bending, and rotating. Interesting changing patterns for the atomic and molecular values of these quantities have been revealed for different systems. This work not only confirms the strong correlation between these global reactivity descriptors for molecular systems, as theoretically proven earlier by us, it also provides new and unexpected changing patterns for their atomic values, which can be employed to understand the origin and nature of chemical phenomena

  15. The core contribution of transmission electron microscopy to functional nanomaterials engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carenco, Sophie; Moldovan, Simona; Roiban, Lucian; Florea, Ileana; Portehault, David; Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Boissière, Cédric; Rozes, Laurence; Mézailles, Nicolas; Drillon, Marc; Sanchez, Clément; Ersen, Ovidiu

    2016-01-21

    Research on nanomaterials and nanostructured materials is burgeoning because their numerous and versatile applications contribute to solve societal needs in the domain of medicine, energy, environment and STICs. Optimizing their properties requires in-depth analysis of their structural, morphological and chemical features at the nanoscale. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), combining tomography with electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-magnification imaging in high-angle annular dark-field mode provides access to all features of the same object. Today, TEM experiments in three dimensions are paramount to solve tough structural problems associated with nanoscale matter. This approach allowed a thorough morphological description of silica fibers. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the mesoporous network of binary metal oxide prepared by template-assisted spray-drying was performed, and the homogeneity of amino functionalized metal-organic frameworks was assessed. Besides, the morphology and internal structure of metal phosphide nanoparticles was deciphered, providing a milestone for understanding phase segregation at the nanoscale. By extrapolating to larger classes of materials, from soft matter to hard metals and/or ceramics, this approach allows probing small volumes and uncovering materials characteristics and properties at two or three dimensions. Altogether, this feature article aims at providing (nano)materials scientists with a representative set of examples that illustrates the capabilities of modern TEM and tomography, which can be transposed to their own research.

  16. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-transcriptional Function of FOXO1/DAF-16 Contributes to Translesion DNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitoku, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshimochi, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kaori; Araoi, Sho; Sakamaki, Jun-Ichi; Takahashi, Yuta; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-22

    Forkhead box O (FOXO; DAF-16 in nematode) transcription factors activate a program of genes that control stress resistance, metabolism, and lifespan. Given the adverse impact of the stochastic DNA damage on organismal development and ageing, we examined the role of FOXO/DAF-16 in UV-induced DNA-damage response. Knockdown of FOXO1, but not FOXO3a, increases sensitivity to UV irradiation when exposed during S phase, suggesting a contribution of FOXO1 to translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), a replicative bypass of UV-induced DNA lesions. Actually, FOXO1 depletion results in a sustained activation of the ATR-Chk1 signaling and a reduction of PCNA monoubiquitination following UV irradiation. FOXO1 does not alter the expression of TLS-related genes but binds to the protein replication protein A (RPA1) that coats single-stranded DNA and acts as a scaffold for TLS. In Caenorhabditis elegans, daf-16 null mutants show UV-induced retardation in larval development and are rescued by overexpressing DAF-16 mutant lacking transactivation domain, but not substitution mutant unable to interact with RPA-1. Thus, our findings demonstrate that FOXO1/DAF-16 is a functional component in TLS independently of its transactivation activity. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, ICEx, Physics Department, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [Coimbra University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics Department, Center of Computational Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  19. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C.; Hiller, B.; Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  20. Universal elements of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  1. Antioxidant properties of buckwheat flours and their contribution to functionality of bakery, pasta and confectionary products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is grown primarily because of its grain which, after undergoing the processes of dehulling, grinding and sieving, is used to produce buckwheat flour which is characterized by a considerable content of antioxidants, especially polyphenols and tocopherols. Buckwheat polyphenols are represented by phenolic acids and flavonoids, mainly rutin, a proven potent antioxidant. The content of polyphenols and tocopherols in buckwheat grain primarily depends on the buckwheat species, growing area, climate and growing conditions. Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench, which is often used for the production of light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, contains less polyphenols than tartary buckwheat. The content of polyphenols in common buckwheat grain varies depending on the grain part. As their largest amount is contained in the hull and the outer layers of the grain, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is superior in polyphenols than the light buckwheat flour. Therefore, the wholegrain buckwheat flour is characterized by a higher antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols in buckwheat flour exist in free and bound forms, where the contribution of free polyphenols ranges between 48-64%. Due to a relatively high content of antioxidants in light and wholegrain buckwheat flour, they are used for substitution of wheat or other cereal flours in bakery, pasta and confectionary formulations in order to create either added value or gluten-free products. The aim of a long-term consumption of buckwheat flours is to achieve health benefits and protect from many chronic diseases. Technological procedures and some treatments used during the food preparation influence polyphenol composition and content and consequently the functionality of food. Therefore, in order to minimize polyphenol losses and preserve the antioxidant capacity of the final products it is necessary to understand the thermal treatments and their mechanisms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  2. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  3. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species with different size and mobility can be regulated by different processes at the same spatial scale, a principle that may contribute to diversity. Differences in species richness between local commu...

  4. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  5. Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs

  6. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  7. Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs

  8. Functional mobility and its contributing factors for older adults in different cities in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-I. Lin

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese older adults with mobility problems living in different cities performed differently in TUG and the contributing factors were also different. These findings indicate a need of further studies examining older adults in different environments.

  9. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  10. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-01-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator…

  11. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn eVera-Estay; Evelyn eVera-Estay; Anne G Seni; Caroline eChampagne; Miriam H Beauchamp; Miriam H Beauchamp

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative ...

  12. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...

  13. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  14. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  15. Contribution of chronic conditions to functional limitations using a multinomial outcome: Results for the older population in Belgium and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokota, R.T.C. (Renata T.C.); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); J-M. Robine (Jean-Marie); J. Tafforeau (Jean); P. Deboosere (Patrick); Moura, L. (Lenildo); Andrade, S.S.C.A. (Silvânia S.C.A.); Castro, S.S. (Shamyr S.); H. van Oyen (Herman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global phenomenon of population ageing is creating new challenges in both high and middle income countries, as functional limitations are expected to increase with age. The attribution method has been proposed to identify which conditions contribute most to disability

  16. Rev1 contributes to proper mitochondrial function via the PARP-NAD(+)-SIRT1-PGC1 alpha axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakouri, Nima Borhan; Durhuus, Jon Ambaek; Regnell, Christine Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    (ADP) ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) activity, low endogenous NAD+, low expression of SIRT1 and PGC1α and low adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) activity. We conclude that replication stress via Rev1-deficiency contributes to metabolic stress caused by compromized mitochondrial function via...... the PARP-NAD+-SIRT1-PGC1α axis....

  17. Contribution of Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Pragmatics to Socialization Behaviors of Children with High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén

    2018-02-01

    Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that applied ToM skills and PC mediated the relations between autism symptoms and social functioning. Implications for social cognitive interventions to address these findings are discussed.

  18. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  19. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Contributions to the Functional Neuroanatomy of Morphosyntactic Processing in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Studies about bilingualism and second language acquisition (SLA) have a long tradition within linguistic and psycholinguistic research. The contributions from psycholinguistic research are crucial to the improvement of neurolinguistic models. This importance stems from the fact that psycholinguistic research is posing more specific questions than…

  1. Hadronic correlation functions with quark-disconnected contributions in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelpers, Vera Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics is the strong force, which can be formulated as a non-abelian gauge theory called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In the low-energy regime, where the QCD coupling becomes strong and quarks and gluons are confined to hadrons, a perturbative expansion in the coupling constant is not possible. However, the introduction of a four-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice allows for an ab initio treatment of QCD and provides a powerful tool to study the low-energy dynamics of hadrons. Some hadronic matrix elements of interest receive contributions from diagrams including quark-disconnected loops, i.e. disconnected quark lines from one lattice point back to the same point. The calculation of such quark loops is computationally very demanding, because it requires knowledge of the all-to-all propagator. In this thesis we use stochastic sources and a hopping parameter expansion to estimate such propagators. We apply this technique to study two problems which relay crucially on the calculation of quark-disconnected diagrams, namely the scalar form factor of the pion and the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnet moment of the muon. The scalar form factor of the pion describes the coupling of a charged pion to a scalar particle. We calculate the connected and the disconnected contribution to the scalar form factor for three different momentum transfers. The scalar radius of the pion is extracted from the momentum dependence of the form factor. The use of several different pion masses and lattice spacings allows for an extrapolation to the physical point. The chiral extrapolation is done using chiral perturbation theory (χPT). We find that our pion mass dependence of the scalar radius is consistent with χPT at next-to-leading order. Additionally, we are able to extract the low energy constant anti l 4 from the extrapolation, and our result is in agreement with results from

  2. Hadronic correlation functions with quark-disconnected contributions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelpers, Vera Magdalena

    2015-09-14

    One of the fundamental interactions in the Standard Model of particle physics is the strong force, which can be formulated as a non-abelian gauge theory called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In the low-energy regime, where the QCD coupling becomes strong and quarks and gluons are confined to hadrons, a perturbative expansion in the coupling constant is not possible. However, the introduction of a four-dimensional Euclidean space-time lattice allows for an ab initio treatment of QCD and provides a powerful tool to study the low-energy dynamics of hadrons. Some hadronic matrix elements of interest receive contributions from diagrams including quark-disconnected loops, i.e. disconnected quark lines from one lattice point back to the same point. The calculation of such quark loops is computationally very demanding, because it requires knowledge of the all-to-all propagator. In this thesis we use stochastic sources and a hopping parameter expansion to estimate such propagators. We apply this technique to study two problems which relay crucially on the calculation of quark-disconnected diagrams, namely the scalar form factor of the pion and the hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to the anomalous magnet moment of the muon. The scalar form factor of the pion describes the coupling of a charged pion to a scalar particle. We calculate the connected and the disconnected contribution to the scalar form factor for three different momentum transfers. The scalar radius of the pion is extracted from the momentum dependence of the form factor. The use of several different pion masses and lattice spacings allows for an extrapolation to the physical point. The chiral extrapolation is done using chiral perturbation theory (χPT). We find that our pion mass dependence of the scalar radius is consistent with χPT at next-to-leading order. Additionally, we are able to extract the low energy constant anti l{sub 4} from the extrapolation, and our result is in agreement with results

  3. Diversity-interaction modeling: estimating contributions of species identities and interactions to ecosystem function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, L; Connolly, J; Finn, J A

    2009-01-01

    to the roles of evenness, functional groups, and functional redundancy. These more parsimonious descriptions can be especially useful in identifying general diversity-function relationships in communities with large numbers of species. We provide an example of the application of the modeling framework......We develop a modeling framework that estimates the effects of species identity and diversity on ecosystem function and permits prediction of the diversity-function relationship across different types of community composition. Rather than just measure an overall effect of diversity, we separately....... These models describe community-level performance and thus do not require separate measurement of the performance of individual species. This flexible modeling approach can be tailored to test many hypotheses in biodiversity research and can suggest the interaction mechanisms that may be acting....

  4. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  5. Epistemics for Learning Disabilities: Contributions from Magnetoencephalography, a Functional Neuroimaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE-BERMEJO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome known as Learning Disabilities (LD was described by S. Kirk in 1963. From that point on, institutions from the US, Canada and Spain have engaged in refining the concept and classification of LDs. The Complutense University in Spain, has proposed a descriptive and all-embracing definition, and has studied the different manifestations of LD, pursuing the description of biological markers and neurological features of LD’s main expressions: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysorthographia, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder –ADHD, and so forth. Findings in LD using functional neuroimaging techniques, namely Magnetoencephalography (MEG, are described. MEG is a non-invasive technique, which records magnetic fields naturally generated by the brain and their spatial distribution. It allows simultaneous functional and structural information. MEG is therefore used in the study of primary and superior cognitive functions, in surveillance of patterns of normal cognitive function and those specific to the different LD clinical manifestations.

  6. Importance of the correlation contribution for local hybrid functionals: range separation and self-interaction corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

    2012-01-07

    Local hybrid functionals with their position-dependent exact-exchange admixture are a conceptually simple and promising extension of the concept of a hybrid functional. Local hybrids based on a simple mixing of the local spin density approximation (LSDA) with exact exchange have been shown to be successful for thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and a range of other properties. So far, the combination of this generation of local hybrids with an LSDA correlation functional has been found to give the most favorable results for atomization energies, for a range of local mixing functions (LMFs) governing the exact-exchange admixture. Here, we show that the choice of correlation functional to be used with local hybrid exchange crucially influences the parameterization also of the exchange part as well as the overall performance. A novel ansatz for the correlation part of local hybrids is suggested based on (i) range-separation of LSDA correlation into short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts, and (ii) partial or full elimination of the one-electron self-correlation from the SR part. It is shown that such modified correlation functionals allow overall larger exact exchange admixture in thermochemically competitive local hybrids than before. This results in improvements for reaction barriers and for other properties crucially influenced by self-interaction errors, as demonstrated by a number of examples. Based on the range-separation approach, a fresh view on the breakdown of the correlation energy into dynamical and non-dynamical parts is suggested.

  7. Functional contributions and interactions between the human hippocampus and subregions of the striatum during arbitrary associative learning and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus and striatum are thought to have different functional roles in learning and memory. It is unknown under what experimental conditions their contributions are dissimilar or converge, and the extent to which they interact over the course of learning. In order to evaluate both the functional contributions of as well as the interactions between the human hippocampus and striatum, the present study used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and variations of a conditional visuomotor associative learning task that either taxed arbitrary associative learning (Experiment 1) or stimulus-response learning (Experiment 2). In the first experiment we observed changes in activity in the hippocampus and anterior caudate that reflect differences between the two regions consistent with distinct computational principles. In the second experiment we observed activity in the putamen that reflected content specific representations during the learning of arbitrary conditional visuomotor associations. In both experiments the hippocampus and ventral striatum demonstrated dynamic functional coupling during the learning of new arbitrary associations, but not during retrieval of well-learned arbitrary associations using control variants of the tasks that did not preferentially tax one system versus the other. These findings suggest that both the hippocampus and subregions of the dorsal striatum contribute uniquely to the learning of arbitrary associations while the hippocampus and ventral striatum interact over the course of learning. PMID:25560298

  8. Multi-fragment visibility determination in the context of order-independent transparency rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Maule

    2015-01-01

    Multi-fragment effects, in the computer-generated imagery context, are effects that determine pixel color based on information computed from more than one fragment. In such effects, the contribution of each fragment is extracted from its visibility with respect to a point of view. Seen through a pixel’s point of view, the visibility of one fragment depends on its spatial relationship with other fragments. This relationship can be reduced to the problem of sorting multiple fragments. Therefore...

  9. Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-13

    There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional brain networks contributing to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhtin, Andrei A; Ryman, Sephira G; Flores, Ranee A; Jung, Rex E

    2014-12-01

    The refinement of localization of intelligence in the human brain is converging onto a distributed network that broadly conforms to the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT). While this theory has received support in the neuroimaging literature, no functional magnetic resonance imaging study to date has conducted a whole-brain network-wise examination of the changes during engagement in tasks that are reliable measures of general intelligence (e.g., Raven's Progressive Matrices Test; RPM). Seventy-nine healthy subjects were scanned while solving RPM problems and during rest. Functional networks were extracted from the RPM and resting state data using Independent Component Analysis. Twenty-nine networks were identified, 26 of which were detected in both conditions. Fourteen networks were significantly correlated with the RPM task. The networks' spatial maps and functional connectivity measures at 3 frequency levels (low, medium, & high) were compared between the RPM and rest conditions. The regions involved in the networks that were found to be task related were consistent with the P-FIT, localizing to the bilateral medial frontal and parietal regions, right superior frontal lobule, and the right cingulate gyrus. Functional connectivity in multiple component pairs was differentially affected across all frequency levels during the RPM task. Our findings demonstrate that functional brain networks are more stable than previously thought, and maintain their general features across resting state and engagement in a complex cognitive task. The described spatial and functional connectivity alterations that such components undergo during fluid reasoning provide a network-wise framework of the P-FIT that can be valuable for further, network based, neuroimaging inquiries regarding the neural underpinnings of intelligence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fragmentation Point Detection of JPEG Images at DHT Using Validator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Kamaruddin Malik; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    File carving is an important, practical technique for data recovery in digital forensics investigation and is particularly useful when filesystem metadata is unavailable or damaged. The research on reassembly of JPEG files with RST markers, fragmented within the scan area have been done before. However, fragmentation within Define Huffman Table (DHT) segment is yet to be resolved. This paper analyzes the fragmentation within the DHT area and list out all the fragmentation possibilities. Two main contributions are made in this paper. Firstly, three fragmentation points within DHT area are listed. Secondly, few novel validators are proposed to detect these fragmentations. The result obtained from tests done on manually fragmented JPEG files, showed that all three fragmentation points within DHT are successfully detected using validators.

  13. Heavy-Quark Production in the Target Fragmentation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Graudenz, Dirk

    1997-01-01

    Fixed-target experiments permit the study of hadron production in the target fragmentation region. It is expected that the tagging of specific particles in the target fragments can be employed to introduce a bias in the hard scattering process towards a specific flavour content. The case of hadrons containing a heavy quark is particularly attractive because of the clear experimental signatures and the applicability of perturbative QCD. The standard approach to one-particle inclusive processes based on fragmentation functions is valid in the current fragmentation region and for large transverse momenta $p_T$ in the target fragmentation region, but it fails for particle production at small $p_T$ in the target fragmentation region. A collinear singularity, which cannot be absorbed in the standard way into the phenomenological distribution functions, prohibits the application of this procedure. This situation is remedied by the introduction of a new set of distribution functions, the target fragmentation function...

  14. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  15. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  16. Transitional-2 B cells acquire regulatory function during tolerance induction and contribute to allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Aurélie; Blair, Paul A; Chai, Jian-Guo; Ratnasothy, Kulachelvy; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Alhabbab, Rowa; Rackham, Chloe L; Jones, Peter M; Smyth, Lesley; Elgueta, Raul; Howard, Jane K; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2015-03-01

    In humans, tolerance to renal transplants has been associated with alterations in B-cell gene transcription and maintenance of the numbers of circulating transitional B cells. Here, we use a mouse model of transplantation tolerance to investigate the contribution of B cells to allograft survival. We demonstrate that transfer of B cells from mice rendered tolerant to MHC class I mismatched skin grafts can prolong graft survival in a dose-dependent and antigen-specific manner to a degree similar to that afforded by graft-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells. Tolerance in this model was associated with an increase in transitional-2 (T2) B cells. Only T2 B cells from tolerized mice, not naïve T2 nor alloantigen experienced T2, were capable of prolonging skin allograft survival, and suppressing T-cell activation. Tolerized T2 B cells expressed lower levels of CD86, increased TIM-1, and demonstrated a preferential survival in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate a synergistic effect between tolerized B cells and graft-specific Treg cells. IL-10 production by T2 B cells did not contribute to tolerance, as shown by transfer of B cells from IL-10(-/-) mice. These results suggest that T2 B cells in tolerant patients may include a population of regulatory B cells that directly inhibit graft rejection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Contribution of Arg288 of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu to translational functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Thomas; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Clark, Brian F. C.

    1997-01-01

    . This network is disrupted upon formation of the ternary complex. Arg288 was replaced by alanine, isoleucine, lysine or glutamic acid, and the resulting mutants have been subjected to an in vitro characterisation with the aim of clarifying the function of Arg288. Unexpectedly, the mutants behaved like the wild...

  18. The Contribution of Executive Function to Source Memory Development in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Vinaya; Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Age-related differences in episodic memory judgments assessing recall of fact information and the source of this information were examined. The role of executive function (EF) in supporting early episodic memory ability was also explored. Four- and 6-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources (experimenter or puppet),…

  19. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki

    2017-10-19

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.

  1. From Structure to Circuits: The Contribution of MEG Connectivity Studies to Functional Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Elizabeth W; Snead Iii, O C

    2016-01-01

    New advances in structural neuroimaging have revealed the intricate and extensive connections within the brain, data which have informed a number of ambitious projects such as the mapping of the human connectome. Elucidation of the structural connections of the brain, at both the macro and micro levels, promises new perspectives on brain structure and function that could translate into improved outcomes in functional neurosurgery. The understanding of neuronal structural connectivity afforded by these data now offers a vista on the brain, in both healthy and diseased states, that could not be seen with traditional neuroimaging. Concurrent with these developments in structural imaging, a complementary modality called magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been garnering great attention because it too holds promise for being able to shed light on the intricacies of functional brain connectivity. MEG is based upon the elemental principle of physics that an electrical current generates a magnetic field. Hence, MEG uses highly sensitive biomagnetometers to measure extracranial magnetic fields produced by intracellular neuronal currents. Put simply then, MEG is a measure of neurophysiological activity, which captures the magnetic fields generated by synchronized intraneuronal electrical activity. As such, MEG recordings offer exquisite resolution in the time and oscillatory domain and, as well, when co-registered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), offer excellent resolution in the spatial domain. Recent advances in MEG computational and graph theoretical methods have led to studies of connectivity in the time-frequency domain. As such, MEG can elucidate a neurophysiological-based functional circuitry that may enhance what is seen with MRI connectivity studies. In particular, MEG may offer additional insight not possible by MRI when used to study complex eloquent function, where the precise timing and coordination of brain areas is critical. This article will review the

  2. Ecosystem Functions Connecting Contributions from Ecosystem Services to Human Wellbeing in a Mangrove System in Northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Shih, Shang-Shu; Chen, Chang-Po

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats...

  3. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Eskes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙ o2max, cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial PCO2, and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  4. Myocardial functional responses do not contribute to maximal exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; DeBlois, Jacob P; Wharton, Margaret; Rowland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Both the extent and means by which maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is depressed by elevated ambient temperature are uncertain. Particularly, information is currently unavailable regarding the possible influence of alterations in myocardial function on [Formula: see text] and performance during exercise in the heat. This study investigated the effects of environmental heat on [Formula: see text], peak work capacity, and myocardial function during a standard, progressive cycle test to exhaustion. Twelve euhydrated men (aged 20.7 ± 1.7 years) performed a maximal cycle test in an environmental chamber in both heat stress [35°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and temperate (20°C, 30% RH) conditions with measurement of standard gas exchange variables, core temperature, and echocardiographic measures of cardiac function. A small but statistically significant reduction of peak work capacity was observed in the heat stress versus temperate conditions (253 ± 30 and 259 ± 30 W, respectively, p = 0.02). Mean [Formula: see text] was not statistically different in the two conditions (p = 0.16) but values were 3.4% lower in the heat, and 9 of 12 participants demonstrated lower values in the heat stress trial. No differences in responses of heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, core temperature, hydration status, or myocardial systolic or diastolic function were observed between the two conditions, but perceived body temperature was higher in the heat. The small, negative impact of heat on exercise performance and [Formula: see text] could not be explained by disturbances in myocardial functional responses to exercise in young adult males.

  5. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eVera-Estay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have

  6. Causal functional contributions and interactions in the attention network of the brain: an objective multi-perturbation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaglia, Melissa; Hilgetag, Claus C

    2016-06-01

    Spatial attention is a prime example for the distributed network functions of the brain. Lesion studies in animal models have been used to investigate intact attentional mechanisms as well as perspectives for rehabilitation in the injured brain. Here, we systematically analyzed behavioral data from cooling deactivation and permanent lesion experiments in the cat, where unilateral deactivation of the posterior parietal cortex (in the vicinity of the posterior middle suprasylvian cortex, pMS) or the superior colliculus (SC) cause a severe neglect in the contralateral hemifield. Counterintuitively, additional deactivation of structures in the opposite hemisphere reverses the deficit. Using such lesion data, we employed a game-theoretical approach, multi-perturbation Shapley value analysis (MSA), for inferring functional contributions and network interactions of bilateral pMS and SC from behavioral performance in visual attention studies. The approach provides an objective theoretical strategy for lesion inferences and allows a unique quantitative characterization of regional functional contributions and interactions on the basis of multi-perturbations. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that right posterior parietal cortex and superior colliculus made the strongest positive contributions to left-field orienting, while left brain regions had negative contributions, implying that their perturbation may reverse the effects of contralateral lesions or improve normal function. An analysis of functional modulations and interactions among the regions revealed redundant interactions (implying functional overlap) between regions within each hemisphere, and synergistic interactions between bilateral regions. To assess the reliability of the MSA method in the face of variable and incomplete input data, we performed a sensitivity analysis, investigating how much the contribution values of the four regions depended on the performance of specific configurations and on the

  7. Functional traits drive the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition among multiple arid-zone species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xu; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Guo-Fang; Hu, Yu-Kun; Ye, Xue-Hua; Cornwell, William K; Prinzing, Andreas; Dong, Ming; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-08-18

    In arid zones, strong solar radiation has important consequences for ecosystem processes. To better understand carbon and nutrient dynamics, it is important to know the contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition of different arid-zone species. Here we investigated: (1) whether such contribution varies among plant species at given irradiance regime, (2) whether interspecific variation in such contribution correlates with interspecific variation in the decomposition rate under shade; and (3) whether this correlation can be explained by leaf traits. We conducted a factorial experiment to determine the effects of solar radiation and environmental moisture for the mass loss and the decomposition constant k-values of 13 species litters collected in Northern China. The contribution of solar radiation to leaf litter decomposition varied significantly among species. Solar radiation accelerated decomposition in particular in the species that already decompose quickly under shade. Functional traits, notably specific leaf area, might predict the interspecific variation in that contribution. Our results provide the first empirical evidence for how the effect of solar radiation on decomposition varies among multiple species. Thus, the effect of solar radiation on the carbon flux between biosphere and atmosphere may depend on the species composition of the vegetation.

  8. Impaired Sympathoadrenal Axis Function Contributes to Enhanced Insulin Secretion in Prediabetic Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eliza Andreazzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of sympathoadrenal axis activity in obesity onset was investigated using the experimental model of treating neonatal rats with monosodium L-glutamate. To access general sympathetic nervous system activity, we recorded the firing rates of sympathetic superior cervical ganglion nerves in animals. Catecholamine content and secretion from isolated adrenal medulla were measured. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed, and isolated pancreatic islets were stimulated with glucose and adrenergic agonists. The nerve firing rate of obese rats was decreased compared to the rate for lean rats. Basal catecholamine secretion decreased whereas catecholamine secretion induced by carbachol, elevated extracellular potassium, and caffeine in the isolated adrenal medulla were all increased in obese rats compared to control. Both glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia were observed in obese rats. Adrenaline strongly inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in obese animals. These findings suggest that low sympathoadrenal activity contributes to impaired glycaemic control in prediabetic obese rats.

  9. Stromal cell contributions to the homeostasis and functionality of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Scott N; Germain, Ronald N

    2009-09-01

    A defining characteristic of the immune system is the constant movement of many of its constituent cells through the secondary lymphoid tissues, mainly the spleen and lymph nodes, where crucial interactions that underlie homeostatic regulation, peripheral tolerance and the effective development of adaptive immune responses take place. What has only recently been recognized is the role that non-haematopoietic stromal elements have in many aspects of immune cell migration, activation and survival. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of lymphoid compartment stromal cells, examine their possible heterogeneity, discuss how these cells contribute to immune homeostasis and the efficient initiation of adaptive immune responses, and highlight how targeting of these elements by some pathogens can influence the host immune response.

  10. Hypervelocity Impact Test Fragment Modeling: Modifications to the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on test satellites are performed by members of the orbital debris scientific community in order to understand and typify the on-orbit collision breakup process. By analysis of these test satellite fragments, the fragment size and mass distributions are derived and incorporated into various orbital debris models. These same fragments are currently being put to new use using emerging technologies. Digital models of these fragments are created using a laser scanner. A group of computer programs referred to as the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve code uses these digital representations in a multitude of ways that describe, measure, and model on-orbit fragments and fragment behavior. The Dynamic Rotation subroutine generates all of the possible reflected intensities from a scanned fragment as if it were observed to rotate dynamically while in orbit about the Earth. This calls an additional subroutine that graphically displays the intensities and the resulting frequency of those intensities as a range of solar phase angles in a Probability Density Function plot. This document reports the additions and modifications to the subset of the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve concerned with the Dynamic Rotation and Probability Density Function plotting subroutines.

  11. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  12. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Jessica; Miranda, Ana; Presentación, M Jesús; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Rosel, Jesús F

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions), executive functioning (inhibition and working memory), and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities), assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5-6 and 7-8 years old). The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  13. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions, executive functioning (inhibition and working memory, and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities, assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5–6 and 7–8 years old. The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  14. Contribution of genetic polymorphisms on functional status at very old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dato, S.; Sørensen, Mette; Lagani, V.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...... observations reported in the same cohort. Overall, our work supports the evidence that genes belonging to the pro-anti-oxidant pathway are able to modulate physical and cognitive performance after the ninth decade of life, finally influencing extreme survival.......Preservation of functional ability is a well-recognized marker of longevity. At a molecular level, a major determinant of the physiological decline occurring with aging is the imbalance between production and accumulation of oxidative damage to macromolecules, together with a decreased efficiency...

  15. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How should functional imaging of patients with disorders of consciousness contribute to their clinical rehabilitation needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, Steven; Giacino, Joseph T.; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Schabus, Manuel; Owen, Adrian M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review We discuss the problems of evidence-based neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness, and recent functional neuroimaging data obtained in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Recent findings Published data are insufficient to make recommendations for or against any of the neurorehabilitative treatments in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients. Electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have been shown to be useful in measuring residual brain function in noncommunicative brain-damaged patients. Despite the fact that such studies could in principle allow an objective quantification of the putative cerebral effect of rehabilitative treatment in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state, they have so far not been used in this context. Summary Without controlled studies and careful patient selection criteria it will not be possible to evaluate the potential of therapeutic interventions in disorders of consciousness. There also is a need to elucidate the neurophysiological effects of such treatments. Integration of multimodal neuroimaging techniques should eventually improve our ability to disentangle differences in outcome on the basis of underlying mechanisms and better guide our therapeutic options in the challenging patient populations encountered following severe acute brain damage. PMID:17102688

  17. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  18. Physics of projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, Tadanori

    1982-01-01

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  19. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  20. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  1. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  2. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  3. Zonula occludens toxin structure-function analysis. Identification of the fragment biologically active on tight junctions and of the zonulin receptor binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, M; Lu, R; Uzzau, S; Wang, W; Margaretten, K; Pazzani, C; Maimone, F; Fasano, A

    2001-06-01

    Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is an enterotoxin elaborated by Vibrio cholerae that increases intestinal permeability by interacting with a mammalian cell receptor with subsequent activation of intracellular signaling leading to the disassembly of the intercellular tight junctions. Zot localizes in the bacterial outer membrane of V. cholerae with subsequent cleavage and secretion of a carboxyl-terminal fragment in the host intestinal milieu. To identify the Zot domain(s) directly involved in the protein permeating effect, several zot gene deletion mutants were constructed and tested for their biological activity in the Ussing chamber assay and their ability to bind to the target receptor on intestinal epithelial cell cultures. The Zot biologically active domain was localized toward the carboxyl terminus of the protein and coincided with the predicted cleavage product generated by V. cholerae. This domain shared a putative receptor-binding motif with zonulin, the Zot mammalian analogue involved in tight junction modulation. Amino acid comparison between the Zot active fragment and zonulin, combined with site-directed mutagenesis experiments, confirmed the presence of an octapeptide receptor-binding domain toward the amino terminus of the processed Zot.

  4. Esophageal Sensorimotor Function and Psychological Factors Each Contribute to Symptom Severity in Globus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Tack, Jan; Pauwels, Ans

    2016-10-01

    Altered upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body (EB) sensorimotor function and psychosocial factors may both be involved in symptom generation in globus, but their common impact is not yet assessed. The aim of the study is (1) to compare UES and EB sensitivity and compliance of globus patients with healthy controls (HC); (2) to study the association of globus symptom severity (GSS) with UES and EB sensitivity and compliance, UES motor function and psychosocial factors. In 58 globus patients, GSS, somatization, and anxiety disorders were determined using validated questionnaires. In 26 HC and 42/58 patients, UES and EB sensitivity and compliance were assessed twice using barostat measurements. UES function of 27 globus patients was evaluated using high-resolution manometry. Bivariate correlations and a general linear model tested the association of these factors with GSS. UES and EB compliance did not differ between globus patients and HC. Upon repeated distension, UES habituation was seen in both groups, whereas EB sensitization (23.3±1.3 vs. 19.5±1.5 mm Hg, Pdisorder (t=3.04, P=0.004), and post-traumatic stress severity (ρ=0.40, P=0.005) were associated with GSS. UES compliance and somatization were independently associated with GSS. A trend (P=0.061) was found for the association of GSS with change in EB compliance. UES compliance, change in EB compliance, and somatization explain 40% of the variance in GSS. This indicates that globus is a complex disorder of the brain-gut axis rather than a "psychosomatic" disorder or a peripheral esophageal disorder.

  5. Basic-level categorization of intermediate complexity fragments reveals top-down effects of expertise in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Assaf; Ullman, Shimon; Harari, Danny; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-07-28

    Visual expertise is usually defined as the superior ability to distinguish between exemplars of a homogeneous category. Here, we ask how real-world expertise manifests at basic-level categorization and assess the contribution of stimulus-driven and top-down knowledge-based factors to this manifestation. Car experts and novices categorized computer-selected image fragments of cars, airplanes, and faces. Within each category, the fragments varied in their mutual information (MI), an objective quantifiable measure of feature diagnosticity. Categorization of face and airplane fragments was similar within and between groups, showing better performance with increasing MI levels. Novices categorized car fragments more slowly than face and airplane fragments, while experts categorized car fragments as fast as face and airplane fragments. The experts' advantage with car fragments was similar across MI levels, with similar functions relating RT with MI level for both groups. Accuracy was equal between groups for cars as well as faces and airplanes, but experts' response criteria were biased toward cars. These findings suggest that expertise does not entail only specific perceptual strategies. Rather, at the basic level, expertise manifests as a general processing advantage arguably involving application of top-down mechanisms, such as knowledge and attention, which helps experts to distinguish between object categories. © ARVO

  6. Theoretical analysis of oscillatory terms in lattice heat-current time correlation functions and their contributions to thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Andrey; Sewell, Tommy

    2018-03-01

    Lattice heat-current time correlation functions for insulators and semiconductors obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations exhibit features of both pure exponential decay and oscillatory-exponential decay. For some materials the oscillatory terms contribute significantly to the lattice heat conductivity calculated from the correlation functions. However, the origin of the oscillatory terms is not well understood, and their contribution to the heat conductivity is accounted for by fitting them to empirical functions. Here, a translationally invariant expression for the heat current in terms of creation and annihilation operators is derived. By using this full phonon-picture definition of the heat current and applying the relaxation-time approximation we explain, at least in part, the origin of the oscillatory terms in the lattice heat-current correlation function. We discuss the relationship between the crystal Hamiltonian and the magnitude of the oscillatory terms. A solvable one-dimensional model is used to illustrate the potential importance of terms that are omitted in the commonly used phonon-picture expression for the heat current. While the derivations are fully quantum mechanical, classical-limit expressions are provided that enable direct contact with classical quantities obtainable from MD.

  7. Second-order contributions to the structure functions in deep inelastic scattering III The singlet

    CERN Document Server

    González-Arroyo, A

    1980-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.159, p.512 (1979). Pointlike QCD predictions for the singlet part of the structure functions are given up to next- to-leading order of perturbation theory. This generalises the result obtained in pt.I (see ibid., vol.153, p.161, 1979) which deals with the non-singlet case. An interesting by-product is an exact and simple analytical expression for the anomalous dimension matrix to second non-trivial order in the QCD coupling constant. (18 refs).

  8. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain, mediate the decline in memory. Finally, previous studies have focused on middle-aged adults, and a possible detrimental effect of aging on memory performance in chronic pain patients has been commonly disregarded. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the pattern of semantic, working, and visual and verbal episodic memory performance in participants with chronic pain, while testing for possible contributions of attention and age to task performance. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain and 32 pain-free participants completed tests of episodic, semantic, and working memory to assess memory performance and a test of attention. Participants with chronic pain performed worse on tests of working memory and verbal episodic memory. A decline in attention explained some, but not all, group differences in memory performance. Finally, no additional effect of age on the diminished task performance in participants with chronic pain was observed. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic pain significantly affects memory performance. Part of this effect may be caused by underlying attentional dysfunction, although this could not fully explain the observed memory decline. An increase in age in combination with the presence of chronic pain did not additionally affect memory performance.

  9. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contribution of molecular analysis to the typification of the non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ortiga, Ruth; Aranda, Francisco Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Aim The WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs considers the inmunohistochemical characterization of pituitary adenomas (PA) as mandatory for patient diagnosis. Recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular patterns of these tumours could complement this classification with gene expression profiling. Methods Within the context of the Spanish Molecular Registry of Pituitary Adenomas (REMAH), a multicentre clinical-basic research project, we analysed the molecular phenotype of 142 PAs with complete IHC and clinical information. Gene expression levels of all pituitary hormones, type 1 corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor, dopamine receptors and arginine vasopressin receptor 1b were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we used three housekeeping genes for normalization and a pool of nine healthy pituitary glands from autopsies as calibration reference standard. Results Based on the clinically functioning PA (FPA: somatotroph, corticotroph, thyrotroph and lactotroph adenomas), we established the interquartile range of relative expression for all genes studied in each PA subtype. That allowed molecularly the different PA subtypes, including the clinically non-functioning PA (NFPA). Afterwards, we estimated the concordance of the molecular and immunohistochemical classification with clinical diagnosis in FPA and between them in NFPA. The kappa values were higher in molecular than in immunohistochemical classification in FPA and showed a bad concordance in all NFPA subtypes. Conclusions According to these results, the molecular characterization of the PA complements the IHC analysis, allowing a better typification of the NFPA. PMID:28692683

  11. Contribution of molecular analysis to the typification of the non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sanchez-Tejada

    Full Text Available The WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs considers the inmunohistochemical characterization of pituitary adenomas (PA as mandatory for patient diagnosis. Recent advances in the knowledge of the molecular patterns of these tumours could complement this classification with gene expression profiling.Within the context of the Spanish Molecular Registry of Pituitary Adenomas (REMAH, a multicentre clinical-basic research project, we analysed the molecular phenotype of 142 PAs with complete IHC and clinical information. Gene expression levels of all pituitary hormones, type 1 corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor, dopamine receptors and arginine vasopressin receptor 1b were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we used three housekeeping genes for normalization and a pool of nine healthy pituitary glands from autopsies as calibration reference standard.Based on the clinically functioning PA (FPA: somatotroph, corticotroph, thyrotroph and lactotroph adenomas, we established the interquartile range of relative expression for all genes studied in each PA subtype. That allowed molecularly the different PA subtypes, including the clinically non-functioning PA (NFPA. Afterwards, we estimated the concordance of the molecular and immunohistochemical classification with clinical diagnosis in FPA and between them in NFPA. The kappa values were higher in molecular than in immunohistochemical classification in FPA and showed a bad concordance in all NFPA subtypes.According to these results, the molecular characterization of the PA complements the IHC analysis, allowing a better typification of the NFPA.

  12. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  13. Reduced Orexin System Function Contributes to Resilience to Repeated Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafe, Laura A; Eacret, Darrell; Dobkin, Jane; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD. The present experiments used a rodent social defeat model that generates actively coping rats and passively coping rats, which we have previously shown exhibit resilient and vulnerable profiles, respectively, to examine if orexins play a role in these stress-induced phenotypes. In situ radiolabeling and qPCR revealed that actively coping rats expressed significantly lower prepro-orexin mRNA compared with passively coping rats. This led to the hypothesis that lower levels of orexins contribute to resilience to repeated social stress. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent 5 d of social defeat to establish active and passive coping phenotypes. Then, orexin neurons were inhibited before each social defeat for three additional days using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Inhibition of orexins increased social interaction behavior and decreased depressive-like behavior in the vulnerable population of rats. Indeed, these data suggest that lowering orexins promoted resilience to social defeat and may be an important target for treatment of stress-related disorders.

  14. The Persistent Contributions of RNA to Eukaryotic Gen(om)e Architecture and Cellular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the best scenario for earliest forms of life is based on RNA molecules as they have the proven ability to catalyze enzymatic reactions and harbor genetic information. Evolutionary principles valid today become apparent in such models already. Furthermore, many features of eukaryotic genome architecture might have their origins in an RNA or RNA/protein (RNP) world, including the onset of a further transition, when DNA replaced RNA as the genetic bookkeeper of the cell. Chromosome maintenance, splicing, and regulatory function via RNA may be deeply rooted in the RNA/RNP worlds. Mostly in eukaryotes, conversion from RNA to DNA is still ongoing, which greatly impacts the plasticity of extant genomes. Raw material for novel genes encoding protein or RNA, or parts of genes including regulatory elements that selection can act on, continues to enter the evolutionary lottery. PMID:25081515

  15. Optic ataxia and the function of the dorsal stream: contributions to perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisella, Laure; Sergio, Lauren; Blangero, Annabelle; Torchin, Héloïse; Vighetto, Alain; Rossetti, Yves

    2009-12-01

    Optic ataxia (OA) is one of the symptoms pertaining to Bálint's Syndrome. It has been described clinically for nearly 80 years before it became a cornerstone of the most popular dual stream theory of the visual brain. Over the last 10 years a regain of interest for this neurological condition lead to a number of precise analyses of the deficits found in optic ataxia, giving rise to a renewed outline of its very definition and hence of the function(s) of the occipito-parietal (dorsal) stream. In absence of concomitant clinical symptoms, we review evidence that misreaching errors in central vision result from the "hand effect": an erroneous dynamic spatial processing of proprioceptive information from the hand. When visual feedback of the hand is provided (closed-loop condition), pure optic ataxia is restricted to peripheral vision. This central versus peripheral vision distinction is repeatedly used to argue that action and perception are not unique and dissociated systems. New assessments of optic ataxia patients are provided, confirming on one hand that their visuomotor deficit is specific to peripheral vision (i.e. when the gaze and the hand goals are dissociated), on the other hand that they disclose perceptual deficits in peripheral vision. These results are coherent with the recent demonstration that optic ataxia patients exhibit a general contralesional deficit for dynamic visuo-spatial processing, affecting both hand and eye movements [Gaveau, V., Pélisson, D., Blangero, A., Urquizar, C., Prablanc, C.,Vighetto, A., et al. (2008). A common parietal module for saccade and reach: Eye-hand coordination and saccadic control in optic ataxia. Neuropsychologia, 46, 475-486]. Such module(s) within the dorsal stream could be used for both action and perception in the periphery. It is concluded that optic ataxia cannot be considered as a unitary and specific visuo-manual deficit, and that the modular organisation of the dorsal stream allows for numerous dorsal

  16. Negotiating a new day: parents' contributions to supporting students' school functioning after exposure to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eline Grelland Røkholt,1 Jon-Håkon Schultz,2,3 Åse Langballe2 1Department of Allied Health, Bereavement Support Center, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Norwegian Center for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, Oslo, 3Department of Education, University of Tromsø, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Abstract: Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social support and restore the supportive structure of everyday life. This study explores parents' experiences of supporting adolescents in regaining school functioning after the July 2011 massacre at Utøya summer camp in Norway. One year after the attack, 87 parents of 63 young people who survived the massacre were interviewed using qualitative interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. All parents were actively supportive of their children, and described a demanding process of establishing new routines to make school attendance possible. Most parents described radical changes in their adolescents. The struggle of establishing routines often brought conflict and frustration into the parent–adolescent relationship. Parents were given general advice, but reported being left alone to translate this into action. The first school year after the trauma was described as a frustrating and lonely struggle: their adolescents were largely unable to restore normal daily life and school functioning. In 20% of the cases, school–home relationships were strained and were reported as a burden because of poor understanding of needs and insufficient educational adaptive measures; a further 20% reported conflict in school–home relationships, while 50% were either positive or neutral. The last 10%, enrolled in apprenticeship, dropped out, or started working, instead of finishing school. Implications for supporting parents with traumatized adolescent students are indicated. Keywords

  17. Low intensity laser therapy and functional orthopedics contribution in pain and temporo mandibular dysfunction treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lollato, Renata Fronzaglia

    2003-01-01

    Temporo Mandibular Dysfunction (TMD) is a term used to describe disorders which involve temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and associated structures, isolatedly or not, whose most frequent symptoms pain. Its etiology involve controversies, and among risk factors is Class 11 malocclusion. A lot of techniques are used for TMD treatment, and the most recent are Low Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) and Functional Orthopedics (FO). The aim of this study was to evaluate pain and buccal mobility in subjects with Class II malocclusion and TMD symptoms, treated with LILT and FO associated or not. Eighteen subjects were selected and divided in three groups. Group 1 was treated with LILT, λ = 780 nm, 70 mW, 15 J/cm 2 per point, in six sessions during two weeks. The application was in three points around the TMJ and in masticatory muscles: masseter, temporalis, sternomastoid and trapezius, on both sides when there was pain. Palpation was made before and five minutes after application and subjects answered a questionnaire with a score for pain evaluation. Group 2 received functional orthopedics aparatology Planas Indirect Composed Plates, and was evaluated once a week during two weeks, after palpation and following the same score as group 1. Group 3 received both therapies at the same time, and the first application coincided with the aparatology installation. The evaluation followed the parameters of group 1. The results were statically analyzed , and in general form did not show significant differences. There was remission of pain symptoms in ali of the groups, and group 3 showed more rapidly results. This fact leaded us to a conclusion that the association of the LILT with FO was the best treatment for the pain symptoms remission in TMD. (author)

  18. [The contributing risk factors, prevention and treatment of functional dependence among the oldest-old and elderly subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianrong; Tan, Jiping; Guo, Yuhe; Ye, Guanghua; Zhu, Linqi; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yinghao; Deng, Yucheng; Wang, Guichen; Wang, Luning

    2014-10-01

    To compare the risk factors on the functional dependence between the oldest-old and elderly veterans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among veterans ( ≥ 60 years of age) lived in 44 veterans' communities in Beijing. The socio-demographic information and history of non-communicable chronic diseases were collected via face-to-face interviews, and the functional status was assessed by the 20-item version of the Activities of Daily Living Scale. The risk factors associated with increased hazard of the functional dependence in the oldest-old ( ≥ 80 years old) were cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal diseases, cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attack, sleep disorders, hypnotics, osteoarthrosis, hypertension and fall with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.241-2.962 (all P fall, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthrosis and hearing loss were the risk factors for that in the elderly subjects (aged 60-79 years). The OR was 1.232-5.790 (all P risk of functional dependence in both the oldest-old and elderly people. Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading causes contributed to the functional dependence among oldest-old and elderly population. Neurodegenerative diseases in the oldest-old, stroke and depression in elderly people should be the priorities in ameliorating disability. Healthy lifestyle and avocational activities could improve the functional status of the oldest-old and elderly population.

  19. Kinesin-8 effects on mitotic microtubule dynamics contribute to spindle function in fission yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Zachary R.; Crapo, Ammon; Hough, Loren E.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin-8 motor proteins destabilize microtubules. Their absence during cell division is associated with disorganized mitotic chromosome movements and chromosome loss. Despite recent work studying effects of kinesin-8s on microtubule dynamics, it remains unclear whether the kinesin-8 mitotic phenotypes are consequences of their effect on microtubule dynamics, their well-established motor activity, or additional, unknown functions. To better understand the role of kinesin-8 proteins in mitosis, we studied the effects of deletion of the fission yeast kinesin-8 proteins Klp5 and Klp6 on chromosome movements and spindle length dynamics. Aberrant microtubule-driven kinetochore pushing movements and tripolar mitotic spindles occurred in cells lacking Klp5 but not Klp6. Kinesin-8–deletion strains showed large fluctuations in metaphase spindle length, suggesting a disruption of spindle length stabilization. Comparison of our results from light microscopy with a mathematical model suggests that kinesin-8–induced effects on microtubule dynamics, kinetochore attachment stability, and sliding force in the spindle can explain the aberrant chromosome movements and spindle length fluctuations seen. PMID:27146110

  20. Cost functions and the electric utility industry. A contribution to the debate on deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Real, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the main articles that estimate cost functions in the electricity utility industry with a view to studying of the initial arguments for proposing competition and vertical disintegration. The works reviewed here, in general terms, confirm the initial arguments in favour of the deregulation process, mainly, the exhaustion of scale economies for moderate size firms in generation and the condition of natural monopoly for transmission and distribution. However, the savings obtained from undertaking different activities together should be kept in mind when restructuring the sector. On the other hand, the improvements in productivity deriving from the reforms have not translated into reductions in the price of electricity in many countries. These last two results suggest the need for appropriate market regulation for the deregulation process to translate into an improvement in how the sector works and into benefits for consumers. There is still insufficient empirical literature on these issues due to the fact that the process is still ongoing in many countries and more time will have to transpire before sufficient data is available

  1. Transcriptional Repressor HIC1 Contributes to Suppressive Function of Human Induced Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaid Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T (Treg cells are critical in regulating the immune response. In vitro induced Treg (iTreg cells have significant potential in clinical medicine. However, applying iTreg cells as therapeutics is complicated by the poor stability of human iTreg cells and their variable suppressive activity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of human iTreg cell specification. We identified hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1 as a transcription factor upregulated early during the differentiation of human iTreg cells. Although FOXP3 expression was unaffected, HIC1 deficiency led to a considerable loss of suppression by iTreg cells with a concomitant increase in the expression of effector T cell associated genes. SNPs linked to several immune-mediated disorders were enriched around HIC1 binding sites, and in vitro binding assays indicated that these SNPs may alter the binding of HIC1. Our results suggest that HIC1 is an important contributor to iTreg cell development and function.

  2. The Contribution of Red Blood Cell Dynamics to Intrinsic Viscosity and Functional ATP Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alison; Abkarian, Manouk; Wan, Jiandi; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    In shear flow, red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit a variety of behaviors such as rouleaux formation, tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. The physiological consequences of these dynamic behaviors are not understood. In vivo, ATP is known to signal vasodilation; however, to our knowledge, no one has deciphered the relevance of RBC microrheology to the functional release of ATP. Previously, we correlated RBC deformation and ATP release in microfluidic constrictions (Wan et al., 2008). In this work, a cone-plate rheometer is used to shear a low hematocrit solution of RBCs at varying viscosity ratios (λ) between the inner cytoplasmic hemoglobin and the outer medium, to determine the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension. Further, using a luciferin-luciferase enzymatic reaction, we report the relative ATP release at varying shear rates. Results indicate that for λ = 1.6, 3.8 and 11.1, ATP release is constant up to 500 s-1, which suggests that the tumbling-tanktreading transition does not alter ATP release in pure shear. For lower viscosity ratios, λ = 1.6 and 3.8, at 500 s-1 a change in slope occurs in the intrinsic viscosity data and is marked by an increase in ATP release. Based on microfluidic observations, this simultaneous change in viscosity and ATP release occurs within the tank-treading regime.

  3. Contributions of executive function and spatial skills to preschool mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N; Irwin, Casey M; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    Early mathematics achievement is highly predictive of later mathematics performance. Here we investigated the influence of executive function (EF) and spatial skills, two generalizable skills often overlooked in mathematics curricula, on mathematics performance in preschoolers. Children (N=44) of varying socioeconomic status (SES) levels were assessed at 3 years of age on a new assessment of spatial skill (Test of Spatial Assembly, TOSA) and a vocabulary measure (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, PPVT). The same children were tested at 4 years of age on the Beery Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as well as on measures of EF and mathematics. The TOSA was created specifically as an assessment for 3-year-olds, allowing the investigation of links among spatial, EF, and mathematical skills earlier than previously possible. Results of a hierarchical regression indicate that EF and spatial skills predict 70% of the variance in mathematics performance without an explicit math test, EF is an important predictor of math performance as prior research suggested, and spatial skills uniquely predict 27% of the variance in mathematics skills. Additional research is needed to understand whether EF is truly malleable and whether EF and spatial skills may be leveraged to support early mathematics skills, especially for lower SES children who are already falling behind in these skill areas by 3 and 4 years of age. These findings indicate that both skills are part of an important foundation for mathematics performance and may represent pathways for improving school readiness for mathematics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of enterprise risk management and internal audit function towards quality of financial reporting in universities in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Wadesango

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of financial reporting is limited to issues of compliance to statutory provisions under which state enterprises in Zimbabwe operate, usefulness of the reports produced and their impact on the national fiscus. It is thus measured by way of compliance to these expectations and is indicated by way of a disclosure index signifying the presence of each of the expected aspects. This study therefore sought to establish the contribution of enterprise risk management and internal audit function towards the quality of financial reporting in universities in Zimbabwe. The study adopted a desktop analysis where relevant literature was reviewed. Quality of internal audit function was found to influence quality of financial reporting in that the strength, or quality, of the IAF will contribute to a distinctly different control environment depending on the strength of the good corporate governance in the university. Findings of this desktop research have undoubtedly revealed the gaps in the governance processes in state universities and it is envisaged that a careful analysis of these lacunas will provide a guide in the development of strategies and policy that strengthen state enterprise governance processes. It is hoped that this will help the parent ministry in charge of state enterprises, and, the relevant management of specific state enterprises to determine the magnitude of resources and efforts for implementation of efficient and effective enterprise risk management, internal audit function and corporate governance systems

  5. Contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation via the atomic scale Green-Kubo stress correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    We studied the connection between the structural relaxation and viscosity for a binary model of repulsive particles in the supercooled liquid regime. The used approach is based on the decomposition of the macroscopic Green-Kubo stress correlation function into the correlation functions between the atomic level stresses. Previously we used the approach to study an iron-like single component system of particles. The role of vibrational motion has been addressed through the demonstration of the relationship between viscosity and the shear waves propagating over large distances. In our previous considerations, however, we did not discuss the role of the structural relaxation. Here we suggest that the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation can be taken into account through the consideration of the contribution from the atomic stress auto-correlation term only. This conclusion, however, does not mean that only the auto-correlation term represents the contribution to viscosity from the structural relaxation. Previously the role of the structural relaxation for viscosity has been addressed through the considerations of the transitions between inherent structures and within the mode-coupling theory by other authors. In the present work, we study the structural relaxation through the considerations of the parent liquid and the atomic level stress correlations in it. The comparison with the results obtained on the inherent structures also is made. Our current results suggest, as our previous observations, that in the supercooled liquid regime, the vibrational contribution to viscosity extends over the times that are much larger than the Einstein's vibrational period and much larger than the times that it takes for the shear waves to propagate over the model systems. Besides addressing the atomic level shear stress correlations, we also studied correlations between the atomic level pressure elements.

  6. Functionally distinct contributions of the anterior and posterior putamen during sublexical and lexical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eOberhuber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated orthographic-to-phonological mapping during reading by comparing brain activation for (1 reading words to object naming, or (2 reading pseudowords (e.g. phume to words (e.g. plume. Here we combined both approaches to provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms. In fMRI data from 25 healthy adult readers, we first identified activation that was greater for reading words and pseudowords relative to picture and color naming. The most significant effect was observed in the left putamen, extending to both anterior and posterior borders. Second, consistent with previous studies, we show that both the anterior and posterior putamen are involved in articulating speech with greater activation during our overt speech production tasks (reading, repetition, object naming and color naming than silent one-back-matching on the same stimuli. Third, we compared putamen activation for words versus pseudowords during overt reading and auditory repetition. This revealed that the anterior putamen was most activated by reading pseudowords, whereas the posterior putamen was most activated by words irrespective of whether the task was reading words or auditory word repetition. The pseudoword effect in the anterior putamen is consistent with prior studies that associated this region with the initiation of novel sequences of movements. In contrast, the heightened word response in the posterior putamen is consistent with other studies that associated this region with memory guided movement. Our results illustrate how the functional dissociation between the anterior and posterior putamen supports sublexical and lexical processing during reading.

  7. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chennupati

    Full Text Available Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS, to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice.Endothelium-selective Ass-deficient mice (Assfl/fl/Tie2Cretg/- = Ass-KOTie2 were generated by crossing Assfl/fl mice ( = control with Tie2Cre mice. Gene ablation in endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Blood pressure (MAP was recorded in 34-week-old male mice. Vasomotor responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Depletion of circulating L-arginine by arginase 1 infusion or inhibition of NOS activity with L-NAME resulted in an increased MAP (10 and 30 mmHg, respectively in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Optimal arterial diameter, contractile responses to phenylephrine, and relaxing responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were similar in healthy control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. However, in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 mice, relaxation responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-derived NO (EDNO were significantly reduced when compared to diabetic control mice.Absence of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting endothelial function in diabetes.

  8. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  9. The structural and functional contributions of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities to cellulose degradation in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiangyun; Liu, Meiting; Fan, Yihong; Xu, Jie; Xu, Xiuhong; Li, Hongtao

    2018-01-01

    Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes that engender the degradation of cellulose, which is an important part of global carbon cycle. β-Glucosidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of degradation of cellulose. Thus, analysis of regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression in composting is beneficial to a better understanding of cellulose degradation mechanism. Genetic diversity and expression of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities, and relationships of cellulose degradation, metabolic products and the relative enzyme activity during natural composting and inoculated composting were evaluated. Compared with natural composting, adding inoculation agent effectively improved the degradation of cellulose, and maintained high level of the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase) and β-glucosidase activities in thermophilic phase. Gene expression analysis showed that glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity in the later thermophilic phase in inoculated compost. In the cooling phase of natural compost, glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity. Intracellular β-glucosidase activity played a crucial role in the regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression, and upregulation or downregulation was also determined by extracellular concentration of glucose. At sufficiently high glucose concentrations, the functional microbial community in compost was altered, which may contribute to maintaining β-glucosidase activity despite the high glucose content. This research provides an ecological functional map of microorganisms involved in carbon metabolism in cattle manure-rice straw composting. The performance of the functional microbial groups in the two composting treatments is different, which is related to the cellulase activity and cellulose degradation, respectively.

  10. Contribution of alpha- and beta-defensins to lung function decline and infection in smokers: an association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonisen Nicholas R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-defensins, which are major constituents of neutrophil azurophilic granules, and beta-defensins, which are expressed in airway epithelial cells, could contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by amplifying cigarette smoke-induced and infection-induced inflammatory reactions leading to lung injury. In Japanese and Chinese populations, two different beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms have been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes. We conducted population-based association studies to test whether alpha-defensin and beta-defensin polymorphisms influenced smokers' susceptibility to lung function decline and susceptibility to lower respiratory infection in two groups of white participants in the Lung Health Study (275 = fast decline in lung function and 304 = no decline in lung function. Methods Subjects were genotyped for the alpha-defensin-1/alpha-defensin-3 copy number polymorphism and four beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms (G-20A, C-44G, G-52A and Val38Ile. Results There were no associations between individual polymorphisms or imputed haplotypes and rate of decline in lung function or susceptibility to infection. Conclusion These findings suggest that, in a white population, the defensin polymorphisms tested may not be of importance in determining who develops abnormally rapid lung function decline or is susceptible to developing lower respiratory infections.

  11. The relative contributions of function, perceived psychological burden and partner support to cognitive distress in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Susan M; Bond, Malcolm J; Harrington, Ann; Belan, Ingrid

    2016-09-01

    Bladder cancer is a genitourinary disease of increasing incidence. Despite improvements in treatment, outcomes remain equivocal with high recurrence rates. It is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes due to reduced functioning of the genitourinary system. The objective of these analyses was to query whether reported loss of function or the perception of psychological burden caused by this functional impedance was the key to understanding psychosocial outcomes. The sample comprised 119 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of bladder cancer. They completed a self-report questionnaire comprising the Bladder Cancer Index, Mini-mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and standard sociodemographic details. Simple mediation and serial mediation were used to explore the potential for psychological burden to mediate associations between loss of function and cognitive distress, and the potential additional contribution of positive partner support on these relationships. Age and duration of cancer were considered as covariates. Simple mediation demonstrated that the association between function and cognitive distress was fully mediated by perceived psychological burden. Serial mediation, which allowed for the addition of partner support, again demonstrated full mediation, with partner support being the key predictive variable. These analyses emphasise the importance of an appreciation of individuals' interpretation of the burden occasioned by bladder cancer and the role of a supportive partner. The implications for management discussions and support services in alleviating negative psychological outcomes in bladder cancer are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Physical Function: The Contributions of Neighborhood-Level Perceptions of Safety From Crime and Walking for Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Venurs H Y; Rachele, Jerome N; Brown, Wendy J; Ghani, Fatima; Turrell, Gavin

    2018-04-20

    Residents of more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poorer physical function, although the reasons for this remain unknown. It is possible that neighborhood-level perceptions of safety from crime contribute to this relationship through its association with walking for recreation. Data were obtained from the fourth wave (collected in 2013) of the HABITAT (How Areas in Brisbane Influence HealTh and AcTivity) multilevel longitudinal study of middle- to older-aged adults (46-74 y) residing in 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia. The data were analyzed separately for men (n = 2190) and women (n = 2977) using multilevel models. Residents of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods had poorer physical function, perceived their neighborhoods to be less safe from crime, and do less walking for recreation. These factors accounted for differences in physical function between disadvantaged and advantaged neighborhoods (24% for men and 25% for women). This study highlights the importance of contextual characteristics, through their associations with behaviors, that can have in explaining the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and physical function. Interventions aimed at improving neighborhood safety integrated with supportive environments for physical activity may have positive impact on physical function among all socioeconomic groups.

  13. Exploring the gain of function contribution of AKT to mammary tumorigenesis in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Blanco-Aparicio

    Full Text Available Elevated expression of AKT has been noted in a significant percentage of primary human breast cancers, mainly as a consequence of the PTEN/PI3K pathway deregulation. To investigate the mechanistic basis of the AKT gain of function-dependent mechanisms of breast tumorigenesis, we explored the phenotype induced by activated AKT transgenes in a quantitative manner. We generated several transgenic mice lines expressing different levels of constitutively active AKT in the mammary gland. We thoroughly analyzed the preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary lesions of these mice and correlated the process of tumorigenesis to AKT levels. Finally, we analyzed the impact that a possible senescent checkpoint might have in the tumor promotion inhibition observed, crossing these lines to mammary specific p53(R172H mutant expression, and to p27 knock-out mice. We analyzed the benign, premalignant and malignant lesions extensively by pathology and at molecular level analysing the expression of proteins involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway and in cellular senescence. Our findings revealed an increased preneoplastic phenotype depending upon AKT signaling which was not altered by p27 or p53 loss. However, p53 inactivation by R172H point mutation combined with myrAKT transgenic expression significantly increased the percentage and size of mammary carcinoma observed, but was not sufficient to promote full penetrance of the tumorigenic phenotype. Molecular analysis suggest that tumors from double myrAKT;p53(R172H mice result from acceleration of initiated p53(R172H tumors and not from bypass of AKT-induced oncogenic senescence. Our work suggests that tumors are not the consequence of the bypass of senescence in MIN. We also show that AKT-induced oncogenic senescence is dependent of pRb but not of p53. Finally, our work also suggests that the cooperation observed between mutant p53 and activated AKT is due to AKT-induced acceleration of mutant p53-induced tumors. Finally, our

  14. Influence of size-corrected bound-electron contribution on nanometric silver dielectric function. Sizing through optical extinction spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillán, J M J; Videla, F A; Scaffardi, L B; Schinca, D C; Fernández van Raap, M B; Muraca, D

    2013-01-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles (NPs) is of great interest due to their ability to enhance optical fields on the nanometric scale, which makes them interesting for various applications in several fields of science and technology. In particular, their optical properties depend on the dielectric function of the metal, its size, shape and surrounding environment. This work analyses the contributions of free and bound electrons to the complex dielectric function of spherical silver NPs and their influence on the optical extinction spectra. The contribution of free electrons is usually corrected for particle size under 10 nm, introducing a modification of the damping constant to account for the extra collisions with the particle's boundary. For the contribution of bound electrons, we considered the interband transitions from the d-band to the conduction band including the size dependence of the electronic density states for radii below 2 nm. Bearing in mind these specific modifications, it was possible to determine optical and band energy parameters by fitting the bulk complex dielectric function. The results obtained from the optimum fit are: K bulk = 2 × 10 24 (coefficient for bound-electron contribution), E g = 1.91 eV (gap energy), E F = 4.12 eV (Fermi energy), and γ b = 1.5 × 10 14 Hz (damping constant for bound electrons). Based on this size-dependent dielectric function, extinction spectra of silver particles in the nanometric–subnanometric radius range can be calculated using Mie's theory, and its size behaviour analysed. These studies are applied to fit experimental extinction spectrum of very small spherical particles fabricated by fs laser ablation of a solid target in water. From the fitting, the structure and size distribution of core radius and shell thickness of the colloidal suspension could be determined. The spectroscopic results suggest that the colloidal suspension is composed by two types of structures: bare core and core–shell. The former

  15. The dual role of fragments in fragment-assembly methods for de novo protein structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Vernon, Robert; Baker, David; Lovell, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    In fragment-assembly techniques for protein structure prediction, models of protein structure are assembled from fragments of known protein structures. This process is typically guided by a knowledge-based energy function and uses a heuristic optimization method. The fragments play two important roles in this process: they define the set of structural parameters available, and they also assume the role of the main variation operators that are used by the optimiser. Previous analysis has typically focused on the first of these roles. In particular, the relationship between local amino acid sequence and local protein structure has been studied by a range of authors. The correlation between the two has been shown to vary with the window length considered, and the results of these analyses have informed directly the choice of fragment length in state-of-the-art prediction techniques. Here, we focus on the second role of fragments and aim to determine the effect of fragment length from an optimization perspective. We use theoretical analyses to reveal how the size and structure of the search space changes as a function of insertion length. Furthermore, empirical analyses are used to explore additional ways in which the size of the fragment insertion influences the search both in a simulation model and for the fragment-assembly technique, Rosetta. PMID:22095594

  16. Higher twist contributions to the structure functions F{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 2}(x, Q{sup 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Boettcher, Helmut

    2012-07-15

    We report on recent results on higher twist contributions to the unpolarized structure functions F{sup p,d}{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) at N{sup 3}LO in the large x region and constraints on the twist-3 contribution to polarized structure function g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  17. Social system theory as a 'knitting' of structural functionalism: A contribution to the new parsons interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem how to understand Parsons’ theory of the social system properly as a product of structural functionalism. In other words question amounts to the method of theory building and thus on the role of main Parsons pattern variables elaborated in the works of Carnegy Project: The Social System (1951, Values, Motives and Structure of Action (1951, and Working Papers in the Theory of Action (1953. Author is about to maintain that crucial conceptual clusters as a basis of Parsons theory building are: under the rubric of theory of action: four pattern variables - universalism-particularism, affectivity-neutrality, performance- quality, specificity-diffuseness; under the rubric of system theory: AGIL scheme - namely adaptation, goal-attainment, integration, and latency or pattern maintenance. Conceptual row needed for synthesis of both is provided with: value-rolenorm- collectivity, along the three general problem of any system: structure and inner dynamic, change and hierarchy and control. Its synthesis is demonstrated on the all three levels of personality system, social system and system of culture. Thus is shortly demonstrated how is possible, on strikingly systematic way to build whole conceptual scheme or Parsons’ system theory. Within this demonstration special attention has been paid to the methodological sense of four pattern variables. Originality of the given interpretation of Parsons is demonstrated: 1 by showing of the methodological role of pattern variables in the theory building; 2 by showing the connection between these variables and four ideal types of action in Max Weber. Thus follows that four variables are very core of Parsons theory of action, and this is demonstrated by the elaborated parallelism between Weber’s and Parsons’ concepts. This insight affords the argument that Parsons theory of action is profoundly Weberian, based on highly original reinterpretation of concepts of action and unique

  18. Contribution to the study of the nuclear interactions, mean free-path and fragmentation of the M-group (612C, nitrogen 14N and oxygen 16O (0.25, 1.05 and 2.1 GeV/nucleon accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.

    1976-01-01

    The opportunity to participate to the development program 'Heavy Ions' started in 1971 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory' to dispose therefore of the first high energy heavy ion beam, enabled to avoid the inherent difficulties related to the cosmic heavy ion study, difficulties encountered in numerous experiments by the means of stratospheric balloons, in satellite and with proton and alpha particle accelerators. It has therefore been possible to ameliorate considerably the experimental methods and to give a contribution to the study of the nuclear interactions, mean free path and fragmentation of the M-group (6 [fr

  19. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  20. Contribution of above- and below-ground plant traits to the structure and function of grassland soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legay, N; Baxendale, C; Grigulis, K; Krainer, U; Kastl, E; Schloter, M; Bardgett, R D; Arnoldi, C; Bahn, M; Dumont, M; Poly, F; Pommier, T; Clément, J C; Lavorel, S

    2014-10-01

    Abiotic properties of soil are known to be major drivers of the microbial community within it. Our understanding of how soil microbial properties are related to the functional structure and diversity of plant communities, however, is limited and largely restricted to above-ground plant traits, with the role of below-ground traits being poorly understood. This study investigated the relative contributions of soil abiotic properties and plant traits, both above-ground and below-ground, to variations in microbial processes involved in grassland nitrogen turnover. In mountain grasslands distributed across three European sites, a correlative approach was used to examine the role of a large range of plant functional traits and soil abiotic factors on microbial variables, including gene abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their potential activities. Direct effects of soil abiotic parameters were found to have the most significant influence on the microbial groups investigated. Indirect pathways via plant functional traits contributed substantially to explaining the relative abundance of fungi and bacteria and gene abundances of the investigated microbial communities, while they explained little of the variance in microbial activities. Gene abundances of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were most strongly related to below-ground plant traits, suggesting that they were the most relevant traits for explaining variation in community structure and abundances of soil microbes involved in nitrification and denitrification. The results suggest that consideration of plant traits, and especially below-ground traits, increases our ability to describe variation in the abundances and the functional characteristics of microbial communities in grassland soils. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Diquark fragmentation in leptoproduction of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Desai, B.R.

    1981-08-01

    In the analysis of the leptoproduction data for the charge ratios of hadrons, the Sukhatme, Lassila and Orava (SLO) model for diquark fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis of a diquark acting as a single unit. The baryon contribution to the charge ratio, ignored earlier by SLO, makes a significant effect. (author)

  2. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Two Salt Bridges Differentially Contribute to the Maintenance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channel Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Freeman, Cody S.; Knotts, Taylor; Prince, Chengyu Z.; Kuang, Christopher; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two salt bridges in human CFTR chloride ion channels, Arg352-Asp993 and Arg347-Asp924, that are required for normal channel function. In the present study, we determined how the two salt bridges cooperate to maintain the open pore architecture of CFTR. Our data suggest that Arg347 not only interacts with Asp924 but also interacts with Asp993. The tripartite interaction Arg347-Asp924-Asp993 mainly contributes to maintaining a stable s2 open subconductance state. The Arg352-Asp993 salt bridge, in contrast, is involved in stabilizing both the s2 and full (f) open conductance states, with the main contribution being to the f state. The s1 subconductance state does not require either salt bridge. In confirmation of the role of Arg352 and Asp993, channels bearing cysteines at these sites could be latched into a full open state using the bifunctional cross-linker 1,2-ethanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, but only when applied in the open state. Channels remained latched open even after washout of ATP. The results suggest that these interacting residues contribute differently to stabilizing the open pore in different phases of the gating cycle. PMID:23709221

  4. Differential functional readthrough over homozygous nonsense mutations contributes to the bleeding phenotype in coagulation factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchini, A; Ferrarese, M; Lombardi, S; Mari, R; Bernardi, F; Pinotti, M

    2016-10-01

    Essentials Potentially null homozygous Factor(F)7 nonsense mutations are associated to variable bleeding symptoms. Readthrough of p.Ser112X (life-threatening) and p.Cys132X (moderate) stop codons was investigated. Readthrough-mediated insertion of wild-type or tolerated residues produce functional proteins. Functional readthrough over homozygous F7 nonsense mutations contributes to the bleeding phenotype. Background Whereas the rare homozygous nonsense mutations causing factor (F)VII deficiency may predict null conditions that are almost completely incompatible with life, they are associated with appreciable differences in hemorrhagic symptoms. The misrecognition of premature stop codons (readthrough) may account for variable levels of functional full-length proteins. Objectives To experimentally evaluate the basal and drug-induced levels of FVII resulting from the homozygous p.Cys132X and p.Ser112X nonsense mutations that are associated with moderate (132X) or life-threatening (112X) symptoms, and that are predicted to undergo readthrough with (132X) or without (112X) production of wild-type FVII. Methods We transiently expressed recombinant FVII (rFVII) nonsense and missense variants in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and evaluated secreted FVII protein and functional levels by ELISA, activated FX generation, and coagulation assays. Results The levels of functional FVII produced by p.Cys132X and p.Ser112X mutants (rFVII-132X, 1.1% ± 0.2% of wild-type rFVII; rFVII-112X, 0.5% ± 0.1% of wild-type rFVII) were compatible with the occurrence of spontaneous readthrough, which was magnified by the addition of G418 - up to 12% of the wild-type value for the rFVII-132X nonsense variant. The predicted missense variants arising from readthrough abolished (rFVII-132Trp/Arg) or reduced (rFVII-112Trp/Cys/Arg, 22-45% of wild-type levels) secretion and function. These data suggest that the appreciable rescue of p.Cys132X function was driven by reinsertion of the wild

  5. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  6. Playing fair: the contribution of high-functioning recess to overall school climate in low-income elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy, and inclusive play to study how improving recess functioning can affect school climate. Data from teacher, principal, and recess coach interviews; student focus groups; recess observations; and a teacher survey are triangulated to understand the ways that recess changed during implementation. Comparing schools that achieved higher- and lower-functioning recesses, we link recess functioning with school climate. Recess improved in all schools, but 4 of the 6 achieved a higher-functioning recess. In these schools, teachers and principals agreed that by the end of the year, recess offered opportunities for student engagement, conflict resolution, pro-social skill development, and emotional and physical safety. Respondents in these four schools linked these changes to improved overall school climate. Recess is an important part of the school day for contributing to school climate. Creating a positive recess climate helps students to be engaged in meaningful play and return to class ready to learn. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  8. Analysis of production of forward-angle fragments in the 22Ne (40 AMeV + 9Be reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaminski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanisms of production of forward-emitted fragments in the 22Ne (40 АMeV + 9Be reaction are investigated. Inclusive velocity and isotopic distributions of products with 3 ≤ Z ≤ 11 were measured on the fragment separator COMBAS. The contribution of direct processes and dissipative ones is presented. Gaussian fitting functions according to Goldhaber formalism has been used to estimate direct components of fragments velocity distributions. Experimental data have been compared to geometric incomplete fusion model predictions. Incomplete fusion model was the first time applied for light nuclei as in the studied reaction system. Overall agreement of simulations with experiment in description of velocity distributions have been achieved for fragments with atomic number close to the projectile mass and for stable isotopes. Discrepancies for other products are the result of transition from incomplete fusion to direct processes with collisions of clusters in the participant zone.

  9. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  10. Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) simulations for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E; Raman, E Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) involves screening low molecular weight molecules ("fragments") that correspond to functional groups found in larger drug-like molecules to determine their binding to target proteins or nucleic acids. Based on the principle of thermodynamic additivity, two fragments that bind nonoverlapping nearby sites on the target can be combined to yield a new molecule whose binding free energy is the sum of those of the fragments. Experimental FBDD approaches, like NMR and X-ray crystallography, have proven very useful but can be expensive in terms of time, materials, and labor. Accordingly, a variety of computational FBDD approaches have been developed that provide different levels of detail and accuracy.The Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) method of computational FBDD uses all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify fragment binding. The target is "soaked" in an aqueous solution with multiple fragments having different identities. The resulting computational competition assay reveals what small molecule types are most likely to bind which regions of the target. From SILCS simulations, 3D probability maps of fragment binding called "FragMaps" can be produced. Based on the probabilities relative to bulk, SILCS FragMaps can be used to determine "Grid Free Energies (GFEs)," which provide per-atom contributions to fragment binding affinities. For essentially no additional computational overhead relative to the production of the FragMaps, GFEs can be used to compute Ligand Grid Free Energies (LGFEs) for arbitrarily complex molecules, and these LGFEs can be used to rank-order the molecules in accordance with binding affinities.

  11. D meson production asymmetry, unfavored fragmentation, and consequences for prompt atmospheric neutrino production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni

    2018-04-01

    We consider unfavored light quark/antiquark to D meson fragmentation. We discuss nonperturbative effects for small transverse momenta. The asymmetry for D+ and D- production measured by the LHCb collaboration provides natural constraints on the parton (quark/antiquark) fragmentation functions. We find that already a fraction of q /q ¯→D fragmentation probability is sufficient to account for the measured asymmetry. We make predictions for similar asymmetry for neutral D mesons. Large D -meson production asymmetries are found for large xF which is related to dominance of light quark/antiquark q /q ¯→D fragmentation over the standard c →D fragmentation. As a consequence, prompt atmospheric neutrino flux at high neutrino energies can be much larger than for the conventional c →D fragmentation. The latter can constitute a sizeable background for the cosmic neutrinos claimed to be observed recently by the IceCube Observatory. Large rapidity-dependent D+/D- and D0/D¯0 asymmetries are predicted for low (√{s }=20 - 100 GeV ) energies. The q /q ¯→D fragmentation leads to enhanced production of D mesons at low energies. At √{s }=20 GeV the enhancement factor with respect to the conventional contribution is larger than a factor of five. In the considered picture the large-xF D mesons are produced dominantly via fragmentation of light quarks/antiquarks. Predictions for fixed target p + 4He collisions relevant for a fixed target LHCb experiment are presented.

  12. Assessment of fragment projection hazard: probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-08-30

    The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present study an approach is proposed to the identification and validation of probability density functions (pdfs) for the initial direction of the fragments. A detailed review of a large number of past accidents provided the background information for the validation procedure. A specific method was developed for the validation of the proposed pdfs. Validated pdfs were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal angles of projection and for the initial velocity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Hinsberg, N.P. van; Abadjieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model that describes the PELE fragmentation dynamics is presented and compared with experimental results from literature. The model accounts for strong shock effects and detailed interactions taking place between the filling – the inner core of the ammunition – and the target

  14. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fragments of the Past

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  16. Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underlin, Emilie Nørmølle; Böhm, Maximilian F.; Madsen, Robert

    , or production of commercial chemicals which are mainly obtained from fossil fuels today.The arbinoxylan fragments have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylans with α-L-arabinose units attached at specific positions. The synthesis ultilises an efficient synthetic route, where all the xylan units can be derived from D...

  17. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  18. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  19. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  20. Transgenic expression of a functional fragment of harpin protein Hpa1 in wheat induces the phloem-based defence against English grain aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maoqiang; Xu, Manyu; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 has multiple beneficial effects in plants, promoting plant growth and development, increasing crop yield, and inducing resistance to pathogens and insect pests. For these effects, the 10–40 residue fragment (Hpa110–42) isolated from the Hpa1 sequence is 1.3- to 7.5-fold more effective than the full-length protein. Here it is reported that the expression of Hpa110–42 under the direction of an insect-induced promoter induces the phloem-based defence to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. The expression of Hpa110–42 was found to compromise the colonization preference of aphids on the plant and further inhibit aphid reproduction in leaf colonies. In Hpa110–42-expressing wheat lines, moreover, aphid feeding from the phloem was repressed in correlation with the phloem-based defence. This defensive mechanism was shown as enhanced expression of wheat genes encoding phloem lectin proteins (PP2-A1 and PP2-A2) and β-1,3-glucan synthase-like enzymes (GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12). Both PP2-A and β-1,3-glucan formed high molecular mass polymers to block phloem sieve plate pores and therefore impede aphid feeding from the phloem. However, the phloem-based defence was impaired by treating plants with ethylene signalling inhibitors, suggesting the requirement for the ethylene signalling pathway. In addition, if Hpa110–42-expressing plants were subjected to attack by a small number of aphids, they newly acquired agriculturally beneficial characters, such as enhanced vegetative growth and increased tiller numbers and grain output values. These results suggest that the defensive and developmental roles of Hpa110–42 can be integrated into the germplasm of this agriculturally significant crop. PMID:24676030

  1. Transgenic expression of a functional fragment of harpin protein Hpa1 in wheat induces the phloem-based defence against English grain aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maoqiang; Xu, Manyu; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Defu; Tian, Shan; Han, Liping; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-04-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 has multiple beneficial effects in plants, promoting plant growth and development, increasing crop yield, and inducing resistance to pathogens and insect pests. For these effects, the 10-40 residue fragment (Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂) isolated from the Hpa1 sequence is 1.3- to 7.5-fold more effective than the full-length protein. Here it is reported that the expression of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ under the direction of an insect-induced promoter induces the phloem-based defence to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. The expression of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ was found to compromise the colonization preference of aphids on the plant and further inhibit aphid reproduction in leaf colonies. In Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂-expressing wheat lines, moreover, aphid feeding from the phloem was repressed in correlation with the phloem-based defence. This defensive mechanism was shown as enhanced expression of wheat genes encoding phloem lectin proteins (PP2-A1 and PP2-A2) and β-1,3-glucan synthase-like enzymes (GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12). Both PP2-A and β-1,3-glucan formed high molecular mass polymers to block phloem sieve plate pores and therefore impede aphid feeding from the phloem. However, the phloem-based defence was impaired by treating plants with ethylene signalling inhibitors, suggesting the requirement for the ethylene signalling pathway. In addition, if Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂-expressing plants were subjected to attack by a small number of aphids, they newly acquired agriculturally beneficial characters, such as enhanced vegetative growth and increased tiller numbers and grain output values. These results suggest that the defensive and developmental roles of Hpa1₁₀₋₄₂ can be integrated into the germplasm of this agriculturally significant crop.

  2. Ecosystem Functions Connecting Contributions from Ecosystem Services to Human Wellbeing in a Mangrove System in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Shih, Shang-Shu; Chen, Chang-Po

    2015-06-09

    The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats was the most important function to human wellbeing, while water quality, habitable climate, air quality, recreational opportunities, and knowledge systems were services that were strongly linked to human welfare. Security of continuous supply of services appeared to be the key to a comfortable life. From a bottom-up and top-down perspective, knowledge systems (a service) were most supported by ecosystem functions, while the security of continuous supply of services (wellbeing) had affected the most services. In addition, the overall benefits of mangrove services to human prosperity concentrated on mental health, security of continuous supply of services, and physical health.

  3. Ecosystem Functions Connecting Contributions from Ecosystem Services to Human Wellbeing in a Mangrove System in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwey-Lian Hsieh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats was the most important function to human wellbeing, while water quality, habitable climate, air quality, recreational opportunities, and knowledge systems were services that were strongly linked to human welfare. Security of continuous supply of services appeared to be the key to a comfortable life. From a bottom-up and top-down perspective, knowledge systems (a service were most supported by ecosystem functions, while the security of continuous supply of services (wellbeing had affected the most services. In addition, the overall benefits of mangrove services to human prosperity concentrated on mental health, security of continuous supply of services, and physical health.

  4. Improved description of the fragmentation of nuclear collective states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical method is deveioped for a more accurate description of the fragmentation of one-phonon states forming giant resonances. The method consists in that the one-phonon states already fragmented are used in the two-phonon terms of wave functions. Strength functions are obtained for the exci excitation of collective charge-exchange states ano giant resonances in spherical nuclei

  5. Expression and functional assessment of candidate type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes identify four new genes contributing to human insulin secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou K. Ndiaye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified >100 loci independently contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D risk. However, translational implications for precision medicine and for the development of novel treatments have been disappointing, due to poor knowledge of how these loci impact T2D pathophysiology. Here, we aimed to measure the expression of genes located nearby T2D associated signals and to assess their effect on insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Methods: The expression of 104 candidate T2D susceptibility genes was measured in a human multi-tissue panel, through PCR-free expression assay. The effects of the knockdown of beta-cell enriched genes were next investigated on insulin secretion from the human EndoC-βH1 beta-cell line. Finally, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq so as to assess the pathways affected by the knockdown of the new genes impacting insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1, and we analyzed the expression of the new genes in mouse models with altered pancreatic beta-cell function. Results: We found that the candidate T2D susceptibility genes' expression is significantly enriched in pancreatic beta cells obtained by laser capture microdissection or sorted by flow cytometry and in EndoC-βH1 cells, but not in insulin sensitive tissues. Furthermore, the knockdown of seven T2D-susceptibility genes (CDKN2A, GCK, HNF4A, KCNK16, SLC30A8, TBC1D4, and TCF19 with already known expression and/or function in beta cells changed insulin secretion, supporting our functional approach. We showed first evidence for a role in insulin secretion of four candidate T2D-susceptibility genes (PRC1, SRR, ZFAND3, and ZFAND6 with no previous knowledge of presence and function in beta cells. RNA-seq in EndoC-βH1 cells with decreased expression of PRC1, SRR, ZFAND6, or ZFAND3 identified specific gene networks related to T2D pathophysiology. Finally, a positive correlation between the expression of Ins2 and the

  6. Social learning contributions to the etiology and treatment of functional abdominal pain and inflammatory bowel disease in children and adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rona L Levy; Shelby L Langer; William E Whitehead

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical work on cognitive and social learning contributions to the etiology and treatment of illness behavior associated with functional abdominal pain and inflammatory bowel disease. A particular emphasis is placed on randomized controlled trials,the majority of which are multi-modal in orientation,incorporating elements of cognitive behavioral therapy,social learning, and relaxation. Based on this review,we offer methodological and clinical suggestions: (1)Research investigations should include adequate sample sizes, long-term follow-up assessments, and a credible,active control group. (2) Standard gastrointestinal practice should include, when appropriate, learning opportunities for patients and family members, for example, instruction regarding the encouragement of wellness behavior.

  7. Fragman: an R package for fragment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Schlautman, Brandon; Salazar, Walter; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-04-21

    Determination of microsatellite lengths or other DNA fragment types is an important initial component of many genetic studies such as mutation detection, linkage and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genetic diversity, pedigree analysis, and detection of heterozygosity. A handful of commercial and freely available software programs exist for fragment analysis; however, most of them are platform dependent and lack high-throughput applicability. We present the R package Fragman to serve as a freely available and platform independent resource for automatic scoring of DNA fragment lengths diversity panels and biparental populations. The program analyzes DNA fragment lengths generated in Applied Biosystems® (ABI) either manually or automatically by providing panels or bins. The package contains additional tools for converting the allele calls to GenAlEx, JoinMap® and OneMap software formats mainly used for genetic diversity and generating linkage maps in plant and animal populations. Easy plotting functions and multiplexing friendly capabilities are some of the strengths of this R package. Fragment analysis using a unique set of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) genotypes based on microsatellite markers is used to highlight the capabilities of Fragman. Fragman is a valuable new tool for genetic analysis. The package produces equivalent results to other popular software for fragment analysis while possessing unique advantages and the possibility of automation for high-throughput experiments by exploiting the power of R.

  8. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...... that is presented; how do we understand such films and to what extent is it even possible to make sense of a film that has no real beginning, middle or end?...

  9. Fragmentation of atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, J.L.; Fano, U.

    1996-01-01

    We report recent progress toward a nonperturbative formulation of many-body quantum dynamics that treats all constituent particles on an equal footing. This formulation is capable of detailing the evolution of a system toward the diverse fragments into which it can break up. We illustrate the general concept with the simple example of the simultaneous excitation of both electrons in a helium atom. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  11. Excited nuclei fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr

  12. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-05

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  14. Short-Term Biliary Stent Placement Contributing Common Bile Duct Stone Disappearance with Preservation of Duodenal Papilla Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST on common bile duct stones (CBDS disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5% of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction (p=0.007 and p<0.001, resp.. Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS.

  15. Azimuthal Anisotropies in Nuclear Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.

    2002-01-01

    The directed and elliptic flow of fragments emitted from the excited projectile nuclei has been observed for 158 AGeV Pb collisions with the lead and plastic targets. For comparison the flow analysis has been performed for 10.6 AGeV Au collisions with the emulsion target. The strong directed flow of heaviest fragments is found. Light fragments exhibit directed flow opposite to that of heavy fragments. The elliptic flow for all multiply charged fragments is positive and increases with the charge of the fragment. The observed flow patterns in the fragmentation of the projectile nucleus are practically independent of the mass of the target nucleus and the collision energy. Emission of fragments in nuclear multifragmentation shows similar, although weaker, flow effects. (author)

  16. Universality of projectile fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Presently projectile fragmentation reaction is an important area of research as it is used for the production of radioactive ion beams. In this work, the recently developed projectile fragmentation model with an universal temperature profile is used for studying the charge distributions of different projectile fragmentation reactions with different projectile target combinations at different incident energies. The model for projectile fragmentation consists of three stages: (i) abrasion, (ii) multifragmentation and (iii) evaporation

  17. Effective Fragment Potential Method for H-Bonding: How To Obtain Parameters for Nonrigid Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinets, Nikita; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

    2017-07-20

    Accuracy of the effective fragment potential (EFP) method was explored for describing intermolecular interaction energies in three dimers with strong H-bonded interactions, formic acid, formamide, and formamidine dimers, which are a part of HBC6 database of noncovalent interactions. Monomer geometries in these dimers change significantly as a function of intermonomer separation. Several EFP schemes were considered, in which fragment parameters were prepared for a fragment in its gas-phase geometry or recomputed for each unique fragment geometry. Additionally, a scheme in which gas-phase fragment parameters are shifted according to relaxed fragment geometries is introduced and tested. EFP data are compared against the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) method in a complete basis set (CBS) and the symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). All considered EFP schemes provide a good agreement with CCSD(T)/CBS for binding energies at equilibrium separations, with discrepancies not exceeding 2 kcal/mol. However, only the schemes that utilize relaxed fragment geometries remain qualitatively correct at shorter than equilibrium intermolecular distances. The EFP scheme with shifted parameters behaves quantitatively similar to the scheme in which parameters are recomputed for each monomer geometry and thus is recommended as a computationally efficient approach for large-scale EFP simulations of flexible systems.

  18. Contribution of visuospatial attention, short-term memory and executive functions to performance in number interval bisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Carbè, Katia; Gevers, Wim

    2017-05-01

    Number interval bisection consists of estimating the mid-number within a pair (1-9=>5). Healthy adults and right-brain damage patients can show biased performance in this task, underestimating and overestimating the mid-number, respectively. The role of visuospatial attention during this task, and its interplay with other cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory) is still object of debate. In this study we explored the relation between visuospatial attention and individual differences in working memory and executive functions during number interval bisection. To manipulate the deployment of visuospatial attention, healthy participants tracked a dot moving to the left or moving to the right while bisecting numerical intervals. We also collected information concerning verbal and visuospatial short-term memory span, and concerning verbal and visuospatial fluency scores. Beside replicating what is typically observed in this task (e.g., underestimation bias), a correlation was observed between verbal short-term memory and bisection bias, and an interesting relation between performance in the number interval bisection, verbal short-term memory, and visuospatial attention. Specifically, performance of those participants with low verbal span was affected by the direction of the moving dot, underestimating at a larger extent when the dot moved leftward than rightward. Finally, it was also observed that participants' verbal fluency ability contributed in the generation of biases in the numerical task. The finding of the involvement of abilities belonging to the verbal domain contributes to unveil the multi-componential nature of number interval bisection. Considering the debate on the nature of number interval bisection and its use in the clinical assessment of deficits following brain damage, this finding may be interesting also from a clinical perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cisplatin Induces a Mitochondrial-ROS Response That Contributes to Cytotoxicity Depending on Mitochondrial Redox Status and Bioenergetic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, Rossella; Werner, Erica; Degtyareva, Natalya; Moore, Bryn; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used anticancer agents for the treatment of several types of tumors. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is thought to be mediated primarily by the generation of nuclear DNA adducts, which, if not repaired, cause cell death as a consequence of DNA replication and transcription blockage. However, the ability of cisplatin to induce nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage per se is not sufficient to explain its high degree of effectiveness nor the toxic effects exerted on normal, post-mitotic tissues. Oxidative damage has been observed in vivo following exposure to cisplatin in several tissues, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced dose-limiting toxicities. However, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced generation of ROS and their contribution to cisplatin cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells is still poorly understood. By employing a panel of normal and cancer cell lines and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system, we show that exposure to cisplatin induces a mitochondrial-dependent ROS response that significantly enhances the cytotoxic effect caused by nDNA damage. ROS generation is independent of the amount of cisplatin-induced nDNA damage and occurs in mitochondria as a consequence of protein synthesis impairment. The contribution of cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in determining its cytotoxic effect varies among cells and depends on mitochondrial redox status, mitochondrial DNA integrity and bioenergetic function. Thus, by manipulating these cellular parameters, we were able to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This study provides a new mechanistic insight into cisplatin-induced cell killing and may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to improve anticancer drug efficacy. PMID:24260552

  20. The N-end rule pathway counteracts cell death by destroying proapoptotic protein fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkov, Konstantin I; Brower, Christopher S; Varshavsky, Alexander

    2012-07-03

    In the course of apoptosis, activated caspases cleave ∼500 to ∼1,000 different proteins in a mammalian cell. The dynamics of apoptosis involve a number of previously identified, caspase-generated proapoptotic protein fragments, defined as those that increase the probability of apoptosis. In contrast to activated caspases, which can be counteracted by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, there is little understanding of antiapoptotic responses to proapoptotic protein fragments. One possibility is the regulation of proapoptotic fragments through their selective degradation. The previously identified proapoptotic fragments Cys-RIPK1, Cys-TRAF1, Asp-BRCA1, Leu-LIMK1, Tyr-NEDD9, Arg-BID, Asp-BCL(XL), Arg-BIM(EL), Asp-EPHA4, and Tyr-MET bear destabilizing N-terminal residues. Tellingly, the destabilizing nature (but not necessarily the actual identity) of N-terminal residues of proapoptotic fragments was invariably conserved in evolution. Here, we show that these proapoptotic fragments are short-lived substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway. Metabolic stabilization of at least one such fragment, Cys-RIPK1, greatly augmented the activation of the apoptosis-inducing effector caspase-3. In agreement with this understanding, even a partial ablation of the Arg/N-end rule pathway in two specific N-end rule mutants is shown to sensitize cells to apoptosis. We also found that caspases can inactivate components of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, suggesting a mutual suppression between this pathway and proapoptotic signaling. Together, these results identify a mechanistically specific and functionally broad antiapoptotic role of the Arg/N-end rule pathway. In conjunction with other apoptosis-suppressing circuits, the Arg/N-end rule pathway contributes to thresholds that prevent a transient or otherwise weak proapoptotic signal from reaching the point of commitment to apoptosis.

  1. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges.

  2. Agricultural matrices affect ground ant assemblage composition inside forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santana Assis

    Full Text Available The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates; sugarcane (3; and pasture (3. At each site we installed pitfall traps along a 500 m transect from the interior of the matrix to the interior of the fragment (20 pitfall traps ~25 m apart. Each transect was partitioned into four categories: interior of the matrix; edge of the matrix; edge of the fragment; and interior of the fragment. For each sample site, we measured ant species richness and ant community composition within each transect category. Ant richness and composition differed between fragments and matrices. Each sample location had a specific composition of ants, probably because of the influence of the nature and management of the agricultural matrices. Species composition in the coffee matrix had the highest similarity to its corresponding fragment. The variability in species composition within forest fragments surrounded by pasture was greatest when compared with forest fragments surrounded by sugarcane or, to a lesser extent, coffee. Functional guild composition differed between locations, but the most representative guild was 'generalist' both in the agricultural matrices and forest fragments. Our results are important for understanding how agricultural matrices act on ant communities, and also, how these isolated forest fragments could act as an island of biodiversity in an 'ocean of crops'.

  3. Agricultural matrices affect ground ant assemblage composition inside forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Diego Santana; Dos Santos, Iracenir Andrade; Ramos, Flavio Nunes; Barrios-Rojas, Katty Elena; Majer, Jonathan David; Vilela, Evaldo Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices) on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates); sugarcane (3); and pasture (3). At each site we installed pitfall traps along a 500 m transect from the interior of the matrix to the interior of the fragment (20 pitfall traps ~25 m apart). Each transect was partitioned into four categories: interior of the matrix; edge of the matrix; edge of the fragment; and interior of the fragment. For each sample site, we measured ant species richness and ant community composition within each transect category. Ant richness and composition differed between fragments and matrices. Each sample location had a specific composition of ants, probably because of the influence of the nature and management of the agricultural matrices. Species composition in the coffee matrix had the highest similarity to its corresponding fragment. The variability in species composition within forest fragments surrounded by pasture was greatest when compared with forest fragments surrounded by sugarcane or, to a lesser extent, coffee. Functional guild composition differed between locations, but the most representative guild was 'generalist' both in the agricultural matrices and forest fragments. Our results are important for understanding how agricultural matrices act on ant communities, and also, how these isolated forest fragments could act as an island of biodiversity in an 'ocean of crops'.

  4. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  5. Influence of fragment size and postoperative joint congruency on long-term outcome of posterior malleolar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout van Hooff, Cornelis Christiaan; Verhage, Samuel Marinus; Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2015-06-01

    One of the factors contributing to long-term outcome of posterior malleolar fractures is the development of osteoarthritis. Based on biomechanical, cadaveric, and small population studies, fixation of posterior malleolar fracture fragments (PMFFs) is usually performed when fragment size exceeds 25-33%. However, the influence of fragment size on long-term clinical and radiological outcome size remains unclear. A retrospective cohort study of 131 patients treated for an isolated ankle fracture with involvement of the posterior malleolus was performed. Mean follow-up was 6.9 (range, 2.5-15.9) years. Patients were divided into groups depending on size of the fragment, small (25%, n = 25), and presence of step-off after operative treatment. We have compared functional outcome measures (AOFAS, AAOS), pain (VAS), and dorsiflexion restriction compared to the contralateral ankle and the incidence of osteoarthritis on X-ray. There were no nonunions, 56% of patients had no radiographic osteoarthritis, VAS was 10 of 100, and median clinical score was 90 of 100. More osteoarthritis occurred in ankle fractures with medium and large PMFFs compared to small fragments (small 16%, medium 48%, large 54%; P = .006). Also when comparing small with medium-sized fragments (P = .02), larger fragment size did not lead to a significantly decreased function (median AOFAS 95 vs 88, P = .16). If the PMFF size was >5%, osteoarthritis occurred more frequently when there was a postoperative step-off ≥1 mm in the tibiotalar joint surface (41% vs 61%, P = .02) (whether the posterior fragment had been fixed or not). In this group, fixing the PMFF did not influence development of osteoarthritis. However, in 42% of the cases with fixation of the fragment a postoperative step-off remained (vs 45% in the group without fixation). Osteoarthritis is 1 component of long-term outcome of malleolar fractures, and the results of this study demonstrate that there was more radiographic osteoarthritis in

  6. The changes in beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cardiac function in experimental hypothyroidism: the possible contribution of cardiac beta3-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioglu, E; Guner, S; Ozakca, I; Altan, V M; Ozcelikay, A T

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency has been reported to decrease expression and function of both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor in different tissues including heart. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of beta(3)-adrenoceptors to cardiac dysfunction in hypothyroidism. In addition, effect of this pathology on beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor was investigated. Hypothyroidism was induced by adding methimazole (300 mg/l) to drinking water of rats for 8 weeks. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters were measured in anesthetised rats in vivo. Responses to beta-adrenoceptor agonists were examined in rat papillary muscle in vitro. We also studied the effect of hypotyroidism on mRNA expression of beta-adrenoceptors, Gialpha, GRK, and eNOS in rat heart. All of the hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, left ventricular pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, and -dp/dt) were significantly reduced by the methimazole treatment. The negative inotropic effect elicited by BRL 37344 (a beta(3)-adrenoceptor preferential agonist) and positive inotropic effects produced by isoprenaline and noradrenaline, respectively, were significantly decreased in papillary muscle of hypothyroid rats as compared to those of controls. On the other hand, hypothyroidism resulted in increased cardiac beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor, Gialpha(2), Gialpha(3), GRK3, and eNOS mRNA expressions. However, beta(1)-adrenoceptor and GRK2 mRNA expressions were not changed significantly in this pathology. These results show that mRNA expression of beta(3)-adrenoceptors as well as the signalling pathway components mediated through beta(3)-adrenoceptors are significantly increased in hypothyroid rat heart. Since we could not correlate these alternates with the decreased negative inotropic response mediated by this receptor subtype, it is not clear whether these changes are important for hypothyroid induced reduction in cardiac function.

  7. The contribution of maternal psychological functioning to infant length of stay in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amanda S Cherry,1 Melissa R Mignogna,1 Angela Roddenberry Vaz,1 Carla Hetherington,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,2 Michael P Anderson,3 Stephen R Gillaspy1 1Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 2Neonatal Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma, College of Medicine, Oklahoma City, OK, 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, College of Public Health, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Objective: Assess maternal psychological functioning within the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and its contribution to neonate length of stay (LOS in the NICU.Study design: Mothers of infants admitted to the NICU (n=111 were assessed regarding postpartum depression, postpartum social support, postpartum NICU stress, and maternal anxiety at 2 weeks postpartum. Illness severity was assessed with the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB.Results: Postpartum depression was not significantly correlated with LOS, but was significantly correlated with trait anxiety (r=0.620, which was significantly correlated with LOS (r=0.227. Among mothers with previous mental health history, substance abuse history and CRIB score were the best predictors of LOS. For mothers without a prior mental health issues, delivery type, stress associated with infant appearance, and CRIB scores were the best predictors of LOS. In this group, LOS was found to increase on average by 7.06 days per one unit increase in stress associated with infant appearance among mothers with the same delivery type and CRIB score.Conclusion: Significant correlations of trait anxiety, stress associated with infant appearance, and parental role with LOS support the tenet that postpartum psychological functioning can be associated with NICU LOS. Keywords: NICU, postpartum depression, postpartum anxiety, parental stress, CRIB

  8. The Adhesion Molecule-Characteristic HNK-1 Carbohydrate Contributes to Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Hui-Fan; Shen, Yan-Qin; Schachner, Melitta

    2017-07-01

    The human natural killer cell antigen-1 (HNK-1) is functionally important in development, synaptic activity, and regeneration after injury in the nervous system of several mammalian species. It contains a sulfated glucuronic acid which is carried by neural adhesion molecules and expressed in nonmammalian species, including zebrafish, which, as opposed to mammals, spontaneously regenerate after injury in the adult. To evaluate HNK-1's role in recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) of adult zebrafish, we assessed the effects of the two HNK-1 synthesizing enzymes, glucuronyl transferase and HNK-1 sulfotransferase. Expression of these two enzymes was increased at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level 11 days after injury in the brainstem nuclei that are capable of regrowth of severed axons, namely, the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle and intermediate reticular formation, but not at earlier time points after SCI. mRNA levels of glucuronyl transferase and sulfotransferase were increased in neurons, not only of these nuclei but also in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site at 11 days. Mauthner neurons which are not capable of regeneration did not show increased levels of enzyme mRNAs after injury. Reducing protein levels of the enzymes by application of anti-sense morpholinos resulted in reduction of locomotor recovery for glucuronyl transferase, but not for HNK-1 sulfotransferase. The combined results indicate that HNK-1 is upregulated in expression only in those neurons that are intrinsically capable of regeneration and contributes to regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish in the absence of its sulfate moiety.

  9. Essential role of neuron-enriched diacylglycerol kinase (DGK, DGKbeta in neurite spine formation, contributing to cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shirai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol (DG kinase (DGK phosphorylates DG to produce phosphatidic acid (PA. Of the 10 subtypes of mammalian DGKs, DGKbeta is a membrane-localized subtype and abundantly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudate-putamen. However, its physiological roles in neurons and higher brain function have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We, therefore, developed DGKbeta KO mice using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system, and found that its long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region was reduced, causing impairment of cognitive functions including spatial and long-term memories in Y-maze and Morris water-maze tests. The primary cultured hippocampal neurons from KO mice had less branches and spines compared to the wild type. This morphological impairment was rescued by overexpression of DGKbeta. In addition, overexpression of DGKbeta in SH-SY5Y cells or primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons resulted in branch- and spine-formation, while a splice variant form of DGKbeta, which has kinase activity but loses membrane localization, did not induce branches and spines. In the cells overexpressing DGKbeta but not the splice variant form, DGK product, PA, was increased and the substrate, DG, was decreased on the plasma membrane. Importantly, lower spine density and abnormality of PA and DG contents in the CA1 region of the KO mice were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that membrane-localized DGKbeta regulates spine formation by regulation of lipids, contributing to the maintenance of neural networks in synaptic transmission of cognitive processes including memory.

  10. Artificial neural networks contribution to the operational security of embedded systems. Artificial neural networks contribution to fault tolerance of on-board functions in space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintenat, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    A good quality often attributed to artificial neural networks is fault tolerance. In general presentation works, this property is almost always introduced as 'natural', i.e. being obtained without any specific precaution during learning. Besides, space environment is known to be aggressive towards on-board hardware, inducing various abnormal operations. Particularly, digital components suffer from upset phenomenon, i.e. misplaced switches of memory flip-flops. These two observations lead to the question: would neural chips constitute an interesting and robust solution to implement some board functions of spacecrafts? First, the various aspects of the problem are detailed: artificial neural networks and their fault tolerance, neural chips, space environment and resulting failures. Further to this presentation, a particular technique to carry out neural chips is selected because of its simplicity, and especially because it requires few memory flip-flops: random pulse streams. An original method for star recognition inside a field-of-view is then proposed for the board function 'attitude computation'. This method relies on a winner-takes-all competition network, and on a Kohonen self-organized map. An hardware implementation of those two neural models is then proposed using random pulse streams. Thanks to this realization, on one hand difficulties related to that particular implementation technique can be highlighted, and on the other hand a first evaluation of its practical fault tolerance can be carried out. (author) [fr

  11. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrain, R.

    1984-08-01

    Projectile and nuclear fragmentation are defined and processes referred to are recalled. The two different aspects of fragmentation are considered but the emphasis is also put on heavy ion induced reactions. The preliminary results of an experiment performed at GANIL to study peripheral heavy ions induced reactions at intermediate energy are presented. The results of this experiment will illustrate the characteristics of projectile fragmentation and this will also give the opportunity to study projectile fragmentation in the transition region. Then nuclear fragmentation is considered which is associated with more central collisions in the case of heavy ion induced reactions. This aspect of fragmentation is also ilustrated with two heavy ion experiments in which fragments emitted at large angle have been observed

  12. Dynamic effects in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G. F.; Esbensen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fragmentation reactions offer a useful tool to study the spectroscopy of halo nuclei, but the large extent of the halo wave function makes the reaction theory more difficult. The simple reaction models based on the eikonal approximation for the nuclear interaction or first-order perturbation theory for the Coulomb interaction have systematic errors that they investigate here, comparing to the predictions of complete dynamical calculations. They find that stripping probabilities are underpredicted by the eikonal model, leading to extracted spectroscopy strengths that are two large. In contrast, the Coulomb excitation is overpredicted by the simple theory. They attribute this to a screening effect, as is well known in the Barkas effect on stopping powers. The errors decrease with beam energy as E(sub beam)(sup -1), and are not significant at beam energies above 50 MeV/u. At lower beam energies, the effects should be taken into account when extracting quantitative spectroscopic strengths

  13. Identification of long-range transport of air pollutants using a Potential Source Contribution Function in Baengyeong Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, J.; Park, T.; Atwood, S. A.; Soo, C. J.; Ahn, J.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the influence of long-range transport, Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis is widely used in many studies. PSCF is a region containing a source for a particular constituent estimated by looking at the percentage of back-trajectories that pass over that region which contain high concentrations of the constituent. Aerosol concentration, wind direction, wind speed and back trajectory from NOAA HYSPLIT model in Baengyeong Island were used as input data for PSCF to consider the retention time of aerosol. Non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) concentrations were measured by an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and meteorological variables were also measured in Baengnyeong Island, Korea during 2013 to 2015. We will investigate the influence of long-range transport and compare with AMS data from eastern China in November 2013. It will be provided the overview of long-range transport of NR-PM1 including inorganics and organics species to South Korea.

  14. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  15. Simulations of High Speed Fragment Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Attaway, Stephen; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Fisher, Travis

    2017-11-01

    Flying shrapnel from an explosion are capable of traveling at supersonic speeds and distances much farther than expected due to aerodynamic interactions. Predicting the trajectories and stable tumbling modes of arbitrary shaped fragments is a fundamental problem applicable to range safety calculations, damage assessment, and military technology. Traditional approaches rely on characterizing fragment flight using a single drag coefficient, which may be inaccurate for fragments with large aspect ratios. In our work we develop a procedure to simulate trajectories of arbitrary shaped fragments with higher fidelity using high performance computing. We employ a two-step approach in which the force and moment coefficients are first computed as a function of orientation using compressible computational fluid dynamics. The force and moment data are then input into a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body dynamics solver to integrate trajectories in time. Results of these high fidelity simulations allow us to further understand the flight dynamics and tumbling modes of a single fragment. Furthermore, we use these results to determine the validity and uncertainty of inexpensive methods such as the single drag coefficient model.

  16. Primary and secondary fragmentation of crystal-bearing intermediate magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas J.; McNamara, Keri; Eychenne, Julia; Rust, Alison C.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Scheu, Bettina; Edwards, Robyn

    2016-11-01

    Crystal-rich intermediate magmas are subjected to both primary and secondary fragmentation processes, each of which may produce texturally distinct tephra. Of particular interest for volcanic hazards is the extent to which each process contributes ash to volcanic plumes. One way to address this question is by fragmenting pyroclasts under controlled conditions. We fragmented pumice samples from Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat, by three methods: rapid decompression in a shock tube-like apparatus, impact by a falling piston, and milling in a ball mill. Grain size distributions of the products reveal that all three mechanisms produce fractal breakage patterns, and that the fractal dimension increases from a minimum of 2.1 for decompression fragmentation (primary fragmentation) to a maximum of 2.7 by repeated impact (secondary fragmentation). To assess the details of the fragmentation process, we quantified the shape, texture and components of constituent ash particles. Ash shape analysis shows that the axial ratio increases during milling and that particle convexity increases with repeated impacts. We also quantify the extent to which the matrix is separated from the crystals, which shows that secondary processes efficiently remove adhering matrix from crystals, particularly during milling (abrasion). Furthermore, measurements of crystal size distributions before (using x-ray computed tomography) and after (by componentry of individual grain size classes) decompression-driven fragmentation show not only that crystals influence particular size fractions across the total grain size distribution, but also that free crystals are smaller in the fragmented material than in the original pumice clast. Taken together, our results confirm previous work showing both the control of initial texture on the primary fragmentation process and the contributions of secondary processes to ash formation. Critically, however, our extension of previous analyses to characterisation

  17. Claudin-4 Overexpression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Is Associated with Hypomethylation and Is a Potential Target for Modulation of Tight Junction Barrier Function Using a C-Terminal Fragment of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Litkouhi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Claudin-4, a tight junction (TJ protein and receptor for the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE, is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Previous research suggests DNA methylation is a mechanism for claudin-4 overexpression in cancer and that C-CPE acts as an absorption-enhancing agent in claudin-4expressing cells. We sought to correlate claudin-4 overexpression in EOC with clinical outcomes and TJ barrier function, investigate DNA methylation as a mechanism for overexpression, and evaluate the effect of C-CPE on the TJ. METHODS: Claudin-4 expression in EOC was quantified and correlated with clinical outcomes. Claudin-4 methylation status was determined, and claudin-4-negative cell lines were treated with a demethylating agent. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was used to calculate junctional (paracellular resistance (Rb in EOC cells after claudin-4 silencing and after C-CPE treatment. RESULTS: Claudin4 overexpression in EOC does not correlate with survival or other clinical endpoints and is associated with hypomethylation. Claudin-4 overexpression correlates with Rb and C-CPE treatment of EOC cells significantly decreased Rb in a dose- and claudin-4-dependent noncytotoxic manner. CONCLUSIONS: C-CPE treatment of EOC cells leads to altered TJ function. Further research is needed to determine the potential clinical applications of C-CPE in EOC drug delivery strategies.

  18. Fragment-based lead generation: identification of seed fragments by a highly efficient fragment screening technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lars; Ritscher, Allegra; Müller, Gerhard; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2009-08-01

    For the detection of the precise and unambiguous binding of fragments to a specific binding site on the target protein, we have developed a novel reporter displacement binding assay technology. The application of this technology for the fragment screening as well as the fragment evolution process with a specific modelling based design strategy is demonstrated for inhibitors of the protein kinase p38alpha. In a fragment screening approach seed fragments were identified which were then used to build compounds from the deep-pocket towards the hinge binding area of the protein kinase p38alpha based on a modelling approach. BIRB796 was used as a blueprint for the alignment of the fragments. The fragment evolution of these deep-pocket binding fragments towards the fully optimized inhibitor BIRB796 included the modulation of the residence time as well as the affinity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the robustness and efficiency of our novel fragment screening technology at high fragment concentrations, compare the screening data with biochemical activity data and to demonstrate the evolution of the hit fragments with fast kinetics, into slow kinetic inhibitors in an in silico approach.

  19. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  20. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  1. Critical Features of Fragment Libraries for Protein Structure Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizani, Raphael; Custódio, Fábio Lima; Dos Santos, Karina Baptista; Dardenne, Laurent Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The use of fragment libraries is a popular approach among protein structure prediction methods and has proven to substantially improve the quality of predicted structures. However, some vital aspects of a fragment library that influence the accuracy of modeling a native structure remain to be determined. This study investigates some of these features. Particularly, we analyze the effect of using secondary structure prediction guiding fragments selection, different fragments sizes and the effect of structural clustering of fragments within libraries. To have a clearer view of how these factors affect protein structure prediction, we isolated the process of model building by fragment assembly from some common limitations associated with prediction methods, e.g., imprecise energy functions and optimization algorithms, by employing an exact structure-based objective function under a greedy algorithm. Our results indicate that shorter fragments reproduce the native structure more accurately than the longer. Libraries composed of multiple fragment lengths generate even better structures, where longer fragments show to be more useful at the beginning of the simulations. The use of many different fragment sizes shows little improvement when compared to predictions carried out with libraries that comprise only three different fragment sizes. Models obtained from libraries built using only sequence similarity are, on average, better than those built with a secondary structure prediction bias. However, we found that the use of secondary structure prediction allows greater reduction of the search space, which is invaluable for prediction methods. The results of this study can be critical guidelines for the use of fragment libraries in protein structure prediction.

  2. Highly functionalized organic nitrates in the southeast United States: Contribution to secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ben H.; Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Lutz, Anna; Hallquist, Mattias; Lee, Lance; Romer, Paul; Cohen, Ronald C.; Iyer, Siddharth; Kurtén, Theo; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga Lee; Guo, Hongyu; Weber, Rodney J.; Wild, Robert J.; Brown, Steven S.; Koss, Abigail; de Gouw, Joost; Olson, Kevin; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Kim, Saewung; McAvey, Kevin; Shepson, Paul B.; Starn, Tim; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Miller, David O.; Brune, William; Schobesberger, Siegfried; D' Ambro, Emma L.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-01-25

    Organic nitrates (ON = RONO2 + RO2NO2) are an important reservoir, if not sink, of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). ON formed from isoprene oxidation alone are responsible for the export of 8 to 30% of anthropogenic NOx out of the U.S. continental boundary layer [Horowitz et al., 1998; Liang et al., 1998]. Regional NOx budgets and tropospheric ozone (O3) production, are therefore particularly sensitive to uncertainties in the yields and fates of ON [Beaver et al., 2012; Browne et al., 2013]. The yields implemented in modeling studies are determined from laboratory experiments in which only a few of the first generation gaseous ON or the total gas and particle-phase ON have been quantified [Perring et al., 2013 and references therein], while production of highly functionalized ON capable of strongly partitioning to the particle-phase have been inferred [Farmer et al., 2010; Ng et al., 2007; Nguyen et al., 2011; Perraud et al., 2012; Rollins et al., 2012], or directly measured [Ehn et al., 2014]. Addition of a nitrate (–ONO2) functional group to a hydrocarbon is estimated to lower the equilibrium saturation vapor pressure by 2.5 to 3 orders of magnitude [e.g. Capouet and Muller, 2006]. Thus, organic nitrate formation can potentially enhance particle-phase partitioning of hydrocarbons in regions with elevated levels of nitrogen oxides, contributing to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation [Ng et al., 2007]. There has, however, been no high time-resolved measurements of speciated ON in the particle-phase. We utilize a newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) using Iodide-adduct ionization [B H Lee et al., 2014a] with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO) [Lopez-Hilfiker et al., 2014] that allows alternating in situ measurement of the molecular composition of gas and particle phases. We present observations of speciated ON in the particle-phase obtained during the 2013 Southern Oxidant

  3. Effects of two-loop contributions in the pseudofermion functional renormalization group method for quantum spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Marlon; Reuther, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    We implement an extension of the pseudofermion functional renormalization group method for quantum spin systems that takes into account two-loop diagrammatic contributions. An efficient numerical treatment of the additional terms is achieved within a nested graph construction which recombines different one-loop interaction channels. In order to be fully self-consistent with respect to self-energy corrections, we also include certain three-loop terms of Katanin type. We first apply this formalism to the antiferromagnetic J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the square lattice and benchmark our results against the previous one-loop plus Katanin approach. Even though the renormalization group (RG) equations undergo significant modifications when including the two-loop terms, the magnetic phase diagram, comprising Néel ordered and collinear ordered phases separated by a magnetically disordered regime, remains remarkably unchanged. Only the boundary position between the disordered and the collinear phases is found to be moderately affected by two-loop terms. On the other hand, critical RG scales, which we associate with critical temperatures Tc, are reduced by a factor of ˜2 indicating that the two-loop diagrams play a significant role in enforcing the Mermin-Wagner theorem. Improved estimates for critical temperatures are also obtained for the Heisenberg ferromagnet on the three-dimensional simple cubic lattice where errors in Tc are reduced by ˜34 % . These findings have important implications for the quantum phase diagrams calculated within the previous one-loop plus Katanin approach which turn out to be already well converged.

  4. Contribution of the resting-state functional connectivity of the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex to motor recovery after subcortical stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Xu

    Full Text Available It remains uncertain if the contralesional primary sensorimotor cortex (CL_PSMC contributes to motor recovery after stroke. Here we investigated longitudinal changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC of the CL_PSMC and their association with motor recovery. Thirteen patients who had experienced subcortical stroke underwent a series of resting-state fMRI and clinical assessments over a period of 1 year at 5 time points, i.e., within the first week, at 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after stroke onset. Thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited as controls. The CL_PSMC was defined as a region centered at the voxel that had greatest activation during hand motion task. The dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC within the whole brain were evaluated and correlated with the Motricity Index (MI scores. Compared with healthy controls, the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC with the bilateral PSMC were initially decreased, then gradually increased, and finally restored to the normal level 1 year later. Moreover, the dynamic change in the inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC in these patients was positively correlated with the MI scores. However, the intra-hemispheric rsFC of the CL_PSMC was not correlated with the MI scores. This study shows dynamic changes in the rsFCs of the CL_PSMC after stroke and suggests that the increased inter-hemispheric rsFC between the bilateral PSMC may facilitate motor recovery in stroke patients. However, generalization of our findings is limited by the small sample size of our study and needs to be confirmed.

  5. Formation and distribution of fragments in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Zhang, Chunli; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Background: Fission is a fundamental decay mode of heavy atomic nuclei. The prevalent theoretical approach is based on mean-field theory and its extensions where fission is modeled as a large amplitude motion of a nucleus in a multidimensional collective space. One of the important observables characterizing fission is the charge and mass distribution of fission fragments. Purpose: The goal of this Rapid Communication is to better understand the structure of fission fragment distributions by investigating the competition between the static structure of the collective manifold and the stochastic dynamics. In particular, we study the characteristics of the tails of yield distributions, which correspond to very asymmetric fission into a very heavy and a very light fragment. Methods: We use the stochastic Langevin framework to simulate the nuclear evolution after the system tunnels through the multidimensional potential barrier. For a representative sample of different initial configurations along the outer turning-point line, we define effective fission paths by computing a large number of Langevin trajectories. We extract the relative contribution of each such path to the fragment distribution. We then use nucleon localization functions along effective fission pathways to analyze the characteristics of prefragments at prescission configurations. Results: We find that non-Newtonian Langevin trajectories, strongly impacted by the random force, produce the tails of the fission fragment distribution of 240Pu. The prefragments deduced from nucleon localizations are formed early and change little as the nucleus evolves towards scission. On the other hand, the system contains many nucleons that are not localized in the prefragments even near the scission point. Such nucleons are distributed rapidly at scission to form the final fragments. Fission prefragments extracted from direct integration of the density and from the localization functions typically differ by more than

  6. Fractal statistics of brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davydova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of fragmentation statistics of brittle materials that includes four types of experiments is presented. Data processing of the fragmentation of glass plates under quasi-static loading and the fragmentation of quartz cylindrical rods under dynamic loading shows that the size distribution of fragments (spatial quantity is fractal and can be described by a power law. The original experimental technique allows us to measure, apart from the spatial quantity, the temporal quantity - the size of time interval between the impulses of the light reflected from the newly created surfaces. The analysis of distributions of spatial (fragment size and temporal (time interval quantities provides evidence of obeying scaling laws, which suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmentation.

  7. Electrons as probes of dynamics in molecules and clusters: A contribution from Time Dependent Density Functional Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopperer, P.; Dinh, P.M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2015-01-01

    There are various ways to analyze the dynamical response of clusters and molecules to electromagnetic perturbations. Particularly rich information can be obtained from measuring the properties of electrons emitted in the course of the excitation dynamics. Such an analysis of electron signals covers observables such as total ionization, Photo-Electron Spectra (PES), Photoelectron Angular Distributions (PAD), and ideally combined PES/PAD. It has a long history in molecular physics and was increasingly used in cluster physics as well. Recent progress in the design of new light sources (high intensity, high frequency, ultra short pulses) opens new possibilities for measurements and thus has renewed the interest on these observables, especially for the analysis of various dynamical scenarios, well beyond a simple access to electronic density of states. This, in turn, has motivated many theoretical investigations of the dynamics of electronic emission for molecules and clusters up to such a complex and interesting system as C 60 . A theoretical tool of choice is here Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) propagated in real time and on a spatial grid, and augmented by a Self-Interaction Correction (SIC). This provides a pertinent, robust, and efficient description of electronic emission including the detailed pattern of PES and PAD. A direct comparison between experiments and well founded elaborate microscopic theories is thus readily possible, at variance with more demanding observables such as for example fragmentation or dissociation cross sections. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical tools developed on the basis of real-time and real-space TDDFT and to address in a realistic manner the analysis of electronic emission following irradiation of clusters and molecules by various laser pulses. After a general introduction, we shall present in a second part the available experimental results motivating such studies, starting from the simplest

  8. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluctuations in the fragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Some general framework of sequential fragmentation is presented, as provided by the newly proposed Fragmentation - Inactivation - Binary model, and to study briefly its basic and universal features. This model includes as particular cases most of the previous kinetic fragmentation models. In particular it is discussed how one arrives in this framework to the critical behaviour, called the shattering transition. This model is then compared to recent data on gold multifragmentation at 600 MeV/nucl. (authors) 20 refs., 5 figs

  10. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  11. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  12. The O(α3s) Heavy Flavor Contributions to the Charged Current Structure Function xF3(x,Q2) at Large Momentum Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz; Hasselhuhn, A.; Manteuffel, A. von; Schneider, C.

    2015-08-01

    We calculate the massive Wilson coefficients for the heavy flavor contributions to the non-singlet charged current deep-inelastic scattering structure function xF W+ 3 (x,Q 2 )+xF W- 3 (x,Q 2 ) in the asymptotic region Q 2 >>m 2 to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x. Besides the heavy quark pair production also the single heavy flavor excitation s→c contributes. Numerical results are presented for the charm quark contributions and consequences on the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule are discussed.

  13. Quantitative experimental modelling of fragmentation during explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Ø.; Galland, O.; Gisler, G.

    2012-04-01

    Phreatomagmatic eruptions results from the violent interaction between magma and an external source of water, such as ground water or a lake. This interaction causes fragmentation of the magma and/or the host rock, resulting in coarse-grained (lapilli) to very fine-grained (ash) material. The products of phreatomagmatic explosions are classically described by their fragment size distribution, which commonly follows power laws of exponent D. Such descriptive approach, however, considers the final products only and do not provide information on the dynamics of fragmentation. The aim of this contribution is thus to address the following fundamental questions. What are the physics that govern fragmentation processes? How fragmentation occurs through time? What are the mechanisms that produce power law fragment size distributions? And what are the scaling laws that control the exponent D? To address these questions, we performed a quantitative experimental study. The setup consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a layer of cohesive silica flour, at the base of which a pulse of pressurized air is injected, leading to fragmentation of the layer of flour. The fragmentation process is monitored through time using a high-speed camera. By varying systematically the air pressure (P) and the thickness of the flour layer (h) we observed two morphologies of fragmentation: "lift off" where the silica flour above the injection inlet is ejected upwards, and "channeling" where the air pierces through the layer along sub-vertical conduit. By building a phase diagram, we show that the morphology is controlled by P/dgh, where d is the density of the flour and g is the gravitational acceleration. To quantify the fragmentation process, we developed a Matlab image analysis program, which calculates the number and sizes of the fragments, and so the fragment size distribution, during the experiments. The fragment size distributions are in general described by power law distributions of

  14. The 3-loop non-singlet heavy flavor contributions to the structure function g1(x,Q2 at large momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behring

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the massive flavor non-singlet Wilson coefficient for the heavy flavor contributions to the polarized structure function g1(x,Q2 in the asymptotic region Q2≫m2 to 3-loop order in Quantum Chromodynamics at general values of the Mellin variable N and the momentum fraction x, and derive heavy flavor corrections to the Bjorken sum-rule. Numerical results are presented for the charm quark contribution. Results on the structure function g2(x,Q2 in the twist-2 approximation are also given.

  15. COMPASS hadron multiplicity measurements and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is an experiment located at CERN SPS accelerator. For the results presented in this paper a 160 GeV positive muon beam was impinging on 6 LiD target. The COMPASS spectrometer was designed to reconstruct scattered muons and charged hadrons in a wide kinematic range. COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (N)LO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic scattering

  16. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  17. Fuel fragmentation data review and separate effects testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueh, Ken. H.; Snis, N.; Mitchell, D.; Munoz-Reja, C.

    2014-01-01

    A simple alternative test has been developed to study the fuel fragmentation process at loss of coolant accident (LOCA) temperatures. The new test heats a short section of fuel, approximately two pellets worth of material, in a tube furnace open to air. An axial slit is cut in the test sample cladding to reduce radial restraint and to simulate ballooned condition. The tube furnace allows the fuel fragmentation process be observed during the experiment. The test was developed as a simple alternative so large number of tests could be conducted quickly and efficiently to identify key variables that influence fuel fragmentation and to zeroing on the fuel fragmentation burn-up threshold. Several tests were conducted, using fuel materials from fuel rods that were used in earlier integral tests to benchmark and validate the test technique. High burn-up fuel materials known to be above the fragmentation threshold was used to evaluate the fragmentation process as a function of temperature. Even with an axial slit and both ends open, no significant fuel detachment/release was detected until above 750°C. Additional tests were conducted with fuel materials at burn-ups closer to the fuel fragmentation burn-up threshold. Results from these tests indicate a minor power history effect on the fuel fragmentation burn-up threshold. An evaluation of available literature and data generated from this work suggest a fuel fragmentation burn-up threshold between 70 and 75 GWd/MTU. (author)

  18. Analysis of Immunogenicity of Intracellular CTAR Fragments of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Phase Protein LMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakin, Ya A; Shmidt, A A; Bobik, T V; Chernov, A S; Pyrkov, A Yu; Aleksandrova, N M; Okunola, D O; Vaskina, M I; Ponomarenko, N A; Telegin, G B; Dubina, M V; Belogurov, A A

    2017-10-01

    Intracellular fragments of latent phase protein LMP1 of Epstein-Barr virus, denoted as CTAR1/2/3, can trigger a variety of cell cascades and contribute to the transforming potential of the virus. Generation of recombinant proteins CTAR1/2/3 is expected to yield more ample data on functional and immunogenic characteristics of LMP1. We created genetic constructs for prokaryotic expression of LMP1 CTAR fragments and selected optimal conditions for their production and purification. Using a new library of LMP1 CTAR fragments, we carried out epitope mapping of a diagnostic anti-LMP1 antibody S12. Analysis of polyclonal serum antibodies from mice immunized with full-length LMP1 confirmed immunogenicity of CTAR elements comparable with that of full-length protein.

  19. Thermochemical Fragment Energy Method for Biomolecules: Application to a Collagen Model Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Ernesto; Díaz, Natalia; Suárez, Dimas

    2009-06-09

    Herein, we first review different methodologies that have been proposed for computing the quantum mechanical (QM) energy and other molecular properties of large systems through a linear combination of subsystem (fragment) energies, which can be computed using conventional QM packages. Particularly, we emphasize the similarities among the different methods that can be considered as variants of the multibody expansion technique. Nevertheless, on the basis of thermochemical arguments, we propose yet another variant of the fragment energy methods, which could be useful for, and readily applicable to, biomolecules using either QM or hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics methods. The proposed computational scheme is applied to investigate the stability of a triple-helical collagen model peptide. To better address the actual applicability of the fragment QM method and to properly compare with experimental data, we compute average energies by carrying out single-point fragment QM calculations on structures generated by a classical molecular dynamics simulation. The QM calculations are done using a density functional level of theory combined with an implicit solvent model. Other free-energy terms such as attractive dispersion interactions or thermal contributions are included using molecular mechanics. The importance of correcting both the intermolecular and intramolecular basis set superposition error (BSSE) in the QM calculations is also discussed in detail. On the basis of the favorable comparison of our fragment-based energies with experimental data and former theoretical results, we conclude that the fragment QM energy strategy could be an interesting addition to the multimethod toolbox for biomolecular simulations in order to investigate those situations (e.g., interactions with metal clusters) that are beyond the range of applicability of common molecular mechanics methods.

  20. Parton jet fragmentation at small momentum fraction (x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1984-05-01

    The parton fragmentation function is calculated at small x and the angular ordering condition is rederived by extending the method of separation of the softest particle, which is based on unitarity and gauge invariance. (author)

  1. Biological effectiveness of high-energy protons - Target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Katz, R.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Shinn, J.; Hajnal, F.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy protons traversing tissue produce local sources of high-linear-energy-transfer ions through nuclear fragmentation. The contribution of these target fragments to the biological effectiveness of high-energy protons using the cellular track model is examined. The effects of secondary ions are treated in terms of the production collision density using energy-dependent parameters from a high-energy fragmentation model. Calculations for mammalian cell cultures show that at high dose, at which intertrack effects become important, protons deliver damage similar to that produced by gamma rays, and with fragmentation the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons increases moderately from unity. At low dose, where sublethal damage is unimportant, the contribution from target fragments dominates, causing the proton effectiveness to be very different from that of gamma rays with a strongly fluence-dependent RBE. At high energies, the nuclear fragmentation cross sections become independent of energy. This leads to a plateau in the proton single-particle-action cross section, below 1 keV/micron, since the target fragments dominate. 29 refs

  2. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  3. Fragmentation dynamics of molecular hydrogen in strong ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, A; Feuerstein, B; Zrost, K; Jesus, V L B de; Ergler, T; Dimopoulou, C; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic experimental study of dissociation and Coulomb explosion of molecular hydrogen induced by intense ultrashort (7-25 fs) laser pulses. Using coincident recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy we can distinguish the contributions from dissociation and double ionization even if they result in the same kinetic energies of the fragments. The dynamics of all fragmentation channels drastically depends on the pulse duration, and for 7 fs pulses becomes extremely sensitive to the pulse shape

  4. Polymer fragmentation in extensional flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroja, Armando M.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Ciesla, Michal; Longa, Lech

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of fragmentation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow. The transition rate is investigated both from theoretical and computational approaches, where the existence of a Gaussian distribution for the breaking bonds has been controversial. We give as well an explanation for the low fragmentation frequency found in DNA experiments.

  5. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  6. Quark Fragmentation to Pions in an Effective Chiral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazaki K.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective chiral quark theory of QCD. We concentrate on the pion fragmentation function, taking into account cascade-like processes in a generalized jet-model approach. Numerical results obtained in this NJL-jet model are presented and compared to empirical parametrizations.

  7. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols.......In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  8. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  10. On the fragmentation of biomolecules: fragmentation of alanine dipeptide along the polypeptide chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    The interaction potential between amino acids in alanine dipeptide has been studied for the first time taking into account exact molecular geometry. Ab initio calculation has been performed in the framework of density functional theory taking into account all electrons in the system. The fragment...

  11. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  12. On the universality of quark jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.; Jadach, S.

    1977-01-01

    Universality of inclusive fragmentation density functions in lepton induced processes (ep, γp, e + e - ) and purely hadronic processes is discussed from the point of view of the Topological Expansion/Dual Unitarization Scheme. It is shown that planar, single jet dominated processes have universal inclusive distributions and average multiplicities. In multi-jet processes, treated in a simple approximation, is inversely proportional to the number N of jets and the magnitude of the seagull effect increases as N 2 . (Auth.)

  13. O(α3s) contributions to the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure function F2(x,Q2) at Q2>>m2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissbrock, Fabian Philipp

    2015-10-01

    At O(α s 3 ) the contribution of a single heavy quark to the unpolarized structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) in the asymptotic region Q 2 >>m 2 is written as a convolution of the light flavor Wilson coefficients and the process independent massive operator matrix elements. This thesis extends the present description to allow for the presence of two heavy quark flavors and presents the respective renormalization prescription and first analytic results for these contributions. Furthermore the remaining O(C A,F T F 2 N F ) contributions and various diagrams of more complex topologies have been computed analytically. On the mathematical side different evaluation techniques based on representations in terms of special functions, Mellin-Barnes representations and Hyperlogarithms have been worked out.

  14. Anomalous component of absorption function of relativistic fragments produced in interactions of magnesium nuclei with plexiglas at 4. 5A GeV/c momentum. Anomal'naya komponenta funktsii pogloshcheniya relyativistskikh fragmentov, obrazovannykh vo vzaimodejstviyakh yader magniya c pleksiglasom pri impul'se 4. 5A GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karev, A G; Morozov, B A; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A A; Sukhanov, A Yu [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the Cherenkov spectrometer results on the fragmentation of the magnesium nuclei with momenta 4.5A GeV/c interacting with plexiglas show the presence of a short-range component in the fragment absorption function. For fragments with Z=6-10 (Z is the charge) the mean free paths in plexiglas for normal and anomalous component are estimated to be {lambda}{sub n}=141.7 {plus minus} 1.9 mm and {lambda}{sub a}=1.9 {plus minus} 0.8 mm. The anomalous component admixture at fixed {lambda}{sub a}=2 mm is {alpha}=0.084 {plus minus} 0.027. The parameter estimates are stable for various criteria applied to selecting the events.

  15. Genetic contributions to variation in general cognitive function: A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in the CHARGE consortium (N=53 949)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Davies (Gail); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); J.C. Bis (Joshua); J. Bressler (Jan); V. Chouraki (Vincent); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); E. Hofer; C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); M. Kirin (Mirna); J. Lahti; S.J. van der Lee (Sven); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); T. Liu; R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); D. Postmus (Douwe); G.D. Smith; J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); R. Thomson (Russell); V. Vitart (Veronique); J. Wang; L. Yu; L. Zgaga (Lina); W. Zhao (Wei); R. Boxall (Ruth); S.E. Harris (Sarah); W.D. Hill (W. David); D.C. Liewald (David C.); M. Luciano (Michelle); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); D. Ames (David); N. Amin (Najaf); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A.A. Assareh; R. Au; J.T. Becker (James); A. Beiser; C. Berr (Claudine); L. Bertram (Lars); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); H. Campbell (Harry); J. Corley; P.L. De Jager; C. Dufouil (Carole); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); T. Espeseth (Thomas); J.D. Faul; I. Ford; G. Scotland (Generation); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); M.D. Griswold (Michael); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T.B. Harris; G. Heiss (Gerardo); A. Hofman (Albert); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); D.S. Knopman (David); J.B. Kwok; J.-C. Lambert; T. Lee; G. Li; S.-C. Li; M. Loitfelder (Marisa); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); A.J. Lundervold; A. Lundqvist; R. Mather; S.S. Mirza (Saira); L. Nyberg; B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Papenberg; A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); O. Polasek (Ozren); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Redmond (Paul); S. Reppermund; J.I. Rotter; R. Schmidt (Reinhold); M. Schuur (Maaike); P.W. Schofield; R.J. Scott; V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J.C. van Swieten (John); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J. Trollor; S. Trompet (Stella); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); G. Weinstein; E. Widen (Elisabeth); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); A. Wright (Alan); M.J. Wright (Margaret); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); H. Amieva (Hélène); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David); H. Brodaty (Henry); A.J. de Craen (Anton); C. Hayward; M.A. Ikram (Arfan); U. Lindenberger; L.-G. Nilsson; D.J. Porteous (David J.); K. Räikkönen (Katri); I. Reinvang (Ivar); I. Rudan (Igor); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); R. Schmidt; P. Schofield (Peter); V. Srikanth; J.M. Starr (John); S.T. Turner (Stephen); D.R. Weir (David R.); J.F. Wilson (James F); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); S. Seshadri (Sudha); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); I.J. Deary (Ian J.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGeneral cognitive function is substantially heritable across the human life course from adolescence to old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to variation in this important, health- and well-being-related trait in middle-aged and older adults. We conducted a meta-analysis of

  16. Uranium target fragmentation by intermediate and high energy 12C and 20Ne ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughey, P.L.; Loveland, W.; Morrissey, D.J.; Aleklett, K.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Target fragment formation cross sections for nuclides with 24 12 C and 8.0 and 20.0 GeV 20 Ne with 238 U. Fragment isobaric yields were deduced from these data. The light fragment (A 12 C projectile energy of 1.0 GeV, the n-deficient fragments appear to originate primarily from a fission rather than a spallation process.) The excitation functions of the heavy fragments with 60 60, indicating that the general pattern of yields of these fragments is governed by the excitation energy deposited in the nucleus during the first step of the reaction and the geometry of the collision

  17. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  18. Interaction of NANOS2 and NANOS3 with different components of the CNOT complex may contribute to the functional differences in mouse male germ cells

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Suzuki; Yuki Niimi; Yumiko Saga

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT NANOS2 and NANOS3 belong to the Nanos family of proteins that contain a conserved zinc finger domain, which consists of two consecutive CCHC-type zinc finger motifs, and contribute to germ cell development in mice. Previous studies indicate that there are redundant and distinct functions of these two proteins. NANOS2 rescues NANOS3 functions in the maintenance of primordial germ cells, whereas NANOS3 fails to replace NANOS2 functions in the male germ cell pathway. However, the lack o...

  19. Three C-terminal residues from the sulphonylurea receptor contribute to the functional coupling between the KATP channel subunits SUR2A and Kir6.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien P; Revilloud, Jean; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are metabolic sensors formed by the association of the inward rectifier potassium channel Kir6.2 and the sulphonylurea receptor SUR2A. SUR2A adjusts channel gating as a function of intracellular ATP and ADP and is the target of pharmaceutical openers and blockers which, respectively, up- and down-regulate Kir6.2. In an effort to understand how effector binding to SUR2A translates into Kir6.2 gating modulation, we examined the role of a 65-residue SUR2A