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Sample records for fragment angular distribution

  1. On angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of amplitudes of quadrupole and hexadecapole components of angular distribution of nucleus fission fragments by neutrons with the energies E n < or approx. 6 MeV is conducted. Stability of this amplitude to permeability optical coefficient variations for neutrons is revealed. It is shown, that the ratio of these amplitudes as well as the character of their dependence on the target nucleus orientation degree are sensitive to the type of fission probability distribution along K projection if fissile nucleus J spin to the fragment scattering axis. This sensitivity may be used for fragment angular distribution anisotropy formation statistical model verification

  2. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Fission fragment angular distributions and fission cross section validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Lou Sai

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge of angular distributions of neutron-induced fission is limited to a maximal energy of 15 MeV, with large discrepancies around 14 MeV. Only 238 U and 232 Th have been investigated up to 100 MeV in a single experiment. The n-TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides ( 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U, 234 U, 237 Np) at the n-TOF facility using an experimental set-up made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC), extending the energy domain of the incident neutron above hundreds of MeV. The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. I will show the methods we used to reconstruct the full angular resolution by the tracking of fission fragments. Below 10 MeV our results are consistent with existing data. For example in the case of 232 Th, below 10 MeV the results show clearly the variation occurring at the first (1 MeV) and second (7 MeV) chance fission, corresponding to transition states of given J and K (total spin and its projection on the fission axis), and a much more accurate energy dependence at the 3. chance threshold (14 MeV) has been obtained. In the spallation domain, above 30 MeV we confirm the high anisotropy revealed in 232 Th by the single existing data set. I'll discuss the implications of this finding, related to the low anisotropy exhibited in proton-induced fission. I also explore the critical experiments which is valuable checks of nuclear data. The 237 Np neutron-induced fission cross section has recently been measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n-TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements, the n-TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7 % beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of n-TOF data, we simulate a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of 237 Np. This

  4. Reexamination of fission fragment angular distributions and the fission process: Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of fission fragment angular distributions is examined and the universally used expression is found to be valid only under restrictive assumptions. A more general angular distribution formula is derived and applied to recent data of high spin systems. At the same time it is shown that the strong anisotropies observed from such systems can be understood without changing the essential basis of standard fission theory. The effects of reaction mechanisms other than complete fusion on fission fragment angular distributions are discussed and possible angular distribution signatures of noncompound nucleus formation are mentioned

  5. Angular distributions of target black fragments in nucleus–nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fuhu; Abd Allah, N.N.; Zhang, Donghai; Duan, Maiying

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of space, azimuthal, and projected angular distributions of target black fragments produced in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna energy) are reported. A multi-source ideal gas model is suggested to describe the experimental angular distributions. The Monte Carlo calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  6. Angular distribution of photofission fragments in 238U at 5.43 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyoshi, S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Renner, C.; Goldemberg, J.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distribution of photofission fragments of 238 U, produced by 5.43 MeV monochromatic photons from the eta,γ reaction in sulphur, has been measured using glass plates as detectors. In the analysis of the results only the contributions from the (J sup(π), K) 1= (1 - ,0), (1 - ,1) and (2 + ,0) terms were considered. The coefficients of the angular distributions of the fission fragments were obtained. An analysis of the data available in the literature on the angular distribution near the photofission threshold is also presented

  7. Angular distribution of photofission fragments in 238U at 5.43 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniyoshi, Susumo

    1973-01-01

    The angular distribution of photofission fragments of 238 U, produced by 5.43 MeV monochromatic photons from the η,γ reaction in sulphur, has been measured using glass plates as detectors. In the analysis of the results only the contributions from the (J π , K) 1= (1 - ,0), (1 - ,1) and (2 + ,0) terms were considered. The coefficients of the angular distributions of the fission fragments were obtained. An analysis of the data available in the literature on the angular distribution near the photofission threshold is also presented. (author)

  8. Fission fragment angular distribution in the reaction 28Si+176Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.; Dutta, D.; Goswami, A.; Ramachandran, K.

    2009-01-01

    Fission fragment angular distribution has been measured in the reaction 28 Si+ 176 Yb at beam energies of 145 and 155 MeV to investigate the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission. Experiments were carried out at BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC accelerator facility, Mumbai. Experimental angular anisotropies in this reaction were observed to be higher than those calculated using statistical theory, indicating contribution from non-compound nucleus fission in this reaction. (author)

  9. Target-fragment angular distributions for the interaction of 86 MeV/A 12C with 197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Loveland, W.; McGaughey, P.L.; Seaborg, G.T.; Morita, Y.; Hageboe, E.; Haldorsen, I.R.; Sugihara, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Target-fragment angular distributions were measured using radiochemical techniques for 69 different fragments (44 12 C with 197 Au. The angular distributions in the laboratory system are forward-peaked with some distributions also showing a backward peaking. The shapes of the laboratory system distributions were compared with the predictions of the nuclear firestreak model. The measured angular distributions differed markedly from the predictions of the firestreak model in most cases. This discrepancy could be due, in part, to overestimation of the transferred longitudinal momentum by the firestreak model, the assumption of isotropic angular distributions for fission and particle emission in the moving frame and incorrect assumptions about how the lightest (A 145) fragment distributions were symmetric about 90 0 . (orig.)

  10. Influence of mass-asymmetry and ground state spin on fission fragment angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Biswas, D.C.; Saxena, A.; Pant, L.M.; Nayak, B.K.; Vind, R.P.; Sahu, P.K.; Sinha, Shrabani; Choudhury, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    The strong influence of the target or/and projectile ground state spin on the anomalously large anisotropies of fission fragments produced in the heavy-ion induced fission of actinide targets were reported earlier. Interestingly, all those systems studied were having a mass asymmetry greater than the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry and hence the presence of pre-equilibrium fission was unambiguously ruled out. The observed anisotropies were successfully explained using the ECD-K-States model. It is of interest to know the influence of the target/projectile ground state spin on systems having an entrance channel mass asymmetry less than the critical value where pre-equilibrium fission cannot be ignored. With this motivation we performed measurements of fission fragment angular distributions of the 16 O+ 235 U (spin=7/2) system

  11. Influence of angular momentum on fission fragment mass distribution: Interpretation within Langevin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, E.G.; Karpov, A.V.; Adeev, G.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dependence of fission fragments mass distribution on the angular momentum within Langevin dynamics is studied. The calculations are performed in the framework of the rotating temperature-dependent finite-range liquid drop model. The calculations are done for the five nuclei, representing heavy fissioning nuclei, medium fissioning nuclei and light fissioning one with the angular momentum varied in the wide range from l=0 to l=70-bar . The dependence coefficients dσ M 2 /dl 2 for the investigated nuclei are extracted. The comparison of the extracted values with the experimental data reveals a good agreement for all the cases (the heavy, medium, and light fissioning nuclei). It is found out that the obtained dependence of σ M 2 on l can be explained with the help of temperature at scission as a function of l. The latter dependence is determined by dependence of the mean prescission neutron multiplicity on l. The analysis of this dependence is done as a competition between fission process and neutron evaporation. 'Remembering of the former large fluctuations of mass asymmetry coordinate during descent from the saddle to scission' is considered. It is shown that the 'remembering effect' takes place, but does not play a crucial role for the investigated dependence of σ M 2 on l

  12. Angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments emitted in 30 MeV/u 40Ar induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Quanbu; Zhu Yongtai; Xu Hushan; Wei Zhiyong; Lu Jun; Zhang Yuhu; Wang Qi; Li Songlin; Wu Zhongli

    1999-01-01

    The angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments with charge numbers from 3 to 24 emitted in 30 MeV/u 40 Ar + 58,64 Ni and 115 In reactions over an angular range of 5 degree-140 degree have been measured. In different angular region an exponential distribution function dσ/dΩ = N exp(-θ/α) was used to fit the measured angular distributions. The decay factor α which can be connected with the interaction time τ and the factor N which is related to the intensity of the emission sources have been extracted. The relationship of α(Z) and N(Z) with Z for different reaction systems and different angular regions has been discussed. The different behavior of dσ/dΩ, α(Z), and N(Z) for the three studied reaction systems exists mainly in the middle and backward angular regions. The dependencies of angular distributions on isospin and the size of reaction systems have also been discussed

  13. Measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments using a PPAC assembly at CERN n{sub T}OF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrío, D., E-mail: dtarriov@gmail.com [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Leong, L.S.; Audouin, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 -Université Paris-Sud - IPN, Orsay (France); Duran, I.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tassan-Got, L.; Le Naour, C.; Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon, V.; Mottier, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 -Université Paris-Sud - IPN, Orsay (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Altstadt, S. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Andrzejewski, J. [Uniwersytet Łódzki, Lodz (Poland); Barbagallo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Bécares, V. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bečvář, F. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Belloni, F. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berthoumieux, E. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Billowes, J. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Boccone, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-11

    A fission reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) was built for measuring angular distributions of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of actinides at the neutron beam available at the Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n{sub T}OF) facility at CERN. The detectors and the samples were tilted 45° with respect to the neutron beam direction to cover all the possible values of the emission angle of the fission fragments. The main features of this setup are discussed and results on the fission fragment angular distribution are provided for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) reaction around the fission threshold. The results are compared with the available data in the literature, demonstrating the good capabilities of this setup.

  14. A reconsideration of fission fragment angular distributions from nuclei of high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.C.; Alexander, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    It has often been stated that fission fragment angular anisotropy, as predicted by equilibrium statistical theory, should disappear with increasing spin of the composite nucleus. However, several recent experimental studies reveal strong anisotropies for fission fragments from high-spin nuclear systems. We discuss this apparent discrepancy and its relationship to the rigid-rotor approximation used in the standard theory. A systematic comparison is given for fission fragment anisotropies from many experiments via the empirical parameters K 0 2 and Ssub(eff). These systematics indicate a strong regularity, provided one allows for the perturbing effects of fission after transfer reactions. Many of the observed anisotropies exceed the predictions of the standard theory, but, as these predictions are based on a rigid rotor model, this does not seem particularly noteworthy. (orig.)

  15. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions in the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U(n,f) reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD) of the $^{234}$U(n,f) and $^{236}$U (n,f) reactions with the PPAC detection setup used in previous n_TOF-14 experiment. This experiment would take advantage of the high resolution of the n_TOF facility to investigate the FFAD behaviour in the pronounced vibrational resonances that have been observed between 0.1 and 2 MeV for the thorium cycle isotopes. In addition, the angular distribution of these isotopes will be measured for the first time beyond 14 MeV. Furthermore, the experiment will also provide the fission cross section with reduced statistical uncertainty, extending the $^{236}$U(n,f) data up to 1 GeV

  16. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of 238U in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of 238 U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of 238 U

  17. Angular distribution measurement of fragment ions from a molecule using a new beamline consisting of a Grasshopper monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norio; Suzuki, Isao H.; Onuki, Hideo; Nishi, Morotake

    1989-07-01

    Optical characteristics of a new beamline consisting of a premirror, a Grasshopper monochromator, and a refocusing mirror have been investigated. The intensity of the monochromatic soft x-ray was estimated to be about 108 photons/(s 100 mA) at 500 eV with the storage electron energy of 600 MeV and the minimum slit width. This slit width provides a resolution of about 500. Angular distributions of fragment ions from an inner-shell excited nitrogen molecule have been measured with a rotatable time-of-flight mass spectrometer by using this beamline.

  18. Angular distribution measurement of fragment ions from a molecule using a new beamline consisting of a Grasshopper monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, N.; Suzuki, I.H.; Onuki, H.; Nishi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Optical characteristics of a new beamline consisting of a premirror, a Grasshopper monochromator, and a refocusing mirror have been investigated. The intensity of the monochromatic soft x-ray was estimated to be about 10 8 photons/(s 100 mA) at 500 eV with the storage electron energy of 600 MeV and the minimum slit width. This slit width provides a resolution of about 500. Angular distributions of fragment ions from an inner-shell excited nitrogen molecule have been measured with a rotatable time-of-flight mass spectrometer by using this beamline

  19. Fission cross section and fission fragment angular distribution for oriented nucleus fission by intermediate energy neutrons (epsilon < or approximately 1 Mev)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    General analysis is conducted, and formulae for fission cross section and angular distribution of fission fragments of oriented nuclei by fast neutrons are presented. Geometrical coefficients making up the formulae permitting to carry out calculations for target nuclei with spins I=3/2, 5/2, 7/2 at interaction energies epsilon < or approximately 1 MeV are tabulated. Results of demonstrative calculation of fission fragment angular distribution of oriented sup(235)U nuclei by 0.1 <= epsilon <= 1.0 MeV neutrons reveal that angular distribution weakly depends on the set of permeability factors of neutron waves applied in the calculations

  20. Angular distributions of evaporated particles, fission and intermediate-mass fragments: on the search for consistent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    During the last two years there has been a true cacophony concerning the meaning of experimental angular distributions for fission and fission-like fragments. The heavily used, saddle-point, transition-state model has been shown to be of limited value for high-spin systems, and a wide variety of proposals has appeared often with mutual inconsistencies and conflicting views. Even though equilibrium statistical models for fragment emission and particle evaporation must have a very close kinship, this relationship, often left as murky, has now come onto center stage for understanding reactions at ≥ 100 MeV. Basic questions concern the nature of the decision-point configurations, their degrees of freedom, the role of deformation and the relevant moments of inertia. This paper points out serious inconsistencies in several recent scission-point models and discusses conditions for applicability of saddle-point and scission-point approaches

  1. Angular distributions of target fragments from the reactions of 292 MeV - 25.2 GeV 12C with 197Au and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The angular distributions of the 197 Au target fragments were all forwardly peaked. Extensively forward peaked angular distributions were observed at the non-relativistic projectile energies (292 MeV, 1.0 GeV). No obvious differences were observed in the angular distributions at the different relativistic projectile energies of 3.0 GeV, 12.0 GeV and 25.2 GeV. The characteristic angular distribution pattern from the relativistic projectile energy experiments was also observed in the non-relativistic energy experiments. Maximum degree of forward-peaking in the angular distributions at each projectile energy was observed at the product mass number (A) around 190 from the 292 MeV projectile energy, at A = 180 from 1.0 GeV and at A =175 from 3.0 GeV and 12.0 GeV. In general, two different types of angular distributions were observed in the relativistic projectile energy experiments with the 238 U target. Isotropic angular distributions were observed for the fission product nuclides. The angular distributions of the fission products at the intermediate (292 MeV) energy showed slightly forward peaked angular distributions. Because of the long projectile-target interaction time in the primary nuclear reaction, larger momentum was transferred from the projectile to the target nucleus. Steep forward-peaked angular distributions were also observed with the 238 U target

  2. Angular distribution of fragments from neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Magnus

    2004-06-01

    Areas ranging from nuclear structure models to accelerator-driven systems benefit from improved neutron-induced fission data in the intermediate energy region. In this Master's degree thesis, the fragment angular distribution from fission of {sup 238}U, induced by 21-MeV neutrons, has been analysed from an experiment performed with the Medley/DIFFICILE setup at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. The data have been corrected for low energy neutrons in the beam. The results agree with other experiments, as well as with model calculations. The data should be a starting point for further analysis with a goal to deduce the fission cross-section of {sup 238}U.

  3. Charge distribution of the 236U* fission fragments with accounting for angular momentum of the compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, N.G.; Emel'yanov, V.M.; Krajnov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    In a statistical fission model calculated are charge distributions of fission fragments (CDFF) of a 236 U* nucleus and their dispersions as the functions of excitation energy and angular momentum (AM) of a compound nucleus as well as the effect of one-particle potential parameter on CDFF. The potential of two-center oscillator was choosen as the one-particle potential. The function of fissioning nucleus level density, which is necessary for calculations in the statistical approach, has been determined from one-particle spectrum. The scheme of calculations is realized with a computer. Presented are the results of calculating the dependence of a neutron gap size on nuclear temperature for various projections of total AM; CDFF for different values of E* excitation energy of AM projection and others. Calculated CDFF and experimental data were compared. Notwithstanding the availability of many parameters and a large volume of numerical calculations the model under consideration permits to describe many common regularities of heavy nucleus CDFF (experimental yields of charges, dispersion dependence on excitation energies and masses of nuclear fragments)

  4. Neutron-induced fission fragment angular distribution at CERN n TOF: The Th-232 case

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrio, Diego; Paradela, Carlos

    This thesis work was done in the frame of the study of the neutron-induced fission of actinides and subactinides at the CERN n TOF facility using a fast Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) setup. This experimental setup provide us with an intense neutron beam with a white spectrum from thermal to 1 GeV and with an outstanding high resolution provided by its flight path of 185 m. In our experiment, fission events were identified by detection of both fission fragments in time coincidence in the two PPAC detectors flanking the corresponding target. This technique allowed us to discriminate the fission events from the background produced by α disintegration of radioactive samples and by particles produced in spallation reactions. Because PPAC detectors are insensitive to the γ flash, it is possible to reach energies as high as 1 GeV. The stripped cathodes provide the spatial position of the hits in the detectors, so that the emission angle of the fission fragments can be measured. Inside the reaction cham...

  5. Fission fragment angular distributions in proton-induced fission of 209Bi (p,f) and 197Au (p,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheily, S.; Noshad, H.; Lamehi-Rashti, M.

    2002-01-01

    The fission fragment angular distributions have been measured for proton-induced fission of 209 B i and 197 A u nuclei using surface barrier detectors at several energies between 25 MeV and 30 MeV. The experimental anisotropies are found to be in agreement with the predictions of the Standard Saddle-Point Statistical Model. The fission cross sections of 209 B i and 197 A u nuclei were also measured and compared with the previous works

  6. Angular distributions of light projectile fragments in deep inelastic Pb+Em interactions at 160 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Yu A; Andreeva, N P; Badyal, S K; Basova, E E; Bhalla, K B; Bhasin, A; Bhatia, V S; Bradnova, V; Bubnov, V I; Cai, X; Chasnikov, I Yu; Chen, G M; Chernova, L P; Chernyavsky, M M; Dhamija, S; El-Chenawi, K F; Felea, D; Feng, S Q; Gaitinov, A S; Ganssauge, E R; Garpman, S I A; Gerassimov, S G; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Grote, J; Gulamov, K G; Sen-Gupta, S K; Gupta, V K; Henjes, U; Jakobsson, B; Kanygina, E K; Karabova, M; Kharlamov, S P; Kovalenko, A D; Krasnov, S A; Kumar, V; Larionova, V G; Lepekhin, F G; Levitskaya, O V; Li, Y X; Liu, L S; Lokanathan, S; Lord, J J; Lukicheva, N S; Lu, Y; Luo, S B; Mangotra, L K; Manhas, I; Mittra, I S; Musaeva, A K; Nasyrov, S Z; Navotny, V S; Nystrand, J; Otterlund, I; Peresadko, N G; Qian, W Y; Qin, Y M; Raniwala, R; Rao, N K; Röper, M D; Rusakova, V V; Saidkhanov, N; Salmanova, N A; Seitimbetov, A M; Seliverstov, D M; Simonov, B B; Sethi, R; Singh, B; Skelding, D; Söderström, K; Stenlund, E; Svechnikova, L N; Svensson, T; Tawfik, A M; Tothova, M; Tretyakova, M I; Trofimova, T P; Tuleeva, U I; Vashisht, V; Vokal, S; Vrláková, J; Wang, H Q; Wang, X R; Weng, Z Q; Wilkes, R J; Yang, C B; Yin, Z B; Yu, L Z; Zhang, D H; Zheng, P Y; Zhokhova, S I; Zhou, D C

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emulsion was exposed at CERN by the lead projectile at 160 A GeV. The angles between any pair of fragments with Z=2-4 have been measured in the emulsion plane for the events which did not contain heavy fragments. The constant characterizing the normal angle ( phi ) distribution of the fragment momentum projection onto the emulsion plane with respect to initial projectile momentum p/sub 0/ is found to be sigma /sub phi /=(0.37+or-0.02) mrad. Corresponding value sigma /sub 0/=(121+or-6) MeV/c of nucleon momentum distribution in the lead nucleus coincides with that expected from Fermi momentum distribution for this nucleus. The peak in the pair-angle distribution of double-charged fragments, /sup 8/Be to 2 alpha , is presented for the region of small angles (<0.1 mrad). The fraction of alpha -particles coming from the decay of the ground state /sup 8/Be is found to be (13+or-2)601130f their whole number. (14 refs).

  7. The angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobtka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Large fragment (A > 4) production at high angular momentum is studied via the reaction, 200 MeV 45 Sc + 65 Cu. Comparisons of the fragment yields from this reaction (high angular momentum) to those from 93 Nb + Be (low angular momentum) are used to verify the strong angular momentum dependence of large fragment production predicted by equilibrium models. Details of the coincident γ-ray distributions not only confirm a rigidly rotating intermediate but also indicate that the widths of the primary L-wave distributions decrease with increasing symmetry in the decay channel. These data are used to test the asymmetry and L-wave dependence of emission barriers calculated from a rotating, finite range corrected, liquid drop model. 21 refs., 10 figs

  8. Measurement of Fission Fragment Angular Distributions for 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U at Near-Barrier Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, B.R.; Jena, S.; Satapathy, M.; Ison, V.V.; Kailas, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Satpathy, L.; Basu, P.; Roy, S.; Sharan, M.; Chatterjee, M.L; Datta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions of heavy-ion induced fission in actinide nuclei at near-barrier energies show anomalous fragment anisotropies. At above barrier energies entrance channel dependence is a probable cause and explanation in terms of pre-equilibrium fission and the critical mass asymmetry parameter (Businaro-Gallone) has been tried. Target deformation and ground state spin also seem to influence the measured anisotropy. To understand the extent of importance of some or all of these features, we performed a set of experiments where (i) entrance channel dependence (ii) mass asymmetry on the two sides of Businaro-Gallone and (iii) different ground state spins are present. The channels chosen are 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U. Experiments were done using the Pelletron accelerators at NSC, New Delhi and BARC-TIFR, Bombay. Compound nucleus populated in both cases is 246 Bk. 232 Th has ground state spin zero and 235 U has spin 7/2. Fragment anisotropies have been measured from 10-15 % above barrier to 10 % below barrier at similar excitation energy (around 40 MeV to 58 MeV). The mean square angular momentum is matched at least at one energy. Results indicate that when both excitation energy and angular momentum are matched, there are differences in the measured values of fission anisotropies. This implies entrance channel dependence consistent with the expectation of pre-equilibrium fission model. (authors)

  9. Fission-fragment angular distributions and total kinetic energies for 235U(n,f) from .18 to 8.83 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.

    1982-01-01

    A gridded ion chamber was used to measure the fission fragment angular distribution and total kinetic energy for the 235 U(n,f) reaction from 0.18 to 8.81 MeV neutron energy. The anisotropies are in generally good agreement with earlier measurements. The average total kinetic energy is approx. 0.2 MeV greater than the thermal value at neutron energies < 2 MeV and shows a sudden decrease of approx. 0.8 MeV between 4 and 5 MeV neutron energy, well below the (n, n'f) threshold. Possible causes of this decrease are a change in the mass distribution or decreased shell effects in the heavy fragment

  10. Reassessment of fission fragment angular distributions from continuum states in the context of transition-state theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.C.; Alexander, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Fission angular distributions have been studied for years and have been treated as classic examples of transition-state theory. Early work involving composite nuclei of relatively low excitation energy Esup(*) ( 2 0 (K 2 0 = Psub(eff)T/(h/2π) 2 ) are presented along with comparissons of Psub(eff) to moments of inertia for saddle-point nuclei from the rotating liquid drop model. This model gives an excellent guide for the intermediate spin zone (30 < or approx. I < or approx. 65), while strong shell and/or pairing effects are evident for excitations less than < or approx. 35 MeV. Observations of strong anisotropies for very high-spin systems signal the demise of certain approximations commonly made in the theory, and suggestions are made toward this end. (orig.)

  11. Measurements of jet fragmentation and the angular distributions of charged particles within and around jets in $pp$ and Pb+Pb with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Rybar, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Highly energetic jets produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions are considered to be direct probes to study the properties of the hot and dense QCD matter created in these collisions. The measurement of the fragmentation functions of jets into charged particles in Pb+Pb collisions is sensitive to the strength and mechanism of jet quenching. In this talk, we present the latest measurement of the internal structure of jets and the angular distributions of charged particles within and around jets performed with the ATLAS detector. Fragmentation functions in Pb+Pb collisions and distributions of the transverse momentum of charged particles are compared to the same quantities measured in pp collisions at the same collision energy. Measurements are presented as a function of collision centrality, jet transverse momentum, and jet rapidity at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV. Furthermore, a new measurement of the angular distributions of charged-particles with respect to jet axis extended to distances outside the jet radius...

  12. Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagno, Pierre; Litaize, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.

  13. Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamagno Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.

  14. Angular Distribution of GRBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the complete randomness of the angular distribution of BATSE gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. Based on their durations and peak fluxes, we divided the BATSE sample into 5 subsamples (short1, short2, intermediate, long1, long2 and studied the angular distributions separately. We used three methods to search for non-randomness in the subsamples: Voronoi tesselation, minimal spanning tree, and multifractal spectra. To study any non-randomness in the subsamples we defined 13 test-variables (9 from Voronoi tesselation, 3 from the minimal spanning tree and one from the multifractal spectrum. We made Monte Carlo simulations taking into account the BATSE’s sky-exposure function. We tested therandomness by introducing squared Euclidean distances in the parameter space of the test-variables. We recognized that the short1, short2 groups deviate significantly (99.90%, 99.98% from the fully random case in the distribution of the squared Euclidean distances but this is not true for the long samples. In the intermediate group, the squared Euclidean distances also give significant deviation (98.51%.

  15. Anisotropy in angular distributions of 238U fission fragments by photons, produced in high energy electron interaction with Si monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasilov, V.I.; Lapin, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    An enhancement is detected under the angle of 90 deg in the fission fragment yield from 238 U nuclei produced by photons emitted by high-energy electrons passing through a silicon monocrystal. The results enable one to select the most optimal conditions to obtain maximal yields of nuclear particles [ru

  16. Angular distribution of oriented nucleus fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of anisotropy of angular distribution of oriented 235 U nuclei thermal fission neutrons have been carried out. the neutrons were assumed to evaporate isotropically by completely accelerated fragements in the fragment system with only its small part, i. e. fission-producing neutrons, emitted at the moment of neck break. It has been found out that at low energies of neutrons Esub(n)=1-2 MeV the sensitivity of the angular distribution anisotropy to variations of spectrum of neutron evaporation from fragments and the magnitude of a share of fission-producing neutrons reaches approximately 100%, which at high energies, Esub(n) > 5 MeV it does not exceed approximately 20%. Therefore the angular distribution of fast neutrons to a greater degree of confidence may be used for restoring the angular distribution anisotropy of fragments while the angular distribution of low energy neutrons may be used for deriving information on the fission process, but only in case 6f the experiment accuracy is better than approximately 3%

  17. Angular distributions in quasi-fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetzenkirchen, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Lucas, R.; Poitou, J.; Gregoire, C.; Wirth, G.; Bruechle, W.; Suemmerer, K.

    1985-10-01

    Angular distributions for fission-like fragments were measured in the systems 50 Ti, 56 Fe + 208 Pb by applying an off-line KX-ray activation technique. The distributions d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ exhibit forward-backward asymmetries that are strongly Z-dependent. They result from a process (quasi-fission) which yields nearly symmetric masses in times comparable to the rotational period of the composite system. A method for obtaining the variance of the tilting angular momentum, K 0 2 , from these skewed, differential angular distributions is described. The results indicate that the tilting mode is not fully excited in quasi-fission reactions. The results are compared to the sum of the variances of all statistical spin components, measured via γ-multiplicities. Integration of the angular distributions d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ over all values of Z yields integral angular distributions dsigma/dTHETA and dsigma/dΩ symmetric around 90 0 . The associated unusually large anisotropies do not at all provide an adequate basis for tests or modifications of the transition state theory. A deconvolution of d 2 sigma/dTHETAdZ is performed with gaussian distributions depending on rotational angles ΔTHETA extending over a range of up to 540 0 . From the mean values a time scale for the evolution of K 0 is calculated. (orig.)

  18. Electron angular distribution axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokonov, A.Kh.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distributions of ultra-relativistic electrons are calculated in the assumption about presence of statistical equilibrium. Analysis is based on numerical solution of Fokker-Planck type kinetic equation. It is shown that in contrast to case of amorphous medium, the multiple scattering at axial channeling of negative particles results in self-focusing of the initial beam particles and due to it number of electrons moving at an angles to the chain, which are smaller, than critical angle of channeling, may increase by several times as compared to the initial one

  19. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  20. Distribution of nuclear charge and angular momentum in chains 132-137, 99, and 102 of thermal neutron fission of 235U at various kinetic energies and charge states of the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.; Braun, H.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The fission product yields of the members of the decay chains 132 to 137, 99, and 102 in 235 U(n/sub th/,f) were measured at various kinetic energies and ionic charge states of the fragments using the mass separator for unslowed fission products LOHENGRIN. The results are discussed with respect to four aspects: A preferential formation of neutron rich chain members found at high kinetic energy of the fragments is predominantly due to decreasing prompt neutron evaporation. A particularly large effect in chain 132 is attributed to the double shell closure in Sn-132. The persistence of an even-odd pairing effect in the yields throughout the range of kinetic energies studied leads to the conclusion that the high internal excitation energy of the fragments is tied up mainly in the form of collective energy (e.g., deformation energy) rather than single particle excitation. Generally, the yield distribution at constant kinetic energy is invariant with respect to the ionic charge state of the isotopes separated. Deviations from this behavior found in chains 99, 102, 133, and 136 are interpreted as being due to Auger events following a converted transition in the decay of ns-isomers taking place in the vacuum of the separator. A pronounced variation of the independent formation ratio of single isomeric states with the kinetic energy of the fragments is providing direct information on the controversial topic of the change of angular momentum of fission fragments as a function of deformation (scission distance). 34 references

  1. Dependence of black fragment azimuthal and projected angular distributions on polar angle in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuhu; Abd Allah, Nabil N.; Singh, B.K.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental results of dependence of black fragment azimuth (φ) and projected angle (ψ) distributions on polar angle θ in silicon-emulsion collisions at 4.5A GeV/c (the Dubna momentum) are reported. There are two regions of enhancement around φ=±90 deg. for different θ ranges. These enhancements are due to directed (v 1 ) and elliptic (v 2 ) flows. The v 1 and v 2 dependence of values on θ shows that the directed flow is weak and the elliptic flow is strong in these collisions. A multisource ideal gas model is used to describe the experimental results of dependence. The Monte Carlo calculated results are approximately in agreement with the experimental data

  2. Perturbed angular correlations and distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaryunas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The present index comprises original works and review papers on the perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and distributions (PAD). The articles published in the Soviet and foreign journals as well as the materials of conferences, monographs and collections published in the USSR and abroad, the preprints produced by various institutes and abstracts of disertations are included from 1948 up to 1973. The whole material compiled in this index is divided into three parts. Part one is a bibliographic index. All papers in this part are divided into three sections. Section one comprises the papers devoted to the theoretical works on PAC, review papers, monographs, materials of conferences. Section two deals with the works of methodical character where correlation spectrometers as well as the treatment of experimental data are described. In section three experimental works with concrete nuclei are compiled. Part two gives the characteristic of works performed with concrete nuclei. This part is presented in the form of the table in which the works are systematized according to the chemical elements and isotopes. The table shows the characteristics of the nuclear levels used in the investigations by PAC as well as brief characteristics of experiments and results obtained. Part three - appendix contains alphabetic index of the authors, the list of the used editions with the abbreviations of the titles of these editions. The lists indicating the dynamic of the quantity of works on PAC and the distribution according to the literature sources are also given

  3. Scission configurations and their implication in fission-fragment angular momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneau, L.; Quentin, P.; Mikhailov, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of sizable angular momenta in fragments formed in low-energy nuclear fission is described microscopically within the general quantum-mechanical framework of orientation pumping due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Within this framework, we make use of the results of Skyrme-Hartree-Fock plus BCS-pairing calculations of fragment deformabilities to deduce a distribution of fission-fragment spins as a function of the fragment total excitation energy. We consider a fragmentation corresponding to a pair of deformed fragments and for which fission data are available. The properties of the scission configurations determine to a large extent the fission-fragment spins. This is why we pay particular attention to quantitatively defining the scission configurations and to studying the various implications of such a specific choice. A fair qualitative agreement with data is demonstrated and discussed within the limits of the simple scission-configuration model used here

  4. Angular correlations and fragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansson, Anders.

    1990-05-01

    Intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions have been studied from 35 A MeV up to 94 A MeV at various accelerators. Angular correlations between light particles and detection of projectile- and target-fragments have been used to investigate the reaction mechanisms in this transition region between low- and high energy. An excess of correlations is observed in the particle-particle elastic scattering plane. This excess increases with particle mass and can be understood in terms of momentum conservation. The fragmentation measurements gives an indication that both energy and momentum transfer to the spectator volumes does occur. (author)

  5. Angular distribution of scission neutrons studied with time-dependent Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takahiro; Asano, Tomomasa; Carjan, Nicolae

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of scission neutrons taking account of the effects of fission fragments. The time evolution of the wave function of the scission neutron is obtained by integrating the time-dependent Schrodinger equation numerically. The effects of the fission fragments are taken into account by means of the optical potentials. The angular distribution is strongly modified by the presence of the fragments. In the case of asymmetric fission, it is found that the heavy fragment has stronger effects. Dependence on the initial distribution and on the properties of fission fragments is discussed. We also discuss on the treatment of the boundary to avoid artificial reflections

  6. Angular distributions in pre-equilibrium reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Gupta, S.K.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay

    1982-10-01

    A new model is proposed for calculating angular distributions in preequilibrium reactions. In this model, as in the model of Feshbach et al. the system consisting of target plus projectile initially branches into two sets of states with either no particle in the continuum (multistep compound states) or with at least one particle in the continuum (multistep direct states). The two chains of states are treated independently by solving two sets of master equations. The multistep compound emission is assumed to be isotropic while the angular distribution of the multistep direct emission is described using the fast particle model of Mantzouranis et al. The angular distributions for 14.6 MeV neutrons calculated using this model are found to be in better agreement with the data than the fast particle model. (author)

  7. Fission fragment distributions within dynamical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K. [Institute of Nuclear, Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Nadtochy, P.N. [Omsk State Technical University, Omsk (Russian Federation); Ryabov, E.G.; Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Physics Department, Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The review covers recent developments and achievements in the dynamical description of fission process at high excitation energy. It is shown that the dynamical approach based on multidimensional Langevin equations combined with the statistical description of nuclear decay by particles evaporation is capable of fairly well describing the formation of fission fragment mass-energy, charge, and angular distributions of fission fragments in coincidence with the pre- and post-scission particle emission. The final yields of fission and evaporation residues channels products could be obtained. The detailed description of fission dynamics allows studying different stages of fission process, indicating the most important ingredients governing fission process and studying in detail such fundamental nuclear properties as nuclear viscosity and fission timescale. The tasks and perspectives of multidimensional dynamical approach are also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Fission fragment mass and angular distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... Synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements is severely hindered by fission and fission-like processes. The probability of these fission-like, non-equilibrium processes strongly depends on the entrance channel parameters. This article attempts to summarize the recent experimental findings and classify the ...

  9. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  10. Molecular frame and recoil frame angular distributions in dissociative photoionization of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, R R; Carey, R; Elkharrat, C; Houver, J C; Dowek, D

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions in the dipole approximation can be written with respect to several different reference frames. A brief review of the molecular frame and recoil frame are given. Experimentally, one approach for obtaining such angular distributions is through angle-resolved coincidence measurements of dissociative ionization. If the system dissociates into two heavy fragments, then the recoil frame angular distribution can be measured. Computed molecular frame and recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions are compared to experimental data for the Cl 2p ionization of CH 3 Cl.

  11. Photofragment angular momentum distribution beyond the axial recoil approximation: Predissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladislav V.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2007-01-01

    We present the quantum mechanical expressions for the angular momentum distribution of the photofragments produced in slow predissociation. The paper is based on our recent theoretical treatment [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 034307 (2005)] of the recoil angle dependence of the photofragment multipole moments which explicitly treat the role of molecular axis rotation on the electronic angular momentum polarization of the fragments. The electronic wave function of the molecule was used in the adiabatic body frame representation. The rigorous expressions for the fragment state multipoles which have been explicitly derived from the scattering wave function formalism have been used for the case of slow predissociation where a molecule lives in the excited quasibound state much longer than a rotation period. Possible radial nonadiabatic interactions were taken into consideration. The optical excitation of a single rotational branch and the broadband incoherent excitation of all possible rotational branches have been analyzed in detail. The angular momentum polarization of the photofragments has been treated in the high-J limit. The polarization of the photofragment angular momenta predicted by the theory depends on photodissociation mechanism and can in many cases be significant

  12. Neutron-fragment angular correlations in /sup 235/U(n/sub th/,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklyn, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron-fragment angular correlations in /sup 235/U(n/sub th/,f) as a function of neutron energy and fragment mass are presented. The results obtained in this experiment, together with data for neutron-neutron angular correlations, are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the fission process incorporating both a scission neutron component and an anisotropic neutron emission component

  13. Element Distribution and Multiplicity of Heavy Fragments

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure the energy and angular distribution of heavy fragments produced in the reactions of |1|2C on several targets between |2|7Al and |2|3|8U at 86~MeV/u. The systematic investigation of a highly excited interaction region (fireball) by means of a clean N and Z identification of heavy tar fragments, may result in a better understanding of temperature concept and of the degree of equilibration of the local interaction region with respect to the total system. For this investigation a large-area position sensitive ionization chamber of 50~msr solid angle in conjunction with a time-of-flight telescope consisting of parallel-plate detectors will be used. \\\\ \\\\ In order to get information on the transverse momentum transfer and the inelasticity of the collision, the energy of the PROJECTILE-FRAGMENTS will be measured at forward angles with a plastic scintillator hodoscope. In addition to this inclusive measurement correlations between heavy fragments will be investigated by means of three pos...

  14. Multichannel system for angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Putz, K.

    A description is given of the individual blocks of the spectrometric apparatus used for measuring the angular distribution of particle spectra and excitation functions of (d,p) reactions at an electrostatic accelerator and the U-120 M cyclotron, both operating at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences at Rez. Main attention was devoted to attaining maximum energy resolution at a high measurement efficiency, this by installing 8 independent spectrometric chains allowing simultaneous measurement of angular distribution in 8 points of the beam. The semiconductor detectors were cooled to -40 degC to -60 degC, which significantly reduced the level of inherent detector noise. An energy resolution of 13 keV was attained using Tesla detectors at a particle energy of 11 MeV. A brief review of data processing and software is given. (B.S.)

  15. Angular distribution of laser ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Dabrowski, R.; Okamura, M.

    2010-01-01

    An expansion of a laser induced plasma is fundamental and important phenomena in a laser ion source. To understand the expanding direction, an array of Langmuir probes were employed. The chosen ion for the experiment was Ag 1+ which was created by a second harmonics of a Nd-YAG laser. The obtained angular distribution was about ±10 degree. This result also indicates a proper positioning of a solenoid magnet which enhances ion beam current.

  16. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  17. Angular distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong L.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Above 1 MeV of incident neutron energy the fission fragment angular distribution (FFAD has generally a strong anisotropic behavior due to the combination of the incident orbital momentum and the intrinsic spin of the fissioning nucleus. This effect has to be taken into account for the efficiency estimation of devices used for fission cross section measurements. In addition it bears information on the spin deposition mechanism and on the structure of transitional states. We designed and constructed a detection device, based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC, for measuring the fission fragment angular distributions of several isotopes, in particular 232Th. The measurement has been performed at n_TOF at CERN taking advantage of the very broad energy spectrum of the neutron beam. Fission events were recognized by back to back detection in coincidence in two position-sensitive detectors surrounding the targets. The detection efficiency, depending mostly on the stopping of fission fragments in backings and electrodes, has been computed with a Geant4 simulation and validated by the comparison to the measured case of 235U below 3 keV where the emission is isotropic. In the case of 232Th, the result is in good agreement with previous data below 10 MeV, with a good reproduction of the structures associated to vibrational states and the opening of second chance fission. In the 14 MeV region our data are much more accurate than previous ones which are broadly scattered.

  18. Angular momenta of fission fragments in the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Morhac, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hamilton, J.H.; Kormicki, J.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Luo, Y.X.; Fong, D.; Gore, P. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics, Nashville, TN (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Rodin, A.M.; Fomichev, A.S.; Popeko, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Daniel, A.V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R.; Cole, J.D.

    2005-06-01

    For the first time, average angular momenta of the ternary fission fragments {sup 100,102}Zr, {sup 106}Mo, {sup 144,146}Ba and {sup 138,140,142}Xe from the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf were obtained from relative intensities of prompt {gamma}-ray transitions with the use of the statistical model calculation. Average values of the angular momenta were compared with the corresponding values for the same fission fragments from the binary fission of {sup 252}Cf. Results indicate the presence of a decreasing trend in the average values of angular momenta induced in ternary fission fragments compared to the same binary fission fragments. On the average, the total angular momentum extracted for ternary fission fragments is {proportional_to}1.4{Dirac_h} lower than in binary fission. Consequently, results indicate that the mechanism of the ternary {alpha}-particles emission may directly effect an induction of angular momenta of fission fragments, and possible scenarios of such mechanisms are discussed. Further, the dependence of the angular momenta of {sup 106}Mo and {sup 140}Xe on the number of emitted neutrons from correlated pairs of primary fragments was obtained also showing a decreasing dependence of average angular momenta with increasing number of emitted neutrons. Consequences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  19. Practical scaling law for photoelectron angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dongsheng; Zhang Jingtao; Xu Zhizhan; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Freeman, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    A practical scaling law that predicts photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) is derived using angular distribution formulas which explicitly contain spontaneous emission. The scaling law is used to analyze recent PAD measurements in above-threshold ionization, and to predict results of future experiments. Our theoretical and numerical studies show that, in the non-relativistic regime and long-wavelength approximation, the shapes of PADs are determined by only three dimensionless numbers: (1) u p ≡U p /(ℎ/2π)ω, the ponderomotive number (ponderomotive energy in units of laser photon energy); (2) ε b ≡E b /(ℎ/2π)ω, the binding number (atomic binding energy in units of the laser photon energy); (3) j, the absorbed-photon number. The scaling law is shown to be useful in predictions of results from strong-field Kapitza-Dirac effect measurements; specifically, the application of this scaling law to recently reported Kapitza-Dirac diffraction is discussed. Possible experimental tests to verify the scaling law are suggested

  20. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  1. Study of dissociative collisions of hydrogen-line ions by mean of angular and energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.; Urquijo, J. de; Cisneros, C.; Alvarez, J.

    1988-01-01

    Angular and energy distribution of fragments produced in a collision, employed in conjunction with the 'step-model' that means excitation and binary dissociation, are used to determine the binding energy of H 3 (D 3 ) and HD + 2 and also to identify the principal channels in the dissociation processes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  2. Angular distributions of sputtered particles from NiTi alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshev, I.; Hamishkeev, V.; Chernysh, V.S.; Postnikov, S.; Mamaev, B.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered Ni and Ti from a polycrystalline NiTi (50-50%) alloy are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. A difference in the angular distributions is observed with Ni being sputtered preferentially near the surface normal. A computer program for the calculation of the angular distributions of constituents sputtered from binary targets is created and used. The mechanisms responsible for the observed differences in the angular distributions are discussed. It is found that the collisional cascade theory is not directly applicable to the results of the constituents' angular distributions obtained in the presence of oxygen. The fitted coefficients of bombardment-induced segregation are found to be greater than the experimentally obtained ones. (author)

  3. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  4. Photon beam polarization and non-dipolar angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshkin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Angular distributions of ejecta from unoriented atoms and molecules depend upon the polarization state of the incident x-rays as well as upon the dynamics of the physical systems being studied. I recommend a simple geometrical way of looking at the polarization and its effects upon angular distributions. The polarization is represented as a vector in a parameter space that faithfully represents the polarization of the beam. The simple dependence of the angular dependence of the angular distributions on the polarization vector enables easy extraction of the dynamical information contained in those angular distributions. No new physical results emerge from this geometrical approach, but known consequences of the symmetries appear in an easily visualized form that I find pleasing and that has proved to be useful for planning experiments and for analyzing data

  5. Effect of excitation energy and angular momentum on the characteristics of 208Po and 210Po compound nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkis, M.G.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Okolovich, V.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Tolstikov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    To study characteristics of fissioning nucleus fragments, investigated were reactiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH8Pt+ 12 C → 210 Po in the 12 C ion energy range of 86-110.5 MeV, of 192 Os+ 16 O → 208 Po in 90-131 MeV range, 204 Pb+ 3 He → 207 Po, 206 Pb+ 3 He → 209 Po, 207 Pb+ 3 He → 210 Po with 60 MeV 3 He ion energy. Using a correlation technique for measuring energies of two fragments mass and energy distributions of fission fragments of 208 Po and 210 Po compound nuclei produced in the reactions have been studied. Mass and energy distributions of fragments from fission of 208 Po and 210 Po in the reactions with ions 16 O, 12 C and 3 He were investigated in an ample energy range, using the correlational techniques for measurement of energies of two fragments. An increase in the total kinetic energy with rise of the angular momentum was observed, the fact indicating a weak coupling of one-particle and collective modes of motion in the fissile nucleus resulting in that the rolational energy is transfered mainly to translation energies of the fragments

  6. Isotropic gates in large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the angular distribution information extracted from high-fold gamma-gamma coincidence events is analyzed. It is shown that a correct quasi-isotropic gate setting, available at the modern large gamma-ray detector arrays, essentially preserves the quality of the angular information. (orig.)

  7. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  8. Angular distributions of ions channeled in the Si crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, S.; Korica, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Neskovic, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we analyze the angular distributions of Ne 10+ ions channeled in the Si crystals. The ion energy is 60 MeV and the crystal thickness is varied from 286 to 3435 nm. This thickness range corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness range from 0.5 to 6, i.e. from the second to the twelfth rainbow cycle. The angular distributions were obtained via the numerical solution of the ion equations of motion and the computer simulation method. The analysis shows that the angular distribution has a periodic behavior. We also analyze the transmission patterns corresponding to the angular distributions. These patterns should be compared to the experimental patterns obtainable by a two-dimensional position sensitive detector. We demonstrate that, when the ion beam divergence is sufficiently large, i.e. much larger than the critical angle for channeling, the channeling star effect occurs in the transmission patterns

  9. Angular momentum dependence of the distribution of shell model eigenenergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, M.K.

    1974-01-01

    In the conventional shell model calculation the many-particle energy matrices are constructed and diagonalized for definite angular momentum and parity. However the resulting set of eigenvalues possess a near normal behavior and hence a simple statistical description is possible. Usually one needs only about four parameters to capture the average level densities if the size of the set is not too small. The parameters are essentially moments of the distribution. But the difficulty lies in the yet unsolved problem of calculating moments in the fixed angular momentum subspace. We have derived a formula to approximate the angular momentum projection dependence of any operator averaged in a shell model basis. This approximate formula which is a truncated series in Hermite polynomials has been proved very good numerically and justified analytically for large systems. Applying this formula to seven physical cases we have found that the fixed angular momentum projection energy centroid, width and higher central moments can be obtained accurately provided for even-even nuclei the even and odd angular momentum projections are treated separately. Using this information one can construct the energy distribution for fixed angular momentum projection assuming normal behavior. Then the fixed angular momentum level densities are deduced and spectra are extracted. Results are in reasonably good agreement with the exact values although not as good as those obtained using exact fixed angular momentum moments. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  10. Fragment angular momentum and descent dynamics in {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popeko, G.S.; Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Kliman, J. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 (Russia); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Hamilton, J.H.; Kormicki, J.; Daniel, A.V.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Sandulescu, A.; Florescu, A.; Greiner, W. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Florescu, A.; Greiner, W. [JIHIR, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Greiner, W. [ITP, J.W. Goethe University, D-60054, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Florescu, A. [IAP, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-6, (Russian Federation); Kliman, J.; Morhac, M. [IP SASc, Bratislava (Slovak Republic); Rasmussen, J.O. [LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Stoyer, M.A. [LLNL, Livermore , California 94550 (United States); Cole, J.D. [INEL, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Fragment angular momenta as a function of neutron multiplicity were extracted for the first time for the Mo-Ba and Zr-Ce charge splits of {sup 252}Cf by studying prompt coincident {gamma}-rays. The obtained primary fragment angular momenta do not continuously rise with the increase in the number of neutrons evaporated. In frame of the scission point bending oscillation model such regularity is explained due the decrease of the bending temperature. Adiabatic bending oscillations (T=0) are obtained at large ({nu}{sub tot}{gt}5) and small ({nu}{sub tot}=0) scission point elongation. These oscillations are excited to the temperature of 2{endash}3 MeV for the most probable scission configurations indicating a weak coupling between collective and internal degrees of freedom. A strong coupling between the collective bending and dipole oscillations was found. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Phenomenological relation between distribution and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Boqiang; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques; Yang Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    We study the relation between the quark distribution function q(x) and the fragmentation function D q (z) based on a general form D q (x)=C(z)z α q(z) for valence and sea quarks. By adopting two known parametrizations of quark distributions for the proton, we find three simple options for the fragmentation functions that can provide a good description of the available experimental data on proton production in e + e - inelastic annihilation. These three options support the revised Gribov-Lipatov relation D q (z)=zq(z) at z→1, as an approximate relation for the connection between distribution and fragmentation functions. The three options differ in the sea contributions and lead to distinct predictions for antiproton production in the reaction p+p→p-bar+X, thus they are distinguishable in future experiments at RHIC-BNL

  12. Isotropic gates and large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    Angular information extracted from in-beam γ ray measurements are of great importance for γ ray multipolarity and nuclear spin assignments. In our days large Ge detector arrays became available allowing the measurements of extremely weak γ rays in almost 4π sr solid angle (e.g., EUROGAM detector array). Given the high detector efficiency it is common for the mean suppressed coincidence multiplicity to reach values as high as 4 to 6. Thus, it is possible to gate on particular γ rays in order to enhance the relative statistics of a definite reaction channel and/or a definite decaying path in the level scheme of the selected residual nucleus. As compared to angular correlations, the conditioned angular distribution spectra exhibit larger statistics because in the latter the gate-setting γ ray may be observed by all the detectors in the array, relaxing somehow the geometrical restrictions of the angular correlations. Since the in-beam γ ray emission is anisotropic one could inquire that gate setting as mentioned above, based on anisotropic γ ray which would perturb the angular distributions in the unfolded events. As our work proved, there is no reason to worry about this if the energy gate runs over the whole solid angle in an ideal 4π sr detector, i.e., if the gate is isotropic. In real quasi 4π sr detector arrays the corresponding quasi isotropic gate preserves the angular properties of the unfolded data, too. However extraction of precise angular distribution coefficient especially a 4 , requires the consideration of the deviation of the quasi isotropic gate relative to the (ideal) isotropic gate

  13. Transverse momentum and angular distributions of hadrons in e+e- jets from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Schierholz, G.

    1978-10-01

    Hadron jets in e + e - annihilation will broaden at high energies due to gluon bremsstrahlung. With nonperturbative PT effects dying out rapidly, the basic features of hadron jets can be calculated in perturbation theory. We examine the PT distribution of secondarily produced hadrons. This is uniquely connected with the deviation from the 1 cos 2 THETA dependence of single particle inclusive distributions. We discuss what can be learned about the gluon fragmentation given the PT and/or angular distributions. A sum rule is derived which establishes a relationship between the average P 2 T and αs. (orig.) [de

  14. Transverse momentum and angular distributions of hadrons in e+e- jets from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.

    1979-01-01

    Hadron jets in e + e - annihilation will broaden at high energies due to gluon bremsstrahlung. With nonperturbative psub(T) effects dying out rapidly, the basic features of hadron jets can be calculated in perturbation theory. The authors examine the psub(T) distribution of secondarily produced hadrons. This is uniquely connected with the deviation from the 1 + cos 2 theta dependence of single particle inclusive distributions. The authors discuss what can be learned about the gluon fragmentation given the psub(T) and/or angular distributions. A sum rule is derived which establishes a relationship between the average p 2 sub(T) and αsub(S). (Auth.)

  15. Data compilation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Takiguchi, Takashi; Tawara, Hiro.

    1990-01-01

    Sputtering on a surface is generally caused by the collision cascade developed near the surface. The process is in principle the same as that causing radiation damage in the bulk of solids. Sputtering has long been regarded as an undesirable dirty effect which destroys the cathodes and grids in gas discharge tubes or ion sources and contaminates plasma and the surrounding walls. However, sputtering is used today for many applications such as sputter ion sources, mass spectrometers and the deposition of thin films. Plasma contamination and the surface erosion of first walls due to sputtering are still the major problems in fusion research. The angular distribution of the particles sputtered from solid surfaces can possibly provide the detailed information on the collision cascade in the interior of targets. This report presents a compilation of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms at normal incidence and oblique incidence in the various combinations of incident ions and target atoms. The angular distribution of sputtered atoms from monatomic solids at normal incidence and oblique incidence, and the compilation of the data on the angular distribution of sputtered atoms are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Angular distribution of protons emitted from the hydrogen plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Vukovic, J.; Grabez, B. E-mail: grabez@phy.bg.ac.yu; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D

    2003-06-01

    Angular distribution of emitted protons was measured. The protons were detected with NTD LR-115 placed at the specially constructed semi-spherical holder, which contains 17 different pinhole cameras. The mechanism of proton acceleration and emission are studied theoretically and experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  17. Angular distribution of protons emitted from the hydrogen plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Vukovic, J.; Grabez, B.; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Angular distribution of emitted protons was measured. The protons were detected with NTD LR-115 placed at the specially constructed semi-spherical holder, which contains 17 different pinhole cameras. The mechanism of proton acceleration and emission are studied theoretically and experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions

  18. Search for new physics in dijet mass and angular distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a search for physics beyond the Standard Model in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of s = 7 TeV, performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). No evidence for new physics is found in dijet mass and angular distributions and stringent limits are set on a variety of ...

  19. Gamma-ray angular distribution and correlation measurement. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Angular correlations of γ-rays following nuclear reactions depend, in general, on some alignment of the γ-emitting initial state. The methods of alignment are briefly discussed and then the techniques and experimental methods associated with direct angular distributions, particle-gamma correlations, gamma-gamma correlations and linear polarization correlations are dealt with. Finally the inherent ambiguities which arise when different spin and delta values give identical correlations are discussed for the simple direct and particle-gamma correlations together with the question whether the larger information content of gamma-gamma and linear polarization correlations can resolve these ambiguities. (Auth.)

  20. Angular distributions and total yield of laser ablated silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Nordskov, A.; Schou, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver has been measured in situ with a newly constructed setup with an array of microbalances. The distribution is strongly peaked in the forward direction corresponding to cospθ, where p varies between 5 and 9 for laser fluences from 2 to 7 J/cm2 at 355...... nm for a beam spot of 0.015 cm2. The total deposited yield is of the order 1015 Ag-atoms per pulse....

  1. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtoy, Aurore, E-mail: aurore.courtoy@ulg.be [IFPA, AGO Department, Université de Liège, Bât. B5, Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Goldstein, Gary R., E-mail: gary.goldstein@tufts.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J., E-mail: jog4m@virginia.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Liuti, Simonetta, E-mail: sl4y@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Rajan, Abha, E-mail: ar5xc@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-04

    We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.

  2. Angular distribution in proton-hydrogen charge-transfer collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glembocki, O.; Halpern, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical angular distributions for p-H charge transfer to the 1s state for energies of 1 keV and above have been examined and compared for three approximation schemes: the plane-wave Born approximation of Jackson and Schiff (JS), the Coulomb projected Born approximation of Geltman (G), and the distorted-wave eikonal approximation of one of the authors (D). The sharp dip in the forward distribution characteristic of JS is found to exist in G and D as well. As expected, G and D give identical results for all but the lowest energies. In the cases of G and D the dip, which is located close to that of JS, disappears and then reappears as the energy rises. Analytic high-energy limits for the angular dependence in both the JS and G cases have been found and are discussed

  3. Angular distribution and atomic effects in condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.F.

    1981-11-01

    A general concept of condensed phase photoelectron spectroscopy is that angular distribution and atomic effects in the photoemission intensity are determined by different mechanisms, the former being determined largely by ordering phenomena such as crystal momentum conservation and photoelectron diffraction while the latter are manifested in the total (angle-integrated) cross section. In this work, the physics of the photoemission process is investigated in several very different experiments to elucidate the mechanisms of, and correlation between, atomic and angular distribution effects. Theoretical models are discussed and the connection betweeen the two effects is clearly established. The remainder of this thesis, which describes experiments utilizing both angle-resolved and angle-integrated photoemission in conjunction with synchrotron radiation in the energy range 6 eV less than or equal to h ν less than or equal to 360 eV and laboratory sources, is divided into three parts

  4. Dijet angular distributions in direct and resolved photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-05-01

    Jet photoproduction, where the two highest transverse energy (E T jet ) jets have E T jet above 6 GeV and a jet-jet invariant mass above 23 GeV, has been studied with the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. Resolved and direct photoproduction samples have been separated. The cross section as a function of the angle between the jet-jet axis and the beam direction in the dijet rest frame has been measured for the two samples. The measured angular distributions differ markedly from each other. They agree with the predictions of QCD calculations, where the different angular distributions reflect the different spins of the quark and gluon exchanged in the hard subprocess. (orig.)

  5. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND LACK OF FRAGMENTATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING ACCRETION FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Shlosman, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Rapid inflows associated with early galaxy formation lead to the accumulation of self-gravitating gas in the centers of proto-galaxies. Such gas accumulations are prone to nonaxisymmetric instabilities, as in the well known Maclaurin sequence of rotating ellipsoids, which are accompanied by a catastrophic loss of angular momentum (J). Self-gravitating gas is also intuitively associated with star formation. However, recent simulations of the infall process display highly turbulent continuous flows. We propose that J-transfer, which enables the inflow, also suppresses fragmentation. Inefficient J loss by the gas leads to decay of turbulence, triggering global instabilities and renewed turbulence driving. Flow regulated in this way is stable against fragmentation, while staying close to the instability threshold for bar formation-thick self-gravitating disks are prone to global instabilities before they become unstable locally. On smaller scales, the fraction of gravitationally unstable matter swept up by shocks in such a flow is a small and decreasing function of the Mach number. We conclude counterintuitively that gas able to cool down to a small fraction of its virial temperature will not fragment as it collapses. This provides a venue for supermassive black holes to form via direct infall, without the intermediary stage of forming a star cluster. Some black holes could have formed or grown in massive halos at low redshifts. Thus the fragmentation is intimately related to J redistribution within the system: it is less dependent on the molecular/metal cooling but is conditioned by the ability of the flow to develop virial, supersonic turbulence.

  6. Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Chen, C.; Elliott, D.S.; Smith, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions for atomic rubidium. Ionization is induced by a one-photon interaction with 280 nm light and by a two-photon interaction with 560 nm light. Interference between the even- and odd-parity free-electron wave functions allows us to control the direction of maximum electron flux by varying the relative phase of the two laser fields

  7. Measurement of Dijet Angular Distributions and Search for Quark Compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; James, E.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Butler, J.M.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Gibbard, B.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Kahn, S.; Kotcher, J.; Protopopescu, S.; Rajagopalan, S.; Bantly, J.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cutts, D.; Guida, J.M.; Hoftun, J.S.; Partridge, R.; Grinstein, S.; Piegaia, R.; Bloom, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Glenn, S.; Grim, G.; Klopfenstein, C.; Lander, R.; Mani, S.; Fahland, T.; Hall, R.E.; Boswell, C.; Choudhary, B.C.; Cochran, J.; Ellison, J.; Gartung, P.; Gounder, K.; Huehn, T.; Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; Motta, H.; Nicola, M.; Santoro, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Adam, I.; Kotwal, A.V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Ahn, S.; Baldin, B.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bhat, P.C.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Bross, A.; Christenson, J.H.; Cooper, W.E.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Diesburg, M.; Feher, S.; Fisk, H.E.; Flattum, E.; Fuess, S.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C.E.; Green, D.R.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Haggerty, H.; Hansen, S.; Heintz, U.; Hobbs, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the dijet angular distribution in √(s)=1.8 TeV p bar p collisions using the D0 detector. Order α 3 s QCD predictions are in good agreement with the data. At 95% confidence limit the data exclude models of quark compositeness in which the contact interaction scale is below 2TeV. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Angular Distribution of Gamma Rays from the Fission of {sup 235}U Induced by 14-Mev Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeki, L.; Kluge, Gy.; Lajtai, A. [Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    1969-12-15

    Experiments are reported which were performed to study the angular distribution of the gamma radiation following fast-neutron-induced nuclear fission. The investigations were, in particular, focussed on the influence which the angular momentum imparted to the compound nucleus by the fast neutrons has on the angular distribution of the {gamma}-rays. The fission of {sup 235}U is induced by 14-MeV-energy neutrons from the T(d, n) {alpha} reaction. The fission fragments are detected by a gas-scintillation counter filled with a mixture of Ar and Ni gases, the {gamma}-rays by 5 cm x 5 cm Nal(Tl) crystal with an energy threshold of 120 keV. The intensity of the {gamma}-rays is measured at 90 Degree-Sign and 174 Degree-Sign to the direction of fragment motion. The flight times of fission neutrons and {gamma}-rays are measured with a 20-ns overlap-type time-to-pulse height converter while the background was covered simultaneously with another converter delayed with respect to the former. The signals from both converters are analysed by a multichannel analyser with divisible memory. The flight path, which is chosen to be about 70 cm, makes it possible to separate the neutron from the gamma counts. The geometry is designed to keep the direction of the outflying fission fragments nearly the same as that of the incident fast neutrons. In this way the angular momenta of the fast neutrons are normal to the flight path of the fragments. The measured gamma intensities are extrapolated to 180 Degree-Sign on a computer using Strutinski's formula n( Greek-Theta-Symbol ) {approx}1 + B sin Greek-Theta-Symbol . On transformation of the measured data from the laboratory system to the system of fragments the anisotropy is found to be A = 1(180 Degree-Sign )/l (90 Degree-Sign ) = 1.33 {+-} 0.05. The main angular momentum of fission fragments is calculated from the anisotropy as 15 h units. As compared with the thermal-neutron-induced fission the present results indicate an additional

  9. Angular distribution of gamma rays from the fission of {sup 235}U induced by 14-MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeki, L; Kluge, G; Lajtai, A [Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    1969-12-15

    Experiments are reported which were performed to study the angular distribution of the gamma radiation following fast-neutron-induced nuclear fission. The investigations were, in particular, focussed on the influence which the angular momentum imparted to the compound nucleus by the fast neutrons has on the angular distribution of the {gamma}-rays. The fission of {sup 235}U is induced by 14-MeV-energy neutrons from the T(d, n) {alpha} reaction. The fission fragments are detected by a gas-scintillation counter filled with a mixture of Ar and Ni gases, the {gamma}-rays by 5 cm x 5 cm Nal(Tl) crystal with an energy threshold of 120 keV. The intensity of the {gamma}-rays is measured at 90 deg. and 174 deg. to the direction of fragment motion. The flight times of fission neutrons and {gamma}-rays are measured with a 20-ns overlap-type time-to-pulse height converter while the background was covered simultaneously with another converter delayed with respect to the former. The signals from both converters are analysed by a multichannel analyser with divisible memory. The flight path, which is chosen to be about 70 cm, makes it possible to separate the neutron from the gamma counts. The geometry is designed to keep the direction of the outflying fission fragments nearly the same as that of the incident fast neutrons. In this way the angular momenta of the fast neutrons are normal to the flight path of the fragments. The measured gamma intensities are extrapolated to 180 deg on a computer using Strutinski's formula n({theta}) {approx} 1 + B sin {theta}. On transformation of the measured data from the laboratory system to the system of fragments the anisotropy is found to be A = I(180 deg.)/I (90 deg.) = 1.33 {+-} 0.05. The main angular momentum of fission fragments is calculated from the anisotropy as 15 (h/2{pi}) units. As compared with the thermal-neutron-induced fission the present results indicate an additional contribution from the angular momentum of the compound

  10. Fission fragment mass and angular distributions: Probes to study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the following discussion, we shall attempt to broadly classify the nuclear landscape. (what we ... need for extra push energy (excess energy over the Coulomb barrier) to achieve fusion. It ... τM (∼ 5 × 10−21 s) of mass degree of freedom. 304.

  11. Measurements of the angular distribution of diffuse irradiance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Dragsted, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Advanced solar resource assessment and forecasting is necessary for optimal solar energy utilization. In order to investigate the short-term resource variability, for instance caused by clouds it is necessary to investigate how clouds affect the solar irradiance, including the angular distribution...... of the solar irradiance. The investigation is part of the Danish contribution to the taskforce 46 within the International Energy Agency and financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The investigation focuses on the distribution of the diffuse solar irradiance and is based on horizontal measurements of the solar...

  12. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorce, Cedric [IPNO, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay, France and LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91406 Orsay (France); Pasquini, Barbara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Pavia, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  13. Accessing the quark orbital angular momentum with Wigner distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorcé, Cédric; Pasquini, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The quark orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been recognized as an important piece of the proton spin puzzle. A lot of effort has been invested in trying to extract it quantitatively from the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs), which are accessed in high-energy processes and provide three-dimensional pictures of the nucleon. Recently, we have shown that it is more natural to access the quark OAM from the phase-space or Wigner distributions. We discuss the concept of Wigner distributions in the context of quantum field theory and show how they are related to the GPDs and the TMDs. We summarize the different definitions discussed in the literature for the quark OAM and show how they can in principle be extracted from the Wigner distributions.

  14. Mass and Angular Distributions of Charged Dihadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Mary Clare [Michigan U.

    1990-01-01

    Experiment 711, conducted at Fermilab. provided a unique handle towards understanding valence quark scattering by studying pairs of single. charged, high transverse momentum hadrons produced in collisions of 800 GeV /c protons on fixed metal targets. The apparatus consisted of a double-arm spectrometer. calorimetrically triggered. with high momentum resolution and a large angular acceptance for all charge states of particle pairs. The experiment was designed to select those hadron pairs that carrted most of the momentum and energy of the underlying scattered quarks and gluons. The charge of such "leading" hadrons is correlated with the charge of the quark that produced it. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) assumes that the scattering behavior of quarks ts independent of their charge, or "flavour": Experiment 711 could test this assumption. Tilis dissertation descrtbes the analysis of the mass and angular distributions of hadron pair production for three separate charge states: +-, ++ and --. The angular distributions are found to deviate from theory predictions of flavour symmetry. Also. the mass cross sections indicate ratios of positive to negative hard-scattered particles that are larger than expected from theory. These results could warrant reconsideration of the assumptions and approximations currently made in leading-order QCD calculations.

  15. Orbital angular momentum parton distributions in quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopetta, S.; Vento, V.

    2000-01-01

    At the low energy, hadronic, scale we calculate Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) twist-two parton distributions for the relativistic MIT bag model and for nonrelativistic quark models. We reach the scale of the data by leading order evolution in perturbative QCD. We confirm that the contribution of quarks and gluons OAM to the nucleon spin grows with Q 2 , and it can be relevant at the experimental scale, even if it is negligible at the hadronic scale, irrespective of the model used. The sign and shape of the quark OAM distribution at high Q 2 may depend strongly on the relative size of the OAM and spin distributions at the hadronic scale. Sizeable quark OAM distributions at the hadronic scale, as proposed by several authors, can produce the dominant contribution to the nucleon spin at high Q 2 . (author)

  16. Energy and angular distributions of neutrons from 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.A.; Sidorov, L.V.; Vasil'eva, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Some results from a first series of measurements of energy and angular distributions of neutrons from 252 Cf spontaneous fission using a spectrometer with high neutron detection efficiency, i.e. a 4π neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, were already presented. Subsequently, a second series of measurements was performed using a more sophisticated technique. For this second series, we used a more intense 252 Cf layer (25,000 spontaneous fissions per second). The angular resolution was improved by a factor of 2-3 by combining the hexahedral counter modules, placed at the same angle with respect to the direction of motion of the fragments, in new panoramic counters. The neutron counters were calibrated against the average 252 Cf neutron spectrum at several positions of the axis of the fragment detector with respect to the neutron counters. In the spectrum measurements and calibration work, the scattered neutron background was not determined theoretically, as in the first series of measurements, but experimentally using four extra scintillation counters with scatter cones; the counters were set up at 60 deg., 80 deg., 100 deg., and 120 deg. to the direction of separation of the fragments

  17. Singularity in the Laboratory Frame Angular Distribution Derived in Two-Body Scattering Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The laboratory (lab) frame angular distribution derived in two-body scattering theory exhibits a singularity at the maximum lab scattering angle. The singularity appears in the kinematic factor that transforms the centre of momentum (cm) angular distribution to the lab angular distribution. We show that it is caused in the transformation by the…

  18. What can we learn about heavy ion fusion by studying fission angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations of complete fusion reactions leading to fissionable systems are associated with problems of separating fragments from quasi-fission reactions from those arising from fission of the completely fused system. Inferring complete fusion cross sections from the minute cross sections for the evaporation residue channel is hampered by the insufficient knowledge of the branching ratio for neutron emission and fission in the decay sequence of the completely fused system. From a quantitative analysis of the fragment angular distributions it is, however, possible under certain assumptions to deduce the relative contribution of complete fusion and quasi-fission. It is found that the complete fusion process is hindered for heavy projectiles. The excess radial energy over the interaction barrier needed to induce fusion with heavy projectiles is determined in several cases and systematic trends are presented

  19. Stellar Angular Momentum Distributions and Preferential Radial Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Rosemary; Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2018-04-01

    I will present some results from our recent investigations into the efficiency of radial migration in stellar disks of differing angular momentum distributions, within a given adopted 2D spiral disk potential. We apply to our models an analytic criterion that determines whether or not individual stars are in orbits that could lead to radial migration around the corotation resonance. We couch our results in terms of the local stellar velocity dispersion and find that the fraction of stars that could migrate radially decreases as the velocity dispersion increases. I will discuss implications and comparisons with the results of other approaches.

  20. Monte Carlo Calculation of Sensitivities to Secondaries' Angular Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm for Monte Carlo calculation of sensitivities of responses to secondaries' angular distributions (SAD) is developed, based on the differential operator approach. The algorithm was formulated for the sensitivity to Legendre coefficients of the SAD and is valid even in cases where the actual representation of SAD is not in the form of a Legendre series. The algorithm was implemented, for point- or ring-detectors, in a local version of the code MCNP. Numerical tests were performed to validate the algorithm and its implementation. In addition, an algorithm specific for the Kalbach-Mann representation of SAD is presented

  1. Final-photon angular distributions in Compton double-ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornberg, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Angular distributions of the scattered-photon in two-electron ionization of helium by Compton scattering are reported. Our calculations are performed as a direct integration over Compton profiles. We show that backward scattering is adequately described using an uncorrelated final-state approximation, as compared with impulse approximation (IA) results. The relation dσ c 2+ /dΩ = R c dσ c + /dΩ is fulfilled within IA at high-photon energies, with R c the asymptotic shake-off ratio. (orig.)

  2. Unitarity bounds on angular distribution in multiparticle production - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaran, P.P.; Kugler, M.; Soffer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Upper bounds which follow from unitarity are derived for the angular distribution of the detected particle C in the inclusive process AB→C+anything at a finite energy, in terms of the corresponding elastic amplitudes for a fixed value of the forward inelastic cross-section and for a fixed value of the total inelastic cross-section for the production of C. In comparison with the pp→p+anything data at 24GeV/c, some improvement on previous bounds is observed [fr

  3. Fission fragment mass distributions via prompt γ-ray spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The distribution of fragment masses formed in nuclear fission is one of the most strik- ing features .... 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 10. 3. 10. 4. Fragment Mass. Relative yield. Sn. Cd. Te. Pd ... the secondary fragment at Z = 50 and N = 82 shells, where the yields are depleted. Both ... More systematic experimental data are required.

  4. Symmetries in the angular distribution of exclusive semileptonic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Ulrik; Matias, Joaquim; Ramon, Marc; Reece, Will

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct observables protected against QCD uncertainties based on the angular distribution of the exclusive Bd -> K(*0}(-> Kpi) l+ l- decay. We focus on the identification and the interpretation of all the symmetries of the distribution. They constitute a key ingredient to construct a set of so-called transverse observables. We work in the framework of QCD factorization at NLO supplemented by an estimate of power-suppressed Lambda/mb corrections. A discussion of the new physics properties of two of the transverse asymmetries, AT^{(2)} and AT^{(5)}, is presented. A comparison between the transverse asymmetry AT^{(2)} and the forward-backward asymmetry shows that AT^{(2)} emerges as an improved version of it.

  5. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  6. Charge and angular distributions as well as sequential decay and γ-ray emission in heavy ion collisions viewed in the light of the diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1977-08-01

    The hierarchy of the collective relaxation times in heavy ion reactions is briefly reviewed. An improved diffusion model is introduced and applied to interpret the fragment Z and angular distributions for some typical reactions. The equilibrium in the neutron-to-proton ratio as well as the sharing of the excitation energy between fragments is studied by a coincidence method which leads to the measurement of the charge, mass and mean number of nucleons emitted by each fragment. The final destiny of the dissipative energy is determined by measuring the atomic number of two coincident fragments, thus obtaining the missing charge as a function of bombarding energy and the Q of the reaction. The sequential fission probability of the heavy recoil is established as a function of the Z and kinetic energy of the light partner. The out-of-plane angular distribution of the fission fragments is correlated with the fissionability and interpreted in terms of various sources of angular momentum misalignment. The γ-ray multiplicities and the γ-ray angular distributions associated with deep inelastic event are discussed in terms of the angular momentum transfer and in terms of the diffusion model

  7. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  8. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kroll, Peter; Regensburg Univ.

    2013-02-01

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale μ=2 GeV to be J u v =0.230 +0.009 -0.024 and J d v =-0.004 +0.010 -0.016 .

  9. LEGEND2007, Angular Distribution Table Calculations in ENDF Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LEGEND calculates linearly interpolable tabulated angular distributions starting from data in the ENDF/B format. IAEA1310/11: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Legend VERS. 2007-1 (JAN. 2007): checked against all ENDF/B=VII; increased max. points from 60,000 to 240,000

  10. The Schiff angular bremsstrahlung distribution from composite media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Dalton, B.; Franich, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Schiff differential for the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung is widely employed, but calculations involving composite materials (i.e. compounds and mixtures) are often undertaken in a somewhat ad hoc fashion. In this work, we suggest an alternative approach to power-law estimates of the effective atomic number utilising Seltzer and Berger’s combined approach in order to generate single-valued effective atomic numbers applicable over a large energy range (in the worst case deviation from constancy of about 2% between 10 keV and 1 GeV). Differences with power-law estimates of Z for composites are potentially significant, particularly for low-Z media such as biological or surrogate materials as relevant within the context of medical physics. As an example, soft tissue differs by >70% and cortical bone differs by >85%, while for high-Z composites such as a tungsten–rhenium alloy the difference is of the order of 1%. Use of the normalised Schiff formula for shape only does not exhibit strong Z dependence. Consequently, in such contexts the differences are negligible – the power-law approach overestimates the magnitude by 1.05% in the case of water and underestimates it by <0.1% for the high-Z alloys. The differences in the distribution are most pronounced for small angles and where the bremsstrahlung quanta are low energy.

  11. The angular distributions of sputtered indium atoms at different temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiping; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Pan Jisheng

    1993-01-01

    The effect of temperature and surface topography on the angular distribution of indium atoms was studied under bombardment by 2T KeV Ar + ions at normal incidence. Experiments were carried out on two samples, A and B, at 25 o C and 70 o C respectively. The function Y(θ) = a cosθ + b cos n θ, where θ is the sputtering angle, was found to fit the experimental data. The term (a cos θ) corresponds to the cosine distribution predicted by random collision cascade theory, and the term (b cos n θ) is dependent on factors such as the surface topography. For sample A, a∼b, whereas for sample B a< b. The surface of A consisted of flat and pebble like regions of almost equal area while the surface of B was more cratered. An explanation of the fitting values of a,b and n is given in terms of the shielding effects of the different structures. (UK)

  12. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  13. Photoelectron and ICD electron angular distributions from fixed-in-space neon dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T; Czasch, A; Schoeffler, M; Schoessler, S; Kaesz, M; Titze, J; Kreidi, K; Grisenti, R E; Staudte, A; Jagutzki, O; Schmidt, L Ph H; Semenov, S K; Cherepkov, N A; Schmidt-Boecking, H; Doerner, R

    2007-01-01

    We report on molecular frame angular distributions of 2s photoelectrons and electrons emitted by interatomic Coulombic decay from neon dimers. We found that the measured angular distribution of the photoelectron strongly depends on the environment of the cluster. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with frozen core Hartree-Fock calculations. The ICD electrons show slight variations in their angular distribution for different kinetic energies

  14. Analysis of fission-fragment mass distribution within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pardeep; Kaur, Harjeet [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India)

    2016-11-15

    The fission-fragment mass distribution is analysed for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f) reaction within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT). The reaction potential has been calculated by taking the binding energies, Coulomb potential and proximity potential of all possible decay channels and a stationary Schroedinger equation has been solved numerically to calculate the fission-fragment yield. The overall results for mass distribution are compared with those obtained in experiment. Fine structure dips in yield, corresponding to fragment shell closures at Z = 50 and N=82, which are observed by Bogachev et al., are reproduced successfully in the present calculations. These calculations will help to estimate the formation probabilities of fission fragments and to understand many related phenomena occurring in the fission process. (orig.)

  15. Fragment size distribution in viscous bag breakup of a drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varun; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    In this study we examine the drop size distribution resulting from the fragmentation of a single drop in the presence of a continuous air jet. Specifically, we study the effect of Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh on the disintegration process. The regime of breakup considered is observed between 12 phase Doppler anemometry. Both the number and volume fragment size probability distributions are plotted. The volume probability distribution revealed a bi-modal behavior with two distinct peaks: one corresponding to the rim fragments and the other to the bag fragments. This behavior was suppressed in the number probability distribution. Additionally, we employ an in-house particle detection code to isolate the rim fragment size distribution from the total probability distributions. Our experiments showed that the bag fragments are smaller in diameter and larger in number, while the rim fragments are larger in diameter and smaller in number. Furthermore, with increasing We for a given Ohwe observe a large number of small-diameter drops and small number of large-diameter drops. On the other hand, with increasing Oh for a fixed We the opposite is seen.

  16. Photoelectron angular distributions from strong-field ionization of oriented molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Lotte; Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Kalhøj, Line

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ultrafast light sources with detection of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) is setting new standards for detailed interrogation of molecular dynamics. However, until recently measurement of MFPADs relied on determining the molecular orientation after...... ionization, which is limited to species and processes where ionization leads to fragmentation. An alternative is to fix the molecular frame before ionization. The only demonstrations of such spatial orientation involved aligned small linear nonpolar molecules. Here we extend these techniques to the general...... class of polar molecules. Carbonylsulphide and benzonitrile molecules, fixed in space by combined laser and electrostatic fields, are ionized with intense, circularly polarized 30-fs laser pulses. For carbonylsulphide and benzonitrile oriented in one dimension, the MFPADs exhibit pronounced anisotropies...

  17. Angular distributions of photoelectrons from free Na clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopperer, P.; Dinh, P. M.; Faber, B.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.

    2010-01-01

    We explore, from a theoretical perspective, photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of the Na clusters Na 8 , Na 10 , Na 12 , Na 18 , Na 3 + , Na 11 + , Na 13 + , and Na 19 + . The basis of the description is the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA), augmented by a self-interaction correction (SIC) to describe ionization properties correctly. The scheme is solved on a numerical grid in coordinate space with absorbing bounds. We assume for each cluster system an isotropic ensemble of free clusters and develop for the case of one-photon emission analytical formulas for computing the orientation-averaged PAD on the basis of a few TDLDA-SIC calculations for properly chosen reference orientations. It turns out that all the information in the averaged PAD is contained in one anisotropy parameter. We find that this parameter varies very little with system size, but as a whole is crucially influenced by the detailed ionic structure. We also make comparisons with direct orientation averaging and consider one example reaching outside the perturbative regime.

  18. Angular correlation between the heavy fragments and the light charged particles in tripartition of 236U and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, M.

    1975-05-01

    The energy distributions and relative intensities of protons, deuterons, tritons and alpha-particles emitted along the fission axis during thermal neutron fission of 236 U are measured simultaneously with the energies of the two fission fragments. The mass distributions of the fragments, the total kinetic energy (TKE), the dependence of the mean TKE on the fragment mass, as well as the mean kinetic energy dependence of polar particles on the fragment mass and energy are deduced from these data. Although some experimental results agree remarkably well with the hypothesis that polar particles are evaporated in-flight from fission fragments, the general conclusion is that these particles are emitted according to some other mechanism

  19. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  20. About total kinetic energy distribution between fragments of binary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Pikul, V.P.; Ioannou, P.; Dimovasili, E.

    2002-01-01

    At the investigation of binary fission reactions one of the main characteristic of process is total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments and it distribution between them. From the values of these characteristics it is possible to extract the information about structure of fission fragments in the break up point of initial fissionable nuclear system. In our work TKE dependence from the deformation parameters of shape and density distribution of charge in the fission fragments are investigated. In the end of paper some generalizations of obtaining results are carried out and presented in the form of tables and figures

  1. Production of 149Tb in deep inelastic transfer reactions: an approach to the angular momentum of fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivet, M.F.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation functions for deep inelastic reactions in which two to six charges are transferred from 40 Ar and 63 Cu ions to rare earth targets have been measured using activation techniques, the observed radionuclides being 150 Dy, 151 Dy and 149 gTb. From the comparison of the curves relative to 149 gTb and those relative to 150 Dy, 151 Dy, it was deduced that the low spin isomer 149 gTb was produced with significant probability for low incident energies. Using data from (heavy ions, xn) reactions, it was possible to attribute this production to the deexcitation of Tb fragments formed in deep inelastic transfers with angular momenta lower than 9n. This result is in good agreement with the angular momentum calculations performed under the hypothesis that the initial angular momentum window leading to deep inelastic reactions is situated between the critical angular momentum for fusion and that corresponding to grazing collisions. As far as Cu induced reactions are concerned, both hypothesis of rolling and sticking are consistent with the experimental data. For Ar induced reactions, the results indicate that the stage of sticking is not reached when the incident energy is lower than 200 MeV

  2. On the angular distribution of spectator nucleons in high-energy collisions with deuterium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of spectator nucleons in collisions of high-energy particles with deuterium nuclei are discussed in the framework of the impulse model. Comparison with experimental data shows that predictions following from this simple theoretical model are verified by experiment. Some general remarks on the study of angular distributions of spectator nucleons are given. (author)

  3. Distribution of the angular momentum in the Galaxy and M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Traat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The angular momentum distribution of the Galaxy and of the Andromeda galaxy M31 has been calculated separately for the disk and halo population. The disk was approximated with a ring. The distribution of the angular momentum in the disk and the halo is different

  4. Angular distribution and rotations of frame in vector meson decays into lepton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestini, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss how the angular distribution of lepton pairs from decays of vector mesons depends on the choice of reference frame, and provide a geometrical description of the transformations of the coefficients of the angular distribution. Invariant expressions involving all coefficients are discussed, together with bounds and consistency relations.

  5. On the angular distributions of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagajdak, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of neutron evaporation and scattering in the target on the angular distribution of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions is considered. Based on the analysis of the experimental angular distributions and their calculated parameters a simple phenomenological approach to the description of these distributions is proposed. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental ones cited in the literature. The possibilities of using the proposed approach to calculate the integrated angular distributions of heavy products and to determine the efficiency of collecting (HI, xn) reaction products under the conditions of the kinematic separation of recoil nuclei are outlined. 28 refs.; 9 figs

  6. Angular distributions of particles sputtered from polycrystalline platinum by low-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 3-9 keV Ne + bombardment at normal ion incidence are presented. It was found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of an ion energy. Comparison with the previously obtained data for He + and Ar + ions have shown that the shape of the angular distribution does not depend on the bombarding ion species. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for Ne ion bombardment were performed and the comparison with corresponding data for He and Ar bombarding was made. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed

  7. The grain-size distribution of pyroclasts: Primary fragmentation, conduit sorting or abrasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, U.; Schauroth, J.; Taddeucci, J.

    2013-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions expel a mixture of pyroclasts and lithics. Pyroclasts, fragments of the juvenile magma, record the state of the magma at fragmentation in terms of porosity and crystallinity. The grain size distribution of pyroclasts is generally considered to be a direct consequence of the conditions at magma fragmentation that is mainly driven by gas overpressure in bubbles, high shear rates, contact with external water or a combination of these factors. Stress exerted by any of these processes will lead to brittle fragmentation by overcoming the magma's relaxation timescale. As a consequence, most pyroclasts exhibit angular shapes. Upon magma fragmentation, the gas pyroclast mixture is accelerated upwards and eventually ejected from the vent. The total grain size distribution deposited is a function of fragmentation conditions and transport related sorting. Porous pyroclasts are very susceptible to abrasion by particle-particle or particle-conduit wall interaction. Accordingly, pyroclastic fall deposits with angular clasts should proof a low particle abrasion upon contact to other surfaces. In an attempt to constrain the degree of particle interaction during conduit flow, monomodal batches of washed pyroclasts have been accelerated upwards by rapid decompression and subsequently investigated for their grain size distribution. In our set-up, we used a vertical cylindrical tube without surface roughness as conduit. We varied grain size (0.125-0.25; 0.5-1; 1-2 mm), porosity (0; 10; 30 %), gas-particle ratio (10 and 40%), conduit length (10 and 28 cm) and conduit diameter (2.5 and 6 cm). All ejected particles were collected after settling at the base of a 3.3 m high tank and sieved at one sieve size below starting size (half-Φ). Grain size reduction showed a positive correlation with starting grain size, porosity and overpressure at the vent. Although milling in a volcanic conduit may take place, porous pyroclasts are very likely to be a primary product

  8. Observation of Coherent and Incoherent Dissociation Mechanisms in the Angular Distribution of Atomic Photofragment Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracker, A.S.; Lee, Y.T.; Bracker, A.S.; Wouters, E.R.; Suits, A.G.; Lee, Y.T.; Lee, Y.T.; Vasyutinskii, O.S.

    1998-01-01

    We have analyzed the recoil angle dependence of chlorine atom angular momentum alignment for the dissociation of chlorine molecules at 355nm. This angular distribution was isolated from ion image measurements, which map a three-dimensional velocity vector distribution of state-selectively-ionized photofragments into a two-dimensional spatial distribution. Using a general quantum mechanical method to simulate the alignment angular distribution, we show that there are clear contributions to alignment from both incoherent and coherent components of a perpendicular optical transition in the molecule. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  9. Seed-dispersal distributions by trumpeter hornbills in fragmented landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Johanna; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Caprano, Tanja; Friedrichs, Wolfgang; Gaese, Bernhard H.; Wikelski, Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Frugivorous birds provide important ecosystem services by transporting seeds of fleshy fruited plants. It has been assumed that seed-dispersal kernels generated by these animals are generally leptokurtic, resulting in little dispersal among habitat fragments. However, little is known about the seed-dispersal distribution generated by large frugivorous birds in fragmented landscapes. We investigated movement and seed-dispersal patterns of trumpeter hornbills (Bycanistes bucinator) in a fragmented landscape in South Africa. Novel GPS loggers provide high-quality location data without bias against recording long-distance movements. We found a very weakly bimodal seed-dispersal distribution with potential dispersal distances up to 14.5 km. Within forest, the seed-dispersal distribution was unimodal with an expected dispersal distance of 86 m. In the fragmented agricultural landscape, the distribution was strongly bimodal with peaks at 18 and 512 m. Our results demonstrate that seed-dispersal distributions differed when birds moved in different habitat types. Seed-dispersal distances in fragmented landscapes show that transport among habitat patches is more frequent than previously assumed, allowing plants to disperse among habitat patches and to track the changing climatic conditions. PMID:21177686

  10. Effective source size, radial, angular and energy spread of therapeutic 11C positron emitter beams produced by 12C fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders

    2014-02-01

    The use of positron emitter light ion beams in combination with PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and PET-CT (Computed Tomography) imaging could significantly improve treatment verification and dose delivery imaging during radiation therapy. The present study is dedicated to the analysis of the beam quality in terms of the effective source size, as well as radial, angular and energy spread of the 11C ion beam produced by projectile fragmentation of a primary point monodirectional and monoenergetic 12C ion beam in a dedicated range shifter of different materials. This study was performed combining analytical methods describing the transport of particles in matter and the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT+. A high brilliance and production yield of 11C fragments with a small effective source size and emittance is best achieved with a decelerator made of two media: a first liquid hydrogen section of about 20 cm followed by a hydrogen rich section of variable length. The calculated intensity of the produced 11C ion beam ranges from about 5% to 8% of the primary 12C beam intensity depending on the exit energy and the acceptance of the beam transport system. The angular spread is lower than 1 degree for all the materials studied, but the brilliance of the beam is the highest with the proposed mixed decelerator.

  11. Measurement of angular distribution of cosmic-ray muon fluence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Chen, Yen-Fu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this work a Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector was used to measure the angular distribution of the cosmic-ray muon fluence rate. Angular response functions of the detector at each measurement orientation were calculated by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, where no energy attenuation was taken into account. Coincidence counting rates were measured at ten orientations with equiangular intervals. The muon angular fluence rate spectrum was unfolded from the measured counting rates associated with the angular response functions using both the MAXED code and the parameter adjusting method.

  12. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  13. Fission of heavy nuclei: microscopic study of fission barriers and fragments angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneau, L.

    2003-11-01

    A lot of experimental data on nuclear fission has been being collected for the last 65 years, allowing theoreticians to confront their models with reality. The first part of this work is dedicated to the computation of fission barriers. We have extended the HF + BCS (Hartree Fock + Bandeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) method in order to include a new set of polynomials on which wave functions can be broken to, more accurately than on Hermite's polynomials in the 2 fragment configuration. The fission barriers of 26 heavy nuclei from Thorium-230 to Nobelium-256 have been assessed and compared to experimental data, it appears that differences are no greater than 1 MeV. We have discovered a neat correlation between the variation of the experimental fission lifetimes of even Fermium isotopes and the computed heights of second barriers. Moreover our model reproduces the hyper-deformed well of Thorium-230 with a good agreement on the well depth. The second part deals with the scission region. We have performed Hartree-Fock calculations in order to explore different ways of fragmentation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator gives a valid description of such ways. In order to compute the mean value of J 2 in the fragments we have been driven to propose an adequate definition of that quantity consistent with the non-locality property of the J 2 operator. (A.C.)

  14. Study of momentum distributions for projectile fragments of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei in collisions with emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Steit, S.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The charge and mass yield curves and the momentum distributions of the projectile fragments produced in the interactions of 4.1 A GeV/c 22 Ne and 4.5 A GeV/c 28 Si with emulsion have been studied. The overall charge distributions of the projectile fragments resulting from these interactions are presented. The dependence of the mass yield distributions of the projectile fragments on the impact parameter has been tested. The momentum distributions for the considered reactions have been investigated by two methods. First, the projected momentum distributions in the plane of the microscope have been achieved by fitting the projected angular distributions to gaussian ones. It has been found that the width of the distribution changes with the charge of the projectile fragment and it decreases with the increase of the projectile fragment charge. Secondly, the transverse momentum distributions have been compared with previous studies. The momentum distribution, in the forward cone, is a typically narrow gaussian one

  15. Angular distribution of sputtered atoms from Al-Sn alloy and surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Pan Jisheng; Zhang Jiping; Tao Zhenlan

    1992-01-01

    If an alloy is sputtered the angular distribution of the sputtered atoms can be different for each component. At high ion energies in the range of linear cascade theory, different energy distributions for components of different mass in the solid are predicted. Upon leaving the surface, i.e. overcoming the surface binding energy, these differences should show up in different angular distributions. Differences in the angular distribution are of much practical interest, for example, in thin-film deposition by sputtering and surface analysis by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Recently our experimental work has shown that for Fe-W alloy the surface microtopography becomes dominant and determines the shape of the angular distribution of the component. However, with the few experimental results available so far it is too early to draw any general conclusions for the angular distribution of the sputtered constituents. Thus, the aim of this work was to study further the influence of the surface topography on the shape of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms from an Al-Sn alloy. (Author)

  16. On the spherical harmonic expansion of the neutron angular distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, Sven

    1959-03-15

    The neutron (one-velocity) angular distribution function is expanded in terms of spherical harmonic tensors. The solution to the equations of the moments is given explicitly and the result is applied to the plane, spherical and cylinder symmetrical cases.

  17. New statistical function for the angular distribution of evaporation residues produced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigol, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new statistical function has been found for modelling the angular distribution of evaporation residues produced by heavy ions. Experimental results are compared with the calculated ones. 11 refs.; 4 figs. (author)

  18. On the spherical harmonic expansion of the neutron angular distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depken, Sven

    1959-03-01

    The neutron (one-velocity) angular distribution function is expanded in terms of spherical harmonic tensors. The solution to the equations of the moments is given explicitly and the result is applied to the plane, spherical and cylinder symmetrical cases

  19. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafu, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...

  20. Observation of elastic scattering effects on photoelectron angular distributions in free Xe clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Gisselbrecht, M; Lundwall, M; Feifel, R; Rander, T; Schulz, J; Marinho, R R T; Lindgren, A; Sorensen, S L; Svensson, S; Bjoerneholm, O

    2003-01-01

    We report an observation of substantial deviations in the photoelectron angular distribution for photoionization of atoms in free Xe clusters compared to the case of photoionization of free atoms. The cross section, however, seems not to vary between the cluster and free atoms. This observation was made in the vicinity of the Xe 4d Cooper minimum, where the atomic angular distribution is known to vary dramatically. The angular distribution of electrons emitted from atoms in the clusters is more isotropic than that of free atoms over the entire kinetic energy range studied. Furthermore, the angular distribution is more isotropic for atoms in the interior of the clusters than for atoms at the surface. We attribute this deviation to elastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectrons. We have investigated two average cluster sizes, ≥ 4000 and 1000 and found no significant differences between these two cases

  1. Projection methods for the analysis of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grum-Grzhimailo, A.N.; Lucchese, R.R.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Morishita, Y.; Saito, N.; Ueda, K.

    2007-01-01

    A projection method is developed for extracting the nondipole contribution from the molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions of linear molecules. A corresponding convenient parametric form for the angular distributions is derived. The analysis was performed for the N 1s photoionization of the NO molecule a few eV above the ionization threshold. No detectable nondipole contribution was found for the photon energy of 412 eV

  2. An apparatus for measuring the energy and angular distribution of electrons in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.; Petersen, M.C.E.

    1978-07-01

    There is a need for further data on the energy and angular distribution of electrons ejected from atoms and molecules by ion impact. An apparatus in which simultaneous measurements can be made of the energy and angular distributions of such electrons is described. The advantages of the apparatus are the possibility of fast data collection and the ability to make measurements over the whole range of scattering angle. Preliminary tests and a trial measurement with the apparatus are described

  3. Evaluation of angular distributions and production cross-sections for discrete gamma lines in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental data were compiled and the angular distributions and production cross-sections for the E γ = 846.8, 1238.3 and 1810.8 keV discrete gamma-lines evaluated. The Legendre polynomial coefficients describing the angular distributions in the energy range up to E n = 14.0 MeV and cross-section values in the E n = 0.85-19.0 MeV range were evaluated. (author)

  4. Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne + 232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Kumar, Amit; Guin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products was measured in 20 Ne + 232 Th reaction at beam energy of 120 MeV. A preliminary analysis of the angular distribution data of fission products shows higher average anisotropy compared to that calculated using statistical theory. A signature of rise in anisotropy near symmetry, as reported in earlier studies in literature, is also seen. Further study is in progress to get more detailed information about the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission and dependence of angular anisotropy on asymmetry of mass division

  5. ELECTRON ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS IN DISSOCIATIVE PHOTOIONIZATION OF THE HYDROGEN MOLECULE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon F. Pérez-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método para calcular distribuciones angulares de electrones ionizados en la molécula de hidrógeno fija en el espacio sometida a pulsos láser intensos y ultracortos, basado en la solución desde primeros principios de la ecuación de Schrödinger dependiente del tiempo. Esta solución nos permite tener una visión temporal de la interferencias generadas en el canal de ionización disociativa (en el espectro de energía cinética de los protones debido a la presencia de la autoionización de estados doblemente excitados de la molécula de hidrógeno. Se muestra específicamente cómo la autoionización durante el proceso de fotoionización disociativa también puede inducir una asimetría en la distribución angular del electrón ionizado con respecto a la inversión nuclear, un efecto no intuitivo a pesar de estar tratando con un sistema homonuclear. 

  6. A study on the angular distributions and multiplicities of the P-Em reactions at 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.A.; Lee, K.O.

    1983-01-01

    Rapidities and multiplicities among shower particles emitted from the proton-emulsion nuclei interactions have been studied at 400 GeV. We have analysed the angular distribution by means of the pseudorapidity variable eta. R.E. Gibbs reported that the distance between the centroids of the hardon-target distribution etasub(H), and the excess particle distribution etasub(X), deltaeta= sub(H)- sub(X), is independent of energy, target mass, and projectile. We determined deltaeta by the method of R.E. Gibbs. The result is not consistent with his expermental result but collective tube model. The rapidity distribution difference(d) and the ratio(r) between P-A and P-N reactions at 400 GeV are calculated. We found that the larger nsub(h), the stronger deformation of angular distribution in target-fragmentation region, and also d=0 at eta approximately equal to 5. Finally, the KNO scaling behaviors are fitted will with our multiplicity distributions. (Author)

  7. Angular distribution of ejected electrons from 20 keV He+ impact on He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, N.; Takenouchi, S.; Urakawa, J.; Oda, N.

    1982-01-01

    The angular distributions of ejected electrons in the energy range 5-70 eV have been measured at angles from 30 to 150 0 for 20 keV He + impact on He. The angular dependence of excitation cross sections of autoionisation states 2s 2 1 S and 2p 2 1 D+2s2p 1 P are in good agreement with previous data measured by Bordenave-Montesquieu et al (Phys. Rev.; A25:245 (1982)). The continuous parts of the electron spectra show symmetrical angular distributions around 90 0 in the laboratory frame for low-energy electrons (< approximately equal to 30 eV). These angular distributions are discussed in connection with the molecular autoionisation mechanism. (author)

  8. Angular distribution of ejected electrons from 20 keV He/sup +/ impact on He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokoro, N.; Takenouchi, S.; Urakawa, J.; Oda, N. (Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. of Nuclear Reactor)

    1982-10-28

    The angular distributions of ejected electrons in the energy range 5-70 eV have been measured at angles from 30 to 150/sup 0/ for 20 keV He/sup +/ impact on He. The angular dependence of excitation cross sections of autoionisation states 2s/sup 2/ /sup 1/S and 2p/sup 2/ /sup 1/D+2s2p /sup 1/P are in good agreement with previous data measured by Bordenave-Montesquieu et al (Phys. Rev.; A25:245 (1982)). The continuous parts of the electron spectra show symmetrical angular distributions around 90/sup 0/ in the laboratory frame for low-energy electrons (angular distributions are discussed in connection with the molecular autoionisation mechanism.

  9. Energy dependence of angular distributions of sputtered particles by ion-beam bombardment at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori; Maeda, Mitsuo; Akazaki, Masanori; Yamamura, Yasunori.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered Fe-atoms were measured using the laser fluorescence technique during Ar-ion bombardment for energies of 0.6, 1, 2 and 3 keV at normal incidence. The measured cosine distribution at 0.6 keV progressively deviated to an over-cosine distribution at higher energies, and at 3 keV the angular distribution was an overcosine distribution of about 20 %. The experimental results agree qualitatively with calculations by a recent computer simulation code, ACAT. The results are explained by the competition between surface scattering and the effects of primary knock-on atoms, which tend to make the angular distributions over-cosine and under-cosine, respectively. (author)

  10. Looking for bimodal distributions in multi-fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulminelli, F.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a phase transition in a finite system can be deduced, together with its order, from the form of the distribution of the order parameter. This issue has been extensively studied in multifragmentation experiments, with results that do not appear fully consistent. In this paper we discuss the effect of the statistical ensemble or sorting conditions on the form of fragment distributions, and propose a new method, which can be easily implemented experimentally, to discriminate between different fragmentation scenarios. This method, based on a re-weighting of the measured distribution to account for the experimental constraints linked to the energy deposit, is tested on different simple models, and appears to provide a powerful discrimination. (author)

  11. Time-dependent angular distribution of sputtered particles from amorphous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori

    1990-01-01

    Using the time-evolution computer simulation code DYACAT, the time-dependent behavior of sputtering phenomena has been investigated. The DYACAT program is based on the binary collision approximation, and the cascade development in solids is followed time-evolutionally. The total sputtering yield, the angular distribution and the energy distribution of sputtered atoms are calculated as a function of time for 1 keV Ar→Cu, where the angle of incidence is the inverse surface normal. It is found that the angular distribution of the prompt collisional phase of the sputtering process shows an under-cosine and that the corresponding energy spectrum has a peak near 10 eV. The slow collisional phase of 1 keV Ar→Cu will start after 3x10 -14 s, and its angular distribution shows an over-cosine distribution. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of experimental and calculated neutron emission spectra and angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental and calculated neutron emission spectra and angular distributions have been intercompared for 14.6-MeV neutron-induced reactions. The experimental data, measured by Hermsdorf et al., cover 34 elements in a large mass range. To calculate the differential neutron scattering cross sections a unified model of preequilibrium neutron emission was used, in which the generalized master equation of Mantzouranis et al. was solved with a fast exact matrix method, recently introduced by Akkermans. For the scattering kernel a three-term Legendre polynomial representation was adopted, which was either derived from the differential free nucleon-nucleon scattering cross section or fitted to obtain optimal agreement with the set of experimental data of Hermsdorf et al. The results of the last-mentioned calculation are quite acceptable in view of the fact that only two global parameters have been to describe the angular distributions of all experimental data. The report contains tables and graphs of the calculated Legendre coefficients and graphs of energy-averaged angular distributions for all 34 elements. It is further shown that improvements in the energy and angular distributions could be obtained by means of adjustment of the level-density parameters of the individual residual nuclei. Finally a short discussion is devoted to the problems of fitting angular distributions at backward angles by varying the model parameters or the specification of the initial condition. It is indicated that the so-called preequilibrium phase of the nuclear reaction actually consists of two different stages, the first one generating the forward-peaked angular distributions and the second one showing angular distributions symmetric about 90 0

  13. Angular distributions in the neutron-induced fission of actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    In 2003 the n_TOF Collaboration performed the fission cross section measurement of several actinides ($^{232}$Th, $^{233}$U, $^{234}$U, $^{237}$Np) at the n_TOF facility using an experImental setup made of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC). The method based on the detection of the 2 fragments in coincidence allowed to clearly disentangle the fission reactions among other types of reactions occurring in the spallation domain. We have been therefore able to cover the very broad neutron energy range 1eV-1GeV, taking full benefit of the unique characteristics of the n_TOF facility. Figure 1 shows an example obtained in the case of $^{237}$Np where the n_ TOF measurement showed that the cross section was underestimated by a large factor in the resonance region.

  14. Angular distributions of nucleons emitted in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Angular distributions of ''fast'' protons, of kinetic energy from about 20 to about 400 MeV, emitted in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum were studied in two groups of events - when particles are produced and when particle production does not occur. The distributions are practically the same in both the groups of events and in subgroups of events with various multiplicities of emitted protons. Comparison of angular distributions of protons emitted in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum with corresponding angular distributions of protons emitted in proton-emulsion collisions at 300-400 GeV/c momentum is performed. Results obtained allow to conclude that average value of the nucleon emission angle and the nucleon angular distributions do not depend practically on the nuclear matter layer thickness the incident hadron collided with. Fast nucleons emitted from the target nucleus seem did not interact inside the parent nucleus. Fast nucleon angular distributions do not depend on the energy of incident hadron, they are the same for pion-nucleus and for proton-nucleus collisions as well

  15. L-subshell resolved photon angular distribution of radiative electron capture into He-like uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, T.; Geissel, H.; Irnich, H.; Kandler, T.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mokler, P.H.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nickel, F.; Scheidenberger, C.; Suzuki, T.; Kucharski, M.; Stachura, Z.; Kriessbach, A.; Shirai, T.

    1994-08-01

    The photon angular distributions for radiative electron capture (REC) into the j=1/2 and j=3/2 L-subshell levels were measured and calculated for U 90+ →C collisions at 89 MeV/u. The experiment provides the first study of the photon angular distribution of REC into a projectile p-state (j=3/2) which was found to exhibit a slight backward peaking in the laboratory frame. For radiative capture to the j=1/2 states the measured angular distribution deviates considerably from symmetry around 90 . The results demonstrate that the usual sin 2 θ lab distribution is not valid in the high-Z regime. (orig.)

  16. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xinbing, E-mail: xbwang@hust.edu.cn; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Peixiang [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-05-21

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Wang, Xinbing; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-01-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer–Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data

  18. A theoretical model evaluating the angular distribution of luminescence emission in X-ray scintillating screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Episkopakis, A.; Kalivas, N.; Liaparinos, P.; Valais, I.; Kagadis, G.; Kourkoutas, K.; Sianoudis, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Nomicos, C.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the angular distribution of the light emitted from radiation-excited scintillators in medical imaging detectors. This distribution diverges from Lambert's cosine law and affects the light emission efficiency of scintillators, hence it also affects the dose burden to the patient. In the present study, the angular distribution was theoretically modeled and was used to fit experimental data on various scintillator materials. Results of calculations revealed that the angular distribution is more directional than that predicted by Lambert's law. Divergence from this law is more pronounced for high values of light attenuation coefficient and thick scintillator layers (screens). This type of divergence reduces light emission efficiency and hence it increases the incident X-ray flux required for a given level of image brightness

  19. The γ-ray angular distribution in fast neutron inelastic scattering from iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Roland; Dietz, Mirco; Bemmerer, Daniel; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralph; Müller, Stefan; Schmidt, Konrad; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Takács, Marcell P.; Wagner, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    The angular distribution of γ-rays emitted after inelastic scattering of fast neutrons from iron was determined at the n ELBE neutron time-of-flight facility. An iron sample of natural isotopic composition was irradiated by a continuous photo-neutron spectrum in the energy range from about 0.1 up to 10 MeV. The de-excitation γ-rays of the four lowest excited states of 56Fe and the first excited state of 54Fe were detected using a setup of five high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors and five LaBr3 scintillation detectors positioned around the sample at 30°, 55°, 90°, 125° and 150° with respect to the incoming neutron beam. The resulting angular distributions were fitted by Legendre polynomials up to 4th order and the angular distribution coefficients a2 and a4 were extracted. The angular distribution coefficients of three transitions in 56Fe are reported here for the first time. The results are applied to a previous measurement of the inelastic scattering cross section determined using a single HPGe detector positioned at 125°. Using the updated γ-ray angular distribution, the previous cross section results are in good agreement with reference data.

  20. Angular distribution of diffuse reflectance from incoherent multiple scattering in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Huang, X; Yang, P; Kattawar, G W

    2013-08-20

    The angular distribution of diffuse reflection is elucidated with greater understanding by studying a homogeneous turbid medium. We modeled the medium as an infinite slab and studied the reflection dependence on the following three parameters: the incident direction, optical depth, and asymmetry factor. The diffuse reflection is produced by incoherent multiple scattering and is solved through radiative transfer theory. At large optical depths, the angular distribution of the diffuse reflection with small incident angles is similar to that of a Lambertian surface, but, with incident angles larger than 60°, the angular distributions have a prominent reflection peak around the specular reflection angle. These reflection peaks are found originating from the scattering within one transport mean free path in the top layer of the medium. The maximum reflection angles for different incident angles are analyzed and can characterize the structure of angular distributions for different asymmetry factors and optical depths. The properties of the angular distribution can be applied to more complex systems for a better understanding of diffuse reflection.

  1. Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Asaoka, T.

    2009-01-01

    Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm 2 ) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cos n θ distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.

  2. Computerized method for X-ray angular distribution simulation in radiological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Marcio A.; Oliveira, Henrique J.Q. de; Frere, Annie F.; Schiabel, Homero; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A method to simulate the changes in X-ray angular distribution (the Heel effect) for radiologic imaging systems is presented. This simulation method is described as to predict images for any exposure technique considering that the distribution is the cause of the intensity variation along the radiation field

  3. A search for quark compositeness at the LHC. Dijet angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubov, Z.U.; Abdinov, O.B.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of dijet angular distributions coming from a model of quark compositeness are considered. The influence of the parton distribution function, calorimeter non-linearity and energy resolution is investigated. The data sensitivity to the quark compositeness scale for low and high LHC luminosity is studied

  4. An efficient method of randomly sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, J.F.; Morin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport phenomena require random selection of an interaction process at each collision site along the photon track. Possible choices are usually limited to photoelectric absorption and incoherent scatter as approximated by the Klein-Nishina distribution. A technique is described for sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution, for the benefit of workers in medical physics. (U.K.)

  5. Mass and angular distributions of the reaction products in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirov, A. K.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Kayumov, B. M.; Tashkhodjaev, R. B.

    2018-05-01

    The optimal reactions and beam energies leading to synthesize superheavy elements is searched by studying mass and angular distributions of fission-like products in heavy-ion collisions since the evaporation residue cross section consists an ignorable small part of the fusion cross section. The intensity of the yield of fission-like products allows us to estimate the probability of the complete fusion of the interacting nuclei. The overlap of the mass and angular distributions of the fusion-fission and quasifission products causes difficulty at estimation of the correct value of the probability of the compound nucleus formation. A study of the mass and angular distributions of the reaction products is suitable key to understand the interaction mechanism of heavy ion collisions.

  6. Angular momentum distributions for {sup 16}O + {sup 144}Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, G.; Romain, P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Disdier, D.; Haas, B.; Lott, B.; Rauch, V.; Scheibling, F.; Vivien, J.P. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Basu, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Calcutta (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project; Bozek, E.; Zuber, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez-Niello, J. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica

    1992-12-31

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system {sup 16} O + {sup 144} Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV {<=}E{sub lab} {<=} 90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV {<=}E{sub lab}{<=} 75 MeV by off-line detection of the K X-rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4{pi} - BaF{sub 2} array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground state zero point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels.

  7. Angular momentum distributions for 16O+144Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Romain, P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Disdier, D.; Haas, B.; Lott, B.; Rauch, V.; Scheibling, F.; Vivien, J.P.; Basu, S.K.; Bozek, E.; Zuber, K.; Di Gregorio, D.; Fernandez-Niello, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system 16 O+ 144 Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV≤E lab ≤90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV≤E lab ≤75 MeV by off-line detection of the K x rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4π BaF 2 array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground-state zero-point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels

  8. Model for the angular distribution of sky radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Brunger, A P

    1979-08-01

    A flexible mathematical model is introduced which describes the radiance of the dome of the sky under various conditions. This three-component continuous distribution (TCCD) model is compounded by the superposition of three separate terms, the isotropic, circumsolar and horizon brightening terms, each representing the contribution of a particular sky characteristic. In use a particular sky condition is characterized by the values of the coefficients of each of these three terms, defining the distribution of the total diffuse component. The TCCD model has been demonstrated to fit both the normalized clear sky data and the normalized overcast sky data with an RMS error of about ten percent of the man overall sky radiance. By extension the model could describe variable or partly clouded sky conditions. The model can aid in improving the prediction of solar collector performance.

  9. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) allows to study the interactions of quarks and gluons in a yet unexplored energy regime. In 2010, the LHC delivered an integrated luminosity of more than 36 pb -1 of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √(s)=7 TeV. In these proton-proton collisions, the interactions of the constituent quarks and gluons produced a considerable amount of jets of particles with transverse momenta above 1 TeV. Well suited for the study of these jet processes is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment situated at the LHC point 5 as it can measure jets with the necessary energy and angular resolutions over a large range of transverse momentum (∝30 GeV T dijet = e vertical stroke y 1 -y 2 vertical stroke , where y 1 and y 2 are the rapidities of the two jets, y ≡ (1)/(2)ln [(E+p z )/(E-p z )], and p z is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable χ dijet is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/(σ) (dσ)/(dχ dijet ) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of χ dijet . Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg →qg, qq ' →qq ' and gg →gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution

  10. Angular distributions of the quenched energy flow from dijets with different radius parameters in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, Christopher F.

    2016-12-15

    The flow of the quenched energy in imbalanced dijet events has been previously studied by transverse vector sum of charged particles with the CMS detector, namely the missing p{sub T} measurement. The results have led to new theoretical insights to order to explain the wide angle radiation. The missing p{sub T} technique has been improved so that it allows the study of angular distribution of the energy flow with respect to the dijet axis. The measurements are performed using different distance parameters R with the anti-k{sub T} clustering algorithm, which provide information about how the angular distribution of the quenched energy depends on the jet width.

  11. Numerical Study of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on measuring particle angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The values and nature of systematic errors in small-angle particle scattering experiments using ribbon-like beams are investigated by numerical simulation. As shown, the extent of the influence of a ribbon geometry of experiment on the result of measurement is significantly dependent on the shape of the measured angular distribution in an elementary act of interaction. The algorithm of experimental material treatment, obtained in measuring the widths at half maximum of the angular differential cross sections of secondary particles, is presented using an example of specific distributions and certain experimental setup. (author). 12 refs., 7 figs

  12. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell ionization of krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3rd shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wave functions for target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3rd electrons, is widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  13. Angular distribution of Auger electrons due to 3d-shell impact ionization of krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, K.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for electron impact ionization of krypton due to ejection of a 3d-shell electron have been calculated using screened hydrogenic and Hartree-Slater wavefunctions for the target atom. While the total ionization cross sections in the two approximations are within 10% of each other, the Auger electron angular distribution, related to cross sections for specific magnetic quantum numbers of the 3d electrons, are widely different in the two approximations. The angular distribution due to the Hartree-Slater approximation is in excellent agreement with measurement. The physical reason for the discrepancies in the two approximations is explained.

  14. Angular distributions of neutrino and antineutrino scatterings by electrons and gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming a nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the complete angular distributions for the scatterings of neutrinos and antineutrinos by electrons are obtained from only simple general considerations, without explicit calculation; generalisation to parton targets is noted. Two pairs of simple constraints on the angular distributions can be violated only if the interaction has a helicity-flipping component; this can serve to disfavour the large class of models which are purely helicity-conserving. Comparison is made with some explicit calculations done for some special cases of some of the results. (author)

  15. Angular distributions of particles sputtered from multicomponent targets with gas cluster ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieshkin, A.E. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ermakov, Yu.A., E-mail: yuriermak@yandex.ru [Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Research Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chernysh, V.S. [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    The experimental angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline W, Cd and Ni based alloys with 10 keV Ar cluster ions are presented. RBS was used to analyze a material deposited on a collector. It has been found that the mechanism of sputtering, connected with elastic properties of materials, has a significant influence on the angular distributions of sputtered components. The effect of non-stoichiometric sputtering at different emission angles has been found for the alloys under cluster ion bombardment. Substantial smoothing of the surface relief was observed for all targets irradiated with cluster ions.

  16. Langevin description of fission fragment charge distribution from excited nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, A V

    2002-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on a set of three-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate fission-fragment charge distribution of compound nucleus sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U. The following collective coordinates have been chosen - elongation coordinate, neck-thickness coordinate, and charge-asymmetry coordinate. The friction coefficient of charge mode has been calculated in the framework of one-body and two-body dissipation mechanisms. Analysis of the results has shown that Langevin approach is appropriate for investigation of isobaric distribution. Moreover, the dependences of the variance of the charge distribution on excitation energy and on the two-body viscosity coefficient has been studied

  17. Angular distribution of large qsub(T) muon pairs in different reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, J.

    1979-01-01

    The angular distribution of large transverse momentum muon pairs produced in hadron-hadron collisions is calculated in lowest order of perturbative QCD. It is shown that for the process quark-antiquark → gluon + μ + μ - the polar and azimuthal angle distributions can be made independent of the parton distributions by choosing a special reference frame, the Collins-Soper frame, but for the process quark + gluon → quark + μ + μ - this is not possible. (author)

  18. THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Lyα RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang; Roy, Ishani; Fang Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the angular distribution of Lyα photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable μ, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the μ distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency ν 0 , I contains only a linear term of μ. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the μ-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at ν 0 or at the double peaks, the μ distributions actually are independent of the initial μ distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at ν 0 or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

  19. Asymmetries in angular distributions of nucleon emission intensity in high energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Asymmetry in nucleon emission intensity angular distributions relatively to the hadron deflection plane and to two planes normal to it and related to it uniquely is analyzed, using appropriate experimental data on pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Quantative characteristics of the asymmetries found are presented in tables and on figures

  20. Angular distribution of electrons ejected by charged particles. IV. Combined classical and quantum-mechanical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.G.J.; Bonsen, T.F.M.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of electrons ejected from helium by 100 and 300 keV protons have been calculated by a method which is a comination of the classical three-body collision theory and the quantum-mechanical Born approximation. The results of this theory have been compared with the corresponding

  1. Projection methods for the analysis of molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, R.R.; Montuoro, R.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A.N.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Morishita, Y.; Saito, N.; Ueda, K.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) is discussed within the dipole approximation. The general expressions are reviewed and strategies for extracting the maximum amount of information from different types of experimental measurements are considered. The analysis of the N 1s photoionization of NO is given to illustrate the method

  2. Low-energy angular distributions for the 12C(e,π+)e' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealock, R.M.; Caplan, H.S.; Lolos, G.J.; Haxton, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Angular distributions for near threshold electroproduction of positive pions from 12 C are reported and compared to theory. These data provide tests of recently developed second-order optical potentials and of the nuclear response to electroproduction in the giant resonance region

  3. Angular distributions of elastic and quasi elastic heavy-ion collisions. Pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silveira, R.

    1980-06-01

    The emergence, as well as the evolution, of the most typical patterns observed in the angular distributions of elastic scattering and surface transfer between heavy-nuclei, is discussed. Starting from the semi-classical approximation, Thom's classification theorem is evoked to further illuminate the connection between these patterns and the collision parameters

  4. Angular Distributions of Three Jet Events in Proton - Anti-Proton Collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Robert Matthew [Harvard U.

    1989-07-01

    A measurement of three jet angular distributions is made at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV in protonantiproton collisions at the F'ermilab Tevatron using the Collider Detector _at Ferm.ilab (CDF). Results are presented for three different center of mass variables, cos $\\theta$, $\\psi$, and $\\xi$ and are compared to QCD predictions.

  5. The dijet mass spectrum and angular distributions with the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abachi, S.

    1996-07-01

    We present preliminary results from an analysis of dijet data collected during the 1994-95 Tevatron Collider run with an integrated luminosity of 91 pb -1 . Measurements of dijet mass spectra and dijet angular distributions in anti pp collisions at √s- = 1.8 TeV are compared with next-to-leading order QCD theory

  6. Mass distribution law of systems of protocluster fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraioli, F; Virgopia, N [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1979-02-01

    Starting from the hypothesis of coalescence through inelastic collisions of small fast moving interstellar gas clouds, an attempt has been made to study the evolutionary mass distribution of a system of fragments simulating a protocluster. The assumption of a mass spectrum with a continuous injection of newly formed entities into the primeval system, and the condition of gravitational reduction of the impact cross-section, have been considered. Comparisons of numerical experiments with the mass spectrum in some well-known young galactic clusters, confirm the mass distribution power-law already obtained by other authors. The empirical Schmidt's law concerning the rate of star formation is also confirmed. The hypothesis of the universal validity of the luminosity function, should not be 'a priori' rejected.

  7. Angular distribution for 56Fe(π+,π/sup /minus//)56Ni(DIAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, P.A.; Rai, G.; Gilman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We have measured a (π + ,π/sup /minus//) angular distribution for the transition to the double isobaric analog state of a T = 2 target nucleus, 56 Fe, at T/sub π/ = 180 MeV. The data are compared to measurements on T = 1 targets and to theoretical predictions. The angular dependence is different from that observed in measurements on T = 1 targets. Some features of the data are reproduced by the theoretical predictions, but significant discrepancies remain. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Distribution of electron orbits having a definite angular momentum in a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Electron orbits having a definite angular momentum in a static magnetic field are calculated with the aid of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules. The quantization gives that orbits are arranged along a straight line but the distance between the centers of two neighboring orbits decreases with increase of the absolute value of the angular momentum. With the energy correction equal to the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillator, the distribution of orbits becomes identical to that obtained recently with the aid of a mixed semiclassical and quantum mechanical theory. 16 refs., 1 fig

  9. Angular distribution of Pionization particles from experiments on CERN-storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Jabs, A

    1972-01-01

    The angular distribution of secondary charged particles arising from high energy interaction in the CERN storage rings has been measured. The measurements near the centre-of-mass energies (20-50) GeV have been taken in the angle range of 20-90 degrees relative to the recoil axis. A complex formula is suggested to explain the variations described experimentally. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data is found. Simplifications are possible in the formula which allow the two-centre emission structure to be explained. It is shown that the angular dependence cannot be explained solely from rotary impulse behaviour. (9 refs).

  10. Wealth of information derivable from Evaporation Residue (ER) angular momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fusion-fission dynamics is possible by studying the fission process, or, alternatively, by studying the complementary fusion-evaporation process. Though the latter method is difficult to implement, requiring sophisticated recoil separators/spectrometers for selecting the ERs in the direction of the primary beam, it provides more clarity with better accuracy and is indispensible for probing the pre-saddle region in heavy nuclei. Super Heavy Element (SHE) search crucially depends on understanding the fusion-fission process, the choice of entrance channel and excitation energy of the Compound Nucleus (CN), ER cross-section and, more importantly, the angular momenta populated in ERs which survive fission. The measurement of ER angular momentum distributions, through coincidence technique involving large gamma multiplicity detector array and recoil separator, throws up a wealth of information such as, nuclear viscosity effects, limits of stability of ERs, shape changes at high spins, snapshot of frozen set of barriers using a single-shot experiment and indirect information about onset of quasi-fission processes. There is a paucity of experimental data with regard to angular momentum distributions in heavy nuclei due to experimental constraints. In this talk, the variety of information which could be derived through experimental ER angular momentum distributions will be elaborated with examples from work carried out at IUAC using advanced experimental facilities. (author)

  11. EVALPLOT2007, ENDF Plots Cross Section, Angular Distribution and Energy Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EVALPLOT is designed to plot evaluated cross sections in the ENDF/B format. The program plots cross sections, angular distributions, energy distributions and other parameters. IAEA1322/16: This version include the updates up to January 30, 2007. Changes in ENDF/B-VII Format and procedures, as well as the evaluations themselves, make it impossible for versions of the ENDF/B pre-processing codes earlier than PREPRO 2007 (2007 Version) to accurately process current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The present code can handle all existing ENDF/B-VI evaluations through release 8, which will be the last release of ENDF/B-VI. Modifications from previous versions: Evalplot Vers. 2007-1 (Jan. 2007): - checked against all ENDF/B-VII; - increased page size from 600,000 to 2,400,000; - increased the number of energies vs. legendre coefficients from 20,000 to 80,000 (must be 1/30 page size); - added (n,remainder) to first plot. 2 - Method of solution: In the case of processing neutron and photon cross sections (MF=3 or 23) and parameters (MF=1 or 27), all data in a file (MF) is read, grouped together by type, and plotted. All reactions of a data type appear on the same plot. The data types for MF=1 and 3 (neutrons) are: (1) total, elastic, capture, fission and total inelastic; (2) (n,2n), (n,3n) and (n,n' charged particle); (3) (n,charged particle); (4) particle production (proton, deuteron, etc.) and damage; (5) total, first, second, etc. chance fission; (6) total inelastic, inelastic discrete levels and continuum; (7) (n,p) total and levels (only if levels are given); (8) (n,d) total and levels (only if levels are given); (9) (n,t) total and levels (only if levels are given); (10) (n, 3 He) total and levels (only if levels are given); (11) (n, 4 He) total and levels (only if levels are given); (12) parameters mu-bar, xi and gamma; (13) nu-bar - total, prompt an delayed. The data types for MF=23 and 27 (photons) are: (14) total, coherent

  12. Modelling of atmospheric effects on the angular distribution of a backscattering peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, B.J.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    If off-nadir satellite sensing of vegetative surfaces is considered, understanding the angular distribution of the radiance exiting the atmosphere in all upward directions is of interest. Of particular interest is the discovery of those reflectance features which are invariant to atmospheric perturbations. When mono-directional radiation is incident on a vegetative scene a characteristic angular signature called the hot-spot is produced in the solar retro-direction. The remotely sensed hot-spot is modified by atmospheric extinction of the direct and reflected solar radiation, atmospheric backscattering, and the diffuse sky irradiance incident on the surface. It is demonstrated, however, by radiative transfer calculations through model atmospheres that at least one parameter which characterizes the canopy hot-spot, namely its angular half width, is invariant to atmospheric perturbations. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Percolation versus microcanonical fragmentation - comparison of fragment size distribution: Where is the liquid-gas transition in nuclei?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaqaman, H.R.; Birzeit Univ.; Papp, G.; Eoetvoes Lorand Tudomanyegyetem, Budapest; Gross, D.H.E.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    1990-01-01

    The distributions of fragments produced by microcanonical multifragmentation of hot nuclei are compared with the cluster distributions predicted by a bond percolation model on a finite lattice. The conditional moments of these distributions are used together with the correlations between the largest three fragments in each event. Whereas percolation and statistical nuclear fragmentation agree in many details as in the usual plots of the averaged moments of the fragment distributions which yield the critical exponents, they turn out to be essentially different when less averaged quantities or correlations are considered. The differences between the predictions of the two models are mainly due to the particularities of the nuclear problem, especially the effect of the long-range Coulomb force which favours the break-up of the highly excited nucleus into two large fragments (pseudo-fission) and, to a somewhat lesser extent, enhances the possibility for the cracking of the nucleus into more than two large fragments. The fission events are, however, clearly separated from a second branch of critical correlations which shows up clearly in both nuclear fragmentation and percolation. We think that this critical correlation branch is due to the liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclei. (orig.)

  14. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  15. Ion energy and angular distributions in inductively coupled Argon RF discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodworth, J.R.; Riley, M.E.; Meister, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    We report measurements of the energies and angular distributions of positive ions in an inductively coupled argon plasma in a GEC reference cell. Use of two separate ion detectors allowed measurement of ion energies and fluxes as a function of position as well as ion angular distributions on the discharge centerline. The inductive drive on our system produced high plasma densities (up to 10 12 /cm 3 electron densities) and relatively stable plasma potentials. As a result, ion energy distributions typically consisted of a single feature well separated from zero energy. Mean ion energy was independent of rf power and varied inversely with pressure, decreasing from 29 eV to 12 eV as pressure increased form 2.4 m Torr to 50 mTorr. Half-widths of the ion angular distributions in these experiments varied from 5 degrees to 12.5 degrees, or equivalently, transverse temperatures varied form 0.2 to 0.5 eV with the distributions broadening as either pressure or RF power were increased

  16. Effects of ultrashort laser pulses on angular distributions of photoionization spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, C H Raymond; Ho, W L; Bandrauk, A D

    2017-07-27

    We study the photoelectron spectra by intense laser pulses with arbitrary time dependence and phase within the Keldysh framework. An efficient semianalytical approach using analytical transition matrix elements for hydrogenic atoms in any initial state enables efficient and accurate computation of the photoionization probability at any observation point without saddle point approximation, providing comprehensive three dimensional photoelectron angular distribution for linear and elliptical polarizations, that reveal the intricate features and provide insights on the photoionization characteristics such as angular dispersions, shift and splitting of photoelectron peaks from the tunneling or above threshold ionization(ATI) regime to non-adiabatic(intermediate) and multiphoton ionization(MPI) regimes. This facilitates the study of the effects of various laser pulse parameters on the photoelectron spectra and their angular distributions. The photoelectron peaks occur at multiples of 2ħω for linear polarization while  odd-ordered peaks are suppressed in the direction perpendicular to the electric field. Short pulses create splitting and angular dispersion where the peaks are strongly correlated to the angles. For MPI and elliptical polarization with shorter pulses the peaks split into doublets and the first peak vanishes. The carrier envelope phase(CEP) significantly affects the ATI spectra while the Stark effect shifts the spectra of intermediate regime to higher energies due to interference.

  17. Direct Photon Center-of-Mass Angular Distributions in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Leslie F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The center-of-mass angular distribution of direct photon events, resulting from proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV, as measured by the Collider Detector at Fermi lab ( CDF) during the 1988-1089 experimental run, is presented. The direct photon events are identified primarily through the direct photon's characteristic isolation from other particles. The main source of background is from rare fragmentation of QCD partons into single isolated neutral mesons, which decay into two or more photons. The background is removed statistically by exploitation of tile expected difference in the resulting shower profiles. The resulting angular distribution for direct photons, in the transverse momentum range from 22 to 45 Ge V is found to agree favorably with the predictions of Quantum Cbromodynamics (QCD) for an interaction with a fermion (spin 1/2) propagator.

  18. Direct Photon Center-of-Mass Angular Distributions in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ =1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakae, Leslie F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The center-of-mass angular distribution of direct photon events, resulting from protonantiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.8 TeV, as measured by the Collider Detector at Fermilab ( CDF) during the 1988-1089 experimental run, is presented . The direct photon events are identified primarily through the direct photon's characteristic isolation from other particles. The main source of background is from rare fragmentation of QCD partons into single isolated neutral mesons, which decay into two or more photons. The background is removed statistically by exploitation of tile expected difference in the resulting shower profiles. The resulting angular distribution for direct photons, in the transverse momemtum range from 22 to 45 Ge V is found to agree favorably with the predictions of Quantum Cbromodynamics (QCD) for an interaction with a fermion (spin 1/2) propagator

  19. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-10-07

    {sub 2}} {sup vertical} {sup stroke}, where y{sub 1} and y{sub 2} are the rapidities of the two jets, y {identical_to} (1)/(2)ln [(E+p{sub z})/(E-p{sub z})], and p{sub z} is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable {chi}{sub dijet} is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/({sigma}) (d{sigma})/(d{chi}{sub dijet}) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of {chi}{sub dijet}. Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg {yields}qg, qq{sup '} {yields}qq{sup '} and gg {yields}gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution is therefore well suited to test the predictions of QCD and to search for signals of new physics, in particular for signs of quark compositeness. In the following a measurement of the dijet angular distributions and a search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment is presented. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of the dijet angular distributions and search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzmann, Andreas Dominik

    2011-10-07

    {sub 2}} {sup vertical} {sup stroke}, where y{sub 1} and y{sub 2} are the rapidities of the two jets, y {identical_to} (1)/(2)ln [(E+p{sub z})/(E-p{sub z})], and p{sub z} is the projection of the jet momentum along the beam axis. The choice of the variable {chi}{sub dijet} is motivated by the fact that the normalized differential cross section (1)/({sigma}) (d{sigma})/(d{chi}{sub dijet}) (the dijet angular distribution) is flat in this variable for Rutherford scattering, characteristic for spin-1 particle exchange. In contrast to QCD which predicts a dijet angular distribution similar to Rutherford scattering, new physics, such as quark compositeness, that might have a more isotropic dijet angular distribution would produce an excess at low values of {chi}{sub dijet}. Since the shapes of the dijet angular distributions for the qg {yields}qg, qq{sup '} {yields}qq{sup '} and gg {yields}gg scattering processes are similar, the QCD prediction does not strongly depend on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) which describe the momentum distribution of the partons inside the protons. Due to the normalization, the dijet angular distribution has a reduced sensitivity to several predominant experimental uncertainties (e.g. the jet energy scale and luminosity uncertainties). The dijet angular distribution is therefore well suited to test the predictions of QCD and to search for signals of new physics, in particular for signs of quark compositeness. In the following a measurement of the dijet angular distributions and a search for quark compositeness with the CMS experiment is presented. (orig.)

  1. MORSEC-SP, Step Function Angular Distribution for Cross-Sections Calculation by Program MORSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: MORSEC-SP allows one to utilize a step distribution to describe the angular dependence of the multi- group function in the MORSEC cross section module of the MORSE Monte Carlo code. The step distribution is always non-negative and may be used in the random walk and for making point detector estimators. 2 - Method of solution: MORSEC-SP utilizes a table look up procedure to provide the probability of scattering when making point detector estimates for a given incident energy group and scattering angle. In the random walk, the step distributions are converted to cumulative distributions and an angle of scatter is selected from the cumulative distributions. Step distributions are obtained from calculation using the converted moments from the given Legendre coefficients of the scattering distributions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Additional coding to the MORSEC module is variable dimensional and fully incorporated into blank common

  2. Polydisperse-particle-size-distribution function determined from intensity profile of angularly scattered light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A new method for determining the particle-size-distribution function of a polydispersion of spherical particles is presented. The inversion technique for the particle-size-distribution function is based upon matching the measured intensity profile of angularly scattered light with a summation of the intensity contributions of a series of appropriately spaced, narrowband, size-distribution functions. A numerical optimization technique is used to determine the strengths of the individual bands that yield the best agreement with the measured scattered-light-intensity profile. Because Mie theory is used, the method is applicable to spherical particles of all sizes. Several numerical examples demonstrate the application of this inversion method

  3. Influence of the halo upon angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capel, P.; Hussein, M.S.; Baye, D.

    2010-01-01

    The angular distributions for elastic scattering and breakup of halo nuclei are analysed using a near-side/far-side decomposition within the framework of the dynamical eikonal approximation. This analysis is performed for 11 Be impinging on Pb at 69 MeV/nucleon. These distributions exhibit very similar features. In particular they are both near-side dominated, as expected from Coulomb-dominated reactions. The general shape of these distributions is sensitive mostly to the projectile-target interactions, but is also affected by the extension of the halo. This suggests the elastic scattering not to be affected by a loss of flux towards the breakup channel.

  4. Testing the anisotropy in the angular distribution of Fermi/GBM gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were confirmed to be of extragalactic origin due to their isotropic angular distribution, combined with the fact that they exhibited an intensity distribution that deviated strongly from the -3/2 power law. This finding was later confirmed with the first redshift, equal to at least z = 0.835, measured for GRB970508. Despite this result, the data from CGRO/BATSE and Swift/BAT indicate that long GRBs are indeed distributed isotropically, but the distribution of short GRBs is anisotropic. Fermi/GBM has detected 1669 GRBs up to date, and their sky distribution is examined in this paper. A number of statistical tests are applied: nearest neighbour analysis, fractal dimension, dipole and quadrupole moments of the distribution function decomposed into spherical harmonics, binomial test and the two-point angular correlation function. Monte Carlo benchmark testing of each test is performed in order to evaluate its reliability. It is found that short GRBs are distributed anisotropically in the sky, and long ones have an isotropic distribution. The probability that these results are not a chance occurrence is equal to at least 99.98 per cent and 30.68 per cent for short and long GRBs, respectively. The cosmological context of this finding and its relation to large-scale structures is discussed.

  5. Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2002-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation.

  6. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun, E-mail: zhou.yun.x@gmail.com; Pollak, Eli, E-mail: eli.pollak@weizmann.ac.il [Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Miret-Artés, Salvador, E-mail: s.miret@iff.csic.es [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  7. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to "soft" corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  8. Monte Carlo Calculation of Sensitivities to Secondary Angular Distributions. Theory and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perell, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The basic methods for solution of the transport equation that are in practical use today are the discrete ordinates (SN) method, and the Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo) method. While the SN method is typically less computation time consuming, the Monte Carlo method is often preferred for detailed and general description of three-dimensional geometries, and for calculations using cross sections that are point-wise energy dependent. For analysis of experimental and calculated results, sensitivities are needed. Sensitivities to material parameters in general, and to the angular distribution of the secondary (scattered) neutrons in particular, can be calculated by well known SN methods, using the fluxes obtained from solution of the direct and the adjoint transport equations. Algorithms to calculate sensitivities to cross-sections with Monte Carlo methods have been known for quite a time. However, only just recently we have developed a general Monte Carlo algorithm for the calculation of sensitivities to the angular distribution of the secondary neutrons

  9. Angular distribution of hypersatellite and satellite radiation emitted after resonant and excitation into $U^{91+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakowicz, S; Harman, Z; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    In collisions of heavy few-electron projectile ions with light targets, an electron can be transferred from the target with the simultaneous excitation of a projectile electron. We study the angular distribution of de-excitation X rays following the resonant capture process. Our results are compared to experimental values of Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. A (joint to this issue)] for collisions of U91+ ions with a hydrogen gas target.

  10. The average angular distribution of emitted particles in multi-step compound processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Hussein, M.S.; Toledo, A.S. de

    1983-05-01

    A simple model for the differential cross-section that describes the angular distribution of emitted particles in heavy-ion induced multi-step compound reactions, is constructed. It is suggested that through a careful analysis of the deviations of the experimental data from the pure Hauser-Feshbach behaviour may shed light on the physical nature of the pre-compound, heavy-ion configuration. (Author) [pt

  11. Analysis of the angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons for 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovitskij, E.Sh.; Benderskij, A.R.; Konshin, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data on the angular distributions of 0.5-15 MeV neutrons elastically scattered by 235 U nuclei are analysed on the basis of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomial expansions. The advantages of the method are that there are no negative cross-sections and relatively few expansion coefficients and that experimental data on scattering at 0 0 and 180 0 are not needed. (author)

  12. Magnetic interaction of positronium atoms measured by perturbed angular distribution in 3 gamma annihilation decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Vata, I.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Dudu, D.; Constantinescu, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Time Differential Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method in connection with long-lived Positron Life-Time Spectroscopy (PLTS) have been used to observe 'quantum beat' spin oscillations of positronium atom in an external magnetic field. Our results offer an encouraging hint toward a new method of condensed matter investigation by PLTS. Similarities with Muonium Spin Rotation (μSR) method are suggested. (authors)

  13. Application of in-beam perturbed angular distribution to the study of high-Tc oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Fumio; Katsumoto, Shingo; Kobayashi, Shun-ichi; Ikehata, Seiichiro; Ikeda, Nobuo; Hashimoto, Osamu; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Nomura, Toru; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1990-04-01

    The time differential perturbed angular distribution method was applied to the study of high-T c oxides. Spin rotation signals of the 19 F isomer (τ = 128 nsec) produced from oxygen nuclei via 16 O(α,p) 19 F were observed in various high-T c oxides above T c . The internal field was determined with the accuracy of about 1%. This method is an alternative to the 17 O substituted NMR. (author)

  14. High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, E. C.; A. Afanasev; M. Amarian; K. Aniol; S. Becher; K. Benslama; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; E. Brash; J. Calarco; Z. Chai; C. Chang; T. Chang; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; D. Crovelli; S. Dieterich; S. Dumalski; D. Dutta; M. Epstein; K. Fissum; B. Fox; S. Frullani; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; R. J. Holt; J. Hovdebo; G. M. Huber; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; C. Jones; M. K. Jones; J. Kelly; E. Kinney; E. Kooijman; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; S. Malov; D. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; D. Meekins; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; L. Morand; C. Perdrisat; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Punjabi; A. Radyushkin; R. Ransome; R. Roche; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; A. Sarty; D. Simon; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; L. Todor; P. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; W. Xu

    2002-01-01

    The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Egamma = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results

  15. {beta}-Ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, T., E-mail: nagatomo@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Matsuta, K. [Osaka University (Japan); Minamisono, K. [NSCL/MSU (United States); Sumikama, T. [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Mihara, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Ozawa, A.; Tagishi, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogura, M.; Matsumiya, R.; Fukuda, M. [Osaka University (Japan); Yamaguchi, M.; Yasuno, T.; Ohta, H.; Hashizume, Y. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fujiwara, H. [Osaka University (Japan); Chiba, A. [University of Tsukuba (Japan); Minamisono, T. [Fukui University of Technology (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The alignment correlation term in the {beta}-ray angular distribution from purely nuclear spin aligned {sup 20}F has been measured to test the G-parity conservation law which is one of the fundamental symmetries in the weak nucleon current. We utilized the hyperfine interaction of {sup 20}F in an MgF{sub 2} single crystal and successfully created the pure alignment from the polarization by means of the spin manipulation technique based on the {beta}-NMR method.

  16. Assessment of fragment projection hazard: probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-08-30

    The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present study an approach is proposed to the identification and validation of probability density functions (pdfs) for the initial direction of the fragments. A detailed review of a large number of past accidents provided the background information for the validation procedure. A specific method was developed for the validation of the proposed pdfs. Validated pdfs were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal angles of projection and for the initial velocity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy spectrum and angular distribution of prompt cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale); Castellina, A; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G; Vernetto, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1984-07-01

    The energy spectrum and angular distribution of atmospheric prompt muons are calculated by using an integral solution for production of charmed particles, their decay and muon transport in the atmosphere. Current experimental information from accelerator and theoretical ideas about charm cross-section and semi-leptonic decay are used to give a reference prompt muon spectrum to compare with that from conventional sources (..pi.. and K decay). The obtained differential spectrum has an energy dependence which approaches that of the primary cosmic rays. The integral intensity of prompt muons is equal to the conventional one at about 250 TeV. The angular distribution is found to be practically flat in the range (0/80)/sup 0/ irrespective of the muon energy. On the basis of this analysis we estimate that accurate measurements of muon energy spectrum and angular distribution at energies greater than 10 TeV should allow one to obtain useful information regarding charm hadroproduction cross-section in the 100 TeV region.

  18. Mass and kinetic-energy distributions of fragments formed in the heavy-ion-induced fission of 208Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.; Goodall, J.A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Fission fragments following the decay of a 208 Po compound nucleus have been observed by using radiochemical and particle-counting techniques. The (α+ 204 Pb), ( 12 C+ 196 Pt) and ( 16 O+ 192 Os) reactions were studied at two or three bombarding energies, covering overlapping ranges of excitation energies. - Radiochemical separations of As, Br, Y, Nb, Tc, Ag, Sb and I isotopes were made from catcher foils sandwiching isotopic targets, and their isotopic yield distributions determined. The distributions are used to estimate the average number of neutrons associated with each fission event, including neutrons emitted before and after fission. - Prompt coincidence measurements of fragments are used to derive the overall mass and kinetic-energy distributions of primary fragments, taking into account the effects of pre- and post-fission neutron emission. The mass distributions are well fitted by the statistical theory, at a temperature corresponding to an excitation about 10 MeV above that at the saddle point. No evidence is found for an increase of kinetic-energy with increasing angular momentum of the compound nucleus. (author)

  19. Angular distributions of emitted particles by laser ablation of silver at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.

    1998-01-01

    The angular distribution of laser ablated silver in vacuum has been measured in situ with an array of quartz-crystal microbalances. The silver surface was irradiated by ns pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm for fluences ranging from 0.7 J/cm2 to 8 J/cm2. The distribution is strongly...... peaked in the forward direction corresponding to cosp/, where p varies from 5 to 12 for the largest beam spot, but is less peaked for the smallest beam spots. The total collected yield of ablated atoms is about 221015 Ag atoms per pulse for the highest pulse energies....

  20. Angular distribution of 662keV multiply-Compton scattered gamma rays in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    The angular distribution of multiple Compton scattering of 662keV gamma photons, obtained from six Curie 137 Cs source, incident on copper scatterer of varying thickness is studied experimentally in both the forward and backward hemispheres. The scattered photons are detected by a 51mmx51mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The full-energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The optimum thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined at different scattering angles

  1. Angular distribution of W boson pairs at a heavy Z-resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.; Rizzo, T.G.

    1987-05-01

    In theories with an extra U(1) gauge boson (Z 2 ) at low energies. W boson pairs may be produced copiously by the process e + e - → Z 2 → W + W - at the Z 2 -resonance. We show that the angular distribution of the W pairs (produced at the Z 2 -resonance) is very different from that in the standard model, at the same center of mass energy, where it is dominated by t-channel neutrino exchange. These distributions will also be useful in distinguishing among the various models containing an extra Z-boson

  2. Rock fragment distributions and regolith evolution in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Ken Luckow; Daniel A. Marion; Kristin R. Adams

    2005-01-01

    Rock fragments in the regolith are a persistent property that reflects the combined influences of geologic controls, erosion, deposition, bioturbation, and weathering. The distribution of rock fragments in regoliths of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, shows that sandstone fragments are common in all layers, even if sandstone is absent in parent material. Shale and...

  3. Constraints on radial migration in spiral galaxies - II. Angular momentum distribution and preferential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Kathryne J.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2018-05-01

    The orbital angular momentum of individual stars in galactic discs can be permanently changed through torques from transient spiral patterns. Interactions at the corotation resonance dominate these changes and have the further property of conserving orbital circularity. We derived in an earlier paper an analytic criterion that an unperturbed stellar orbit must satisfy in order for such an interaction to occur, i.e. for it to be in a trapped orbit around corotation. We here use this criterion in an investigation of how the efficiency of induced radial migration for a population of disc stars varies with the angular momentum distribution of that population. We frame our results in terms of the velocity dispersion of the population, this being an easier observable than is the angular momentum distribution. Specifically, we investigate how the fraction of stars in trapped orbits at corotation varies with the velocity dispersion of the population, for a system with an assumed flat rotation curve. Our analytic results agree with the finding from simulations that radial migration is less effective in populations with `hotter' kinematics. We further quantify the dependence of this trapped fraction on the strength of the spiral pattern, finding a higher trapped fraction for higher amplitude perturbations.

  4. Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p43s2) 1D in Li+-Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oud, M.; Pas, S.F. te; Westerveld, W.B.; Niehaus, A.

    1993-01-01

    Angular distributions of autoionization electrons from Ne(2p 4 3s 2 ) 1 D due to Li + -Ne collisions measured in coincidence with the scattered projectile ions are presented. The measurements are performed at four different collision energies between 1.0 keV and 3.0 keV, and the complex population amplitudes for the excited 1 D state are determined. A nearly pure M = O sublevel population is found with respect to an axis coinciding with the direction of the angular distribution. The direction of the angular distribution is found to deviate from the final direction of the asymptotic internuclear axis. (author)

  5. Passive measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Zhou, Xue-jun; Chen, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Based on the orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation, we present a novel passive measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) scheme with the two-mode source. Combining with the tight bounds of the yield and error rate of single-photon pairs given in our paper, we conduct performance analysis on the scheme with heralded single-photon source. The numerical simulations show that the performance of our scheme is significantly superior to the traditional MDI-QKD in the error rate, key generation rate and secure transmission distance, since the application of orbital angular momentum and pulse position modulation can exclude the basis-dependent flaw and increase the information content for each single photon. Moreover, the performance is improved with the rise of the frame length. Therefore, our scheme, without intensity modulation, avoids the source side channels and enhances the key generation rate. It has greatly utility value in the MDI-QKD setups.

  6. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai, 400005 (India); Mirizzi, Alessandro, E-mail: bdasgupta@theory.tifr.res.in, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@ba.infn.it, E-mail: manibrata.sen@gmail.com [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica ' Michelangelo Merlin' , Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions , focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries that produce a crossing between the zenith-angle spectra of ν {sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} . Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  7. A Pearson VII distribution function for fast calculation of dechanneling and angular dispersion of beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lin; Peng Luohan

    2009-01-01

    Although multiple scattering theories have been well developed, numerical calculation is complicated and only tabulated values have been available, which has caused inconvenience in practical use. We have found that a Pearson VII distribution function can be used to fit Lugujjo and Mayer's probability curves in describing the dechanneling phenomenon in backscattering analysis, over a wide range of disorder levels. Differentiation of the obtained function gives another function to calculate angular dispersion of the beam in the frameworks by Sigmund and Winterbon. The present work provides an easy calculation of both dechanneling probability and angular dispersion for any arbitrary combination of beam and target having a reduced thickness ≥0.6, which can be implemented in modeling of channeling spectra. Furthermore, we used a Monte Carlo simulation program to calculate the deflection probability and compared them with previously tabulated data. A good agreement was reached.

  8. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Most acoustic measurements are based on an assumption of ideal conditions. One such ideal condition is a diffuse and reverberant field. In practice, a perfectly diffuse sound field cannot be achieved in a reverberation chamber. Uneven incident energy density under measurement conditions can cause...... discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...

  9. Angular distributions of sputtered particles from lithium-implanted aluminium and copper crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Andersen, H.H.; Buhanov, V.M.; Chernysh, V.S.; Ivanov, I.N.; Minnebaev, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The anisotropy of angular distributions of sputtered ions from lithium implanted aluminium and copper single crystals, measured by SIMS analysis, have been used to obtain information about the microstructure of the implanted layers. Sputtered Al + distributions from the {111} surface show three-fold symmetry with maximum intensity near the and directions respectively, while Li + distributions show maximum intensity only in the directions. From {100} crystals the Al + distributions have four-fold symmetry while there are no preferential ejection directions for the Li + ions. This agrees conceptually with the fact that the implanted layer contains the ordered Al 3 Li (δ') phase, which has earlier been observed by TEM analysis on implanted samples. In contrast, a similar study of Li + implanted copper crystals shows that the implanted lithium is randomly located. (orig.)

  10. Advancement of magma fragmentation by inhomogeneous bubble distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, M; Ichihara, M; Maruyama, S; Kurokawa, N; Aoki, Y; Okumura, S; Uesugi, K

    2017-12-01

    Decompression times reported in previous studies suggest that thoroughly brittle fragmentation is unlikely in actual explosive volcanic eruptions. What occurs in practice is brittle-like fragmentation, which is defined as the solid-like fracture of a material whose bulk rheological properties are close to those of a fluid. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulation, the link between the inhomogeneous structure of bubbles and the development of cracks that may lead to brittle-like fragmentation was clearly demonstrated here. A rapid decompression test was conducted to simulate the fragmentation of a specimen whose pore morphology was revealed by X-ray microtomography. The dynamic response during decompression was observed by high-speed photography. Large variation was observed in the responses of the specimens even among specimens with equal bulk rheological properties. The stress fields of the specimens under decompression computed by finite element analysis shows that the presence of satellite bubbles beneath a large bubble induced the stress concentration. On the basis of the obtained results, a new mechanism for brittle-like fragmentation is proposed. In the proposed scenario, the second nucleation of bubbles near the fragmentation surface is an essential process for the advancement of fragmentation in an upward magma flow in a volcanic conduit.

  11. Transverse momentum dependence of the angular distribution of the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Edmond L.; Qiu Jianwei; Rodriguez-Pedraza, Ricardo A.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the transverse momentum Q perpendicular dependence of the helicity structure functions for the hadroproduction of a massive pair of leptons with pair invariant mass Q. These structure functions determine the angular distribution of the leptons in the pair rest frame. Unphysical behavior in the region Q perpendicular →0 is seen in the results of calculations done at fixed order in QCD perturbation theory. We use current conservation to demonstrate that the unphysical inverse-power and ln(Q/Q perpendicular ) logarithmic divergences in three of the four independent helicity structure functions share the same origin as the divergent terms in fixed-order calculations of the angular-integrated cross section. We show that the resummation of these divergences to all orders in the strong coupling strength α s can be reduced to the solved problem of the resummation of the divergences in the angular-integrated cross section, resulting in well-behaved predictions in the small Q perpendicular region. Among other results, we show the resummed part of the helicity structure functions preserves the Lam-Tung relation between the longitudinal and double spin-flip structure functions as a function of Q perpendicular to all orders in α s

  12. State-to-state and state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distributions: F+H 2→HF+H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, R.W.; Suck, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    How each state-to-state reactive transition determines nonundulatory ''state-to-all-states'' angular distribution has not yet been investigated. Here we present a complete exposure of state-to-state distorted-wave Born-approximation angular distributions in order to examine how the nonoscillatory and backward-peaked state-to-all-states reactive scattering angular distribution occurs

  13. Effects of Mixtures on Liquid and Solid Fragment Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    bins, too few size bins, fixed bin widths, or inadequately- varying bin widths. Overpopulated bins – which typically occur for smaller fragments...2010 C. V. B. Cunningham, The Kuz-Ram Fragmentation Model – 20 Years On, In R. Holmberg et. al., Editors, Proceedings of the 3 rd World ...1992 P. K. Sahoo and T. Riedel, Mean Value Theorems and Functional Equations, World Scientific, 1998 K. A. Sallam, C. Aalburg, G.M. Faeth

  14. Angular distributions for the charged components in a cascade shower induced by 350 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Itoh, H.; Murakami, A.; Muto, T.

    1978-01-01

    The angular distributions of secondary electrons contained in a cascade shower are studied by using a streamer chamber. The primary electrons with energy of about 350 MeV are incident on a lead converter of various thickness. The angular data are analyzed for the number of electrons in a shower, and for the converter thickness. The obtained distributions show a systematic agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations presented by Messel and Crawford. (Auth.)

  15. Angular distribution of species in pulsed laser deposition of LaxCa1-xMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The angular distribution of species from a La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 target irradiated with a 248 nm nanosecond pulsed laser was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for four different Ar pressures. The film thickness angular distribution was also analyzed using profilometry. Depending on the background gas pressure, the target to substrate distance, and the angular location the film thickness and composition varies considerably. In particular the film composition could vary by up to 17% with respect to the composition of the target material.

  16. Angular distributions for φ→ππγ decays at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, G.; Franzini, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    The complete angular distribution is derived for the φ→ππγ processes with two pions in a C-even state which are of interest for the study of the f 0 (975) at a high luminosity e + e - collider such as the DAΦNE φ-factory. These are e + e - →φ→f 0 γ→ππγ, the background reaction e + e - →φ→πρ→ππγ and, for charged pions, the process e + e - →ρ→ππγ and the interference of the f 0 signal with this process. (author) 11 refs

  17. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  18. Measurement of the Angular Distribution of the Electron from $W \\to e + \

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Manuel Martin [Univ. of Zargoza (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this thesis is to scan the extensive literature dealing with the properties of the W and Z bosons. Iit is clear that, besides the measurements confirming the weak interactions theory, no specific work related to the angular distributions of the emerging particles from the leptonic decay of the boson has been done. The aim of the work is to obtain experimentally the values of α2, as function of the transverse momentum of the W, that appear in the expression 0.3 and to compare the values obtained with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Measurement of angular distribution of neutrons emitted from plasma focus using NTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Dordevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for detection and angular distribution measurement of the neutrons emitted from the d-plasma focus (DPF). The distance between detectors and plasma pinch was 4 cm. For reason of detector protection from the thermal shock, they were covered with the mica layer of 1 mm thickness. Annealing of the detectors were measured after the irradiation with neutrons from an Am-Be source and treated with thermal shock H-plasma focus (HPF). Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same

  20. Measurement of angular distribution of neutrons emitted from plasma focus using NTD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Dordevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J

    1999-06-01

    Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for detection and angular distribution measurement of the neutrons emitted from the d-plasma focus (DPF). The distance between detectors and plasma pinch was 4 cm. For reason of detector protection from the thermal shock, they were covered with the mica layer of 1 mm thickness. Annealing of the detectors were measured after the irradiation with neutrons from an Am-Be source and treated with thermal shock H-plasma focus (HPF). Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same.

  1. Measurement of angular distribution of neutrons emitted from plasma focus using NTD

    CERN Document Server

    Antanasijevic, R; Banjanac, R; Dragic, A; Stanojevic, J; Dordevic, D; Joksimovic, D; Udovicic, V; Vukovic, J

    1999-01-01

    Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for detection and angular distribution measurement of the neutrons emitted from the d-plasma focus (DPF). The distance between detectors and plasma pinch was 4 cm. For reason of detector protection from the thermal shock, they were covered with the mica layer of 1 mm thickness. Annealing of the detectors were measured after the irradiation with neutrons from an Am-Be source and treated with thermal shock H-plasma focus (HPF). Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same.

  2. Time-resolved angular distributions of plume ions from silver at low and medium laser fluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen

    Even at moderate fluence (0.6 -2.4 J/cm2) laser impact on metals in the UV regime results in a significant number of ions emitted from the surface. The ablated particles are largely neutrals at the lowest fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence. We have irradiated silver...... in a vacuum chamber (~ 10-7 mbar) with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm and made detailed measurements of the time-resolved angular distribution. The ion flow in different directions has been measured with a hemispherical array of Langmuir probes, by which the time-of-flight spectra, as well...

  3. Molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution for oxygen 1s photoemission from CO2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, N; Ueda, K; De Fanis, A

    2005-01-01

    We have measured photoelectron angular distributions in the molecular frame (MF-PADs) for O 1s photoemission from CO 2 , using photoelectron-O + -CO + coincidence momentum imaging. Results for the molecular axis at 0, 45 and 90 0 to the electric vector of the light are reported. The major features of the MF-PADs are fairly well reproduced by calculations employing a relaxed-core Hartree-Fock approach. Weak asymmetric features are seen through a plane perpendicular to the molecular axis and attributed to symmetry lowering by anti-symmetric stretching motion. (letter to the editor)

  4. The solid state track detectors for α-particles angular distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, M.H.S.

    1978-01-01

    The solid state track detectors technique is described in details from the point of view of applying them in nuclear reactions research. Using an optimum developing solution, the etching rate of polycarbonate detector was found to be 10.5 μ/hour. The energy resolution of this detector was estimated using 241 Am α-source at α-energies between 1 and 3 Mev. The scattering chamber designed for angular distribution measurements using solid state track detectors is described. A special schematic normograph for range-energy-degrading foils relation is given

  5. Effect of source angular distribution on the evaluation of gamma-ray skyshine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, R.D.; Jiang, S.H. [Dept. of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, B.J.; Chen, I.J. [Division of Health Physics, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2000-03-01

    The effect of the angular distribution of the equivalent point source on the analysis of the skyshine dose rates was investigated in detail. The dedicated skyshine codes SKYDOSE and McSKY were revised to include the capability of dealing with the anisotropic source. It was found that a replace of the cosine-distributed source by an isotropic source will overestimate the skyshine dose rates for large roof-subtended angles and cause underestimation for small roof-subtended angles. For building with roof shielding, however, replacing the cosine-distributed source by an isotropic source will always underestimate the skyshine dose rates. The skyshine dose rates from a volume source calculated by the dedicated skyshine code agree very well with those of the MCNP Monte Carlo calculation. (author)

  6. Analyzing angular distributions for two-step dissociation mechanisms in velocity map imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Daniel B; Butler, Lynne M; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J

    2013-08-15

    Increasingly, velocity map imaging is becoming the method of choice to study photoinduced molecular dissociation processes. This paper introduces an algorithm to analyze the measured net speed, P(vnet), and angular, β(vnet), distributions of the products from a two-step dissociation mechanism, where the first step but not the second is induced by absorption of linearly polarized laser light. Typically, this might be the photodissociation of a C-X bond (X = halogen or other atom) to produce an atom and a momentum-matched radical that has enough internal energy to subsequently dissociate (without the absorption of an additional photon). It is this second step, the dissociation of the unstable radicals, that one wishes to study, but the measured net velocity of the final products is the vector sum of the velocity imparted to the radical in the primary photodissociation (which is determined by taking data on the momentum-matched atomic cophotofragment) and the additional velocity vector imparted in the subsequent dissociation of the unstable radical. The algorithm allows one to determine, from the forward-convolution fitting of the net velocity distribution, the distribution of velocity vectors imparted in the second step of the mechanism. One can thus deduce the secondary velocity distribution, characterized by a speed distribution P(v1,2°) and an angular distribution I(θ2°), where θ2° is the angle between the dissociating radical's velocity vector and the additional velocity vector imparted to the product detected from the subsequent dissociation of the radical.

  7. Comptonization of low-frequency radiation in accretion disks Angular distribution and polarization of hard X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suniaev, R.A.; Titarchuk, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the comptonization of photons and its effects on the radiation emitted from accretion disks of compact X-ray sources, such as black holes and neutron stars. Attention is given to the photon distribution during escape from the disk, the angular distribution of hard radiation from the disk, the polarization of hard radiation and the electron temperature distribution over the optical depth. It is shown that the hard radiation spectrum is independent of the low-frequency photon source distribution. The angular distribution and polarization of the outgoing X-rays are a function of the optical depth. A Thomson approximation is used to estimate the angular distribution of the hard radiation and the polarization over the disk. The polarization results are compared with OSO-8 satellite data for Cyg X-1 and show good agreement at several energy levels. 17 references

  8. Angular Distributions of Neutrons from (p,n)-Reactions in some Mirror Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, L G; Wiedling, T; Holmqvist, B

    1964-04-15

    The angular distributions of neutrons from the reactions {sup 13}C (p,n) {sup 13}N and {sup 19}F (p, n) {sup 19}Ne have been measured for some energies close to the reactions threshold. For the reaction {sup 9}B (p, n) {sup 9}C angular distributions have been measured at several proton energies below the reaction threshold of the neutrons to the first excited state in {sup 11}C . A 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff has been used for the experiments. The neutrons were detected with a long counter. The measurements were carried out for 16 energies for the B (p,n) reaction, 3 energies for the C (p, n) reaction, and for 7 energies for the F 19(p, n) reaction. One of the main reasons for investigating these (p, n) reactions was to check whether the direct reaction process is important at low proton energies as well as close to reaction thresholds in nuclei consisting of closed shells of neutrons and protons either with an extra nucleon outside the closed shell or a nucleon hole. Comparisons with a theory proposed by Bloom, Glendenning, and Moszkowski have been performed.

  9. W production at LHC: lepton angular distributions and reference frames for probing hard QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter-Was, E.; Was, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play a crucial role, among the physics program of LHC experiments. Because of the nature of proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of final state leptons provide the most precise probes of such processes. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of leptons from W → lν decays in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical harmonics of at most second order. We argue, that contrary to general belief often expressed in the literature, the full set of angular coefficients can be measured experimentally, despite the presence of escaping detection neutrino in the final state. There is thus no principle difference with respect to the phenomenology of the Z/γ → l"+l"- Drell-Yan process. We show also, that with the proper choice of the reference frames, only one coefficient in this polynomial decomposition remains sizable, even in the presence of one or more high p_T jets. The necessary stochastic choice of the frames relies on probabilities independent from any coupling constants. In this way, electroweak effects (dominated by the V - A nature of W couplings to fermions), can be better separated from the ones of strong interactions. The separation is convenient for the measurements interpretation. (orig.)

  10. Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan

    2017-08-01

    The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.

  11. Search for Z' --> e+ e- using dielectron mass and angular distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cresciolo, F; Cruz, A; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Delli Paoli, F; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-06-02

    We search for Z' bosons in dielectron events produced in pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV, using 0.45 fb(-1) of data accumulated with the Collider Detector at Fermilab II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. To identify the Z' --> e+ e- signal, both the dielectron invariant mass distribution and the angular distribution of the electron pair are used. No evidence of a signal is found, and 95% confidence level lower limits are set on the Z' mass for several models. Limits are also placed on the mass and gauge coupling of a generic Z', as well as on the contact-interaction mass scales for different helicity structure scenarios.

  12. Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  13. Angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36S on a ≅100 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36 S ions with 92,94,96,98,100 Mo, 100,101,102,104 Ru, 103 Rh, and 104,105,106,108,110 Pd were measured in the range of 3 to 11 degrees in the laboratory system. The relative yield of the four most abundant exit evaporation channels has been extracted for all target-projectile combination at two bombarding energies, by fitting the angular distributions expected for each channel as obtained from the Monte-Carlo program TRANMI to the measured angular distribution of the evaporation residues. The total detection efficiency for the Munich-RF-Recoil Spectrometer was obtained from the relative yields, taking into account the effect due to multiple scattering, and compared with that obtained previously from the recoil velocity distributions. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Coherent control of indirect photofragmentation in the weak-field limit: Control of transient fragment distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2011-01-01

    I molecule, where it is shown that the probability of observing atomic fragments as well as the distribution of their relative momenta can be changed by a phase modulated pulse with a fixed bandwidth. This type of control is restricted to finite times during the indirect fragmentation. (C) 2011 American...

  15. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author). 36 refs.

  16. Multiplicity distributions in the binary fragmenting with inhibition at the transition line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Properties of the fragment multiplicity distribution obtained in the sequential binary fragmentation process at the transition line are investigated. It is shown that the multifragment cumulant correlation functions have the hierarchical, linked-pair structure. Several distinct classes of multiplicity domains are clearly identified, and the asymptotic appearance of the Koba - Nielsen - Olesen scaling is discussed. (author)

  17. Effects of fissioning nuclei distributions on fragment mass distributions for high energy fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi P C R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of fissioning nuclei mass- and energy-distributions on the formation of fragments for fission induced by high energy probes. A Monte Carlo code called CRISP was used for obtaining mass distributions and spectra of the fissioning nuclei for reactions induced by 660 MeV protons on 241Am and on 239Np, by 500 MeV protons on 208Pb, and by Bremsstrahlung photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV on 238U. The results show that even at high excitation energies, asymmetric fission may still contribute significantly to the fission cross section of actinide nuclei, while it is the dominante mode in the case of lead. However, more precise data for high energy fission on actinide are necessary in order to allow definite conclusions.

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of lysozyme: the dependence on shot numbers and the angular distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinescu, C.; Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The ejection of molecules from a pressed solid target of lysozyme induced by laser ablation in the UV-regime at a wavelength of 355 nm was investigated. The ablation studies were carried out in vacuum at a laser fluence of 2 J/cm2 for which a significant fraction of proteins remains intact....... This was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) spectrometry of thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition rate of lysozyme was found to decrease with the number of shots and was correlated with increasing thermal damage of the lysozyme. This was monitored by measurements...... of the optical reflectivity of dry lysozyme. The angular distribution of the mass deposition can be fitted well by Anisimov’s hydrodynamic model. The total deposited yield over the entire hemisphere from direct laser ablation of lysozyme was estimated from this model and found to be three orders of magnitude...

  19. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  20. Manifestation of the halo structure in momentum distributions from {sup 6}He fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Chulkov, L.V.; Pribora, V.N. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smedberg, M.H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-03-01

    Experimental data on momentum distribution in the fragmentation of a 240 MeV/u {sup 6}He beam on a carbon target are compared with several models of the {sup 6}He nucleus based on different physical assumptions. It is shown that a lack of a strict theoretical description of the fragmentation mechanism and, in particular, of the final state interaction prevents from any contra or versa arguments for these models. The requirement of a fragment ({sup 5}He) survival or spatial localization of a fragment in the {sup 6}He wave function is an essential point in the reaction mechanism. The analysis of the {sup 5}He momentum (sum of the neutron and the {alpha}-particle momenta) distribution is free from the effect of final state interaction and thus more promising. It is shown that due to the requirement of fragment survival this distribution is determined mainly by the asymptotic of the {sup 6}He wave function. Large sensitivity to the outer part of the halo structure gives a unique possibility to estimate the admixture of s-waves in the ground states of {sup 11}Li and {sup 14}Be directly from the momentum distribution of {sup 10}Li (in fragmentation of {sup 11}Li) and from the momentum distribution of {sup 13}Be (in fragmentation of {sup 14}Be). The shell structure of these nuclei is of great interest in understanding the neutron-halo properties. (orig.)

  1. Mass distribution of fission fragments using SSNTDs based image analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolekar, R.V.; Sharma, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Lexan polycarbonate track detector was used to obtain mass distribution of fission fragments from 252 Cf planchette source, Normally, if the fission fragments are incident perpendicular to the lexan surface, the diameter of heavy fragment is greater than that of lighter fragment. In practical problems fission fragments are incident on the detector at all angles. So, in the present experiment, lexan detector was exposed to 252 Cf planchette source in 2π geometry. Fission fragments were incident on the detector with various angles. So the projected fission track length for fission fragment of same energy is different because of different angle of incidence. Image analysis software was used to measure the projected track length. But the problem is that for fission fragment having greater angle of incidence the entire track length is not focused on the surface. So reduced track length is measured. This problem is solved by taking two images, one at the surface and one at the tip of track and then overlapping both the images using image analysis software. The projected track length and the depth of the track were used to get the angle of incidence. Fission track lengths were measured for same angle of incidence. In all 500 track lengths were measured and plot for mass distribution for fission fragment was obtained.(author)

  2. Novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions in the sequential fragmentation process and in the percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel scaling of the multiplicity distributions is found in the shattering phase of the sequential fragmentation process with inhibition. The same scaling law is shown to hold in the percolation process. (author)

  3. Analysis of dependence of fission cross section and angular anisotropy of the 235U fission fragment escape induced by neutrons of intermediate energies (epsilon < or approximately200 keV) on target nucleus orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on dependence of fission cross section Σsub(f) (epsilon) and angular anisotropy W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg) of sup(235)U fission fragment escape by neutrons with energy epsilon=100 and 200 keV on orientation of target nuclei are analyzed. 235 U (Isup(πsub(0))=7/2sup(-)) nuclei were orientated at the expense of interaction of quadrupole nucleus momenta with nonuniform electric field of uranyl-rubidium nitrate crystal at crystal cooling to T=0.2 K. The analysis was carried out with three different sets of permeability factors T(epsilon). Results of the analysis weakly depend on T(epsilon) choice. It is shown that a large number of adjusting parameters (six fissionabilities γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and six momenta sub(Jsup(π))) permit to described experimental data on Σsub(f)(epsilon) and W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg), obtained at epsilon=200 keV by introducing essential dependence of γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and sub(Jsup(π)) on Jsup(π). Estimations of fission cross sections Σsub(f)(epsilon) and angular distribution W(epsilon, n vector) up to T approximately equal to 0.01 K in two geometries of the experiment: the orientation axis is parallel and perpendicular to momentum direction p vector of incident neutrons, are conducted

  4. Carbon K-shell photoionization of CO: Molecular frame angular distributions of normal and conjugate shakeup satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Titze, J.; Foucar, L.; Wallauer, R.; Osipov, T.; Benis, E.P.; Jagutzki, O.; Arnold, W.; Czasch, A.; Staudte, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Alnaser, A.; Weber, T.; Prior, M.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the molecular frame angular distributions of photoelectrons emitted from the Carbon K-shell of fixed-in-space CO molecules for the case of simultaneous excitation of the remaining molecular ion. Normal and conjugate shakeup states are observed. Photoelectrons belonging to normal Σ-satellite lines show an angular distribution resembling that observed for the main photoline at the same electron energy. Surprisingly a similar shape is found for conjugate shakeup states with Π-symmetry. In our data we identify shake rather than electron scattering (PEVE) as the mechanism producing the conjugate lines. The angular distributions clearly show the presence of a Σ shape resonance for all of the satellite lines.

  5. Fragment mass distribution of proton-induced spallation reaction with intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Sheng; Ye Yanlin; Xu Chuncheng; Chen Tao; Sobolevsky, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The test of part benchmark of SHIELD code is finished. The fragment cross section and mass distribution and excitation function of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thin Pb target with intermediate energy have been calculated by SHIELD code. And the results are in good agreement with measured data. The fragment mass distribution of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thick Pb target with incident energy 1.6 GeV have been simulated

  6. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos{sup n} {theta}, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, {theta} is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R{sup 0.25} where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = {alpha} Kn{sub 0}{sup -0.25}, where Kn{sub 0}{sup -1} is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and {alpha} is the constant. (author)

  7. Angular distributions of atomic vapor stream produced by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Amekawa, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Takemasa

    1997-03-01

    The angular distributions were measured as a function of deposition rate for aluminium, copper, gadolinium and cerium vapor stream produced by an electron beam gun with water-cooled copper crucible. The distributions were recorded on the mounted on a semicircular (120mm in radius) mask over the evaporation source. The measured distributions were able to be described by a simple cosine law, that is cos n θ, except for the case of extremely high evaporation rate with a porous material, where n is a rate-dependent beaming exponent, θ is the angle from the vertical. For many kinds of evaporants, it was confirmed that the beaming exponents increase continuously from unity to 3 or 4 with increasing deposition rate and are approximately proportional to R 0.25 where R is the deposition rate. Moreover, it was found that the beaming exponents n are able to be expressed as n = α Kn 0 -0.25 , where Kn 0 -1 is the inverse of Knudsen number, which is defined by the mean free path of evaporated atoms and the evaporation spot size, and α is the constant. (author)

  8. On the second spherical harmonics of the cosmics ray angular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, J.

    1974-12-01

    In order to describe the semi-diurnal variation of the cosmic ray intensity the convection-diffusion theory has been extended by considering the second moments of cosmic ray angular distribution and those of the statistical Boltzmann equation. The quadrupole moment of the directional distribution has been represented by a symmetric traceloss tensor whose elements correspond to the five independent spherical harmonics of second order. The results are basically in agreement with the earlier published ones. However, by contrast with these earlier results, in the present model a different particle flux is predicted from the directions along the magnetic field and normal to the ecliptic plane, respectively, and the interplanetary magnetic field lines are being bent and diverging. The second harmonics of the anisotropy depend on the global feature of the mean free path between the sun and the earth. Arguments are also brought forward that a sunward stream along the interplanetary magnetic field lines gives rise to a distribution of the pitch angle type. (Sz.Z.)

  9. The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that for planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68 percent of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.

  10. Final results for the excitation function and angular distributions of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongqing; Zhou Zuying; Qi Bujia; Zhou Chenwei; Du Yanfeng; Xia Haihong; Chen Zemin; Chen Zhenpeng; Chen Yingtang

    1998-01-01

    The final relative excitation function of the 3 H(d,n) 4 He rection at 0 degree is shown out. For comparison, a curve calculated from Drosg's HI-13 tandem is in progressplotted. The angular distributions of the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction at E d =13.36, 16.50 and 19.50 Mev in the center-of-mass system are shown out. A comparison of the legendre polynomial coefficients obtained from the present angular distribution data with Drosg's evaluation are reported

  11. Partial Photoionization Cross Sections and Angular Distributions for Double Excitation of Helium up to the N=13 Threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czasch, A.; Schoeffler, M.; Hattass, M.; Schoessler, S.; Jahnke, T.; Weber, Th.; Staudte, A.; Titze, J.; Wimmer, C.; Kammer, S.; Weckenbrock, M.; Voss, S.; Grisenti, R.E.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt, L.Ph.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Rost, J.M.; Schneider, T.; Liu, C.-N.

    2005-01-01

    Partial photoionization cross sections σ N (E γ ) and photoelectron angular distributions β N (E γ ) were measured for the final ionic states He + (N>4) in the region between the N=8 and N=13 thresholds (E γ >78.155 eV) using the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy technique (COLTRIMS). Comparison of the experimental data with two independent sets of theoretical predictions reveals disagreement for the branching ratios to the various He N + states. The angular distributions just below the double ionization threshold suggest an excitation process for highly excited N states similar to the Wannier mechanism for double ionization

  12. Calculation of energy and angular distributions of the bremsstrahlung of 10 MeV electrons bombarding a thick tungsten target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsovbun, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Computer calculations have been performed to extend the data available on energy and angular distribution of the 10 MeV electron bremsrahlung into a higher angle region. The ETRAN-16D program developed by R.G.Berger for calculation of electron-photon cascades passing through matter using computers IBM-360 and UNIVAC-1108 was modified to operate with the CDC-6500 computer. A brief summary of the program is provided. An angular distribution of the bremsstrahlung dose absorbed in the air has been also calculated. The results extended into the 90-180 deg region can be used to calculate the biological shield of electron accelerators

  13. Measurements of angular and energy distributions of gamma-rays resulting from neutron interactions in shielding barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarious, A.S.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Megahid, R.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of both angular and energy distributions of secondary gamma resulting from interactions of neutrons emerging from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor beam holes, in barriers from iron, lead and water are reported. The measurements were carried out, both with a bare neutron beam and with the beam being transmitted through a B4C. Filter, using a stilbene crystal gamma spectrometer. The spectrometer applies discrimination between neutrons and gammas according to the difference in decay times of the scintillations produced by them in stilbene. The described angular distributions resulted from measurements made at different angles of neutron incidence and with three different thicknesses of each sample

  14. Variable Mixed Orbital Character in the Photoelectron Angular Distribution of NO_{2}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Benjamin A.; Cavanagh, Steven J.; Lewis, Brenton R.; Gibson, Stephen T.

    2017-06-01

    NO_{2} a key component of photochemical smog and an important species in the Earth's atmosphere, is an example of a molecule which exhibits significant mixed orbital character in the HOMO. In photoelectron experiments the geometric properties of the parent anion orbital are reflected in the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD), an area of research that has benefited largely from the ability of velocity-map imaging (VMI) to simultaneously record both the energetic and angular information, with 100% collection efficiency. Photoelectron spectra of NO_{2}^{-}, taken over a range of wavelengths (355nm-520nm) with the ANU's VMI spectrometer, reveal an anomalous jump in the anisotropy parameter near threshold. Consequently, the orbital behavior of NO_{2}^{-} appears to be quite different near threshold compared to detachment at higher photon energies. This surprising effect is due to the Wigner Threshold law, which causes p orbital character to dominate the photodetachment cross-section near threshold, before the mixed s/d orbital character becomes significant at higher electron kinetic energies. By extending recent work on binary character models to form a more general expression, the variable mixed orbital character of NO_{2}^{-} is able to be described. This study provides the first multi-wavelength NO_{2} anisotropy data, which is shown to be in decent agreement with much earlier zero-core model predictions of the anisotropy parameter. K. J. Reed, A. H. Zimmerman, H. C. Andersen, and J. I. Brauman, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 1368, (1976). doi:10.1063/1.432404 D. Khuseynov, C. C. Blackstone, L. M. Culberson, and A. Sanov, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 124312, (2014). doi:10.1063/1.4896241 W. B. Clodius, R. M. Stehman, and S. B. Woo, Phys. Rev. A. 28, 760, (1983). doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.28.760 Research supported by the Australian Research Council Discovery Project Grant DP160102585

  15. Angular evolution of peripheral heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Jacmart, J.C; Roynette, J.C

    1985-01-01

    Energy spectra and angular distributions of projectile-like fragments have been measured in the vicinity of the grazing angle for the 40 Ar+ 40 Ca and 40 Ar+ 208 Pb reactions at 44MeV/nucleon. Measurements of the 40 Ar+ 40 Ca system at 27MeV/nucleon and 20 Ne+ 208 Pb reaction at 44MeV/nucleon at one angle have also been performed. For fragments with charge and mass close to the projectile numerous deviations from the standard fragmentation model have been observed including rapidly changing shapes of the angular distributions with the fragment mass. Moreover the isotopic distributions and mean fragment velocities are strongly dependent on detection angle. A surface transfer reaction component dominant at the grazing angle can be separated from a second component which cannot be entirely accounted for by a simple fragmentation mechanism

  16. Photoelectron angular distribution from free SiO2 nanoparticles as a probe of elastic electron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, E; Langer, B; Halfpap, I; Gottwald, J; Rühl, E

    2017-06-28

    In order to gain quantitative information on the surface composition of nanoparticles from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a detailed understanding of photoelectron transport phenomena in these samples is needed. Theoretical results on the elastic and inelastic scattering have been reported, but a rigorous experimental verification is lacking. We report in this work on the photoelectron angular distribution from free SiO 2 nanoparticles (d = 122 ± 9 nm) after ionization by soft X-rays above the Si 2p and O 1s absorption edges, which gives insight into the relative importance of elastic and inelastic scattering channels in the sample particles. The photoelectron angular anisotropy is found to be lower for photoemission from SiO 2 nanoparticles than that expected from the theoretical values for the isolated Si and O atoms in the photoelectron kinetic energy range 20-380 eV. The reduced angular anisotropy is explained by elastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectrons from neighboring atoms, smearing out the atomic distribution. Photoelectron angular distributions yield detailed information on photoelectron elastic scattering processes allowing for a quantification of the number of elastic scattering events the photoelectrons have undergone prior to leaving the sample. The interpretation of the experimental photoelectron angular distributions is complemented by Monte Carlo simulations, which take inelastic and elastic photoelectron scattering into account using theoretical values for the scattering cross sections. The results of the simulations reproduce the experimental photoelectron angular distributions and provide further support for the assignment that elastic and inelastic electron scattering processes need to be considered.

  17. Inner-shell photoelectron angular distributions from fixed-in-space OCS molecules: comparison between experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, A V [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, 198504 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Adachi, J [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Motoki, S [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, (Japan); Takahashi, M [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Yagishita, A [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-28

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) for O 1s, C 1s and S 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2} ionization of OCS molecules have been measured in shape resonance regions. These PAD results are compared with the results for O 1s and C 1s ionization of CO molecules, and multi-scattering X{alpha} (MSX{alpha}) calculations. The mechanism of the PAD formation both for parallel and perpendicular transitions differs very significantly in these molecules and a step from a two-centre potential (CO) to a three-centre potential (OCS) plays a principal role in electron scattering and the formation of the resulting PAD. For parallel transitions, it is found that for the S 2p and O 1s ionization the photoelectrons are emitted preferentially in a hemisphere directed to the ionized S and O atom, respectively. In OCS O 1s ionization, the S-C fragment plays the role of a strong 'scatterer' for photoelectrons, and in the shape resonance region most intensities of the PADs are concentrated on the region directed to the O atom. The MSX{alpha} calculations for perpendicular transitions reproduce the experimental data, but not so well as in the case of parallel transitions. The results of PAD, calculated with different l{sub max} on different atomic centres, reveal the important role of the d (l = 2) partial wave for the S atom in the partial wave decompositions of photoelectron wavefunctions.

  18. Multiplicity distributions of shower particles and target fragments in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. *Corresponding ... describes the probability distributions of different quantities [17–19]. ... In the Monte Carlo method, let Rij denote random numbers in [0,1].

  19. Distribution of rock fragments and their effects on hillslope soil erosion in purple soil, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-04-01

    Purple soil is widely distributed in Sichuan Basin and Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Purple soil region is abundant in soil fertility and hydrothermal resources, playing an important role in the agricultural development of China. Soil erosion has long been recognized as a major environmental problem in the purple soil region where the population is large and slope farming is commonly practiced, and rainstorm is numerous. The existence of rock fragments is one of the most important characteristics of purple soil. Rock fragments at the soil surface or in the soil layer affect soil erosion processes by water in various direct and indirect ways, thus the erosion processes of soil containing rock fragments have unique features. Against the severe soil degradation by erosion of purple soil slope, carrying out the research about the characteristics of purple soil containing rock fragments and understanding the influence of rock fragments on soil erosion processes have important significance, which would promote the rational utilization of purple soil slope land resources and accurate prediction of purple soil loss. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of rock fragments in purple soil slope and the impact of rock fragment content on soil physical properties and soil erosion. First, field sampling methods were used to survey the spatial variability of rock fragments in soil profiles and along slope and the physical properties of soils containing rock fragments. Secondly, indoor simulated rainfall experiments were used to exam the effect of rock fragments in the soil layer on soil erosion processes and the relationships between rainfall infiltration, change of surface flow velocity, surface runoff volume and sediment on one hand, and rock fragment content (Rv, 0% 30%, which was determined according the results of field investigation for rock fragment distribution) on the other were investigated. Thirdly, systematic analysis about the

  20. An apparatus to study the energy and angular distributions of electron-bremsstrahlung photons from gaseous targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Namita; Bhatt, Pragya; Singh, Raj; Singh, B.K.; Quarles, C.A.; Shanker, R.

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus is developed to measure the energy- and angular distributions of bremsstrahlung generated from collisions of energetic electrons with isolated atoms and molecules. A considerable reduction of thick target bremsstrahlung (TTB) background produced by scattered electrons from the chamber wall is achieved. Details of the experimental setup with regard to design of its components, experimental technique, data acquisition and analysis etc. are given and discussed. The reliability and performance of the setup are demonstrated by obtaining some test results on angular- and energy distributions of bremsstrahlung produced in collisions of 4.0 keV electrons with free argon atoms. These results are compared with the theoretical predictions of the ordinary- and the polarization bremsstrahlung emissions. In this comparison, the experimental data for energy distributions of BS photons are found to be in reasonable agreement while they are found to have noticeable differences in shape of angular distributions. - Highlights: • Experimental setup is developed to study DDCS of electron-bremsstrahlung from gaseous targets. • TTB from scattering chamber's wall is reduced appreciably by using a teflon cylinder. • Shape of DDCS of bremsstrahlung compared with the theories shows a satisfactory match. • Angular distributions of bremsstrahlung show anisotropy but still affected by TTB background photons

  1. A remodelling metric for angular fibre distributions and its application to diseased carotid bifurcations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creane, Arthur

    2012-07-01

    Many soft biological tissues contain collagen fibres, which act as major load bearing constituents. The orientation and the dispersion of these fibres influence the macroscopic mechanical properties of the tissue and are therefore of importance in several areas of research including constitutive model development, tissue engineering and mechanobiology. Qualitative comparisons between these fibre architectures can be made using vector plots of mean orientations and contour plots of fibre dispersion but quantitative comparison cannot be achieved using these methods. We propose a \\'remodelling metric\\' between two angular fibre distributions, which represents the mean rotational effort required to transform one into the other. It is an adaptation of the earth mover\\'s distance, a similarity measure between two histograms\\/signatures used in image analysis, which represents the minimal cost of transforming one distribution into the other by moving distribution mass around. In this paper, its utility is demonstrated by considering the change in fibre architecture during a period of plaque growth in finite element models of the carotid bifurcation. The fibre architecture is predicted using a strain-based remodelling algorithm. We investigate the remodelling metric\\'s potential as a clinical indicator of plaque vulnerability by comparing results between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid bifurcations. Fibre remodelling was found to occur at regions of plaque burden. As plaque thickness increased, so did the remodelling metric. A measure of the total predicted fibre remodelling during plaque growth, TRM, was found to be higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group. Furthermore, a measure of the total fibre remodelling per plaque size, TRM\\/TPB, was found to be significantly higher in the symptomatic vessels. The remodelling metric may prove to be a useful tool in other soft tissues and engineered scaffolds where fibre adaptation is also present.

  2. Extracting CKM phases and Bs-B-bars mixing parameters from angular distributions of non-leptonic B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, A.S.; Dunietz, I.; Fleischer, R.

    1998-04-01

    Suggestions for efficiently determining the lifetimes and mass difference of the light and heavy B s mesons (B L s , B H s ) from B s →J/ψφ, D *+ s D *- s decays are given. Using appropriate weighting functions for the angular distributions of the decay products (moment analysis), one can extract (Γ H , Γ L , Δm) Bs . Such a moment analysis allows the determination of the relative magnitudes and phases of the CP-odd and CP-even decay amplitudes. Efficient determinations of CP-violating effects occurring in B s →J/ψφ, D *+ s D *- s are discussed in the light of a possible width difference (ΔΓ) Bs , and the utility of this method for B→J/ψK * , D *+ s D-bar * decays is noted. Since our approach is very general, it can in principle be applied to all kings of angular distributions and allows the determination of all relevant observables, including fundamental CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) parameters, as well as tests of various aspects of the factorization hypothesis. Explicit angular distributions and weighting functions are given, and the general method that can be used for any angular distribution is indicated. (author)

  3. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) Package. Version 1.2. Long Write Up and User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Altaisky, M V; Soloviev, A G; Stadnik, A V; Shitov, A B

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. WASP package is based on wavelet transform algorithms. This work includes the user's guide, description of algorithms and mathematical methods, graphical user interface. We have also analyzed what problems of nuclear physics can be tackled with WASP.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of energy and angular distributions of transmitted and backscattered neutrons of 15 MeV incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, M.; Faied, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique was used to generate both energy and angular distributions of transmitted and backscattered neutrons incident on infinite graphite slabs of thicknesses ranging from 1-90 cm. Point isotropic and parallel beams of 15 MeV neutrons were used. A computer program was developed to simulate collisions by fast neutrons. (author)

  5. Computation of aquatic primary production: Extended formalism to include effect of angular and spectral distribution of light

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathyendranath, S.; Platt, T.

    and utilization by algal cells. Neglecting the effect of angular distribution on the light absorbed by phytoplankton can lead to underestimation of primary production. For the stations studied as examples, the minimum correction required is 5-l3% for daily, column...

  6. A semi-classical model for the description of angular distribution of light particles emitted in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingshang

    1990-04-01

    A semi-classical model of multi-step direct and compound nuclear reactions has been proposed to describe the angular distributions of light particles emitted in reaction processes induced by nucleons with energies of several tens of MeV. The exact closed solution for the time-dependent master equation of the exciton model is applied. Based on the Fermi gas model, the scattering kernel for two-nucleon collisions includes the influence of the Fermi motion and the Pauli exclusion principle, which give a significant improvement in the description of the rise of the backward distributions. The angle-energy correlation for the first few steps of the collision process (multi-step direct process) yields further improvements in the description of the angular distribution. The pick-up mechanism is employed to describe the composite particle emission. This reasonable physical picture reproduces the experimental data of the energy spectra of composite particles satisfactorily. The angular distribution of the emitted composite particles is determined by an angular factor in terms of the momentum conservation of the nucleons forming the composite cluster. The generalized master equation is employed for the multi-step compound process. Thus a classical approach has been established to calculate the double differential cross sections for all kinds of particles emitted in multi-step nuclear reaction processes. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  7. Cationization increases brain distribution of an amyloid-beta protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment

    OpenAIRE

    Syvänen, Stina; Edén, Desireé; Sehlin, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies and fragments thereof are, because of high selectivity for their targets, considered as potential therapeutics and biomarkers for several neurological disorders. However, due to their large molecular size, antibodies/fragments do not easily penetrate into the brain. The aim of the present study was to improve the brain distribution via adsorptive-mediated transcytosis of an amyloid-beta (A beta) protofibril selective F(ab')2 fragment (F(ab')2-h158). F(ab')2-h158 was cationized to d...

  8. Characterizing the spatial distribution of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in fragmented forest landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.; Ye, X.P.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution of the entire wild giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population, and to propose a modelling approach for monitoring the spatial distribution and habitat of pandas at the landscape scale using Moderate Resolution Imaging

  9. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  10. Charge distributions and correlations in fragmentation models for soft hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    1984-01-01

    Data on charge distributions and charge correlations in pp and meson-proton interactions at PS and SPS energies are successfully compared with the Lund fragmentation model for low-psub(T) hadron collisions. It is argued that local conservation of quantum numbers and resonance production, as implemented in fragmentation models, are sufficient ingredients to explain most of the available experimental results at these energies. No necessity is found for dual-sheet contributions considered in DTU-based parton models. (orig.)

  11. Femtosecond laser control of the angular distribution of electrons due to autoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajema, M.L.; Jones, R.R.; Gallagher, T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Using two 500-fs laser pulses and a controlled time delay between them we are able to manipulate the angular distributions of the electrons ejected by autoionization of Ca atoms in the 4p 3/2 21s and 4p 3/2 19d states. Subsequent to their isolated core excitation by a 500-fs 393-nm laser pulse, Ca 4p 3/2 21s(19d) Rydberg atoms coherently evolve, via configuration interaction, into the degenerate 4p 1/2 ns(nd) states. While in the 4p 1/2 ns(nd) states atoms can be de-excited to bound 4sns(nd) levels using a 500-fs 397-nm pulse. Removing these atoms from the autoionizing states leads to a greater fraction of electrons leaving the atom along the direction of the laser polarization than is possible through direct excitation of 4 3/2 ns(nd) or 4p 1/2 ns(nd) using either the 393- or 397-nm pulse alone

  12. The calibration of elastic scattering angular distribution at low energies on HIRFL-RIBLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.X. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, G.L., E-mail: zgl@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lin, C.J., E-mail: cjlin@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Qu, W.W. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University, Soochow 215123 (China); Yang, L.; Ma, N.R. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zheng, L. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, H.M.; Sun, L.J. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Liu, X.X.; Chu, X.T.; Yang, J.C. [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, J.S.; Xu, S.W.; Ma, P.; Ma, J.B.; Jin, S.L.; Bai, Z.; Huang, M.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zang, H.L. [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); and others

    2017-02-21

    The precise calibration of angular distribution of heavy-ion elastic scattering induced by Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at energies around Coulomb barrier on the Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) at the Heavy-Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is presented. The beam profile and the scattering angles on the target are deduced by a measurement with two Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), and four sets of detector telescopes (including Double-sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSD) placed systematically along the beam line, incorporating with Monte Carlo simulation. The MWPCs were used to determine the beam trajectory before the target, and the energies and the positions of scattered particles on the detectors were measured by the DSSDs. Minor corrections on the beam spot and the detector position are performed by assuming the pure Rutherford scattering at angles which are smaller than the related grazing angle. This method is applied for the elastic scattering of {sup 17}F on {sup 89}Y target at E{sub lab}=59 MeV and 50 MeV.

  13. Role of screening and angular distributions in resonant soft-x-ray emission of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the present work the authors focus on two particular properties of resonant X-ray emission, namely core hole screening of the excited electron, and anisotropy caused by the polarization of the exciting synchrotron radiation. The screening of the core hole by the excited electron causes energy shifts and intensity variations in resonant spectra compared to the non-resonant case. The linear polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the dipole nature of the absorption process create a preferential alignment selection of the randomly oriented molecules in the case of resonant excitation, producing an anisotropy in the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays. The authors have chosen CO for this study because this molecule has previously served as a showcase for non-resonant X-ray emission, mapping the valence electronic structure differently according to the local selection rules. With the present work they take interest in how this characteristic feature of the spectroscopy is represented in the resonant case.

  14. Angular distribution of scattered electron and medium energy electron spectroscopy for metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Takeo; Ishioka, Hisamichi; Fukuda, Hisashi; Irako, Mitsuhiro

    1986-01-01

    The angular distribution (AD) of scattered electrons produced by medium energy incident electrons (E P = 50 ∼ 300 eV) from polycrystalline Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu and Au were obtained by the angle-resolved medium energy electron spectrometer. The AD of the energy loss peaks are similar figures to AD of the elastically reflected electron peaks. Therefore, the exchanged electrons produced by the knock-on collision between the incident electrons and those of metals without momentum transfer are observed as the energy loss spectra (ELS). This interpretation differs from the inconsequent interpretation by the dielectric theory or the interband transition. The information depth and penetration length are obtained from AD of the Auger electron peaks. The contribution of the surface to spectra is 3 % at the maximum for E P = 50 eV. The true secondary peaks representing the secondary electron emission spectroscopy (SES) are caused by the emissions of the energetic electrons (kT e ≥ 4 eV), and SES is the inversion of ELS. The established fundamental view is that the medium energy electron spectra represent the total bulk density of states. (author)

  15. Considerations on the determining factors of the angular distribution of emitted particles in laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Asaoka, T.

    2010-01-01

    Simulations of particles which are emitted in laser ablation have been performed by the method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo to investigate the deposition profiles of the emitted particles. The influences of the temperature, pressure and stream velocity of the initial evaporated layer formed during laser ablation process on the profile of the deposited film have been examined. It is found that the temperature gives a minor influence on the deposition profile, whereas the stream velocity and the pressure of the initial evaporated layer have a greater impact on the deposition profile. The energy in the direction of surface normal (E perpendicular ) and that in the parallel direction of the surface (E || ) are shown to increase and decrease, respectively after the laser irradiation due to collisions between the emitted particles, and this trend is magnified as the pressure increases. As a consequence, the stream velocity in the direction of surface normal increases with the increase in the pressure. A mechanism of the phenomenon that a metal with a lower sublimation energy shows a broader angular distribution of emitted particles is presented. It is suggested that low density of evaporated layer of a metal with a low sublimation energy at its melting point decreases the number of collisions in the layer, leading to the low stream velocity in the direction of surface normal, which results in the broader deposition profile of the emitted particles.

  16. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.

    1999-01-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  17. Time-resolved and integrated angular distributions of plume ions from silver at low and medium laser fluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Laser impact on metals in the UV regime results in a significant number of ablated plume ions even at moderate fluence (0.7–2.4 J/cm2). The ablated particles are largely neutrals at the lowest fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence. The ion flow in different directions...... from a silver target irradiated by a laser beam at a wavelength of 355 nm in vacuum was measured with a hemispherical array of Langmuir probes. The time-of-flight spectra in all directions, as well as the total angular yield were determined. The angular distribution peaks strongly in forward direction...

  18. Some elementary viewpoints on the recording and analysis of angular distributions in experimental fast neutron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedling, T.

    1980-01-01

    Total neutron elastic scattering cross-sections are usually estimated from the angular distributions of the differential cross sections. This circumstance makes some demands on the quality of the collection and evaluation of experimental differential cross-section data. In the present paper some problems associated with such measurements and effects which influence the analytical descriptions of the observations are discussed. Part of the paper is concerned with the problem of the proper fitting of a Legendre polynomial expansion to an experimental distribution which can only be recorded in a limited angular interval because of the geometrical dimensions of the shielding of a huge neutron detector. The effects of small angular shifts of some data points in the forward direction of angular distribution are discussed in some specific cases, namely for 209 Bi and 208 Pb at 8.05 and 25.7 MeV, respectively. Such shifts may be associated with a false position of the zero angle of the detector. A method is proposed for calibrating the zero-angle direction of the detector and some experimental results are reported. (orig.)

  19. Mass distribution of fission fragments within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B. [M.C.S. University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Lublin (Poland); Ivanyuk, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    The fission fragments mass-yield of {sup 236} U is obtained by an approximate solution of the eigenvalue problem of the collective Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of the fission process whose degrees of freedom are: the fission (elongation), the neck and mass-asymmetry modes. The macroscopic-microscopic method is used to evaluate the potential energy surface. The macroscopic energy part is calculated using the liquid drop model and the microscopic corrections are obtained using a Woods-Saxon single-particle levels. The four-dimensional modified Cassini ovals shape parametrization is used to describe the shape of the fissioning nucleus. The mass tensor is taken within a cranking-type approximation. The final fragment mass distribution is obtained by weighting the adiabatic density distribution in the collective space with the neck-dependent fission probability. The neck degree of freedom is found to play a significant role in determining the final fragment mass distribution. (orig.)

  20. The particle size distribution of fragmented melt debris from molten fuel coolant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.F.

    1984-04-01

    Results are presented of a study of the types of statistical distributions which arise when examining debris from Molten Fuel Coolant Interactions. The lognormal probability distribution and the modifications of this distribution which result from the mixing of two distributions or the removal of some debris are described. Methods of fitting these distributions to real data are detailed. A two stage fragmentation model has been developed in an attempt to distinguish between the debris produced by coarse mixing and fine scale fragmentation. However, attempts to fit this model to real data have proved unsuccessful. It was found that the debris particle size distributions from experiments at Winfrith with thermite generated uranium dioxide/molybdenum melts were Upper Limit Lognormal. (U.K.)

  1. Photoelectron Angular Distributions of Transition Metal Dioxide Anions - a joint experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Ivan; Gunaratne, Dasitha; Harmon, Christopher; Sofo, Jorge; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of the MO2- (M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Co, Rh) clusters are presented for the first time along with theoretical calculations of their properties. We confirm previously reported non-angular PES results for the vertical detachment energies (VDE), vibrational energies and geometric structures of these clusters and further explore the effect of the 'lanthanide contraction' on the MO2- clusters by comparing the electronic spectra of 4d and 5d transition metal dioxides. Angular-resolved PES provides the angular momentum contributions to the HOMO of these clusters and we use theoretical calculations to examine the HOMO and compare to our experimental results. First-principles calculations are done using both density functional theory (DFT) and the coupled-cluster, singles, doubles and triples (CCSD(T)) methods.

  2. Dynamics of multidissociation paths of acetaldehyde photoexcited at 157 nm: Branching ratios, distributions of kinetic energy, and angular anisotropies of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Huang

    2009-11-01

    After the photolysis of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 157.6 nm in a molecular-beam apparatus using photofragment translational spectroscopy and vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization to detect products, we observed 13 photofragments associated with six primary dissociation channels and secondary dissociation of products CH3CO and HCO. We measured time-of-flight spectra and spatial angular anisotropies of products and evaluated the branching ratios of products. All photoproducts have nearly isotropic angular distributions with an average |β| value less than 0.05. Primary dissociations to CH3CO+H and CH3+HCO are two major paths; most CH3CO subsequently decomposes spontaneously to CH3+CO and CH2CO+H and most HCO decomposes to H+CO. The ternary dissociation to CH3+CO+H thus accounts for approximately half of the total branching. Dissociations to CH2CO+H2 and CH2+CH2O are observable, but the production of CH4+CO is ambiguous. The productions of C2H3+OH and C2H2+H2O indicate that isomerization from acetaldehyde to ethenol occurs before fragmentation. After photoexcitation to the n-3p state, most acetaldehyde converts into states T1 and S0 but a little isomerizes to ethenol followed by multichannel decomposition.

  3. Study of the angular momentum distribution of compound nuclei obtained from fusion reactions close to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, P.

    1990-03-01

    The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16 O + 144 Nd and 80 Se + 80 Se reactions produce the same 160 Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared [fr

  4. Nondipole effects in the angular distribution of photoelectrons from the C K shell of the CO molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, K.; Teramoto, T.; Adachi, J.; Yagishita, A.; Golovin, A. V.; Takahashi, M.; Watanabe, N.; Jahnke, T.; Weber, Th.; Schoeffler, M.; Schmidt, L.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Osipov, T.; Prior, M. H.; Landers, A. L.; Semenov, S. K.; Cherepkov, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements and calculations of a contribution of the nondipole terms in the angular distribution of photoelectrons from the C K shell of randomly oriented CO molecules are reported. In two sets of measurements, the angular distribution in the plane containing the photon polarization and the photon momentum vectors of linearly polarized radiation and the full three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distribution after absorption of circularly polarized light have been measured. Calculations have been performed in the relaxed core Hartree-Fock approximation with a fractional charge. Both theory and experiment show that the nondipole terms are very small in the photon energy region from the ionization threshold of the K shell up to about 70 eV above it

  5. A new statistical scission-point model fed with microscopic ingredients to predict fission fragments distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nucleus fission process is a very complex phenomenon and, even nowadays, no realistic models describing the overall process are available. The work presented here deals with a theoretical description of fission fragments distributions in mass, charge, energy and deformation. We have reconsidered and updated the B.D. Wilking Scission Point model. Our purpose was to test if this statistic model applied at the scission point and by introducing new results of modern microscopic calculations allows to describe quantitatively the fission fragments distributions. We calculate the surface energy available at the scission point as a function of the fragments deformations. This surface is obtained from a Hartree Fock Bogoliubov microscopic calculation which guarantee a realistic description of the potential dependence on the deformation for each fragment. The statistic balance is described by the level densities of the fragment. We have tried to avoid as much as possible the input of empirical parameters in the model. Our only parameter, the distance between each fragment at the scission point, is discussed by comparison with scission configuration obtained from full dynamical microscopic calculations. Also, the comparison between our results and experimental data is very satisfying and allow us to discuss the success and limitations of our approach. We finally proposed ideas to improve the model, in particular by applying dynamical corrections. (author)

  6. Formation and distribution of fragments in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Zhang, Chunli; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Background: Fission is a fundamental decay mode of heavy atomic nuclei. The prevalent theoretical approach is based on mean-field theory and its extensions where fission is modeled as a large amplitude motion of a nucleus in a multidimensional collective space. One of the important observables characterizing fission is the charge and mass distribution of fission fragments. Purpose: The goal of this Rapid Communication is to better understand the structure of fission fragment distributions by investigating the competition between the static structure of the collective manifold and the stochastic dynamics. In particular, we study the characteristics of the tails of yield distributions, which correspond to very asymmetric fission into a very heavy and a very light fragment. Methods: We use the stochastic Langevin framework to simulate the nuclear evolution after the system tunnels through the multidimensional potential barrier. For a representative sample of different initial configurations along the outer turning-point line, we define effective fission paths by computing a large number of Langevin trajectories. We extract the relative contribution of each such path to the fragment distribution. We then use nucleon localization functions along effective fission pathways to analyze the characteristics of prefragments at prescission configurations. Results: We find that non-Newtonian Langevin trajectories, strongly impacted by the random force, produce the tails of the fission fragment distribution of 240Pu. The prefragments deduced from nucleon localizations are formed early and change little as the nucleus evolves towards scission. On the other hand, the system contains many nucleons that are not localized in the prefragments even near the scission point. Such nucleons are distributed rapidly at scission to form the final fragments. Fission prefragments extracted from direct integration of the density and from the localization functions typically differ by more than

  7. The angular distributions of ultraviolet spectral irradiance at different solar elevation angles under clear sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, LiWen; Wang, Fang; Gao, YanYan; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Yu; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the angular distributions of UVA, UVB, and effective UV for erythema and vitamin D (vitD) synthesis, the UV spectral irradiances were measured at ten inclined angles (from 0° to 90°) and seven azimuths (from 0° to 180°) at solar elevation angle (SEA) that ranged from 18.8° to 80° in Shanghai (31.22° N, 121.55° E) under clear sky and the albedo of ground was 0.1. The results demonstrated that in the mean azimuths and with the back to the sun, the UVA, UVB, and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances increased with the inclined angles and an increase in SEA. When facing toward the sun at 0°-60° inclined angles, the UVA first increased and then decreased with an increase in SEA; at other inclined angles, the UVA increased with SEA. At 0°-40° inclined angles, the UVB and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances first increased and then decreased with an increase in SEA, and their maximums were achieved at SEA 68.7°; at other inclined angles, the above three irradiances increased with an increase in SEA. The maximum UVA, UVB, and erythemally and vitD-weighted irradiances were achieved at an 80° inclined angle at SEA 80° (the highest in our measurements); the cumulative exposure of the half day achieved the maximum at a 60° inclined angle, but not on the horizontal. This study provides support for the assessment of human skin sun exposure.

  8. Angular Distributions of High-Mass Dilepton Production in Hadron Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClellan, Randall Evan [Illinois U., Urbana

    2016-01-01

    λ has been performed, and the remaining difficulties in extracting ν have been evaluated. Although the results are not yet publishable, significant progress has been made in developing this very challenging angular distributions analysis. A simple scheme for correcting for the angular acceptances of the spectrometer, trigger, and reconstruction has been developed and demonstrated. A generally applicable correction for the kinematically-dependent, rate-dependent reconstruction efficiency has been developed and applied to all current analyses on SeaQuest data. This rate-dependence correction was the first major hurdle in the path to publication of many preliminary SeaQuest results. The last remaining major correction for all analyses, but especially important for the angular parameter extraction, is the full characterization, rate-dependence correction, and subtraction of the combinatoric background contribution to the reconstructed dimuon sample. Independently, an intuitive, kinematic derivation of the single-event definitions of the Drell-Yan angular parameters has been developed under the assumption of unpolarized annihilating quarks within unpolarized nuclei. At O(αs), where the quarks remain co-planar with the hadrons in the photon rest frame, this kinematic method reproduces the Lam-Tung relation and derives an additional equality for µ2, which is only interpretable for single-event parameters. This method has been extended to the case of quark non- coplanarity, and the coplanar equalities become inequalities. A new equality was discovered, which should be obeyed by single-event parameters even in the case of a non-coplanar quark axis. The non-coplanar parameter relations have been used to derive constraints on the experimentally accessible values of λ and ν. These constraints are compared with existing data and have been found consistent, except in the cases where significant contributions from non-zero Boer-Mulders functions are expected. Finally, the

  9. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results for molecular-frame photoemission are presented for inner-valence shell photoionization of the CO molecule induced by linearly and circularly polarized light. The experimental recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions (RFPADs) obtained from dissociative...... photoionization measurements where the velocities of the ionic fragment and photoelectron were detected in coincidence, are compared to RFPADs computed using the multichannel Schwinger configuration interaction method. The formalism for including a finite lifetime of the predissociative ion state is presented...... for the case of general elliptically polarized light, to obtain the RFPAD rather than the molecular frame photoelectron angular distribution (MFPAD), which would be obtained with the assumption of instantaneous dissociation. We have considered photoionization of CO for the photon energies of 26.0 eV, 29.5 e...

  10. Angular Distribution of Particles Emerging from a Diffusive Region and its Implications for the Fleck-Canfield Random Walk Algorithm for Implicit Monte Carlo Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M A

    2000-01-01

    We present various approximations for the angular distribution of particles emerging from an optically thick, purely isotropically scattering region into a vacuum. Our motivation is to use such a distribution for the Fleck-Canfield random walk method [1] for implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] radiation transport problems. We demonstrate that the cosine distribution recommended in the original random walk paper [1] is a poor approximation to the angular distribution predicted by transport theory. Then we examine other approximations that more closely match the transport angular distribution.

  11. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2012-05-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  12. Search for quark compositeness in dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Dellacasa, Giulio; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for quark compositeness using dijet angular distributions from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented. The search has been carried out using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. Normalized dijet angular distributions have been measured for dijet invariant masses from 0.4 TeV to above 3 TeV and compared with a variety of contact interaction models, including those which take into account the effects of next-to-leading-order QCD corrections. The data are found to be in agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD, and lower limits are obtained on the contact interaction scale, ranging from 7.5 up to 14.5 TeV at 95% confidence level.

  13. Neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with linearly polarized γ-ray beam generated by laser Compton scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Horikawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1957, Agodi predicted that the neutron angular distribution in (γ, n reactions with a 100% linearly polarized γ-ray beam for dipole excitation should be anisotropic and universally described by the simple function of a+b⋅cos⁡(2ϕ at the polar angle θ=90°, where ϕ is the azimuthal angle. However, this prediction has not been experimentally confirmed in over half a century. We have verified experimentally this angular distribution in the (γ, n reaction for 197Au, 127I, and natural Cu targets using linearly polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays. The result suggests that the (γ→, n reaction is a novel tool to study nuclear physics in the giant dipole resonance region.

  14. Angular distribution of species in pulsed laser deposition of La{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schneider, Christof W., E-mail: christof.schneider@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Döbeli, Max [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • The angular distribution of species was analyzed for different pressures. • Results show a non-congruent transfer of composition from target to substrate. • Film thickness and composition show different angular distributions. - Abstract: The angular distribution of species from a La{sub 0.4}Ca{sub 0.6}MnO{sub 3} target irradiated with a 248 nm nanosecond pulsed laser was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for four different Ar pressures. The film thickness angular distribution was also analyzed using profilometry. Depending on the background gas pressure, the target to substrate distance, and the angular location the film thickness and composition varies considerably. In particular the film composition could vary by up to 17% with respect to the composition of the target material.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Radial and Angular Distribution of γ-Ray's Energy Deposition in Scintillation Optical Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shibiao; Yin Zejie; Tang Yu; Huang Huan

    2006-01-01

    Angular and radial distributions of the energy deposition of γ-ray radiation in scintillation optical fibres are simulated and analysed using the Geant4 system. The results show a linear relation between the energy deposition and the radius of the fibres. The deposition is roughly inversely proportional to sinθ with θ the incident angle relative to the fibre axis. The results could provide corrections to the measurements of the scintillation fibres used in monitoring the γ-ray radiation

  16. Quantum deformation of the angular distributions of synchrotron radiation. Emission from particles in the first excited state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Burimova, A.N. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M.; Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    The exact expressions for the characteristics of synchrotron radiation of charged particles in the first excited state are obtained in analytical form using quantum theory methods. We performed a detailed analysis of the angular distribution structure of radiation power and its polarization for particles with spin 0 and 1/2. It is shown that the exact quantum calculations lead to results that differ substantially from the predictions of classical theory. (orig.)

  17. Simultaneous measurement of angular distribution of elastic scattering for 6Li, 7Be, and 8B in 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, A.; Martinez Q, E.; Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo O, G.; Lizcano C, D.; Gomez C, A.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental angular distributions of elastic scattering for the projectiles 6 Li, 7 Be, 8 B in 58 Ni were obtained. Using the Optical model with a Woods-Saxon potential form, as much for the real part as for the imaginary one, an adjustment to the experimental data varying only the depth of the imaginary part of the potential is made. A comparison of the results obtained for each projectile is made. (Author)

  18. Angular distributions of 250 GeV/c positive particles axially channeled in germanium crystal. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.R.; Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Williams, G.O.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Chrisman, B.L.; Toohig, T.E.; Guzik, Z.; Nigmanov, T.S.; Tsyganov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Channeling phenomena are observed for charged particles of momentum up to 250 GeV/c in a germanium crystal. The angular distributions of the channeled particles are compared with theoretical predictions based on a diffusion model. The results indicate additional mechanisms leading to dechanneling of the particles although channeling effects are observed for particles incident at up to several times the critical angle, in contrast with the results from low energy channeling. (orig.)

  19. Angular distributions of low kinetic energy photoelectrons in one- and two-photon ionisation of rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keeffe, P; Bolognesi, P; Avaldi, L; Richter, R; Moise, A; Cleva, P De; Mihelic, A

    2012-01-01

    The angular distributions of electrons emitted in the photoionisation of rare gas atoms using one and two photons are presented. The one-photon results show that these differential measurements can provide complementary information on the photoionisation event with respect to the measurement of the total absorption cross section while the two photon ionization allows additional parameters to be extracted from the experiments thus permitting a more complete description of the photoionisation dynamics.

  20. Angular distributions of the quasifree deuteron-proton and deuteron-neutron scattering in the reaction dd → dpn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism of the quasifree scattering (QFS) in the reaction dd → dpn has been investigated systematically by means of kinematically complete coincidence experiments using 52 MeV deuterons. In order to measure the angular distributions of the quasifree dp scattering and the quasifree dn scattering, the kinematical conditions were chosen to favour quasifree scattering of deuterons on bound nucleons of the target deuteron. (orig.) [de

  1. Resonant structure of the 3d electron's angular distribution in a free Mn+Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Dolmatov, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The 3d-electron angular anisotropy parameter of the free Mn + ion is calculated using the open-quotes spin-polarizedclose quotes random-phase approximation with exchange. Strong resonance structure is discovered, which is due to interference with the powerful 3p → 3d discrete excitation. The effect of the 3p → 4s transition is also noticeable. The ordering of these respective resonances with phonon energy increase proved to be opposite in angular anisotropy parameter to that in 3d-photoionization cross section. A paper describing these results was published

  2. Competition and fragmentation: a simple model generating lognormal-like distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaemmle, V; Queiros, S M D; Brigatti, E; Tchumatchenko, T

    2009-01-01

    The current distribution of language size in terms of speaker population is generally described using a lognormal distribution. Analyzing the original real data we show how the double-Pareto lognormal distribution can give an alternative fit that indicates the existence of a power law tail. A simple Monte Carlo model is constructed based on the processes of competition and fragmentation. The results reproduce the power law tails of the real distribution well and give better results for a poorly connected topology of interactions.

  3. Fragment production in 12-GeV proton-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yuichi; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohtsuka, Naohiko; Nara, Yasushi; Niida, Koji; Chiba, Satoshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    We study mass and angular distribution of Intermediate Mass Fragment (IMF) produced from p(12 GeV)+ 197 Au reaction by using JAM cascade model combined with percolation model. Although the mass distribution of IMF is well reproduced, the experimentally observed sideward peak of IMF angular distribution is not explained within present JAM + percolation model. (author)

  4. Encoding mutually unbiased bases in orbital angular momentum for quantum key distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We encode mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) using the higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom associated with optical fields. We illustrate how these states are encoded with the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM). We...

  5. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  6. On angularly perturbed Laplace equations in the unit ball of IR{sup n+2} and their distributional boundary values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massopust, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    All solutions of an in its angular coordinates continuously perturbed Laplace-Beltrami equation in the open unit ball IB{sup n+2} {contained_in} IR{sup n+2}, n {ge} 1, are characterized. Moreover, it is shown that such pertubations yield distributional boundary values which are different from, but algebraically and topologically equivalent to, the hyperfunctions of Lions & Magenes. This is different from the case of radially perturbed Laplace-Beltrami operators (cf. [7]) where one has stability of distributional boundary values under such perturbations.

  7. Observed mass distribution of spontaneous fission fragments from samples of lime - an SSNTD study

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, D; Ghose, D; Sastri, R C

    1999-01-01

    SSNTD is one of the most commonly used detectors in the studies involving nuclear phenomena. The ease of registration of the presence of alpha particles and fission fragments has made it particularly suitable in studies where stable long exposures are needed to extract reliable information. Studies on the presence of alpha emitting nuclides in the environment assume importance since they are found to be carcinogenic. Lime samples from Silchar in Assam of Eastern India have shown the presence of spontaneous fission fragments besides alphas. In the present study we look at the ratio of the average mass distribution of these fission fragments, that gives us an indication of the presence of the traces of transuranic elements.

  8. Reaction 40Ca+natCu at 35 MeV/nucleon measured with the AMPHORA multidetector. Study of the excitation energy and angular momentum of the reconstructed projectile-like fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhage, H.

    1992-10-01

    We have studied the reaction of 40 Ca with nat Cu at 35 MeV/nucleon with the AMPHORA multidetector. Three different reaction models were developed and we have shown that a simulation of the AMPHORA response is necessary to interpret the experimental results. Only two-body events were analyzed. Kinematic selection criterions, based on relative velocity, were used in order to isolate particles and residues coming from the de-excitation of the projectile-like fragment. The reconstitution of such a nucleus allowed to define the reaction plane and to calculate the energy balance event-by-event. We have proposed a method to determine the angular momentum based on the emission asymmetry of the light particles with respect to the normal to the reaction plane. The estimated angular momenta are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The projectile-like fragment temperature was estimated from the energy spectra of the light particles. The independent determination of the excitation energy, temperature and angular momentum allowed to calculate the level density parameter. This quantity does not evolve with the excitation energy and is equal to A/8. The projectile-like fragment de-excitation mode is mainly evaporation

  9. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-04-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (˜ 3×10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ˜35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements.

  10. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-01-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (∼ 3x10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ∼35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements

  11. Determination of size distribution of small DNA fragments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau How Mooi

    1998-01-01

    Size distribution determination of DNA fragments can be normally determined by the agarose gel electrophoresis, including the normal DNA banding pattern analysis. However this method is only good for large DNA, such as the DNA of the size of kilo base pairs to mega base pairs range. DNA of size less than kilo base pairs is difficult to be quantified by the agarose gel method. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis however can be used to measure the quantity of DNA fragments of size less than kilo base pairs in length, down to less than ten base pairs. This method is good for determining the quantity of the smaller size DNA, single stranded polymers or even some proteins, if the known standards are available. In this report detail description of the method of preparing the polyacrylamide gel, and the experimental set up is discussed. Possible uses of this method, and the comparison with the standard sizes of DNA is also shown. This method is used to determine the distribution of the amount of the fragmented DNA after the Calf-thymus DNA has been exposed to various types of radiation and of different doses. The standards were used to determine the sizes of the fragmented Calf-thymus DNA. The higher the dose the higher is the amount of the smaller size DNA measured

  12. Fission fragment mass distribution in the 13C+182W and 176Yb reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, K.; Hinde, D.J.; Dasgupta, M.; Williams, E.; Wakhle, A.; Luong, D.H.; Evers, M.; Carter, I.P.; Das, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions have been measured for many systems and found to be asymmetric in the fission of nuclei with nucleon number A in the range 228-258 and proton number Z in the range 90-100. For lighter systems, it has been observed that fission fragment mass distributions are usually symmetric. At high excitation energies the shell effects are expected to vanish and the nuclei are expected to behave like a charged liquid drop; hence, only symmetric fission is expected for all the nuclei. Even after much experimental and theoretical work in this field, the rate of damping of shell effects with excitation energy is not well known. This abstract reports our measurements with 13 C beams on 182 W and 176 Yb targets

  13. Formation of fission-fragment mass distribution for nuclei lighter than thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkis, M.G.; Mul'gin, S.I.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Okolovich, A.N.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    A phenomenological approach to description of fission-fragment mass distribution Y(M) for nuclei in the vicinity of Pb is developed and used to extract from the experimental Y(M) data the nuclear deformation potential energy V(M) and its components: the macroscopic (liquid-drop) part and the shell correction in the transition state. The results of the analysis are compared with the theoretically obtained V(M) and Y(M). The three-hump fragment-mass distributions observed in Ra fission are satisfactorily described within the framework of the approach developed. The properties of the symmetric and asymmetric fission valleys and the related Y(M) components are discussed

  14. Determining the dominant partial wave contributions from angular distributions of single- and double-polarization observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Y.; Afzal, F.; Thiel, A.; Beck, R. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    This work presents a simple method to determine the significant partial wave contributions to experimentally determined observables in pseudoscalar meson photoproduction. First, fits to angular distributions are presented and the maximum orbital angular momentum L{sub max} needed to achieve a good fit is determined. Then, recent polarization measurements for γp → π{sup 0}p from ELSA, GRAAL, JLab and MAMI are investigated according to the proposed method. This method allows us to project high-spin partial wave contributions to any observable as long as the measurement has the necessary statistical accuracy. We show, that high precision and large angular coverage in the polarization data are needed in order to be sensitive to high-spin resonance states and thereby also for the finding of small resonance contributions. This task can be achieved via interference of these resonances with the well-known states. For the channel γp → π{sup 0}p, those are the N(1680)(5)/(2){sup +} and Δ(1950)(7)/(2){sup +}, contributing to the F-waves. (orig.)

  15. Surface topography effects on energy-resolved polar angular distributions of electrons induced in heavy ion-Al collisions: experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischler, J.; Banouni, M.; Banazeth, C.; Negre, M.; Benazeth, N.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of the surface topography on the polar angular distributions of secondary electrons emitted in Ar + (and Xe - )-Al collisions was studied. After each set of experiments, the surface target was viewed by scanning electron microscope. Under normal incidence, continuum background and Al L 23 VV Auger electron polar angular distributions were not modified by the topography and closely followed a cosine law. For Al L 23 MM Auger electrons, experimental angular distributions as a function of the emission polar angle theta, either were near a constant law or followed a decreasing law depending on the irradiation conditions. The N(theta) curves calculated from the models showed that the isotropic angular distributions obtained for electrons generated outside the crystal from a flat surface could be strongly modified by the surface topography. (author)

  16. Mass distribution and multiple fragmentation events in high energy cluster-cluster collisions: evidence for a predicted phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Louc, S.; Martin, J.; Senn, G.; Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.D.

    1996-09-01

    Fragment size distributions including multiple fragmentation events have been measured for high energy H 25 + cluster ions (60 keV/amu) colliding with a neutral C 60 target. In contrast to earlier collision experiments with a helium target the present studies do not show a U-shaped fragment mass distribution, but a single power-law falloff with increasing fragment mass. This behaviour is similar to what is known for the intermediate regime in nuclear collision physics and thus confirms a recently predicted scaling from nuclear to molecular collisions

  17. Angular distribution of Xe 5s→epsilonp photoelectrons: Disagreement between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlman, A.; Carlson, T.A.; Krause, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    The angular asymmetry parameter β for the Xe 5s→epsilonp photoelectrons has been studied with use of synchrotron radiation (hν = 28--65 eV). The present results show that the relativistic random-phase approximation theory does not satisfactorily describe the Xe 5s photoionization process close to the Cooper minimum and thus require a renewed theoretical approach. The 5s partial photoionization cross section was obtained over the same photon region and the results agree with experimental values found in the literature

  18. Neutron emission during acceleration of 252Cf fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batenkov, O.I.; Blinov, M.V.; Blinov, A.B.; Smirnov, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate neutron emission during acceleration of fission fragments in the process of spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. Experimental angular and energy distributions of neutrons are compared with the results of calculations of neutron evaporation during fragment acceleration. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs

  19. Electron angular distributions in He single ionization impact by H2+ ions at 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaofeng; Ma Xinwen; Suske, J; Fischer, D; Kuehnel, K U; Voitkiv, A; Najjaril, B; Krauss, A; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J; Hagmann, S

    2009-01-01

    For the first time we investigated in a kinematically complete experiment the ionization of helium in collisions with H 2 + -molecular ions at 1 MeV. Using two separate detectors, the orientation of the projectile H 2 + -molecular ions was determined at the instance of the collision. The electron angular distribution was measured by a R eaction Microscope . The observed structures are found in agreement with theoretical calculations, indicating that the ionized electron of He shows a slight preferential emission direction parallel to the molecular axis.

  20. Diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate of variable density. [Field equatios, diffracted-wave angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P

    1974-01-01

    Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.

  1. Calculation of angular distribution of 662 keV gamma rays by Monte Carlo method in copper medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.; Ozmutlu, E.N.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results on the angular distribution of Compton scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in both forward and backward hemispheres in copper medium. The number of scattered events graph has been determined for scattered gamma photons in both the forward and backward hemispheres and theoretical saturation thicknesses have been obtained using these results. Furthermore, response function of a 51x51 mm NaI(Tl) detector at 60 deg. angle with incoming photons scattered from a 10 mm thick copper layer has been determined using Monte Carlo method.

  2. Calculation of angular distribution of 662 keV gamma rays by Monte Carlo method in copper medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A.; Ozmutlu, E.N. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Yalcin, S. [Kastamonu University, Education Faculty, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Kaynak, G. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [NCCPM, Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County, Hospital, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); University of Kocaeli, Umuttepe Campus, 41100 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents results on the angular distribution of Compton scattering of 662 keV gamma photons in both forward and backward hemispheres in copper medium. The number of scattered events graph has been determined for scattered gamma photons in both the forward and backward hemispheres and theoretical saturation thicknesses have been obtained using these results. Furthermore, response function of a 51x51 mm NaI(Tl) detector at 60 deg. angle with incoming photons scattered from a 10 mm thick copper layer has been determined using Monte Carlo method.

  3. Complete isotopic distributions of fragments produced in transfer- and fusion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, O.; Caamano, M.; Farget, F.; Tarasov, O. B.; Derkx, X.; Schmidt, K. H.; Audouin, L.; Amthor, A. M.; Bacri, C. O.; Barreau, G.; Bastin, B.; Bazin, D.; Benlliure, J.; Blank, B.; Caceres, L.; Casarejos, E.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Grevy, S.; Jurado, B.; Kamalou, O.; Lemasson, A.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Mittig, W.; Morrissey, D. J.; Navin, A.; Pereira, J.; Perrot, L.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Savajols, H.; Schmitt, C.; Sherrill, B. M.; Stodel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Villari, A. C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two fission experiments have been performed at GANIL using 238 U beams at different energies and light targets. Different fissioning systems were produced with centre of mass energies from 10 to 240 MeV and their decay by fission was investigated with GANIL spectrometers. Fission-fragment isotopic distributions have been obtained. The evolution with impinging energy of their properties, the neutron excess and the width of the neutron-number distributions, gives important insights into the dynamics of the fusion-fission mechanism. (authors)

  4. Direct comparison between the angular distributions of the erythemal and eye-damaging UV irradiances: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, P; Parisi, A V

    2011-02-07

    Several broadband ultraviolet (UV) radiation angular distribution investigations have been previously presented. As the biologically damaging effectiveness of UV radiation is known to be wavelength dependent, it is necessary to expand this research into the distribution of the spectral UV. UV radiation is also susceptible to Rayleigh and Mie scattering processes, both of which are completely wavelength dependent. Additionally, the majority of previous measurements detailing the biologically damaging effect of spectral UV radiation have been oriented with respect to the horizontal plane or in a plane directed towards the sun (sun-normal), with the irradiance weighted against action spectra formulated specifically for human skin and tissue. However, the human body consists of very few horizontal or sun-normal surfaces. Extending the previous research by measuring the distribution of the spectral irradiance across the sky for the complete terrestrial solar UV waveband and weighting it against erythemal, photoconjunctivital and photokeratital action spectra allowed for the analysis of the differences between the biologically effective irradiance (UV(BE)) values intercepted at different orientations and the effect of scattering processes upon the homogeneity of these UV(BE) distributions. It was established that under the local atmospheric environment, the distribution profile of the UV(BE) for each biological response was anisotropic, with the highest intensities generally intercepted at inclination angles situated between the horizontal and vertical planes along orientations closely coinciding with the sun-normal. A finding from this was that the angular distributions of the erythemal UV(BE) and the photoconjunctivital UV(BE) were different, due to the differential scattering between the shorter and longer UV wavelengths within the atmosphere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Angular distribution coefficients for γ-ray polarization produced in polarized capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E.A.; Guillemette, J.; Weller, H.R.; Seyler, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The previous publications have dealt with the angular momentum formalism of both linear and circularly polarized photons in (γ, x) reactions on both polarized and unpolarized targets, and the inverse (capture) reactions initiated by polarized beams. In the present work, utilizing the general formalism of Welton, the authors deal with the linear polarization of the γ-rays which are produced in capture reactions on unpolarized targets, including the possibility of having incident polarized spin 1/2 projectiles. These capture reactions are denoted by a(rvec x, rvec L)c, where rvec x is the incident polarized spin 1/2 projectile and rvec L represents the outgoing polarized γ-ray. They present here the formalism in a convenient form, display a sample table of coefficients, and illustrate its use by means of several examples. A FORTRAN code will be made available for generating similar coefficients for other reactions

  6. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: An experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C.; Culberson, Lori M.; Sanov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO − photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions

  7. Photoelectron angular distributions for states of any mixed character: An experiment-friendly model for atomic, molecular, and cluster anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuseynov, Dmitry; Blackstone, Christopher C.; Culberson, Lori M.; Sanov, Andrei

    2014-09-01

    We present a model for laboratory-frame photoelectron angular distributions in direct photodetachment from (in principle) any molecular orbital using linearly polarized light. A transparent mathematical approach is used to generalize the Cooper-Zare central-potential model to anionic states of any mixed character. In the limit of atomic-anion photodetachment, the model reproduces the Cooper-Zare formula. In the case of an initial orbital described as a superposition of s and p-type functions, the model yields the previously obtained s-p mixing formula. The formalism is further advanced using the Hanstorp approximation, whereas the relative scaling of the partial-wave cross-sections is assumed to follow the Wigner threshold law. The resulting model describes the energy dependence of photoelectron anisotropy for any atomic, molecular, or cluster anions, usually without requiring a direct calculation of the transition dipole matrix elements. As a benchmark case, we apply the p-d variant of the model to the experimental results for NO- photodetachment and show that the observed anisotropy trend is described well using physically meaningful values of the model parameters. Overall, the presented formalism delivers insight into the photodetachment process and affords a new quantitative strategy for analyzing the photoelectron angular distributions and characterizing mixed-character molecular orbitals using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of negative ions.

  8. Ion beam sputtering of Ti: Influence of process parameters on angular and energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautenschläger, T. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Feder, R., E-mail: thomas.lautenschlaeger@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rice, C.; Schubert, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Bundesmann, C. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Angular and energy distribution of secondary particles. • Interaction between incorporated and impinging process gas. • Measured data compared with simulations. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E{sup −n}, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson’s theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to

  9. Application of evaporation model to the calculation of energy spectrum and angular distribution of recoil nuclei from neutron induced reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y; Sugimoto, M; Sugiyama, K [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1978-12-01

    Calculated angular distributions and energy spectra from 14.8 MeV neutron induced (n,2n) reactions based on a simple evaporation model were obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method. It was ascertained that the effects on the spectra of the method of determining the nuclear temperature and the value of the level density parameter are much smaller than those of the reaction Q-value and the nuclear mass. As a check on the calculational procedure, results of similar calculations were compared with the experimental recoil escape efficiency for /sup 27/Al(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 24/Na reaction. Distortions of the energy spectra in thick target materials were also obtained. These results suggest that this model is fully applicable to the calculation of primary knock-on atoms distributions from various nuclear reactions.

  10. Langevin description of mass distributions of fragments originating from the fission of excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, D.V.; Nadtochy, P.N.; Adeev, G.D.; Kosenko, G.I.

    2000-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics is proposed. The approach, which is based on Langevin equations, is used to calculate the mass distributions of fragments originating from the fission of excited nuclei. The effect of viscosity and light-particle emission on the variance of mass distributions is studied. The results of the calculations based on the above approach reveal that, in order to obtain a simultaneous description of mass-distribution parameters and the multiplicities of prescission particles, it is necessary to use sufficiently large values of nuclear viscosity both for the one-body and for the two-body viscosity mechanism, anomalously large values of the viscosity coefficient being required in the latter case

  11. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ren-Yan; Kong, Xiao-Quan; Huang, Min-Yi; Varela, Sara; Ji, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies predict that climate change will cause species movement and turnover, but few have considered the effect of climate change on range fragmentation for current species and/or populations. We used MaxEnt to predict suitable habitat, fragmentation and turnover for 134 amphibian species in China under 40 future climate change scenarios spanning four pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5) and two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s). Our results show that climate change may cause a major shift in spatial patterns of amphibian diversity. Amphibians in China would lose 20% of their original ranges on average; the distribution outside current ranges would increase by 15%. Suitable habitats for over 90% of species will be located in the north of their current range, for over 95% of species in higher altitudes (from currently 137-4,124 m to 286-4,396 m in the 2050s or 314-4,448 m in the 2070s), and for over 75% of species in the west of their current range. Also, our results predict two different general responses to the climate change: some species contract their ranges while moving westwards, southwards and to higher altitudes, while others expand their ranges. Finally, our analyses indicate that range dynamics and fragmentation are related, which means that the effects of climate change on Chinese amphibians might be two-folded.

  12. The potential effects of climate change on amphibian distribution, range fragmentation and turnover in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yan Duan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many studies predict that climate change will cause species movement and turnover, but few have considered the effect of climate change on range fragmentation for current species and/or populations. We used MaxEnt to predict suitable habitat, fragmentation and turnover for 134 amphibian species in China under 40 future climate change scenarios spanning four pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6 and RCP8.5 and two time periods (the 2050s and 2070s. Our results show that climate change may cause a major shift in spatial patterns of amphibian diversity. Amphibians in China would lose 20% of their original ranges on average; the distribution outside current ranges would increase by 15%. Suitable habitats for over 90% of species will be located in the north of their current range, for over 95% of species in higher altitudes (from currently 137–4,124 m to 286–4,396 m in the 2050s or 314–4,448 m in the 2070s, and for over 75% of species in the west of their current range. Also, our results predict two different general responses to the climate change: some species contract their ranges while moving westwards, southwards and to higher altitudes, while others expand their ranges. Finally, our analyses indicate that range dynamics and fragmentation are related, which means that the effects of climate change on Chinese amphibians might be two-folded.

  13. An optimized approach for simultaneous horizontal data fragmentation and allocation in Distributed Database Systems (DDBSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ali A; Sewisy, Adel A; Elgendy, Taha M A

    2017-12-01

    With the substantial ever-upgrading advancement in data and information management field, Distributed Database System (DDBS) is still proven to be the most growingly-demanded tool to handle the accompanied constantly-piled volumes of data. However, the efficiency and adequacy of DDBS is profoundly correlated with the reliability and precision of the process in which DDBS is set to be designed. As for DDBS design, thus, several strategies have been developed, in literature, to be used in purpose of promoting DDBS performance. Off these strategies, data fragmentation, data allocation and replication, and sites clustering are the most immensely-used efficacious techniques that otherwise DDBS design and rendering would be prohibitively expensive. On one hand, an accurate well-architected data fragmentation and allocation is bound to incredibly increase data locality and promote the overall DDBS throughputs. On the other hand, finding a practical sites clustering process is set to contribute remarkably in reducing the overall Transmission Costs (TC). Consequently, consolidating all these strategies into one single work is going to undoubtedly satisfy a massive growth in DDBS influence. In this paper, therefore, an optimized heuristic horizontal fragmentation and allocation approach is meticulously developed. All the drawn-above strategies are elegantly combined into a single effective approach so as to an influential solution for DDBS productivity promotion is set to be markedly fulfilled. Most importantly, an internal and external evaluations are extensively illustrated. Obviously, findings of conducted experiments have maximally been recorded to be in favor of DDBS performance betterment.

  14. Energy distribution in selected fragment vibrations in dissociation processes in polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Y.B.; Freed, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    The full quantum theory of dissociation processes in polyatomic molecules is converted to a form enabling the isolation of a selected fragment vibration. This form enables the easy evaluation of the probability distribution for energy partitioning between this vibration and all other degrees of freedom that results from the sudden Franck--Condon rearrangement process. The resultant Franck--Condon factors involve the square of the one-dimensional overlap integral between effective oscillator wavefunctions and the wavefunctions for the selected fragment vibration, a form that resembles the simple golden rule model for polyatomic dissociation and reaction processes. The full quantum theory can, therefore, be viewed as providing both a rigorous justification for certain generic aspects of the simple golden rule model as well as providing a number of important generalizations thereof. Some of these involve dealing with initial bound state vibrational excitation, explicit molecule, fragment and energy dependence of the effective oscillator, and the incorporation of all isotopic dependence. In certain limiting situations the full quantum theory yields simple, readily usable analytic expressions for the frequency and equilibrium position of the effective oscillator. Specific applications are presented for the direct photodissociation of HCN, DCN, and CO 2 where comparisons between the full theory and the simple golden rule are presented. We also discuss the generalizations of the previous theory to enable the incorporation of effects of distortion in the normal modes as a function of the reaction coordinate on the repulsive potential energy surface

  15. Effects of spin-orbit activated interchannel coupling on dipole photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Tashkent 70125 (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physics Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Manson, S T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physics Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2004-02-28

    The effects of spin-orbit induced interchannel coupling on the dipole photoelectron angular asymmetry parameter {beta}{sub 3d} for Xe, Cs and Ba are explored using a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SPRPAE) methodology. For Xe, {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} is modified somewhat by the interchannel coupling in the vicinity of the 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} {epsilon}f shape resonance, and this effect is significantly more pronounced in Cs where the resonance is larger. In Ba, however, where f-wave orbital collapse has occurred, the shape resonance has moved below threshold and the effect of interchannel coupling on {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} above the 3d{sub 3/2} threshold is negligible. But below the 3d{sub 3/2} threshold, {beta}{sub 3d{sub 5/2}} is dominated by the huge broad 3d{sub 3/2} {yields} 4f resonance.

  16. Soil erosion and effluent particle size distribution under different initial conditions and rock fragment coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Brovelli, A.; Heng, B. C. P.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the presence of rock fragments on the soil surface and the soil's initial characteristics (moisture content, surface roughness, bulk density, etc.) are key factors influencing soil erosion dynamics and sediment delivery. In addition, the interaction of these factors increases the complexity of soil erosion patterns and makes predictions more difficult. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the effect of soil initial conditions and rock fragment coverage on soil erosion yields and effluent particle size distribution and (ii) to evaluate to what extent the rock fragment coverage controls this relationship. Three laboratory flume experiments with constant precipitation rate of 74 mm/h on a loamy soil parcel with a 2% slope were performed. Experiments with duration of 2 h were conducted using the 6-m × 2-m EPFL erosion flume. During each experiment two conditions were considered, a bare soil and a rock fragment-protected (with 40% coverage) soil. The initial soil surface state was varied between the three experiments, from a freshly re-ploughed and almost dry condition to a compacted soil with a well-developed shield layer and high moisture content. Experiments were designed so that rain splash was the primary driver of soil erosion. Results showed that the amount of eroded mass was highly controlled by the initial soil conditions and whether the steady-state equilibrium was un-, partially- or fully- developed during the previous event. Additionally, results revealed that sediment yields and particle size composition in the initial part of an erosion event are more sensitive to the erosion history than the long-time behaviour. This latter appears to be mainly controlled by rainfall intensity. If steady-state was achieved for a previous event, then the next event consistently produced concentrations for each size class that peaked rapidly, and then declined gradually to steady-state equilibrium. If steady state was not obtained, then

  17. Multiplicity distributions and multiplicity correlations in sequential, off-equilibrium fragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new kinetic fragmentation model, the Fragmentation - Inactivation -Binary (FIB) model is described where a dissipative process stops randomly the sequential, conservative and off-equilibrium fragmentation process. (K.A.)

  18. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  19. Impact-energy dependence of the angular distribution of gold sputtered from a (111) crystal at 100 and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczak, W.; Wittmaack, K.

    1982-01-01

    The angular distribution of gold sputtered from a (111) crystal has been investigated in the (1anti 10) plane. The sample was bombarded at 100 and 300 K by normally incident (mass-analysed) Ne and Xe ions at energies between 0.2 and 30 keV. The sputtered material was collected on hemicylindrical aluminium foils. Absolute differential sputtering yields were determined by medium energy He backscattering. The partial yield into the [001] spot, ΔY 001 , determined by angular intergration, exhibits an energy dependence distinctly different from the random yield. Neither assisted focusons nor the directional ejection mechanism suggested by Lehmann and Sigmund seem to play an important role. Instead ejection involving projectile scattering in the top two monolayers appears to be the dominant mechanism for [001] spot production. This mechanism may also account for an energy-dependent fraction of ΔY 110 . Moreover, spot shape analysis suggests a sizeable focuson contribution to the [110] spot which may account for up to 30% of the total backsputtering yield under Ne impact. The [110] spot width decreases with decreasing temperature and increasing ion energy. Minimum spot widths as low as 11 0 (fwhm) have been observed at 100 K. (orig.)

  20. Angular reflectance of suspended gold, aluminum and silver nanospheres on a gold film: Effects of concentration and size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, Mustafa M.; Wriedt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe a parametric study of the effects of the size distribution (SD) and the concentration of nanospheres in ethanol on the angular reflectance. Calculations are based on an effective medium approach in which the effective dielectric constant of the mixture is obtained using the Maxwell-Garnett formula. The detectable size limits of gold, aluminum, and silver nanospheres on a 50-nm-thick gold film are calculated to investigate the sensitivity of the reflectance to the SD and the concentration of the nanospheres. The following assumptions are made: (1) the total number of particles in the unit volume of suspension is constant, (2) the nanospheres in the suspension on a gold film have a SD with three different concentrations, and (3) there is no agglomeration and the particles have a log-normal SD, where the effective diameter, d eff and the effective variance, ν eff are given. The dependence of the reflectance on the d eff , ν eff , and the width of the SD are also investigated numerically. The angular variation of the reflectance as a function of the incident angle shows a strong dependence on the effective size of the metallic nanospheres. The results confirm that the size of the nanospheres (d eff o and 75 o for a given concentration with a particular SD.

  1. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  2. Monte Carlo simulation for fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the neutron-induced fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saettone, E.

    2007-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from the thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U have been studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening on the standard deviation of the final fragment kinetic energy distribution (σ e (m)) around the mass number m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125 that is in agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. These results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the variation in the primary fragment mean kinetic energy, and the yield as a function of the mass. (Author)

  3. Monte Carlo simulation for fragment mass and kinetic energy distributions from the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Saettone, E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de lngenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Apartado 31-139, Lima (Peru)

    2007-07-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from the thermal neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U have been studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening on the standard deviation of the final fragment kinetic energy distribution ({sigma}{sub e}(m)) around the mass number m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125 that is in agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. These results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the variation in the primary fragment mean kinetic energy, and the yield as a function of the mass. (Author)

  4. Collisional effects on ion energy and angular distributions incident on RF-biased electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Huatan; Wang Younian; Ma Tengcai

    2002-01-01

    Taking into account elastic collisions and charge-exchange collisions between ions and neutral particles, the authors established a self-consistent model describing the dynamics of radio-frequency (RF) sheath driven by a sinusoidal current source, and also, using the Monte-Carlo Method, simulated energy and angle distributions of ions bombarding on RF-biased substrates. It has been shown from numerical results that as increasing the discharge pressure, bimodal-peaks distributions for the ion energy become gradually a single-peak distribution, and low-energy ions increase. The authors also found that the angle distribution of ions is narrow and almost do not change with increasing the discharge pressure

  5. Anisotropy in highly charged ion induced molecule fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Fremont, F.; Chesnel, J.Y.; Hajaji, A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Studying fragmentation processes of biologically relevant molecules due to highly charged ion impact is important to understand radiation damage in biological tissues. Energy spectra of the charged molecule fragments may reveal the different fragmentation patterns meanwhile the angular distributions of the fragments characterize the dependence of fragmentation probability on the initial orientation of the molecule. The research to explore the angular distribution of the molecule fragments has only recently been started[1]. In 2006 we performed measurements at ARIBE facility at GANIL, Caen (France), in order to investigate orientation effects in molecule fragmentation. Fragmentation of H 2 O, C 6 H 6 and CH 4 , which represent different level of symmetry, have been studied by 60 keV N 6+ ion impact. Energy spectra of the charged fragments at different observation angles have been taken. As our example spectra show the different protonic peaks can be attributed to different fragmentation processes. Significant anisotropy can be seen in the different processes. The strongest evidence for the anisotropy can be seen in the spectra of C 6 H 6 , where the spectra appear isotropic in almost the whole observed energy range except one peak, which has a strong angular dependence and is maximal around 90 deg. (author)

  6. Fission and nuclear fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by photons of 1-6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro Filho, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The studies of fission and fragmentation of silver and bromine nuclei by Bremsstrahlung photons of 1.6 GeV energy range are presented. The Il ford-KO nuclear emulsion submitted to Bremsstrahlung beams in Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) with total doses of 10'' equivalent photons, was used for nuclear fragment detection. The discrimination of fission and fragmentation events was done analysing angular distribution, range and angles between fragments. The results of fragment range distributions, angular distributions, distributions of angles between fragments, distributions of ratio between range, velocity distributions forward/backward ratio, cross sections of fission and fragmentation, nuclear fissionability and ternary fission frequency are presented and discussed. (M.C.K.)

  7. Mixed optical Cherenkov–Bremsstrahlung radiation in vicinity of the Cherenkov cone from relativistic heavy ions: Unusual dependence of the angular distribution width on the radiator thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkova, E.I., E-mail: elenafiks@gmail.com; Pivovarov, Yu.L.

    2016-07-15

    The Cherenkov radiation (ChR) angular distribution is usually described by the Tamm–Frank (TF) theory, which assumes that relativistic charged particle moves uniformly and rectilinearly in the optically transparent radiator. According to the TF theory, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ChR angular distribution inversely depends on the radiator thickness. In the case of relativistic heavy ions (RHI) a slowing-down in the radiator may sufficiently change the angular distribution of optical radiation in vicinity of the Cherenkov cone, since there appears a mixed ChR–Bremsstrahlung radiation. As a result, there occurs a drastic transformation of the FWHM of optical radiation angular distribution in dependence on the radiator thickness: from inversely proportional (TF theory) to the linearly proportional one. In our paper we present the first analysis of this transformation taking account of the gradual velocity decrease of RHI penetrating through a radiator. - Highlights: • Stopping of relativistic heavy ions leads to appearance of a Cherenkov–Bremsstrahlung radiation near the Cherenkov cone. • Mixed Cherenkov–Bremsstrahlung optical radiation FWHM differs from the standard one determined by the Tamm–Frank theory. • The Cherenkov–Bremsstrahlung radiation angular distribution FWHM linearly depends on the radiator thickness.

  8. Separating electroweak and strong interactions in Drell-Yan processes at LHC: leptons angular distributions and reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter-Was, E.; Was, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Among the physics goals of LHC experiments, precision tests of the Standard Model in the Strong and Electroweak sectors play an important role. Because of nature of the proton-proton processes, observables based on the measurement of the direction and energy of leptons provide the most precise signatures. In the present paper, we concentrate on the angular distribution of Drell-Yan process leptons, in the lepton-pair rest-frame. The vector nature of the intermediate state imposes that distributions are to a good precision described by spherical polynomials of at most second order. We show that with the proper choice of the coordinate frames, only one coefficient in this polynomial decomposition remains sizable, even in the presence of one or two high p T jets. The necessary stochastic choice of the frames relies on probabilities independent from any coupling constants. This remains true when one or two partons accompany the lepton pairs. In this way electroweak effects can be better separated from strong interaction ones for the benefit of the interpretation of the measurements. Our study exploits properties of single gluon emission matrix elements which are clearly visible if a conveniently chosen form of their representation is used. We rely also on distributions obtained from matrix element based Monte Carlo generated samples of events with two leptons and up to two additional partons in test samples. Incoming colliding protons' partons are distributed accordingly to PDFs and are strictly collinear to the corresponding beams. (orig.)

  9. Asymmetric Facial Bone Fragmentation Mirrors Asymmetric Distribution of Cranial Neuromasts in Blind Mexican Cavefish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Gross

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial asymmetry is a convergent trait widely distributed across animals that colonize the extreme cave environment. Although craniofacial asymmetry can be discerned easily, other complex phenotypes (such as sensory organ position and numerical variation are challenging to score and compare. Certain bones of the craniofacial complex demonstrate substantial asymmetry, and co-localize to regions harboring dramatically expanded numbers of mechanosensory neuromasts. To determine if a relationship exists between this expansion and bone fragmentation in cavefish, we developed a quantitative measure of positional symmetry across the left-right axis. We found that three different cave-dwelling populations were significantly more asymmetric compared to surface-dwelling fish. Moreover, cave populations did not differ in the degree of neuromast asymmetry. This work establishes a method for quantifying symmetry of a complex phenotype, and demonstrates that facial bone fragmentation mirrors the asymmetric distribution of neuromasts in different cavefish populations. Further developmental studies will provide a clearer picture of the developmental and cellular changes that accompany this extreme phenotype, and help illuminate the genetic basis for facial asymmetry in vertebrates.

  10. Unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from SIDIS multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; Gonzalez, H. J.O.; Melis, S.; Prokudin, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the unpolarised transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions are extracted from HERMES and COMPASS experimental measurements of SIDIS multiplicities for charged hadron production. The data are grouped into independent bins of the kinematical variables, in which the TMD factorisation is expected to hold. A simple factorised functional form of the TMDs is adopted, with a Gaussian dependence on the intrinsic transverse momentum, which turns out to be quite adequate in shape. HERMES data do not need any normalisation correction, while fits of the COMPASS data much improve with a y-dependent overall normalisation factor. A comparison of the extracted TMDs with previous EMC and JLab data confirms the adequacy of the simple gaussian distributions. The possible role of the TMD evolution is briefly considered

  11. The center-of-mass angular distribution of prompt photons produced in p bar p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Data taken with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during the 1992--1993 run of the Tevatron are used to measure the distribution of the center-of-mass angle between isolated prompt photons and the beam direction. The shape of the angular distribution for photon-jet events is found to differ from the predictions of NLO QCD

  12. Intense Vibronic Modulation of the Chiral Photoelectron Angular Distribution Generated by Photoionization of Limonene Enantiomers with Circularly Polarized Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee Fanood, Mohammad M; Ganjitabar, Hassan; Garcia, Gustavo A; Nahon, Laurent; Turchini, Stefano; Powis, Ivan

    2018-04-17

    Photoionization of the chiral monoterpene limonene has been investigated using polarized synchrotron radiation between the adiabatic ionization threshold, 8.505 and 23.5 eV. A rich vibrational structure is seen in the threshold photoelectron spectrum and is interpreted using a variety of computational methods. The corresponding photoelectron circular dichroism-measured in the photoelectron angular distribution as a forward-backward asymmetry with respect to the photon direction-was found to be strongly dependent on the vibronic structure appearing in the photoelectron spectra, with the observed asymmetry even switching direction in between the major vibrational peaks. This effect can be ultimately attributed to the sensitivity of this dichroism to small phase shifts between adjacent partial waves of the outgoing photoelectron. These observations have implications for potential applications of this chiroptical technique, where the enantioselective analysis of monoterpene components is of particular interest. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Large rotating field entropy change in ErFeO3 single crystal with angular distribution contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Shixun; Ren, Wei; Zhan, Sheng; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang

    2013-10-01

    We report the rotating field entropy of ErFeO3 single-crystal in a temperature range of 3-40 K. The giant magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -20.7 J/(kg K), and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 273.5 J/kg, are observed near T =6 K. The anisotropic constants at 6 K, K1 = 1.24× 103 J/kg, K2 = 0.74 × 103 J/kg, in the bc plane are obtained. By considering the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Fermi-Dirac angular distribution along the orientation of spontaneous magnetization, the experimental results can be well simulated. Our present work demonstrates that ErFeO3 crystal may find practical use for low temperature anisotropic magnetic refrigeration.

  14. Angular distributions of projectiles following electron capture from C60 by 2.5-keV Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walch, B.; Thumm, U.; Stoeckli, M.; Cocke, C.L.; Klawikowski, S.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the projectile angular distributions for 2.5-keV Ar 8+ ions capturing one to five electrons from a gas-phase C 60 target are presented. The number of captured electrons was determined by demanding a coincidence between the scattered projectile and a charge-state-analyzed intact C 60 recoil ion. The results are compared to calculations based on a dynamical classical overbarrier model. Good agreement is obtained only if the influence on the projectile trajectory by the large polarizability of the C 60 target is taken into account, thereby making the collective dielectric response of the cluster target observable in a scattering experiment. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Energy and angular distribution of electrons after transmission of thick layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, H.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of electrons going through material-layers is studied. For a layer-thickness where the theories of multiple-scattering are no longer valid, a Monte-Carlo-method is presented for the calculation of energy distributions as a function of scattering-angle. Plastic-scintillator-material (NE 102 A produced by Nuclear Enterprises Ltd.) was bombarded by electrons with energies between 0.5 and 2.0 MeV and the energy-distributions of the electrons, scatterd in the layer, were measured as a function of the scattering-angle. With the aid of the Monte-Carlo-method developed in this paper, energy distributions were calculated as a function of scattering-angle for the two absorber materials aluminium (single-element material) and NE 102 A (chemical compound of C, N, H, O). (orig./WL) [de

  16. Effects of Neutron Emission on Fragment Mass and Kinetic Energy Distribution from Thermal Neutron-Induced Fission of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Saetone, E.

    2007-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distribution of nuclear fragments from thermal neutron-induced fission of 235 U(n th ,f) have been studied using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Besides reproducing the pronounced broadening in the standard deviation of the kinetic energy at the final fragment mass number around m = 109, our simulation also produces a second broadening around m = 125. These results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained by Belhafaf et al. and other results on yield of mass. We conclude that the obtained results are a consequence of the characteristics of the neutron emission, the sharp variation in the primary fragment kinetic energy and mass yield curves. We show that because neutron emission is hazardous to make any conclusion on primary quantities distribution of fragments from experimental results on final quantities distributions

  17. Angular distribution of the bremsstrahlung emission during lower-hybrid current drive on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Stevens, J.; Bernabei, S.

    1985-06-01

    The bremsstrahlung emission from the PLT tokamak during lower-hybrid current drive has been measured as a function of angle between the magnetic field and the emission direction. The emission is peaked strongly in the forward direction, indicating a strong anisotropy of the electron-velocity distribution. The data demonstrate the existence of a nearly flat tail of the velocity distribution, which extends out to approximately 500 keV and which is interpreted as the plateau created by Landau damping of the lower-hybrid waves

  18. In vitro and in vivo tumor models for studies of distribution of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies and fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Halpern, S.E.; Sutherland, R.M.; Schreyer, M.; Mach, J.P.; Rochester Univ., NY

    1986-01-01

    Colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids were incubated in vitro with radiolabelled MAbs. The more rapid penetration of fragments as compared to intact MAbs was clearly demonstrated. For the study of antibody localization in tumors in vivo, the model of nude mice with ligated kidneys was used. Although very artificial, this model allowed to demonstrate that, without urinary excretion, Fab fragments accumulated more rapidly into the tumor than intact MAbs and disappeared faster from the blood. This difference was less striking for F(ab') 2 fragments. In the liver a decreased accumulation of both types of fragments as compared to intact MAbs was observed. Concerning radio-immunotherapy we think that Fab fragments are not useful because of their too short half-life the circulation and in tumor and because they will probably be too toxic for the kidneys. Intact MAbs and F(ab') 2 fragments have each their advantages. Intact MAbs show highest tumor accumulation in mice without ligated kidney, however, they remain mostly on the periphery of tumor nodules, as shown by autoradiography. F(ab') 2 fragments have been found to penetrate deeper into the tumor and to accumulate less in the liver. It might be therefore an advantage to combine intact MAbs with F(ab') 2 fragments, so that in the tumor two different regions could be attacked whereas in normal tissues toxicity could be distributed to different organs such as to the liver with intact MAbs and to the kidney with F(ab') 2 fragments. (orig.) [de

  19. Distributions of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of /sup 35/S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of /sup 3/H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid.

  20. Distributions of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of 35 S-sulfate and 3 H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of 35 S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of 3 H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid

  1. Angular momentum distribution of primary fission fragments by measurement of the relative yield of isomeric fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornhoefer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The fission products 132 I and 136 I produced in the fission reactions 238 U(α,f) and 238 U(d,f) were spectroscoped using a gas transport system. Thereby was taken advantage of the fact that at the transport with pure helium without aerosols only iodine activities were collected in a membrane filter. The relative independent yields of the isomeric fission products of 132 I and 136 I were determined for different excitation energies. Thereby was taken advantage of the fact that the transport yield of the gas transport system for 136 I directly produced from the fission was greater than for iodine indirectly produced by β-decay. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Angular distribution of atoms emitted from a SrZrO3 target by laser ablation under different laser fluences and oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T.; Azuma, H.; Asaoka, T.; Nakazato, T.; Sato, E.; Shimizu, T.; Fujioka, S.; Sarukura, N.; Nishimura, H.

    2010-01-01

    Angular distributions of atoms emitted by laser ablation of perovskite-type oxide SrZrO 3 have been investigated using electron probe microanalysis with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy and charge-coupled device photography with an interference filter. Each constituent element has been analyzed as a two-modal distribution composed of a broad cos m θ distribution and a narrow cos n θ distribution. The exponent n characterizes the component of laser ablation while the exponent m characterizes that of thermal evaporation, where a larger n or m means a narrower angular distribution. In vacuum, O (n=6) showed a broader distribution than those of Sr (n=16) and Zr (n=17), and Sr + exhibited a spatial distribution similar to that of Sr. As the laser fluence was increased from 1.1 to 4.4 J/cm 2 , the angular distribution of Sr became narrower. In the laser fluence range of 1.1-4.4 J/cm 2 , broadening of the angular distribution of Sr was observed only at the fluence of 1.1 J/cm 2 under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate approximately the energy of emitted atoms, focusing on the broadening of the angular distribution under the oxygen pressure of 10 Pa. The energies of emitted atoms were estimated to be 1-20 eV for the laser fluence of 1.1 J/cm 2 , and more than 100 eV for 2.2 and 4.4 J/cm 2 .

  3. Angular momentum distributions for [sup 16]O+[sup 144]Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, G.; Romain, P.; Beck, F.A.; Benet, P.; Disdier, D.; Haas, B.; Lott, B.; Rauch, V.; Scheibling, F.; Vivien, J.P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules, Universite Louis Pasteur, BP 20, 67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France)); Basu, S.K. (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, I/AF Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta 700064 (India)); Bozek, E.; Zuber, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics Krakow, 30-342 Krakow (Poland)); Di Gregorio, D.; Fernandez-Niello, J. (Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-05-01

    Fusion cross sections have been measured for the system [sup 16]O+[sup 144]Nd at bombarding energies in the range 67 MeV[le][ital E][sub lab][le]90 MeV by detecting directly evaporation residues in Si detectors and in the range 60 MeV[le][ital E][sub lab][le]75 MeV by off-line detection of the K x rays emitted by the radioactive evaporation residues and daughters. In order to obtain the spin distributions in the compound system gamma-ray multiplicity distributions for the most important neutron evaporation channels were also measured using a 4[pi] BaF[sub 2] array, in conjunction with Ge detectors. Results are compared with calculations based on models that consider fluctuations in barrier height due to ground-state zero-point vibrations as well as couplings to various inelastic and transfer channels.

  4. Angular momentum distributions and delayed feeding in (d,3n) reaction to deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Ferguson, S.M.; Newton, J.O.; Slocombe, M.G.

    1976-11-01

    The relative intensities of ground state rotational band transitions in 158 Dy, 164 Er, 168 Yb, 174 Hf and 180 W have been studied with particular emphasis on the identification of delayed feeding from high K isomers. The results are interpreted in terms of a simple formulation of the K-conservation model which is introduced to explain the discrepancy between the observed intensity distributions and those expected from the statistical model. (Author)

  5. Directional Stand-off Detection of Fast Neutrons and Gammas Using Angular Scattering Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier P. e.; Dioszegi, I.; Salwen, C.; Forman, L.

    2009-10-25

    We have investigated the response of a DoubleScatter Neutron Spectrometer (DSNS) for sources at long distances (gr than 200 meters). We find that an alternative method for analyzing double scatter data avoids some uncertainties introduced by amplitude measurements in plastic scintillators.Time of flight is used to discriminate between gamma and neutron events, and the kinematic distributions of scattering angles are assumed to apply. Non-relativistic neutrons are most likely to scatter at 45°, while gammas with energies greater than 2 MeV are most likely to be forward scattered. The distribution of scattering angles of fission neutrons arriving from a distant point source generates a 45° cone, which can be back-projected to give the source direction. At the same time, the distribution of Compton-scattered gammas has a maximum in the forward direction, and can be made narrower by selecting events that deposit minimal energy in the first scattering event. We have further determined that the shape of spontaneous fission neutron spectra at ranges gr than 110 m is still significantly different from thecosmic ray background.

  6. On the emission of fast and slow target fragments from 84Kr-AgBr interactions at 0.95 GeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Singh, V.; Tuli, S.K.; Sengupta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions of secondary charged particles coming out of 84 Kr-AgBr interaction at 0.95 GeV/A have been reported. Angular distributions of fast and slow target fragments have also been studied. The sharp forward peak in the angular distribution of knocked out protons has further been analyzed in the light of intermittency and scaled factorial moment

  7. Mass exchange and angular distribution in a dynamical treatment of heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.; Hofmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    One presents a first numerical computation of the absolute value of the double differential cross section as a function of mass asymmetry and detection angle including a dynamical coupling between relative motion and mass asymmetry. One applies it to the 63 Cu+ 197 Au experiment at two different energies. The equation of motion used is a Fokker-Planck equation for distribution function in classical phase space. The coefficients needed are those known from classical model calculations, besides a friction coefficient introduced for the mass asymmetry degree. Encouraging agreement between the calculated and experimental curves is found

  8. Angular distributions of relativistic electrons under channeling in half-wavelength crystal and corresponding radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Bagrov, V.G.; Bogdanov, O.V.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.; Tukhfatullin, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    New experiments on channeling of 255 MeV electrons in a half-wavelength crystals (HWC) were performed at SAGA Light Source facilities. The simulations of trajectories for (2 2 0) and (1 1 1) planar channeling in Si were performed using the computer code BCM-1.0. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results shows a good agreement. The results of calculations of spectral distribution of radiation in forward direction (θ = 0°) from 255 MeV electrons at (2 2 0) channeling in HWC silicon are presented. Qualitative comparison with radiation spectrum from an electron moving in an arc is performed

  9. Estimating the Grain Size Distribution of Mars based on Fragmentation Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Golombek, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present here a fundamental extension to the fragmentation theory [1] which yields estimates of the distribution of particle sizes of a planetary surface. The model is valid within the size regimes of surfaces whose genesis is best reflected by the evolution of fragmentation phenomena governed by either the process of meteoritic impacts, or by a mixture with aeolian transportation at the smaller sizes. The key parameter of the model, the regolith maturity index, can be estimated as an average of that observed at a local site using cratering size-frequency measurements, orbital and surface image-detected rock counts and observations of sub-mm particles at landing sites. Through validation of ground truth from previous landed missions, the basis of this approach has been used at the InSight landing ellipse on Mars to extrapolate rock size distributions in HiRISE images down to 5 cm rock size, both to determine the landing safety risk and the subsequent probability of obstruction by a rock of the deployed heat flow mole down to 3-5 m depth [2]. Here we focus on a continuous extrapolation down to 600 µm coarse sand particles, the upper size limit that may be present through aeolian processes [3]. The parameters of the model are first derived for the fragmentation process that has produced the observable rocks via meteorite impacts over time, and therefore extrapolation into a size regime that is affected by aeolian processes has limited justification without further refinement. Incorporating thermal inertia estimates, size distributions observed by the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager [4] and Atomic Force and Optical Microscopy from the Phoenix Lander [5], the model's parameters in combination with synthesis methods are quantitatively refined further to allow transition within the aeolian transportation size regime. In addition, due to the nature of the model emerging in fractional mass abundance, the percentage of material by volume or mass that resides

  10. Asymmetry in angular distributions of Drell-Yan dimuons produced by antiproton-tungsten interactions at 125 GeV/c and partial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently published data on angular distributions of high mass dimuons produced in proton-tungsten interactions at 125 GeV/c are considered in the frame of the quantum statistical approach involving a mixture of coherent and stochastic production. The analysis leads to the conclusion that a portion of the lepton pairs is produced coherently. An accurate description of the data specifying the asymmetric angular distributions requires a non-vanishing cubic term in cosine of the polar angle and a term with treble the azimuthal angle. This can be achieved by an appropriate interplay of the parameters entering the approach which includes the partial coherency. (author). 1 tab., 19 refs

  11. The angular distributions of charged secondaries in electromagnetic and hadronic extensive air showers at 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzupek, A.; Mikocki, S.; Gress, J.; Kochocki, J.; Poirier, J.

    1991-01-01

    The angular distributions of secondary electrons and muons in extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by 10, 100, 1000 and 10 000 TeV gamma rays and protons are obtained with the aid of a new, hybrid Monte Carlo simulation method. In this method, a three-dimensional program is constructed out of two existing software codes: SHOWERSIM and EGS4. This procedure allows for fast, yet precise, calculations down to low secondary particle energies. The dependence of the angular distributions for different threshold energies is presented for 1000 TeV primary gamma ray and proton energy. (author)

  12. Interference effects in angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation from Relativistic Heavy Ions crossing a radiator: Influence of absorption and slowing-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiks, E.I.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.

    2015-07-15

    Theoretical analysis and representative calculations of angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation (XTR) by Relativistic Heavy Ions (RHI) crossing a radiator are presented taking into account both XTR absorption and RHI slowing-down. The calculations are performed for RHI energies of GSI, FAIR, CERN SPS and LHC and demonstrate the influence of XTR photon absorption as well as RHI slowing-down in a radiator on the appearance/disappearance of interference effects in both angular and spectral distributions of XTR.

  13. Measurements on multichannel arrays. The angular dependence of the absolute intensity and the velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verster, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three multichannel arrays with channel-diameters of 16, 50 and 140μm have been investigated using O 2 with flow rates of 4 10 -5 through 8 10 -3 torr l s -1 mm -2 . All experimental values of the peaking factor K are described by one experimental curve if the peaking factor is reduced by K*=KT, where T is the Clausing factor, and then is plotted vs. the reduced entrance density eta*=L/lambda, where lambda is the mean free path corresponding to the entrance density and L is the length of the channel. At eta*=1 the experimental curve lies 40% below Giordmaine and Wang theory, and this deviation increases slightly with increasing eta*. In the plot of the reduced half-width-half-maximum THETAsub(1/2)sup(*)=THETAsub(1/2)T -1 vs. eta* all data are also well represented by a single experimental curve. The center-line velocity distribution is described in terms of a deformation function GAMMA(v), to be applied to the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution from an ideal orifice

  14. Calculation of the angular radiance distribution for a coupled atmosphere and canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shunlin; Strahler, Alan H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative transfer equations for a coupled atmosphere and canopy are solved numerically by an improved Gauss-Seidel iteration algorithm. The radiation field is decomposed into three components: unscattered sunlight, single scattering, and multiple scattering radiance for which the corresponding equations and boundary conditions are set up and their analytical or iterational solutions are explicitly derived. The classic Gauss-Seidel algorithm has been widely applied in atmospheric research. This is its first application for calculating the multiple scattering radiance of a coupled atmosphere and canopy. This algorithm enables us to obtain the internal radiation field as well as radiances at boundaries. Any form of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) as a boundary condition can be easily incorporated into the iteration procedure. The hotspot effect of the canopy is accommodated by means of the modification of the extinction coefficients of upward single scattering radiation and unscattered sunlight using the formulation of Nilson and Kuusk. To reduce the computation for the case of large optical thickness, an improved iteration formula is derived to speed convergence. The upwelling radiances have been evaluated for different atmospheric conditions, leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution (LAD), leaf size and so on. The formulation presented in this paper is also well suited to analyze the relative magnitude of multiple scattering radiance and single scattering radiance in both the visible and near infrared regions.

  15. Quark fragmentation and trigger side momentum distributions in high-Psub(T) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, J.; Azcoiti, V.; Bravo, J.R.; Alonso, J.L.; Cruz, A.; Ringland, G.A.

    1979-11-01

    It has been widely argued that the experimental evidence concerning the momentum accompanying high Psub(T) triggers is a grave problem for models which take the trigger hadron to be a quark fragment. It is claimed that the trigger hadron takes much too large a fraction (zsub(c)) of the jet momentum for the trigger side jet to be a quark. The jet momentum is not directly measured, but deduced from the derivative of the momentum (psub(x)) accompanying the trigger with respect to the trigger transverse momentum - psub(T)sup(t). This argument is shown to be unsafe. Using both an approximate analytic approach to illustrate the physics and subsequently a full numerical computation it is proved that the deduction of the fractional momentum accompanying the trigger, 1/zsub(c) -1, from dpsub(x)/dpsub(T)sup(t) is not correct. Further it is shown that models which do take the trigger to be a quark fragment are essentially in agreement with the data on trigger side momentum distributions. A surprising prediction of the present analysis is that psub(x) should be approximately constant for psub(T)sup(t) >= 6 GeV/c. (author)

  16. Spatial and energy distributions of the fragments resulting from the dissociation of swift molecular ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    We have simulated the spatial evolution and energy loss of the fragments that result when swift molecular ions dissociate inside solid targets. In our calculations we have considered that these fragments undergo the following interactions: Coulomb repulsion (among like charged particles), stopping and wake forces (due to electronic excitations induced in the target), and nuclear scattering (with the target nuclei). We study the case of silicon targets irradiated with boron molecular or atomic ions; our results show that the main differences in the energy and spatial distributions of molecular fragments or atomic ions appear at shallow regions, and these tend to disappear at deeper depths

  17. Neutron emission effects on final fragments mass and kinetic energy distribution from low energy fission of 234U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2008-01-01

    The standard deviation of the final kinetic energy distribution (σ e ) as a function of mass of final fragments (m) from low energy fission of 234 U, measured with the Lohengrin spectrometer by Belhafaf et al., presents a peak around m = 109 and another around m = 122. The authors attribute the first peak to the evaporation of a large number of neutrons around the corresponding mass number, i.e. there is no peak on the standard deviation of the primary kinetic energy distribution (σ E ) as a function of primary fragment mass (A). The second peak is attributed to a real peak on σ E (A). However, theoretical calculations related to primary distributions made by H.R. Faust and Z. Bao do not suggest any peak on σ E (A). In order to clarify this apparent controversy, we have made a numerical experiment in which the masses and the kinetic energy of final fragments are calculated, assuming an initial distribution of the kinetic energy without structures on the standard deviation as function of fragment mass. As a result we obtain a pronounced peak on σ e (m) curve around m = 109, a depletion from m = 121 to m = 129, and an small peak around m = 122, which is not as great as that measured by Belhafaf et al. Our simulation also reproduces the experimental results on the yield of the final mass Y(m), the average number of emitted neutrons as a function of the provisional mass (calculated from the values of the final kinetic energy of the complementary fragments) and the average value of fragment kinetic energy as a function of the final mass. From our results we conclude that there are no peaks on the σ E (A) curve, and the observed peaks on σ e (m) are due to the emitted neutron multiplicity and the variation of the average fragment kinetic energy as a function of primary fragment mass. (Author)

  18. Effect of secondary rescattering in the reaction D(. pi. /sup -/,. pi. /sup -/p)n at high energies. [Secondary rescattering, angular distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolybasov, V M; Ksenzov, V G [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    The D(..pi../sup -/,..pi../sup -/p)n reaction is theoretically treated. Besides simple quasi-elastic knocking out, account was taken of diagrams of secondary rescattering of reaction products. Momentum and neutron polar angle distributions, as well as the Treyman-Young angular distribution, are compared with experimental data at 1 GeV. The behaviour of various distributions of individual diagrams is studied, and their response to the mechanism of the reaction is investigated with a methodological purpose.

  19. The general behavior of NLO unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, H.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale (k t ,μ) evolution equation, well known as the Ciafaloni, Catani, Fiorani and Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF), Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR) proposed a procedure based on (i) the inclusion of single-scale (μ) only at the last step of evolution and (ii) the angular ordering constraint (AOC) on the DGLAP terms (the DGLAP collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, k t into the UPDF evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the MSTW2008 (Martin et al.) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate UPDF for various values of x (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), μ (the probe scale) and k t (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three-dimensional UPDF at the NLO level up to the LHC working energy scales (μ 2 ). It is shown that there exits some pronounced peaks for the three-dimensional UPDF(f a (x,k t )) with respect to the two variables x and k t at various energies (μ). These peaks get larger and move to larger values of k t , as the energy (μ) is increased. We hope these peaks could be detected in the LHC experiments at CERN and other laboratories in the less exclusive processes.

  20. Electron and ion angular distributions in resonant dissociative photoionization of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} using linearly polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Jorge; MartIn, Fernando [Departamento de Quimica C-9, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fernando.martin@uam.es

    2009-04-15

    We have evaluated fully differential electron angular distributions in H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} dissociative photoionization by using linearly polarized light of 20, 27 and 33 eV. At 20 eV, the distributions exhibit simple p-wave patterns, which is the signature of direct ionization through the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) channel. At 27 eV, where the Q{sub 1} autoionizing states are populated, we observe a similar pattern, except when the molecule is oriented perpendicularly to the polarization direction and the energy of the ejected electron is small. In contrast, at 33 eV, autoionization from the Q{sub 1} and Q{sub 2} states leads to interferences between the X{sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(1s{sigma}{sub g}) and {sup 2}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(2p{sigma}{sub u}) ionization channels that result in a strong asymmetry of the electron angular distributions along the molecular axis. This asymmetry changes rapidly with the energy of the ejected electron. Electron angular distributions integrated over all possible molecular orientations or ion angular distributions integrated over electron emission angle show no reminiscence of the above phenomena, but the corresponding asymmetry parameters dramatically change with electron and ion energies in the region of autoionizing states.

  1. Measurement of W boson angular distributions in events with high transverse momentum jets at s=8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaboud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The W boson angular distribution in events with high transverse momentum jets is measured using data collected by the ATLAS experiment from proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb−1. The focus is on the contributions to W+jets processes from real W emission, which is achieved by studying events where a muon is observed close to a high transverse momentum jet. At small angular separations, these contributions are expected to be large. Various theoretical models of this process are compared to the data in terms of the absolute cross-section and the angular distributions of the muon from the leptonic W decay.

  2. Measurement of $W$ boson angular distributions in events with high transverse momentum jets at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; López, Jorge Andrés; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spannowsky, Michael; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; 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Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-02-10

    The $W$ boson angular distribution in events with high transverse momentum jets is measured using data collected by the ATLAS experiment from proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$. The focus is on the contributions to $W$ + jets processes from real $W$ emission, which is achieved by studying events where a muon is observed close to a high transverse momentum jet. At small angular separations, these contributions are expected to be large. Various theoretical models of this process are compared to the data in terms of the absolute cross-section and the angular distributions of the muon from the leptonic $W$ decay.

  3. Perturbation of the γ angular distribution due to vacancy-induced quadrupole interaction in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abromeit, C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the influence of diffusing vacancies on the results of PAC/PAD experiments. The fluctuating hyperfine interaction process, caused by thermal hopping of the vacancies, is described by a stochastic model, and the mean value of the density matrix time development operator of the probe nucleus. First, the nuclear perturbation factors, containing all information about the interaction of the nuclear spin system with the environment, are defined. The stochastic process of vacancy diffusion in a discrete lattice is presented, and approximation methods are given leading to a significant simplification and in some cases even make possible an evaluation at all. The problem of vacancy preparation at the initial stage of the PAC/PAD-experiment is studied. For the electric field gradients produced by the vacancies at the position of the probe nucleus, an empirical ansatz is given. For different lattice structures, numerical results for integral and differential measurements with and without an applied external magnetic field are presentd. These results are discussed in view of the approximations made and compared with the experiment. Also, the influence of the initial vacancy distribution on the calculated perturbation factors is investigated. The results show good agreement with experimental data. (orig./HPOE) [de

  4. Measurement of angular and momentum distributions of charged-particles within and around jets in Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 5.02$ TeV with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the fragmentation of jets into charged particles in heavy-ion collisions can help in understanding the mechanism of jet quenching by the hot and dense QCD matter created in such collisions, the quark-gluon plasma. This note presents a measurement of the angular distribution of charged particles around the jet axis in $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=$ 5.02 TeV Pb+Pb and $pp$ collisions, done using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed inside jets reconstructed with the anti-$k_{t}$ algorithm with radius parameter $R = $ 0.4, and is extended to regions outside the jet cone. Results are presented as a function of Pb+Pb collision centrality, and both jet and charged-particle transverse momenta.

  5. Measurement of the g factor of the 3.1232 MeV 19/2- level in 43Sc by perturbed angular distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengyun; Li Anli; Gou Zhenghui; Zheng Shengnan; Li Guangsheng

    1994-01-01

    The g-factor hence the magnetic moment, of the isomeric state 43 Sc(19/2 - , 3.1232 MeV) has been measured by the time differential perturbed angular distribution method. The measured values are g = 0.3279(19) and μ/μN = 3.108(18) nm

  6. /sup 16/O-/sup 16/O scattering by the generator coordinate method. [Phase shifts, angular distributions, 13 and 19 NeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1977-03-21

    The elastic scattering of two /sup 16/O nuclei is studied by the generator coordinate method. Phase shifts are calculated and compared to the results of calculations by the resonating group method. A method to include absorption in the generator coordinate method is suggested and 13 and 19 MeV angular distributions are calculated. The agreement with experiment is appreciably improved.

  7. A statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors from supernova SN 1987 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors on UT 07:35, 2/23'87 is carried out. Distribution functions of the mean scattering angles in the reaction anti υ e p→e + n and υe→υe are constructed with account taken of the multiple Coulomb scattering and the experimental angular errors. The Smirnov and Wald-Wolfowitz run tests are used to test the hypothesis that the angular distributions of events from the two detectors agree with each other. We test with the use of the Kolmogorov and Mises statistical criterions the hypothesis that the recorded events all represent anti υ e p→e + n inelastic scatterings. Then the Neyman-Pearson test is applied to each event in testing the hypothesis anti υ e p→e + n against the alternative υe→υe. The hypotheses that the number of elastic events equals s=0, 1, 2, ... against the alternatives s≠0, 1, 2, ... are tested on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio criterion. The confidence intervals for the number of elastic events are also constructed. The current supernova models fail to give a satisfactory account of the angular distribution data. (orig.)

  8. Angular distribution and cross section measurements of 64Zn(n,α)61Ni reaction for neutron energy 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingtang; Chen Zemin; Qi Huiquan; Li Mingtao

    1995-01-01

    A twin gridded ionization chamber with dual parameter data acquisition system is used to study neutron induced charged particle emission reaction. The angular distribution and cross section of α-particles from the 64 Zn(n,α) 61 Ni reaction are measured at neutron energy 5 MeV

  9. Search for new phenomena in dijet mass and angular distributions from pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 754, Mar (2016), 302-322 ISSN 0370-2693 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ATLAS * angular distribution * quantum chromodynamics * perturbation theory * contact interaction * new interaction * CERN LHC Coll Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.807, year: 2016

  10. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of transitions in YbI using UV and deep-UV cw laser light and the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R.T.; van Duijn, E.J.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the third harmonic of a cw titanium:sapphire laser, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of three deep-UV transitions of neutral Yb have been measured for the first time. By exploiting the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation, accurate and complete results are

  11. Nucleon internal structure: a new set of quark, gluon momentum, angular momentum operators and parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; Lu Xiaofu; Goldman, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)

  12. Neutron emission effects on fragment mass and kinetic energy distribution from fission of 239Pu induced by thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2010-01-01

    The average of fragment kinetic energy (E-bar sign*) and the multiplicity of prompt neutrons (ν(bar sign)) as a function of fragment mass (m*), as well as the fragment mass yield (Y(m*)) from thermal neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu have been measured by Tsuchiya et al.. In that work the mass and kinetic energy are calculated from the measured kinetic energy of one fragment and the difference of time of flight of the two complementary fragments. However they do not present their results about the standard deviation σ E *(m*). In this work we have made a numerical simulation of that experiment which reproduces its results, assuming an initial distribution of the primary fragment kinetic energy (E(A)) with a constant value of the standard deviation as function of fragment mass (σ E (A)). As a result of the simulation we obtain the dependence σ E *(m*) which presents an enhancement between m* = 92 and m* = 110, and a peak at m* = 121.

  13. Extracting CKM phases from angular distributions of $B_{d,s}$ decays into admixtures of CP eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The time-dependent angular distributions of certain B/sub d, s/ decays into final states that are admixtures of CP-even and CP-odd configurations provide valuable information about CKM phases and hadronic parameters. We present the general formalism to accomplish this task, taking also into account penguin contributions, and illustrate it by considering a few specific decay modes. We give particular emphasis to the decay B/sub d/ to J/ psi rho /sup 0/, which can be combined with B/sub s/ to J/ psi phi to extract the B /sub d//sup 0/-B/sub d//sup 0/ mixing phase and-if penguin effects in the former mode should be sizeable-also the angle gamma of the unitarity triangle. As an interesting by-product, this strategy allows us to take into account also the penguin effects in the extraction of the B/sub s//sup 0/-B/sub s//sup 0/ mixing phase from B /sub s/ to J/ psi phi . Moreover, a discrete ambiguity in the extraction of the CKM angle beta can be resolved, and valuable insights into SU(3)-breaking effects can be o...

  14. Experimental study for angular distribution of the hot electrons generated by femtosecond laser interaction with solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, D.F.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zheng, Z.J.; Wen, T.S.; Chunyu, S.T.; Wang, Z.B.; Yang, X.D.

    2003-01-01

    The experimental results of angular distribution of hot electrons in the interaction of a 60 fs, 125 mJ, 800 nm, ∼10 17 W cm -2 laser pulse with Al targets are reported. Three obvious peaks of hot electrons emission have been observed, as there is a weak normal component of the laser electric field. These emission peaks are located in the directions of the specular reflection of the laser, the target normal, and the backreflection of the laser, respectively. In the case of the P-polarized laser pulse, which has a strong normal component of the laser electric field, the peak in the backreflection of the laser disappeared, and only two obvious peaks of hot electron emissions existed. It shows that the different directions of hot electrons emission are dominated by different absorption or acceleration mechanisms. The experimental result of the hot electrons energy spectrum at the target normal shows that the effective temperature of hot electrons is about 190 keV, which is consistent with a scaling law of the resonance absorption

  15. Free-space measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol using decoy states with orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Le; Zhao Sheng-Mei; Cheng Wei-Wen; Gong Long-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol using orbital angular momentum (OAM) in free space links, named the OAM-MDI-QKD protocol. In the proposed protocol, the OAM states of photons, instead of polarization states, are used as the information carriers to avoid the reference frame alignment, the decoy-state is adopted to overcome the security loophole caused by the weak coherent pulse source, and the high efficient OAM-sorter is adopted as the measurement tool for Charlie to obtain the output OAM state. Here, Charlie may be an untrusted third party. The results show that the authorized users, Alice and Bob, could distill a secret key with Charlie’s successful measurements, and the key generation performance is slightly better than that of the polarization-based MDI-QKD protocol in the two-dimensional OAM cases. Simultaneously, Alice and Bob can reduce the number of flipping the bits in the secure key distillation. It is indicated that a higher key generation rate performance could be obtained by a high dimensional OAM-MDI-QKD protocol because of the unlimited degree of freedom on OAM states. Moreover, the results show that the key generation rate and the transmission distance will decrease as the growth of the strength of atmospheric turbulence (AT) and the link attenuation. In addition, the decoy states used in the proposed protocol can get a considerable good performance without the need for an ideal source. (paper)

  16. Fission of heavy nuclei: microscopic study of fission barriers and fragments angular momentum; Fission des noyaux lourds: etude microscopique des barrieres de fission et du moment angulaire des fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, L

    2003-11-01

    A lot of experimental data on nuclear fission has been being collected for the last 65 years, allowing theoreticians to confront their models with reality. The first part of this work is dedicated to the computation of fission barriers. We have extended the HF + BCS (Hartree Fock + Bandeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) method in order to include a new set of polynomials on which wave functions can be broken to, more accurately than on Hermite's polynomials in the 2 fragment configuration. The fission barriers of 26 heavy nuclei from Thorium-230 to Nobelium-256 have been assessed and compared to experimental data, it appears that differences are no greater than 1 MeV. We have discovered a neat correlation between the variation of the experimental fission lifetimes of even Fermium isotopes and the computed heights of second barriers. Moreover our model reproduces the hyper-deformed well of Thorium-230 with a good agreement on the well depth. The second part deals with the scission region. We have performed Hartree-Fock calculations in order to explore different ways of fragmentation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator gives a valid description of such ways. In order to compute the mean value of J{sup 2} in the fragments we have been driven to propose an adequate definition of that quantity consistent with the non-locality property of the J{sup 2} operator. (A.C.)

  17. Fission of heavy nuclei: microscopic study of fission barriers and fragments angular momentum; Fission des noyaux lourds: etude microscopique des barrieres de fission et du moment angulaire des fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneau, L

    2003-11-01

    A lot of experimental data on nuclear fission has been being collected for the last 65 years, allowing theoreticians to confront their models with reality. The first part of this work is dedicated to the computation of fission barriers. We have extended the HF + BCS (Hartree Fock + Bandeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) method in order to include a new set of polynomials on which wave functions can be broken to, more accurately than on Hermite's polynomials in the 2 fragment configuration. The fission barriers of 26 heavy nuclei from Thorium-230 to Nobelium-256 have been assessed and compared to experimental data, it appears that differences are no greater than 1 MeV. We have discovered a neat correlation between the variation of the experimental fission lifetimes of even Fermium isotopes and the computed heights of second barriers. Moreover our model reproduces the hyper-deformed well of Thorium-230 with a good agreement on the well depth. The second part deals with the scission region. We have performed Hartree-Fock calculations in order to explore different ways of fragmentation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator gives a valid description of such ways. In order to compute the mean value of J{sup 2} in the fragments we have been driven to propose an adequate definition of that quantity consistent with the non-locality property of the J{sup 2} operator. (A.C.)

  18. Angular-momentum transport in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschin, G.; Ayik, S.; Noerenberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various relaxation processes that can be observed in heavy-ion collisions, the dissipation of relative angular momentum into intrinsic angular momentum of the fragments attracts increasing attention. Here we present a transport theoretical description of angular-momentum and mass transport that allows for a transparent interpretation of the data. (orig.) [de

  19. Energy distribution of projectile fragment particles in heavy ion therapeutic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Tomura, Hiromi; Futami, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Production of fragment particles in a patient`s body is one of important problems for heavy charged particle therapy. It is required to know the yield and the energy spectrum for each fragment element - so called `beam quality` to understand the effect of therapeutic beam precisely. In this study, fragment particles produced by practical therapeutic beam of HIMAC were investigated with using tissue-equivalent material and a detector complex. From the results, fragment particles were well identified by difference of their atomic numbers and the beam quality was derived. Responses of the detectors in this energy region were also researched. (author)

  20. Electron impact ionization of size selected hydrogen clusters (H2)N: ion fragment and neutral size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Oleg; Toennies, J Peter

    2008-05-21

    Clusters consisting of normal H2 molecules, produced in a free jet expansion, are size selected by diffraction from a transmission nanograting prior to electron impact ionization. For each neutral cluster (H2)(N) (N=2-40), the relative intensities of the ion fragments Hn+ are measured with a mass spectrometer. H3+ is found to be the most abundant fragment up to N=17. With a further increase in N, the abundances of H3+, H5+, H7+, and H9+ first increase and, after passing through a maximum, approach each other. At N=40, they are about the same and more than a factor of 2 and 3 larger than for H11+ and H13+, respectively. For a given neutral cluster size, the intensities of the ion fragments follow a Poisson distribution. The fragmentation probabilities are used to determine the neutral cluster size distribution produced in the expansion at a source temperature of 30.1 K and a source pressure of 1.50 bar. The distribution shows no clear evidence of a magic number N=13 as predicted by theory and found in experiments with pure para-H2 clusters. The ion fragment distributions are also used to extract information on the internal energy distribution of the H3+ ions produced in the reaction H2+ + H2-->H3+ +H, which is initiated upon ionization of the cluster. The internal energy is assumed to be rapidly equilibrated and to determine the number of molecules subsequently evaporated. The internal energy distribution found in this way is in good agreement with data obtained in an earlier independent merged beam scattering experiment.

  1. Long-term fragmentation effects on the distribution and dynamics of canopy gaps in a tropical montane forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Gregory P. Asner; Christian P. Giardina

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation alters forest canopy structure through various mechanisms, which in turn drive subsequent changes to biogeochemical processes and biological diversity. Using repeated airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mappings, we investigated the size distribution and dynamics of forest canopy gaps across a topical montane forest landscape in Hawaii naturally...

  2. Measurement of the weak mixing angle and the spin of the gluon from angular distributions in the reaction pp→ Z/γ*+X→μ+μ-+X with ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieden, Kristof

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of the effective weak mixing angle with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented. It is extracted from the forward-backward asymmetry in the polar angle distribution of the muons originating from Z boson decays in the reaction pp→Z/γ * +X→ μ + μ - +X. In total 4.7 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV are analysed. In addition, the full polar and azimuthal angular distributions are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the Z/γ * system and are compared to several simulations as well as recent results obtained in p anti p collisions. Finally, the angular distributions are used to confirm the spin of the gluon using the Lam-Tung relation.

  3. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution/Fragmentation Functions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Mckeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; Schweitzer, P.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D ((bar D)) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the sea quark region along with a study of their evolution.

  4. Vicinage forces between molecular and atomic fragments dissociated from small hydrogen clusters and their effects on energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.; Garcia-Molina, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic evolution of molecular and atomic fragments of small hydrogen clusters interacting with thin solid foils. We compare the vicinage forces, calculated within the dielectric formalism, for H + , H 0 , and H 2 + fragments. Using a molecular dynamics numerical code we determine the energy distribution of the fragments after interacting with the target. This distribution is compared to experimental results for protons coming from the fragmentation of v=2.02 a.u. H 2 + ions impinging on an aluminum foil; a fraction of neutral H 0 is needed to be included in the simulation to get a good agreement with the experimental results. The H 2 + energy spectra for v=5.42 a.u. H 3 + interacting with amorphous carbon is also determined. The asymmetry in the Coulomb peaks appearing in the energy spectra both experimentally and in our calculation is opposite for H 2 + than in H + ; kinematic effects and differences in the electronic stopping are enough to reproduce the difference in the alignment of H 2 + and H + fragments

  5. Scattering of 14. 0 MeV electrons. Fundamental study of the scattering foil. [Angular distribution, 14. 0 MeV, gaussian distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, C [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Health Sciences; Yoshimoto, S

    1977-07-01

    The angular distribution of 14.0 MeV electrons scattered by thin Al and Pb foils has been measured, since the beam flatness is important on the high energy electron therapy. These distributions measured were almost completely Gaussian. The root mean square scattering angles were obtained and were compared with the theories of Williams and Rossi. In our experiments the root mean square scattering angles obtained have the experimental errors of about 4% and 1% for 5/sup 0/ and 10/sup 0/, respectively. For Al foils of 0.5 mm to 3.0 mm the experimental values of the root mean square scattering angles are 5.49/sup 0/ and 12.43/sup 0/ and are 30% to 10% higher than those predicted by Williams. Although, these values are 4% to 9% lower than those calculated from the theory of Rossi. The root mean square scattering angles obtained with Pb foils of 0.1 mm to 0.3 mm are 9.62/sup 0/ to 18.05/sup 0/ and are 14% to 18% higher than Williams, and are 14% to 7% lower than those theoretically calculated by Rossi.

  6. IS THE MATRIX REALLY INHOSPITABLE? VOLE RUNWAY DISTRIBUTION IN AN EXPERIMENTALLY FRAGMENTED LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat fragmentation is a common feature of modern landscapes, with significant impacts on the population densities of and space use by animals. A frequest model system for studying these effects is that of voles (Microtus spp.) and other rodents in experimentally fragmented gr...

  7. Projectile fragmentation of neutron-rich nuclei on light target (momentum distribution and nucleon-removal cross section)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tanihata, I.; Suzuki, T.

    1992-01-01

    Transverse momentum distributions of the projectile fragments from β-unstable nuclei have been measured with various projectile and target combinations. The momentum correlation of two neutrons in the neutron halo is extracted from the P c t distribution of 9 Li and hat of the neutrons. It is found that the two neutrons are moving in the same direction on average and thus strongly suggests the formation of a di-neutron in 11 Li. (Author)

  8. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  9. Space and phase resolved ion energy and angular distributions in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The control of ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) is critically important for anisotropic etching or deposition in microelectronic fabrication processes. With single frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the narrowing in angle and spread in energy of ions as they cross the sheath are definable functions of frequency, sheath width, and mean free path. With increases in wafer size, single frequency CCPs are finding difficulty in meeting the requirement of simultaneously controlling plasma densities, ion fluxes, and ion energies. Dual-frequency CCPs are being investigated to provide this flexible control. The high frequency (HF) is intended to control the plasma density and ion fluxes, while the ion energies are intended to be controlled by the low frequency (LF). However, recent research has shown that the LF can also influence the magnitude of ion fluxes and that IEADs are determined by both frequencies. Hence, separate control of fluxes and IEADs is complex. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar/O{sub 2} plasma properties in an industrial reactor are discussed. The IEADs are tracked as a function of height above the substrate and phase within the rf cycles from the bulk plasma to the presheath and through the sheath with the goal of providing insights to this complexity. Comparison is made to laser-induced fluorescence experiments. The authors found that the ratios of HF/LF voltage and driving frequency are critical parameters in determining the shape of the IEADs, both during the transit of the ion through the sheath and when ions are incident onto the substrate. To the degree that contributions from the HF can modify plasma density, sheath potential, and sheath thickness, this may provide additional control for the IEADs.

  10. Vertical and horizontal distribution of pollination systems in cerrado fragments of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Quintas Martins

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In fragments of the cerrado, we determined the frequency of pollination systems and analyzed their spatial distribution. We placed 38 transects, sampling 2,280 individuals and 121 species. As expected in Neotropical regions, bee-pollination was the most frequent pollination system. We found a decrease in the frequency of plants pollinated by beetles towards the fragment interior. Similarly, we found significant variation in relation to height just for the bats; there was an increase in the frequency of plants pollinated by bats towards the higher heights. In general, we found no horizontal and vertical variation in the pollination systems, probably as consequence of the more open physiognomy of the cerrado vegetation.As principais pressões seletivas nas estratégias de polinização originam principalmente do ambiente em que plantas ocorrem, como subdossel, dossel, borda ou interior de um fragmento. Diferentes condições ambientais aumentam as diferenças entre os nichos ecológicos e podem implicar diferenças nas proporções dos sistemas de polinização. Em fragmentos de cerrado, determinamos a freqüência dos sistemas de polinização e analisamos sua distribuição espacial. Lançamos 38 transecções aleatoriamente, amostrando 2.280 indivíduos e 121 espécies. Como esperado para regiões neotropicais, a polinização por abelhas foi o sistema de polinização mais freqüente. Encontramos uma diminuição na freqüência de plantas polinizadas por besouros em direção ao interior do fragmento. De modo similar, encontramos uma variação significativa em relação à altura somente para os morcegos, havendo um aumento na freqüência de plantas em direção a alturas mais altas. Em geral, não encontramos variações horizontais e verticais nos sistemas de polinização, provavelmente, como conseqüência da fisionomia mais aberta de cerrado.

  11. PELE弹丸靶后破片尺寸分布研究%A study on fragmentation distribution of PELE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊自建; 冉宪文; 汤文辉; 黄秋生

    2017-01-01

    Target plate rear damage effect is closely related to the fragment's size and quantity which are produced by penetrator with enhanced lateral effect (PELE).In order to study the factors influencing the scale of projectile shell fragments and determine the fragment distribution scale,the expansion process of PELE projectile shell was analyzed,according to the Mott-Grady fragmentation theory.The theoretical analysis method of the distribution range of the fragment scale was given.The correctness of the theoretical analysis was tested by experiments.By theoretical analysis and experimental study,the results show that projectile shell fragment size distribution is mainly affected by material density,crushing energy consumption,critical fracture strain and strain rate.The fragments width and number are greatly influenced by inner core material.With the increasing of density and elastic modulus of the inner core material,the width of front-end fragment decreases the number,the radial velocity becomes large.The shell fragment length is determined by projectile impacting target speed and less affected by the inner core material.%横向效应增强型弹丸(PELE)靶后毁伤效果与穿靶后形成的破片数量及大小密切相关.依据Mott-Grady破碎理论和PELE弹丸壳体膨胀过程假设,提出了弹丸壳体破片尺寸分布范围的理论分析方法,并通过实验回收弹体破片尺寸的统计分析,验证了理论分析方法的合理性.理论与实验研究表明,PELE弹丸壳体破片尺寸分布与壳体材料密度、破碎耗能、临界破碎应变、应变率等因素相关;破片的环向宽度和数量受内芯材料的影响较大,存在随着内芯材料的密度和弹性模量的增加前端破片环向宽度减小,数量增多,径向飞散速度变大的规律;但从实验结果看,外壳破片轴向长度则受内芯材料的影响较小,主要与弹靶碰撞速度相关.

  12. Probing the Spatial Distribution of the Interstellar Dust Medium by High Angular Resolution X-ray Halos of Point Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jingen

    X-rays are absorbed and scattered by dust grains when they travel through the interstellar medium. The scattering within small angles results in an X-ray ``halo''. The halo properties are significantly affected by the energy of radiation, the optical depth of the scattering, the grain size distributions and compositions, and the spatial distribution of dust along the line of sight (LOS). Therefore analyzing the X-ray halo properties is an important tool to study the size distribution and spatial distribution of interstellar grains, which plays a central role in the astrophysical study of the interstellar medium, such as the thermodynamics and chemistry of the gas and the dynamics of star formation. With excellent angular resolution, good energy resolution and broad energy band, the Chandra ACIS is so far the best instrument for studying the X-ray halos. But the direct images of bright sources obtained with ACIS usually suffer from severe pileup which prevents us from obtaining the halos in small angles. We first improve the method proposed by Yao et al to resolve the X-ray dust scattering halos of point sources from the zeroth order data in CC-mode or the first order data in TE mode with Chandra HETG/ACIS. Using this method we re-analyze the Cygnus X-1 data observed with Chandra. Then we studied the X-ray dust scattering halos around 17 bright X-ray point sources using Chandra data. All sources were observed with the HETG/ACIS in CC-mode or TE-mode. Using the interstellar grain models of WD01 model and MRN model to fit the halo profiles, we get the hydrogen column densities and the spatial distributions of the scattering dust grains along the line of sights (LOS) to these sources. We find there is a good linear correlation not only between the scattering hydrogen column density from WD01 model and the one from MRN model, but also between N_{H} derived from spectral fits and the one derived from the grain models WD01 and MRN (except for GX 301-2 and Vela X-1): N

  13. Analysis of human blood plasma cell-free DNA fragment size distribution using EvaGreen chemistry based droplet digital PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2018-04-12

    Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragment size distribution provides important information required for diagnostic assay development. We have developed and optimized droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays that quantify short and long DNA fragments. These assays were used to analyze plasma cfDNA fragment size distribution in human blood. Assays were designed to amplify 76,135, 490 and 905 base pair fragments of human β-actin gene. These assays were used for fragment size analysis of plasma cell-free, exosome and apoptotic body DNA obtained from normal and pregnant donors. The relative percentages for 76, 135, 490 and 905 bp fragments from non-pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 39%, 18%, 5.6% and 100%, 40%, 18%,3.3%, respectively. The relative percentages for pregnant plasma and exosome DNA were 100%, 34%, 14%, 23%, and 100%, 30%, 12%, 18%, respectively. The relative percentages for non-pregnant plasma pellet (obtained after 2nd centrifugation step) were 100%, 100%, 87% and 83%, respectively. Non-pregnant Plasma cell-free and exosome DNA share a unique fragment distribution pattern which is different from pregnant donor plasma and exosome DNA fragment distribution indicating the effect of physiological status on cfDNA fragment size distribution. Fragment distribution pattern for plasma pellet that includes apoptotic bodies and nuclear DNA was greatly different from plasma cell-free and exosome DNA. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutron emission effects on final fragments mass and kinetic energy distribution from low energy fission of {sup 234}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, Lima 41 (Peru); Lobato, I. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Apartado Postal 31-139, Lima (Peru)]. e-mail: mmontoya@ipen.gob.pe

    2008-07-01

    The standard deviation of the final kinetic energy distribution ({sigma}{sub e}) as a function of mass of final fragments (m) from low energy fission of {sup 234}U, measured with the Lohengrin spectrometer by Belhafaf et al., presents a peak around m = 109 and another around m = 122. The authors attribute the first peak to the evaporation of a large number of neutrons around the corresponding mass number, i.e. there is no peak on the standard deviation of the primary kinetic energy distribution ({sigma}{sub E}) as a function of primary fragment mass (A). The second peak is attributed to a real peak on {sigma}{sub E}(A). However, theoretical calculations related to primary distributions made by H.R. Faust and Z. Bao do not suggest any peak on {sigma}{sub E}(A). In order to clarify this apparent controversy, we have made a numerical experiment in which the masses and the kinetic energy of final fragments are calculated, assuming an initial distribution of the kinetic energy without structures on the standard deviation as function of fragment mass. As a result we obtain a pronounced peak on {sigma}{sub e} (m) curve around m = 109, a depletion from m = 121 to m = 129, and an small peak around m = 122, which is not as great as that measured by Belhafaf et al. Our simulation also reproduces the experimental results on the yield of the final mass Y(m), the average number of emitted neutrons as a function of the provisional mass (calculated from the values of the final kinetic energy of the complementary fragments) and the average value of fragment kinetic energy as a function of the final mass. From our results we conclude that there are no peaks on the {sigma}{sub E} (A) curve, and the observed peaks on {sigma}{sub e} (m) are due to the emitted neutron multiplicity and the variation of the average fragment kinetic energy as a function of primary fragment mass. (Author)

  15. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.; Iliescu, B.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, M.; Calin, C.; Horbuniev, A.; Arsene, I.; Esanu, T.; Ochesanu, S.; Caramarcu, C.; Bordeianu, C.; Rosu, I.; Grossu, V.; Zgura, I.S.; Stan, E.; Mitu, C.; Potlog, M.; Cherciu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed taking into account different scales. These scales are related to the fragment sizes. Taking into account the possible different fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained in different experiments performed at the JINR Dubna (Russia), KEK Tsukuba (Japan), GSI Darmstadt (Germany) is done. Results on apparent temperatures, angular distributions, fragment momentum spectra, multiplicities of the intermediate mass fragments are used to analyse the competition between two possible nuclear fragmentation mechanisms, namely: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves, and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly, because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the participant region at transverse angles on the incident nucleus, in CMS.Some connections with chaos dynamics and fractal structure of the fragmentation patterns are included. (authors)

  16. Angular distribution of thick-target bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, D.; Cavness, B.; Williams, S. [Department of Physics, Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas 76909 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Experimental results are presented comparing the intensities of the bremsstrahlung produced by electrons with initial energies ranging from 10 to 20 keV incident on a thick Ag target, measured at forward angles in the range of 0 degree sign to 55 degree sign . When the data are corrected for attenuation due to photon absorption within the target, the results indicate that the detected radiation is distributed anisotropically only at photon energies k that are approximately equal to the initial energy of the incident electrons E{sub 0}. The results of our experiments suggest that, as k/E{sub 0}{yields} 0, the detected radiation essentially becomes isotropic due primarily to the scattering of electrons within the target. A comparison to the theory of Kissel et al.[At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 28, 381 (1983)] suggests that the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on thick targets is similar to the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons incident on free-atom targets only when k/E{sub 0}{approx_equal} 1. The experimental data also are in approximate agreement with the angular distribution predictions of the Monte Carlo program penelope.

  17. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  18. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  19. Influence of spin on fission fragments anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Omid N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of selected fission fragment angular distribution when at least one of the spins of the projectile or target is appreciable in induced fission was made by using the statistical scission model. The results of this model predicate that the spins of the projectile or target are affected on the nuclear level density of the compound nucleus. The experimental data was analyzed by means of the couple channel spin effect formalism. This formalism suggests that the projectile spin is more effective on angular anisotropies within the limits of energy near the fusion barrier.

  20. Search for Quark Contact Interactions in Dijet Angular Distributions in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Braccini, S.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D.S.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P.E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diaz Gomez, M.M.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J.G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Duren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; 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Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.

    2013-07-16

    Dijet angular distributions from the first LHC pp collisions at center-of-mass energy sqrt(s) = 7 TeV have been measured with the ATLAS detector. The dataset used for this analysis represents an integrated luminosity of 3.1 pb-1. Dijet $\\chi$ distributions and centrality ratios have been measured up to dijet masses of 2.8 TeV, and found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions. Analysis of the $\\chi$ distributions excludes quark contact interactions with a compositeness scale $\\Lambda$ below 3.4 TeV, at 95% confidence level, significantly exceeding previous limits.

  1. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

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Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; 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Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-06-04

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb$^{-1}$. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% CL; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.

  2. Stretched configuration of states as inferred from γ-ray angular distributions in {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb neutron transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colovic, P.; Szilner, S.; Mijatovic, T.; Jelavic Malenica, D.; Soic, N. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Corradi, L.; Fioretto, E.; Stefanini, A.M.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Pollarolo, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Goasduff, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Montanari, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Chapman, R.; Smith, J.F. [University of the West of Scotland, School of Engineering and Computing, Paisley (United Kingdom); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Haas, F. [Universite de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Marginean, N.; Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering and ELI-NP, Bucharest (Romania); Mengoni, D.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Milin, M. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-08-15

    Angular distributions of γ-rays for selected transitions in {sup 40,41,42}Ar isotopes have been studied with the PRISMA magnetic spectrometer coupled to the CLARA γ array. These transitions were populated in Ar isotopes reached via neutron transfer in the {sup 40}Ar + {sup 208}Pb reaction. By comparison with the shape of the experimental angular distribution of the known E2 transitions we established more firmly the spin and parity of excited states. In particular, in {sup 41}Ar for the (11/2{sup -}) state through the (11/2{sup -}) → 7/2{sup -} transition whose structure was discussed in terms of a phonon-fermion coupled state. The comparison with the expected fully aligned spin indicated that a high level of spin alignment has been reached. (orig.)

  3. Branching ratio and angular distribution of ejected electrons from Eu 4f76p1/2 n d auto-ionizing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiao-Rui; Shen Li; Zhang Kai; Dai Chang-Jian; Yang Yu-Na

    2016-01-01

    The branching ratios of ions and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d auto-ionizing states are investigated with the velocity-map-imaging technique. To populate the above auto-ionizing states, the relevant bound Rydberg states have to be detected first. Two new bound Rydberg states are identified in the region between 41150 cm −1 and 44580 cm −1 , from which auto-ionization spectra of the Eu 4f 7 6p 1/2 n d states are observed with isolated core excitation method. With all preparations above, the branching ratios from the above auto-ionizing states to different final ionic states and the angular distributions of electrons ejected from these processes are measured systematically. Energy dependence of branching ratios and anisotropy parameters within the auto-ionization spectra are carefully analyzed, followed by a qualitative interpretation. (paper)

  4. Angular momentum distribution for the formation of evaporation residues in fusion of 19F with 184W near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, S.; Gehlot, J.; Prasad, E.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Shidling, P.D.; Madhavan, N.; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K.S.; Jhingan, A.; Varughese, T.; Rao, P.V. Madhusudhana; Sinha, A.K.; Pal, Santanu

    2011-01-01

    We present γ-ray multiplicity distributions for the formation of evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 19 F + 184 W → 203 83 Bi 120 at beam energies in the range of 90-110 MeV. The measurements were carried out using a 14 element BGO detector array and the Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. The data have been unfolded to obtain angular momentum distributions with inputs from the statistical model calculation. Comparison with another neighboring system, viz. 19 F + 175 Lu → 194 80 Hg 114 with nearly similar entrance-channel mass asymmetry, hints at the depletion of higher angular momenta after crossing of the Z=82 shell in the compound nucleus.

  5. Production cross sections and momentum distributions of the projectile fragments of a 500 MeV/u 86Kr beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.

    1993-07-01

    The projectile fragmentation of a 500 MeV/u 86 Kr beam in a beryllium, copper, respectively tantalum target was studied at the projectile-fragment separator of the GSI. The new neutron-rich isotopes 58 Ti, 61 V, 63 Cr, 66 Mn, 69 Fe, and 71 Co could be uniquely identified, furthermore a hint on the existence of 64 Cr, 72 Co, and 75 Ni resulted. The experimental production cross sections, which were determined for a large A and Z range, were compared with the predictions of three different models. The studies presented in the present thesis allow an extrapolation of the production cross section for the double-magic nucleus 78 Ni of only 0.6 pb. With increasing nuclear-charge number of the target material a larger production cross section for light fragments was observed. From these data it can be concluded that projectile-like fragments arise in peripheral and light fragments in central reactions. Furthermore production cross sections and parallel momentum distributions of the rubidium isotopes and the 86 Br were measured. To the experimentally observed charge-exchange products two possible processes can be assigned, namely the quasi-free nucleon-nucleon collision respectively the excitation of a Δresonance. (HSI)

  6. Time-differential observation of α-particle perturbed angular distribution: g-factor measurements for 217Acsup(gs) and 217Acsup(m)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, K.H.; Decman, D.J.; Grawe, H.; Kluge, H.

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in 217 Ac using the DPAD method with α-decay are described in this work. The results of γ-ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by α-γ and γ-γ coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the α-particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (orig.)

  7. Search for new physics in dijet mass and angular distributions in pp collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2011), 1-45 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : higher-dimensional * angular distribution * new physics * axigluon * ATLAS * quantum gravity * CERN LHC Coll * experimental results Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2011

  8. Study of the angular distribution of the reaction bar pp→χc2→J/ψγ→e+e-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Bettoni, D.; Bharadwaj, V.; Biino, C.; Borreani, G.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Buzzo, A.; Calabrese, R.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Church, M.D.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Dibenedetto, R.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Fabbri, M.G.; Fast, J.E.; Gianoli, A.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Hahn, A.A.; Hasan, M.A.; Hsueh, S.Y.; Lewis, R.A.; Luppi, E.; Macri, M.; Majewska, A.M.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Marchetto, F.; Marinelli, M.; Marques, J.L.; Marsh, W.; Martini, M.; Masuzawa, M.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pallavicini, M.; Pastrone, N.; Patrignani, C.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pesando, L.; Petrucci, F.; Pia, M.G.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Ray, R.E.; Reid, J.D.; Rinaudo, G.; Roccuzzo, B.; Rosen, J.L.; Santroni, A.; Sarmiento, M.; Savrie, M.; Scalisi, A.; Schultz, J.; Seth, K.K.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.A.; Sozzi, M.; Trokenheim, S.; Weber, M.F.; Werkema, S.J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.L.; Zioulas, G.

    1993-01-01

    We report on a study of the angular distribution in the reaction bar pp→χ c2 →J/ψγ→e + e-γ. Using a sample of 1904 events, we find that the contribution of helicity zero in the formation process is B 0 2 2 =-0.14±0.06. The normalized radiative decay octupole amplitude a 3 is found to be consistent with zero

  9. Time-differential observation of alpha -particle perturbed angular distribution; g-factor measurements for /sup 217/Ac/sup gs/ and /sup 217/Ac/sup m/

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Grawe, H; Kluge, H

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in /sup 217/Ac using the DPAD method with alpha -decay are described. The results of gamma -ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by alpha - gamma and gamma - gamma coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the alpha - particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (13 refs).

  10. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions; Le rayonnement de transition optique. I: etude numerique des distributions angulaires et spectrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G

    1999-07-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  11. Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung and secondary electrons induced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams in thick targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Kosako, Kazuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakamura, Takashi; Sato, Kouichi; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2013-03-01

    Angular distributions of absorbed dose of Bremsstrahlung photons and secondary electrons at a wide range of emission angles from 0 to 135°, were experimentally obtained using an ion chamber with a 0.6 cm(3) air volume covered with or without a build-up cap. The Bremsstrahlung photons and electrons were produced by 18-, 28- and 38-MeV electron beams bombarding tungsten, copper, aluminium and carbon targets. The absorbed doses were also calculated from simulated photon and electron energy spectra by multiplying simulated response functions of the ion chambers, simulated with the MCNPX code. Calculated-to-experimental (C/E) dose ratios obtained are from 0.70 to 1.57 for high-Z targets of W and Cu, from 15 to 135° and the C/E range from 0.6 to 1.4 at 0°; however, the values of C/E for low-Z targets of Al and C are from 0.5 to 1.8 from 0 to 135°. Angular distributions at the forward angles decrease with increasing angles; on the other hand, the angular distributions at the backward angles depend on the target species. The dependences of absorbed doses on electron energy and target thickness were compared between the measured and simulated results. The attenuation profiles of absorbed doses of Bremsstrahlung beams at 0, 30 and 135° were also measured.

  12. Angular distribution of elastic scattering induced by 17F on medium-mass target nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. L.; Zhang, G. X.; Lin, C. J.; Lubian, J.; Rangel, J.; Paes, B.; Ferreira, J. L.; Zhang, H. Q.; Qu, W. W.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, L.; Ma, N. R.; Sun, L. J.; Wang, D. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, X. X.; Chu, X. T.; Yang, J. C.; Wang, J. S.; Xu, S. W.; Ma, P.; Ma, J. B.; Jin, S. L.; Bai, Z.; Huang, M. R.; Zang, H. L.; Yang, B.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The elastic scattering angular distributions were measured for 50- and 59-MeV 17F radioactive ion beam on a 89Y target. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the breakup of the proton halo projectile on the elastic scattering angular distribution. The experimental data were analyzed by means of the optical model with the double-folding São Paulo potential for both real and imaginary parts. The theoretical calculations reproduced the experimental data reasonably well. It is shown that the method of the data analysis is correct. In order to clarify the difference observed at large angles for the 59-MeV incident energy data, Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels (CDCC) calculations were performed to consider the breakup coupling effect. It is found that the experimental data show the Coulomb rainbow peak and that the effect of the coupling to the continuum states is not very significant, producing only a small hindrance of the Coulomb rainbow peak and a very small enhancement of the elastic scattering angular distribution at backward angles, suggesting that the multipole response of the neutron halo projectiles is stronger than that of the proton halo systems.