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Sample records for fracturing oil shale

  1. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  2. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  3. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  4. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  5. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  6. Microfluidic Investigation of Oil Mobilization in Shale Fracture Networks at Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Investigations of pore-scale fluid flow and transport phenomena using engineered micromodels has steadily increased in recent years. In these investigations fluid flow is restricted to two-dimensions allowing for real time visualization and quantification of complex flow and reactive transport behavior, which is difficult to obtain in other experimental systems. One drawback to these studies is the use of engineered materials that do not faithfully represent the rock properties (e.g., porosity, wettability, roughness, etc.) encountered in subsurface formations. In this work, we describe a unique high pressure (up to 1500 psi) and temperature (up to 80 °C) microfluidics experimental system in which we investigate fluid flow and transport in geo-material (e.g., shale, Portland cement, etc.) micromodels. The use of geo-material micromodels allows us to better represent fluid-rock interactions including wettability, chemical reactivity, and nano-scale porosity at conditions representative of natural subsurface environments. Here, we present experimental results in fracture systems with applications to hydrocarbon mobility in hydraulically fractured shale. Complex fracture network patterns are derived from 3D x-ray tomography images of actual fractures created in shale rock cores. We use both shale and glass micromodels, allowing for a detailed comparison between flow phenomena in the different materials. We discuss results from two-phase huff-and-puff experiments involving N2 and n-Decane, as well as three-phase displacement experiments involving supercritical CO2, brine, and n-Decane.

  7. Sweet spots for hydraulic fracturing oil or gas production in underexplored shales using key performance indicators: Example of the Posidonia Shale formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelkamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    While extensive data and experiences are available for hydraulic fracturing and hydrocarbon production from shales in the U.S.A., such a record is lacking in many underexplored shale basins worldwide. As limited data is usually available in these basins, analysis of shale prospectivity and identific

  8. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  9. Deliberating the perceived risks, benefits, and societal implications of shale gas and oil extraction by hydraulic fracturing in the US and UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merryn; Partridge, Tristan; Harthorn, Barbara Herr; Pidgeon, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas and oil production in the US has increased rapidly in the past decade, while interest in prospective development has also arisen in the UK. In both countries, shale resources and the method of their extraction (hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking') have been met with opposition amid concerns about impacts on water, greenhouse gas emissions, and health effects. Here we report the findings of a qualitative, cross-national deliberation study of public perceptions of shale development in UK and US locations not yet subject to extensive shale development. When presented with a carefully calibrated range of risks and benefits, participants' discourse focused on risks or doubts about benefits, and potential impacts were viewed as inequitably distributed. Participants drew on direct, place-based experiences as well as national contexts in deliberating shale development. These findings suggest that shale gas development already evokes a similar 'signature' of risk across the US and UK.

  10. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  14. Paraho oil shale project. [Coloardo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pforzheimer, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Paraho Oil Shale Project is a privately financed program to prove the Paraho retorting process and hardware on oil shale at Anvil Points, Colo., near Rifle. The project was launched in late 1973 under the sponsorship of 17 participants many of whom were active in earlier oil shale research. Two new Paraho retorts, a pilot and a semiworks size unit, were installed at Anvil Points. The oil-shale mine on the adjacent Naval Oil Shale Reserve was reactivated. The mine and new retorts were put into operation during 1974. The pilot plant is used to explore operating parameters in order to define conditions for testing in the larger semiworks size retort. The experimental operations in 1974 set the stage for the successful runs in 1975 and early 1976. The results of the Paraho operations to date have been encouraging. They demonstrate that the process works, that the equipment is durable, and that both are environmentally acceptable on a pilot and a semiworks plant scale.

  15. Oil-shale plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurkuusk, T. (Power Engineering Department, Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn, Estonia (SU))

    1991-08-01

    The specific feature of the Estonian energy system is the oil-shale based energy production. The total capacity of the Estonian energy system is 3311 MW, and from this 3104 MW is oil-shale based. There are four oil-shale based power plants in the North-East region of Estonia. (author).

  16. Fractured shale gas potential in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G.; Lombardi, T.E. [Ticora Geosciences Inc., Arvada, CO (United States); Martin, J.P. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The history of gas production in the Devonian and Silurian age shales of New York dates back 180 years with the discovery of hundreds of shallow shale wells along the Lake Erie shoreline. Although the resource potential for shale gas in New York is large, ranging from 163-313 trillion cubic feet, it has not been a major contributor to natural gas production in the state. Ordovician Utica shale may also hold potential as a new commercial shale gas reservoir. More than 20,000 Devonian shale wells are currently producing in the Appalachian Basin. Experience has shown that each shale play is unique and requires solutions to problems associated with commercial production that are unique to each play. The authors note that continued examination of the shale potential in New York is warranted, although more information is needed to address geological and reservoir properties in the shale, including resource distribution, natural fracture patterns, and limitations of the reservoir. Devonian shales have been recognized as a major gas resource that require advanced production methods for recovery. This paper described the depositional environment and thickness of black shale sequences in the Appalachian Basin, which consists of an alluvial plain, a shelf-delta front, the base of the slope, and the deep basin. The extensive natural fractures which are oriented in an east-north direction are considered to be potential conduits for hydrocarbon flow. The amount of organic carbon in the rock also contributes to the natural gas storage through either adsorption or solution within the reservoir system. This paper also outlines strategies for exploration and development of fractured gas shale reservoirs. It was suggested that exploration strategies should focus on finding areas that have significant natural gas resources as well as sufficient permeability for economic production. 94 refs., 21 tabs., 24 figs.

  17. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  18. Discrete fracture modeling of multiphase flow and hydrocarbon production in fractured shale or low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Settgast, R. R.; Fu, P.; Tompson, A. F. B.; Morris, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has long been recognized that multiphase flow and transport in fractured porous media is very important for various subsurface applications. Hydrocarbon fluid flow and production from hydraulically fractured shale reservoirs is an important and complicated example of multiphase flow in fractured formations. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing is able to create extensive fracture networks in low permeability shale rocks, leading to increased formation permeability and enhanced hydrocarbon production. However, unconventional wells experience a much faster production decline than conventional hydrocarbon recovery. Maintaining sustainable and economically viable shale gas/oil production requires additional wells and re-fracturing. Excessive fracturing fluid loss during hydraulic fracturing operations may also drive up operation costs and raise potential environmental concerns. Understanding and modeling processes that contribute to decreasing productivity and fracturing fluid loss represent a critical component for unconventional hydrocarbon recovery analysis. Towards this effort we develop a discrete fracture model (DFM) in GEOS (LLNL multi-physics computational code) to simulate multiphase flow and transfer in hydraulically fractured reservoirs. The DFM model is able to explicitly account for both individual fractures and their surrounding rocks, therefore allowing for an accurate prediction of impacts of fracture-matrix interactions on hydrocarbon production. We apply the DFM model to simulate three-phase (water, oil, and gas) flow behaviors in fractured shale rocks as a result of different hydraulic stimulation scenarios. Numerical results show that multiphase flow behaviors at the fracture-matrix interface play a major role in controlling both hydrocarbon production and fracturing fluid recovery rates. The DFM model developed in this study will be coupled with the existing hydro-fracture model to provide a fully integrated

  19. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  20. Acidization of shales with calcite cemented fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr; Jarosiński, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Investigation of cores drilled from shale formations reveals a relatively large number of calcite-cemented fractures. Usually such fractures are reactivated during fracking and can contribute considerably to the permeability of the resulting fracture network. However, calcite coating on their surfaces effectively excludes them from production. Dissolution of the calcite cement by acidic fluids is investigated numerically with focus on the evolution of fracture morphology. Available surface area, breakthrough time, and reactant penetration length are calculated. Natural fractures in cores from Pomeranian shale formation (northern Poland) were analyzed and classified. Representative fractures are relatively thin (0.1 mm), flat and completely sealed with calcite. Next, the morphology evolution of reactivated natural fractures treated with low-pH fluids has been simulated numerically under various operating conditions. Depth-averaged equations for fracture flow and reactant transport has been solved by finite-difference method coupled with sparse-matrix solver. Transport-limited dissolution has been considered, which corresponds to the treatment with strong acids, such as HCl. Calcite coating in reactivated natural fractures dissolves in a highly non-homogeneous manner - a positive feedback between fluid transport and calcite dissolution leads to the spontaneous formation of wormhole-like patterns, in which most of the flow is focused. The wormholes carry reactive fluids deeper inside the system, which dramatically increases the range of the treatment. Non-uniformity of the dissolution patterns provides a way of retaining the fracture permeability even in the absence of the proppant, since the less dissolved regions will act as supports to keep more dissolved regions open. Evolution of fracture morphology is shown to depend strongly on the thickness of calcite layer - the thicker the coating the more pronounced wormholes are observed. However the interaction between

  1. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  2. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  3. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  4. Triaxial coreflood study of the hydraulic fracturing of Utica Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Frash, L.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the central questions in unconventional oil and gas production research is the cause of limited recovery of hydrocarbon. There are many hypotheses including: 1) inadequate penetration of fractures within the stimulated volume; 2) limited proppant delivery; 3) multiphase flow phenomena that blocks hydrocarbon migration; etc. Underlying any solution to this problem must be an understanding of the hydrologic properties of hydraulically fractured shale. In this study, we conduct triaxial coreflood experiments using a gasket sealing mechanism to characterize hydraulic fracture development and permeability of Utica Shale samples. Our approach also includes fracture propagation with proppants. The triaxial coreflood experiments were conducted with an integrated x-ray tomography system that allows direct observation of fracture development using x-ray video radiography and x-ray computed tomography at elevated pressure. A semi-circular, fracture initiation notch was cut into an end-face of the cylindrical samples (1"-diameter with lengths from 0.375 to 1"). The notch was aligned parallel with the x-ray beam to allow video radiography of fracture growth as a function of injection pressure. The proppants included tungsten powder that provided good x-ray contrast for tracing proppant delivery and distribution within the fracture system. Fractures were propagated at injection pressures in excess of the confining pressure and permeability measurements were made in samples where the fractures propagated through the length of the sample, ideally without penetrating the sample sides. Following fracture development, permeability was characterized as a function of hydrostatic pressure and injection pressure. X-ray video radioadiography was used to study changes in fracture aperture in relation to permeability and proppant embedment. X-ray tomography was collected at steady-state conditions to fully characterize fracture geometry and proppant distribution.

  5. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  6. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  7. Cementing Properties of Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oil crisis has prompted renewed interest in direct burning of oil shale as an alternative energy source.A major problem in this process is the large portion of ash produced.The cementing properties of this ash were investigated to determine its applicability as a building material.By means of XRD, IR, NMR and ICP, we have studied the effects of burning temperature on the reactivity of ash.Maximum reactivity was obtained with ash samples produced at 700 °C to 900 °C.In this range, the strength of oil-shale-based material, with properties similar to cement, which is composed of oil shale and several other kinds of solid wastes, can achieve the standard of 42.5# cement.Our study has provided an experimental foundation and theoretical base for a massive utilization of oil shale.

  8. Fracture development in shale and its relationship to gas accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Ding

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale with high quartz, feldspar and carbonate, will have low Poisson’s ratio, high Young’s modulus and high brittleness. As a result, the shale is conducive to produce natural and induced fractures under external forces. In general, there is a good correlation between fracture development in shale and the volume of brittle minerals present. Shale with high TOC or abnormally high pressure has well-developed fractures. Shale fracture development also shows a positive correlation with total gas accumulation and free gas volume, i.e., the better shale fractures are developed, the greater the gas accumulation and therefore the higher the gas production. Fractures provide migration conduits and accumulation spaces for natural gas and formation water, which are favorable for the volumetric increase of free natural gas. Wider fractures in shale result in gas loss. In North America, there is a high success ratio of shale gas exploration and high gas production from high-angle fracture zones in shale. Good natural gas shows or low yield producers in the Lower Paleozoic marine organic matter-rich rocks in the Sichuan Basin are closely related to the degree of fracture development in brittle shales.

  9. Oil shale mining and processing in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viilup, V. (Eesti Polevkivi Co., Johvi (Estonia))

    1994-01-01

    The overview begins with some background information containing historical data about the shale oil deposite in Estonia, which are well known since the 17th century. One major issue is the importance of the deposits in Estonia regarding the energy supply. Shale oil mining has been taking place there since 1919. More detailed information is supplied about the geology of those deposits that are close to the surface. They, today, are being exploited in six underground mines as well as three surface mines. Recent, most modern, technology is applied for working these mines. The mining methods, as well as the machines used for exploiting the shale oil, will be described in some more detail, followed by a closer look on the numerous possibilities of application of the shale oil products. In order to complete the overview some data and production numbers will be supplied. (orig.)

  10. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  11. Highlights of the Messel Oil Shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Schaal

    2008-01-01

    The Messel oil shale, Germany, was deposited in a maar crater that formed 47 million years ago. Since 1975 the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, has conducted systematic scientific excavations of this oil shale with much success. Besides plants and insects, more than 130 species of well-preserved fossil vertebrates like reptiles, fishes, birds and mammals have been found and have made Messel world-famous. Some examples of these vertebrates are presented.

  12. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  13. Steep Decline and Low Hydrocarbon Recovery in Fractured Shale: What and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Barber, T.; Gao, Z.; Gao, X.; Ewing, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the technological advances of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States have led to a dramatic increase in hydrocarbon (gas and oil) production from shale formations, changing the energy landscape in the US and worldwide. Since 2005, the surge in tight oil production from shale formations has provided tremendous optimism regarding future United States hydrocarbon production, unexpectedly becoming the fastest-growing frontier of unconventional resources. According to the Energy Information Administration's newly released report in 2014, US oil output from tight oil prospects will almost double from the 2012 level of 2.5 million barrels per day, to 4.8 by 2019. However, total gas recovery from the Barnett play was reported to be only12-30%, and the tight-oil recovery rate from shale formations is even lower at 5-10%. The main barrier to sustainable development of US shale, the pore structure of the nanopores storing and transporting hydrocarbons, has been quietly ignored. We have studied pore structure, edge-accessible porosity, and how wettability is associated with mineral and organic kerogen phases, from four complementary tests: vacuum saturation with vacuum-pulling on dry shale followed with tracer introduction, tracer diffusion into fluid-saturated shale, fluid and tracer imbibition into partially-saturated shale, and Wood's metal intrusion followed with SEM imaging and elemental mapping. The first three tests use tracer-bearing fluids (API brine or n-decane), with tracer distribution on shale mapped with micro-scale laser ablation-ICP-MS analyses. These innovative approaches indicate the limited accessibility (several millimeters from shale sample edge) and connectivity of nanopores in shales under atmospheric condition, which is linked to the steep initial (e.g., 1st year) decline and low overall recovery because of the limited connection of hydrocarbon molecules in the shale matrix to the stimulated fracture network.

  14. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  15. EVALUATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF ESTONIAN OIL SHALE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Aruküla, Heino

    1997-01-01

    The most important mineral wealth of Estonia is oil shale, which is used as fuel for generating electricity, thermal energy, for producing the shale oil, impregnation oil, cement, concrete and other products.Estonian oil shale (Kukersite) deposit occupies an extensive territory (about of 1830 square km). Proved reserves in this deposit were estimated' about 4 billions tons of bil shale. (Fig. 1). The industrial oil shale seam (thickness 2,5 - 3,2 m) contains 6 "oil shale' layers (A - F2) whic...

  16. Sulfide Generation by Dominant Halanaerobium Microorganisms in Hydraulically Fractured Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Anne E.; Borton, Mikalya; Daly, Rebecca; Welch, Susan; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hoyt, David W.; Wilson, Travis; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wolfe, Richard; Sharma, Shihka; Mouser, Paula J.; Cole, David R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-07-05

    Hydraulic fracturing of black shale formations has greatly increased United States oil and natural gas recovery. However, the accumulation of biomass in subsurface reservoirs and pipelines is detrimental because of possible well souring, microbially induced corrosion, and pore clogging. Temporal sampling of produced fluids from a well in the Utica Shale revealed the dominance of Halanaerobium strains within the in situ microbial community and the potential for these microor- ganisms to catalyze thiosulfate-dependent sulfidogenesis. From these field data, we investigated biogenic sulfide production catalyzed by a Halanaerobium strain iso- lated from the produced fluids using proteogenomics and laboratory growth experi- ments. Analysis of Halanaerobium isolate genomes and reconstructed genomes from metagenomic data sets revealed the conserved presence of rhodanese-like proteins and anaerobic sulfite reductase complexes capable of converting thiosulfate to sul- fide. Shotgun proteomics measurements using a Halanaerobium isolate verified that these proteins were more abundant when thiosulfate was present in the growth medium, and culture-based assays identified thiosulfate-dependent sulfide produc- tion by the same isolate. Increased production of sulfide and organic acids during the stationary growth phase suggests that fermentative Halanaerobium uses thiosul- fate to remove excess reductant. These findings emphasize the potential detrimental effects that could arise from thiosulfate-reducing microorganisms in hydraulically fractured shales, which are undetected by current industry-wide corrosion diagnos- tics.

  17. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  18. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  19. Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-13

    of Crude Oil (for July 2005 to Jan. 2006), at [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_rac2_dcu_nus_m.htm]. Crude oil production costs vary widely by... oil production declined through the 1970s, many marginally profitable and often smaller refineries were closed or idled.48 Of the 324 refineries...whereas Shell’s estimate is based on oil field-based technology for resource extraction. The Ideal Size for an Oil Shale Facility As domestic crude

  20. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  1. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Hydrofracture Modeling Using Discrete Fracture Network in Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, A.; Zoback, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has become an important source of unconventional reservoir in the united state over the past decade. Since the shale gas formations are impermeable, hydraulic fracturing from vertical and horizontal well are commonly approach to extract natural gas deposit from these unconventional sources. Hydraulic fracturing has been a successful and relatively inexpensive stimulation method for stimulation and enhances hydrocarbon recovery. Multistage hydro fracturing treatments in horizontal well creates a large stimulated reservoir volume. However, modeling hydraulic fracturing requires to prior knowledge of natural fracture network. This problem can be deal with Discrete Fracture network modeling. The objective of this study is first to model discrete fracture network and then simulate hydro-fracturing in five horizontal well of a case study in Barnett shale gas reservoir. In the case study, five horizontal wells have been drilled in Barnett shale gas reservoir in which each of them has 10 stages of hydro-fracturing stimulation. Of all five wells, just well C has a full comprehensive logging data. Fracture date detected using FMI image log of well C for building DFN model are associated with different sources of uncertainty; orientation, density and length. After building reservoir geomechanics model and detecting natural fracture form image log from well C, DFN model has built based on fracture parameters, orientation, intensity, shape size and permeability detected from image log and core data. Modeling hydrofractuing in five wells are consistent with critically stressed-fracture and micro-seismic events.

  3. A Geochemical Framework for Evaluating Shale-Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Dustin, M. K.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The development of shale oil and gas reservoirs has increased dramatically due to the application of hydraulic fracturing techniques. Fracture fluids contain dissolved oxygen and numerous chemical additives [1] that are out of equilibrium with the reducing conditions in shale reservoirs and could react extensively with shale minerals and alter porosity. Yet, the complex dissolution-precipitation reactions in shales along with the poorly constrained characteristics of many fracture fluid additives hinder predictive modeling based on established reaction kinetics and thermodynamic constants [2]. Here, we are developing a reaction framework to better predict reaction progress and porosity evolution upon exposure of shales to hydraulic fracturing fluids. To this end, the reactive transport model CrunchFlow [3] was applied to the results of batch reactor experiments containing shales of different mineralogical and organic compositions exposed to simulated fracturing fluid. Despite relatively good agreement between modeled and experimental data for pH and aqueous Ca concentrations, which are strongly governed by carbonate dissolution, the model is presently unable to reproduce observed trends in aqueous Fe concentration. This is largely attributable to the dearth of thermodynamic data for certain fracture fluid components and the complex interactions between multiple Fe-bearing mineral phases. Experimental results revealed that the presence of organic fracture fluid components strongly influenced the precipitation of Fe-bearing phases, which are speculated to coat fracture fluid polymers that formed in the reactors. The incorporation of these effects in our reactive transport model will permit improved prediction of reservoir permeability evolution and metal release during hydraulic fracturing operations. [1] Stringfellow et al. (2014) J. Hazard. Mater. [2] Carroll et al. (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. [3] Steefel and Maher (2009) Rev. Mineral. Geochem.

  4. The Impact of Mineralogy on the Geochemical Alteration of Shales During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Dustin, M. K.; Kiss, A. M.; Kohli, A. H.; Thomas, D.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extraction of oil and gas resources from low permeability shale reservoirs using hydraulic fracturing techniques has increased significantly in recent years. During hydraulic fracturing, large volumes of fluid are injected into subsurface shale formations, which drives substantial fluid-rock interaction that can release contaminants and alter rock permeability. Here, a combined experimental, imaging, and modeling approach was employed to systematically evaluate the impact of shale mineralogy on its physical and chemical alteration when exposed to fracturing fluids of different composition. Batch reactor experiments contained different shales with unique mineralogical compositions that were exposed to simulated hydraulic fracturing fluid. Experiments revealed that the balance between fluid acidity and acid neutralizing capacity of the rock was the strongest control on the evolution of fluid and rock chemistry. Carbonate mineral-rich shales rapidly recovered solution pH to circum-neutral conditions, whereas fluids in contact with carbonate mineral-poor shales remained acidic. The dissolution of shale minerals released metal contaminants, yet the precipitation of Fe(III)-bearing secondary phases helped to attenuate their release via co-precipitation or sorption. Post-reaction imaging illustrated that selective dissolution of carbonate minerals generated secondary porosity, the connectivity of which was dictated by initial carbonate distribution. Conversely, the precipitation of secondary Al- and Fe-bearing phases may occlude porosity, potentially inhibiting transport of water, contaminants, and hydrocarbons. The maturation of secondary Fe-bearing phases from amorphous to crystalline over time suggests that porosity will continue to evolve even after oxidation reactions have effectively ceased. These experiments reveal that the relative abundance and distribution of carbonate minerals is the master variable dictating both porosity alteration and contaminant release

  5. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  6. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  7. Comparative study on direct burning of oil shale and coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Ahmad; Al Asfar, Jamil

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the direct burning processes of oil shale and coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was done in this study using ANSYS Fluent software to solve numerically the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and mass diffusion using finite volume method. The model was built based on an existing experimental combustion burner unit. The model was validated by comparing the theoretical results of oil shale with proved experimental results from the combustion unit. It was found that the temperature contours of the combustion process showed that the adiabatic flame temperature was 1080 K for oil shale compared with 2260 K for coal, while the obtained experimental results of temperatures at various locations of burner during the direct burning of oil shale showed that the maximum temperature reached 962 K for oil shale. These results were used in economic and environmental analysis which show that oil shale may be used as alternative fuel for coal in cement industry in Jordan.

  8. Combustion characteristics of Daqing oil shale and oil shale semi-cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Zhen-yong; WU Guo-guang; LI Ping; ZHAO Na; WANG Pan-cheng; MENG Xian-liang

    2009-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric-analysis (TGA) was used to analyze the combustion characteristics of an oil shale and semi-cokes prepared from it. The effect of prior pyrolysis and TGA heating rate on the combustion process was studied. Prior pyrolysis affects the initial temperature of mass loss and the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature increases as the volatile content of the sample decreases. TG/DTG curves obtained at different heating rates show that heating rate has little effect on ignition temperature. But the peak of combustion shifts to higher temperatures as the heating rate is increased. The Coats-Redfern integration method was employed to find the combustion-reaction kinetic parameters for the burning of oil shale and oil shale semi-coke.

  9. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  10. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  11. Harnessing mineral carbonation reactions to seal fractured shales and sequester carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, A. F.; Tao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Shale oil and gas are being developed widely in the United States despite the potential for long-term climate impacts driven by burning these new hydrocarbon resources and by fugitive emissions from fractured formations. Here the carbonation of calcium-based silicates is studied as a method to re-seal fractured shale formations and to store significant amounts of CO2 after hydrocarbon extraction. Ex situ mineral carbonation has been studied extensively for trapping CO2 from power plants but the application of these reactions directly within shale matrix under in situ conditions to seal shales and sequester carbon has not been studied. The reaction requires the solid calcium-based silicates being present within the shale fracture matrix and flooded with high-pressure CO2. The pressure and temperature within most shale formations would enable this carbonation reaction to precipitate solid calcium carbonate, which would clog fractures. Silicates could be injected in the same way that proppants are injected into shale gas wells. Wollastonite was tested here but other silicate minerals such as olivine could also be used in much the same way. To prove this concept, batch experiments were carried out under reservoir conditions representative of the Marcellus Shale in the presence of ground shale particles (39-177μm) and CaSiO3 powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the conversion of CaSiO3 into CaCO3 after 24 hours. Quantitative XRD analysis was used to determine that the conversion ratio of CaSiO3 was ~55% at 3100 Psi and 75oC. The reaction was sensitive to both temperature and pressure with ~58% conversion at an increased temperature of 95oC and only ~50% at lower pressure (2200psi). The morphology observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) reveals that the shale particle surfaces are covered with precipitated calcite crystals ranging in size from 1 to 5 μm. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), the locations of residual CaSiO3and

  12. Deformation and Fracture of Shale at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    The deformation and fracture properties of shales depend on the mechanical properties of their basic constituents, including the solid clay particles, inclusions such as silt and organics, and the multi-scale porosity comprised of existing micro-fractures and the nano-scale porosity of the porous clay matrix. A great deal of understanding of the overall macroscopic (field scale) mechanical properties of shales can be gained by studying the deformation and fracture properties of these constituents along with their composite behavior, i.e., the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of shale. This project builds upon our recently acquired ability to image with fixed ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) the 3D geometry of a porous shale sample to nanometer resolution, as well as to test this sample on a nanoindenter at both the particle and composite scales, in order to develop a 3D mechanistic model to interpret the results of nanoindentation tests. The pore-scale study considers the intrinsic deformation and fracture properties of clay particles, and the effect of silt inclusions and particle packing into an anisotropic composite matrix. The analysis accounts for anisotropic and heterogeneous shale elasticity, plasticity, damage, and fissility. A finite element (FE) model is being developed which uses a recently developed finite deformation crystal plasticity algorithm and an enhanced FE method for capturing strong discontinuity. The model aims to capture the effects of the particle elasticity, plastic yielding, and the damage induced by the indenter, including the fracturing and chipping within the mineral grains and around the perimeter of the indent. Anisotropy of fracture properties is examined with respect to delamination of the clay matrix in the bed-parallel direction and to breaking of plate-like clay particles. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish a framework for investigating the poromechanical properties of shale at the nano

  13. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  14. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  15. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  16. Market enhancement of shale oil: The native products extraction technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunger, J.W. (Bunger (James W.) and Associates, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DuBow, J.B. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of enhancing shale oil commercialization through SO/NPX technology. Specific objectives were: (1) To determine the properties and characteristics of fractions isolable from shale oil utilizing separation sequences which are based on thermodynamic considerations; (2) To identify product streams of market value for promising technology development; (3)To conduct technology development studies leading to a shale oil extraction and processing sequence which promises economic enhancement of shale oil commercialization; (4) To develop an analytical methodology and model for obtaining engineering design data required for process development; (5) To estimate the economics of SO/NPX including the potential for enhancing the profitability of a commercial-scale shale oil MIS retort.

  17. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  18. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  19. Non-isothermal pyrolysis kinetics of three Turkish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogon, O.M.; Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    A non-isothermal experimental study using thermogravimetric analysis (t.g.a.) was conducted to determine the overall kinetics of pyrolysis of three Turkish oil shales: Beypazari, Seyitomer and Himmetoglu. The integral method was used in the analysis of the t.g.a. data to determine first-order pyrolysis kinetics. Particle sizes of 0.7, 1.3. and 2.6 mm and final temperatures of 400, 550 and 700{degree}C were used. Himmeltoglue oil shale was found to give better yields than the other two shales. The extent of pyrolysis was found to be practically independent of particle size for all the shales. The rates of decomposition of Seyitomer and Himmetoglu oil shales were found to change at critical temperatures of {approximately} 300 and {approximately} 350{degree}C respectively. Porosities and surface areas of raw and spent shales were also determined. 35 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Risk assessment methodology in oil shale mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanov, S. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2009-07-01

    The safety challenges posed by different mining processes were discussed in terms of geotechnical risk factors. Various mining processes can result in work hazards, a production shut-down, economic damage to the enterprise, and environmental impacts. In Estonia, risk assessment methods are utilized in different branches of industry. However, the literature on solving mining problems is limited. Various methods are applicable for solving complicated mining problems. This paper elaborated on a modified risk assessment methodology for oil shale mining in Estonia. The paper specifically discussed problems associated with oil shale mining as well as risk assessment methods such as risk analysis and risk evaluation. Topics that were introduced included risk analysis; risk identification; risk estimation; risk evaluation; risk mitigation; and risk acceptance. The modified risk assessment methodology was successfully applied to the extraction of mineral resources, stability of a mining block, and their influence on the environment. It was concluded that the methodology provides opportunity to find improved methods for new mine planning in accordance with environmental performances and the economical profit for companies. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Shale oil specialty markets: Screening survey for United States applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    EG and G requested J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc. to carry out an initial screening study on the possibilities for producing specialty chemicals from oil shale. Raw shale oil is not an acceptable feedstock to refineries and there are not enough user of heavy fuel oil in the western oil shale region to provide a dependable market. The only alternatives are to hydrotreat the oil, or else ship it long distances to a larger market area. Either of these alternatives results in a cost penalty of several dollars per barrel. Instead of attempting to enter the large-volume petroleum products market, it was hypothesized that a small shale oil facility might be able to produce specialty chemicals with a high enough average value to absorb the high costs of shipping small quantities to distant markets and still provide a higher netback to the plant site than sales to the conventional petroleum products market. This approach, rather than attempting to refine shale oil or to modify its characteristics to satisfy the specifications for petroleum feedstocks or products, focuses instead on those particular characteristics which distinguish shale oil from petroleum, and attempts to identify applications which would justify a premium value for those distinctive characteristics. Because byproducts or specialty chemicals production has been a prominent feature of oil shale industries which have flourished for periods of time in various countries, a brief review of those industries provides a starting point for this study. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  3. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Shale Hydrocarbon Prospecting in the Central Part of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Renat Kh.; Plotnikova, Irina N.

    2014-05-01

    Until now nobody has prospected or estimated the oil shale resources in Tatarstan, although the high-carbon rocks of Domanikoidtype often became an object of studies dedicated to assessment of the generation potential of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. The evaluation of oil-shale deposits in Tatarstan should base on the well-known geological, geochemical and technological criteria. The main, determining conditions for shale oil and gas deposit formation are the following: high content of organic matter (OM) in the rock, and its certain catagenetic maturity; special features of the mineral composition of rocks that contribute to the formation of fractures; and the presence of overlying and underlying impermeable dense strata that ensure the safety of hydrocarbons in the shale series. In Tatarstan, the development prospects of shale oil fields should be associated primarily with the rocks ofDomanikoid formations of Upper Devonian - such as Semiluksky (Domanik) horizon, as well asRechitsky (Mendymsky) horizon and Domanikoid formations of central and side areas of the Kama-Kinel trough system. Studies on Domanikwere started in the middle of the last century, when the Ural-Volga region experienced active interest for oil exploration. Then the research of Domanikoid series was carried out at the Department of Oil and Gas Geology, Kazan State University. Butback then the prospecting was not clearly associated with an estimate of shale oil resources. As revealed during rock geochemical studies of the rock, the average content of organic matter in deposits of Semiluksky and Mendymsky horizons is 8.35 and 2.56 % respectively, which is enough to takethese horizons as the main object of research and resource assessment. The presence of silica rocks and dense limestone in such a large proportion is a favorable factor in terms of assessing the effectiveness of fracturing. So we have a quite clear understanding of how to explore Domanik. In fact, the geological structure of our

  5. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  6. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  7. A dual-porosity model for simulating solute transport in oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for simulating three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport in oil shale and associated geohydrologic units. The model treats oil shale as a dual-porosity medium by simulating flow and transport within fractures using the finite-element method. Diffusion of solute between fractures and the essentially static water of the shale matrix is simulated by including an analytical solution that acts as a source-sink term to the differential equation of solute transport. While knowledge of fracture orientation and spacing is needed to effectively use the model, it is not necessary to map the locations of individual fractures. The computer program listed in the report incorporates many of the features of previous dual-porosity models while retaining a practical approach to solving field problems. As a result the theory of solute transport is not extended in any appreciable way. The emphasis is on bringing together various aspects of solute transport theory in a manner that is particularly suited to the unusual groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of oil shale systems. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  9. Impact of hydraulic perforation on fracture initiation and propagation in shale rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xi; JU Yang; YANG Yong; SU Sun; GONG WenBo

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the oil and gas recovery rate,hydraulic fracturing techniques have been widely adopted for stimulation of low-permeability reservoirs.Pioneering work indicates that hydraulic perforation and layout could significantly affect fracture initiation and propagation in low-permeability reservoir rocks subjected to complex in-situ stresses.This paper reports on a novel numerical method that incorporates fracture mechanics principles and the numerical tools FRANC3D and ANSYS to investigate the three-dimensional initiation and propagation behavior of hydro-fracturing cracks in shale rock.Considering the transverse isotropic property of shale rocks,the mechanical parameters of reservoir rocks attained from laboratory tests were adopted in the simulation.The influence of perforation layouts on the 3D initiation of hydro-fracturing fractures in reservoir rocks under geo-stresses was quantitatively illuminated.The propagation and growth of fractures in three dimensions in different perforating azimuth values were illustrated.The results indicate that:1) the optimal perforation direction should be parallel to the maximum horizontal principal stress,2) the crack plane gradually turns toward the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress when they are not in parallel,3) compared with the linear and symmetric pattern,the staggered perforation is the optimal one,4) the proper perforation density is four to six holes per meter,5) the optimal perforation diameter in this model is 30 mm,and 6) the influence of the perforation depth on the fracture initiation pressure is low.

  10. Oil-shale mining in Maoming basin of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Maoming basin in Guangdong Province is one of the major oil-shale mining areas of China and is situated about 300 km southwest of Hong Kong. This Tertiary basin produces oil from shales mined from a 5-km long open-faced pit on the crest of an anticline in the center of an uplifted and tilted graben. The oil shale extends about 30 km in a northwest-southeast line, and the beds dip as much as 10/degree/ toward metamorphic mountains to the northeast. In the surrounding area are numerous oil seeps, especially in ponds, water wells, and at the foundations of buildings. Holes with oil shows, made to test the extent of the oil shale, have been drilled to a depth of 1000 m. At the base of the mine face is a limestone hardground on top of which is a coal seam about 0.5 m thick that can be traced throughout the basin. Atop this Paleocene coal bed are Eocene oil-shale and thin sandstone beds in five repeated sections, each about 15 m thick, called the Youganwou formation. All kinds of freshwater fossils - fish, insects, plants, turtles, and tree trunks - are found in a near-perfect state of preservation in these oil-rich shales and coal sections. The estimated oil content of the rock is about 8% of good-quality oil with plenty of light ends.

  11. School and Community Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing within Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale Region, and the Dilemmas of Educational Leadership in Gasfield Boomtowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.; Biddle, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Innovations associated with gas and oil drilling technology, including new hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques, have recently led to dramatic boomtown development in many rural areas that have endured extended periods of economic decline. The Marcellus Shale play, one of the world's largest gas-bearing shale formations,…

  12. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  13. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallner, L. (AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tallin (Estonia). Inst. Geologii); Sepp, K. (Taru Univ. (Estonia). Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  14. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  15. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  16. The Role of the Rock on Hydraulic Fracturing of Tight Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rivera, R.; Green, S.; Stanchits, S.; Yang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Successful economic production of oil and gas from nano-darcy-range permeability, tight shale reservoirs, is achieved via massive hydraulic fracturing. This is so despite their limited hydrocarbon in place, on per unit rock volume basis. As a reference, consider a typical average porosity of 6% and an average hydrocarbon saturation of 50% to 75%. The importance of tight shales results from their large areal extent and vertical thickness. For example, the areal extent of the Anwar field in Saudi Arabia of 3230 square miles (and 300 ft thick), while the Marcellus shale alone is over 100,000 square miles (and 70 to 150 ft thick). The low permeability of the rock matrix, the predominantly mineralized rock fabric, and the high capillary forces to both brines and hydrocarbons, restrict the mobility of pore fluids in these reservoirs. Thus, one anticipates that fluids do not move very far within tight shales. Successful production, therefore results from maximizing the surface area of contact with the reservoir by massive hydraulic fracturing from horizontal bore holes. This was the conceptual breakthrough of the previous decade and the one that triggered the emergence of gas shales, and recently oily shales, as important economic sources of energy. It is now understood that the process can be made substantially more efficient, more sustainable, and more cost effective by understanding the rock. This will be the breakthrough of this decade. Microseismic monitoring, mass balance calculations, and laboratory experiments of hydraulic fracturing on tight shales indicate the development of fracture complexity and fracture propagation that can not be explained in detail in this layered heterogeneous media. It is now clear that in tight shales the large-scale formation fabric is responsible for fracture complexity. For example, the presence and pervasiveness of mineralized fractures, bed interfaces, lithologic contacts, and other types of discontinuities, and their orientation

  17. Oil shale program. Eighteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. L. [ed.

    1980-11-01

    Instrumentation and evaluation activities are in progress at two DOE-supported in situ oil shale field projects, namely, the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project near Vernal, Utah, and the Occidental Oil Shale Project near DeBeque, Colorado. In support of these projects, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field project needs. A rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models and computational methods for use in the design analysis, and evaluation functions. In addition, retorting studies are in progress on problems unique to the low void conditions encountered in field experiments.

  18. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  19. Morphology of retorted oil shale particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.; Mahajan, O.P.

    The formation of two distinct coked particle morphotypes, namely exfoliated and peripheral, during oil shale retorting and their implications toward the coking mechanism are discussed. Rapid heating causes swelling, exfoliation, and formation of a matrix of veinlets and cracks; these changes lead to uniform coking within the particle body. In contrast, slow heating produces the peripheral morphotype with a low coke density at the center and a high coke density at the periphery. The difference in the coking morphology of the two particle types has been explained on the basis of kerogen pyrolysis kinetics. Of the two morphotypes, peripheral coke makes the particles stronger and more resistant to size attrition. In addition to the formation of coke in the particle body of the two morphotypes, coke is also formed on the outer surface of both the particle types. It has been concluded that more coke is produced from the secondary decomposition reactions than directly from the kerogen itself. 25 references, 8 figures.

  20. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  1. A microfluidic investigation of gas exsolution in glass and shale fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Harrison, A.; Currier, R.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microfluidic investigations of pore-scale fluid flow and transport phenomena has steadily increased in recent years. In these investigations fluid flow is restricted to two-dimensions allowing for real-time visualization and quantification of complex flow and reactive transport behavior, which is difficult to obtain in other experimental systems. In this work, we describe a unique high pressure (up to 10.3 MPa) and temperature (up to 80 °C) microfluidics experimental system that allows us to investigate fluid flow and transport in geo-material (e.g., shale, Portland cement, etc.) micromodels. The use of geo-material micromodels allows us to better represent fluid-rock interactions including wettability, chemical reactivity, and nano-scale porosity at conditions representative of natural subsurface environments. Here, we present experimental results in fracture systems with applications to hydrocarbon mobility in fractured rocks. Complex fracture network patterns are derived from 3D x-ray tomography images of actual fractures created in shale rock cores. We use both shale and glass micromodels, allowing for a detailed comparison between flow phenomena in the different materials. We discuss results from two-phase gas (CO2 and N2) injection experiments designed to enhance oil recovery. In these experiments gas was injected into micromodels saturated with oil and allowed to soak for approximately 12 hours at elevated pressures. The pressure in the system was then decreased to atmospheric, causing the gas to expand and/or dissolve out of solution, subsequently mobilizing the oil. In addition to the experimental results, we present a relatively simple model designed to quantify the amount of oil mobilized as a function of decreasing system pressure. We will show comparisons between the experiments and model, and discuss the potential use of the model in field-scale reservoir simulations.

  2. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  3. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Akkutlu, I Y; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work \\cite{aes14}, where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. We developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations on a Cartesian fine grid. In this paper, we consider arbitrary fracture orientations and use triangular fine grid and developed GMsFEM for nonlinear flows. Moreover, we develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region ...

  4. Recultivation work in the oil shale basin of Estonia, USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luik, H.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet Estonia, situated in northwestern USSR has important mineral resources of oil shale, the majority of which is deep-mined. Recultivation of exhausted oil shale pits, begun in 1959, has proceeded at an average of 150 ha/yr. Selective mining is adopted, followed quickly by physical recontouring and cultivation work. Maintenance and improvement of soil fertility is emphasized. Afforestation is the main form of biological recultivation. The most successful trees have been Pinus sylvestris, Betula verrucosa, Larix europea, and Larix japonica.

  5. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  6. Recultivation work in the oil shale basin of Estonia, USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luik, H.

    1980-01-01

    Soviet Estonia is situated in the northwestern part of the Soviet Union. The most important mineral resources are oil shale, phosphorite, peat and construction materials. Oil shale production is about 30 x 10/sup 6/ tonnes a year. The oil shale is partly surface mined but the majority is deep mined. Recultivation of exhausted oil shale pits started in 1959 and has proceeded at an average of 150 ha per annum. In the course of recultivation a process of selective mining is adopted, this is followed quickly by physical recontouring and cultivation work. Particular attention is given to the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility. Afforestation is the main form of biological recultivation with more than 2450 ha of exhausted oil shale workings having been planted. The most successful trees have been Pinus sylvestris, Betula verrucosa, Larix europea and Larix japonica. The development of mining and land use in the oil shale basin is closely regulated. To ensure efficient mining development and to maximise nature conservation and recreation potential a scheme of functional zoning has been drawn up and a policy of progressive recultivation has been adopted.

  7. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  8. Natural hydraulic fractures and the mechanical stratigraphy of shale-dominated strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Armstrong, Howard; Atar, Elizabeth; Clancy, Sarah; Daniels, Susan; Grattage, Joshua; Herringshaw, Liam; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Warren, Cassandra; Wille, Jascha; Yahaya, Liyana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate stratigraphic variations in the spatial distribution and density of natural hydraulic and other fractures within oil mature, shale-dominated strata from the Cleveland Basin, northeast England. The studied interval includes the Pliensbachian Cleveland Ironstone and Toarcian Whitby Mudstone Formations. The Cleveland Ironstone Formation (ca. 25m thick) consists of silt- and mudstone units with discrete ironstone layers (seams). Ironstones account for 20% of the thickness of the formation. The Whitby Mudstone Formation is up to ca. 100 m thick; up to 2% of its total thickness consists of discrete calcium carbonate horizons, such as the Top Jet Dogger. Natural hydraulic fractures, characterised by plumose marks and concentric arrest lines on fracture surfaces are ubiquitous throughout both formations; shear fractures with mm- to cm-scale displacements occur locally, particularly within silt- and mudstones. Natural hydraulic fractures locally contain thin, sometimes fibrous, calcite fills and are commonly observed to terminate at bedding plane interfaces between silt- or mudstone and carbonate beds. We have recorded fracture locations and apertures along 139 transects in both shale (i.e. silt- and mudstone intervals) and carbonate strata. Natural hydraulic and shear fractures, measured along transects up to 50m long within all lithologies in both formations, typically display uniform distributions. There is no correlation between spacing distribution and bulk extension in any lithology. Median fracture densities recorded within the Cleveland Ironstone Formation are higher in intervening ironstone beds (<2.1 fractures per m in ironstone layers) compared with dominant shales (<0.9 fractures per m in silt- and mudstones). A qualitatively similar pattern occurs within the Whitby Mudstone Formation. However, the absolute values of median fracture density within different members of the Whitby Mudstone Formation range from 2

  9. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  10. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  11. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  12. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  15. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  16. SFC status report on major shale oil projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukor, S.H.

    1982-06-01

    The SFC was created by the Energy Security Act on June 30, 1980. Solicitations for financial assistance from the DOE came from Union Oil and the Tosca company, both for projects near Parachute, Colorado. Both projects received DOE assistance. The first SFC solicitations came in 1981. 6 Of 28 solicitations were for shale oil. In January 1983, seven phase I maturity criteria were applied to the projects and the list was reduced to eleven--only one of which was for shale oil. The SFC will now meet to consider which of the eleven projects that met the maturity criteria of Phase I can also meet the six Phase I criteria. Of the shale oil projects that lacked maturity, a brief is included that indicates SFC policy will tradeoff some near-term production for diversity that will enhance long term use.

  17. Numerical simulation and fracture evaluation method of dual laterolog in organic shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maojin; Wang, Peng; Li, Jun; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Qinshan

    2014-01-01

    Fracture identification and parameter evaluation are important for logging interpretation of organic shale, especially fracture evaluation from conventional logs in case the imaging log is not available. It is helpful to study dual laterolog responses of the fractured shale reservoir. First, a physical model is set up according to the property of organic shale, and three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) based on the principle of dual laterolog is introduced and applied to simulate dual laterolog responses in various shale models, which can help identify the fractures in shale formations. Then, through a number of numerical simulations of dual laterolog for various shale models with different base rock resistivities and fracture openings, the corresponding equations of various cases are constructed respectively, and the fracture porosity can be calculated consequently. Finally, we apply this methodology proposed above to a case study of organic shale, and the fracture porosity and fracture opening are calculated. The results are consistent with the fracture parameters processed from Full borehole Micro-resistivity Imaging (FMI). It indicates that the method is applicable for fracture evaluation of organic shale.

  18. Geolipids in the oil shale from Aleksinac (Yugoslavia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorovic, D.; Saban, M.

    1983-01-01

    The oil shale from Aleksinac (Yugoslavia) is a lacustrine sediment of Micocene age. Both the soluble portion of the organic matter (the bitumen) and the insoluble kerogen of this shale were studied extensively. In this paper, isolation and identification of various types of geolipids from the Aleksinac shale, carried out in the last few years, will be reviewed. A thorough examination of the bitumen was expected to give additional data on the origin of the organic matter as well as on the sedimentation conditions and postburial changes. (JMT)

  19. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    as a new "Saudi Arabia" of oil. Growth in production has been spectacular, but currently amounts to just one million barrels per day which is less than 15 percent of US oil and other liquids production. Tight oil is offsetting declines in conventional crude oil production as well as contributing to a modest production increase from the 40-year US crude oil production low of 2008. The mantra that natural gas is a "transition fuel" to a low carbon future is false. The environmental costs of shale gas extraction have been documented in legions of anecdotal and scientific reports. Methane and fracture fluid contamination of groundwater, induced seismicity from fracture water injection, industrialized landscapes and air emissions, and the fact that near term emissions from shale gas generation of electricity are worse than coal. Tight oil also comes with environmental costs but has been a saviour in that it at least temporarily arrested a terminal decline in US oil production. A sane energy security strategy for America must focus on radically reducing energy consumption through investments in infrastructure that provides alternatives to our current high energy throughput. Shale gas and tight oil will be an important contributors to future energy requirements, given that other gas and oil sources are declining, but there is no free lunch.

  20. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  1. OIL SHALE ASH UTILIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez Mohamed, Hussain; Campos, Leonel

    2016-01-01

    Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock with the potential to yield significant amounts of oil and combustible gas when retorted. Oil shale deposits have been found on almost every continent, but only Estonia, who has the 8th largest oil shale deposit in the world has continuously utilized oil shale in large scale operations. Worldwide, Estonia accounts for 80% of the overall activity involving oil shale, consuming approximately 18 million tons while producing 5–7 million tons of oil sha...

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  3. Trace metal emissions from the Estonian oil shale fired power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunela-Tapola, Leena A.; Frandsen, Flemming; Häsänen, Erkki K.

    1998-01-01

    Emission levels of selected trace metals from the Estonian oil shale fired power plant were studied. The plant is the largest single power plant in Estonia with an electricity production capacity of 1170 MWe (1995). Trace metals were sampled from the flue gases by a manual method incorporating...... a two-fraction particle sampling and subsequent absorption of the gaseous fraction. The analyses were principally performed with ICP-MS techniques. The trace metal contents of Estonian oil shale were found to be in the same order of magnitude as of coal on average. The high total particle concentrations...... in the flue gases of the studied oil shale plant contribute, however, to clearly higher total trace metal emission levels compared to modern coal fired power plants. Although the old electrostatic precipitators in the plant have been partly replaced by state-of-the-art electrostatic precipitators...

  4. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  5. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  6. Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  7. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  8. Numerical Analysis on the Formation of Fracture Network during the Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale with Pre-Existing Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, configurations of pre-existing fractures in cubic rock blocks were investigated and reconstructed for the modeling of experimental hydraulic fracturing. The fluid-rock coupling process of hydraulic fracturing was simulated based on the displacement discontinuities method. The numerical model was validated against the related laboratory experiments. The stimulated fracture configurations under different conditions can be clearly shown using the validated numerical model. First, a dominated fracture along the maximum principle stress direction is always formed when the stress difference is large enough. Second, there are less reopened pre-existing fractures, more newly formed fractures and less shear fractures with the increase of the cohesion value of pre-existing fractures. Third, the length of the stimulated shear fracture decreases rapidly with the increase of the friction coefficient, while the length of the tensile fracture has no correlation to the fiction coefficient. Finally, the increase of the fluid injection rate is favorable to the formation of a fracture network. The unfavorable effects of the large stress difference and the large cohesion of pre-existing fractures can be partly suppressed by an increase of the injection rate in the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The results of this paper are useful for understanding fracture propagation behaviors during the hydraulic fracturing of shale reservoirs with pre-existing fractures.

  9. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  10. Fluid driven fracture mechanics in highly anisotropic shale: a laboratory study with application to hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the

  11. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  12. Discussion of the feasibility of air injection for enhanced oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air injection in light oil reservoirs has received considerable attention as an effective, improved oil recovery process, based primarily on the success of several projects within the Williston Basin in the United States. The main mechanism of air injection is the oxidation behavior between oxygen and crude oil in the reservoir. Air injection is a good option because of its wide availability and low cost. Whether air injection can be applied to shale is an interesting topic from both economic and technical perspectives. This paper initiates a comprehensive discussion on the feasibility and potential of air injection in shale oil reservoirs based on state-of-the-art literature review. Favorable and unfavorable effects of using air injection are discussed in an analogy analysis on geology, reservoir features, temperature, pressure, and petrophysical, mineral and crude oil properties of shale oil reservoirs. The available data comparison of the historically successful air injection projects with typical shale oil reservoirs in the U.S. is summarized in this paper. Some operation methods to improve air injection performance are recommended. This paper provides an avenue for us to make use of many of the favorable conditions of shale oil reservoirs for implementing air injection, or air huff ‘n’ puff injection, and the low cost of air has the potential to improve oil recovery in shale oil reservoirs. This analysis may stimulate further investigation.

  13. Pore Capture in Shales Due to Pervasive Micro-fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, N. W.; Daigle, H.; Kelly, E. D.; Milliken, K. L.; Jiang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional production from mudrock reservoirs is associated with steep production declines in individual wells. The decline curves may partly stem from the induced fracture spacing which is on the order of meters, whereas most of the hydrocarbon-bearing pores are at the nanoscale. Previous analysis of production data, however, indicates some permeability enhancement between the more widely spaced fractures that may be due to a small-scale microfracture network. In order to test the microfracture hypothesis, we fractured samples of shale under shear deformation and observed (post-experimental) changes in microstructure through scanning electron microscopy, CT-scanning and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging, low-pressure nitrogen sorption, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Our results indicate that a system of microcracks with apertures ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns forms in response to shear failure, which in some cases propagate into organic matter and intersect the organic-hosted pores, a process we refer to as "pore capture". This micromechanical process presumably underlies the bulk porosity response (increase) which is directly affected by the abundance of organic matter (OM), the fabric of the rock, and the direction of loading relative to any fabric. The trajectory of the fractures is governed by the contrasts in mechanical strength (and, potentially, the brittle-vs.-ductile response) among the different components of the shale and within the OM. Specifically, the fractures tend to follow trajectories through weaker material, which favors their propagation along grain contacts and into OM. However, such grain-boundary fractures do not typically intersect intergranular pores, possibly because these are preferentially located in mechanically stronger areas that resist deformation. The fractures we observed do not appear to contribute to enhanced connectivity of the overall intergranular pore system, potentially explaining why fracking yields

  14. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  15. Predominance and Metabolic Potential of Halanaerobium spp. in Produced Water from Hydraulically Fractured Marcellus Shale Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Daniel; Vikram, Amit; Ross, Daniel; Bain, Daniel; Gulliver, Djuna; Hammack, Richard; Bibby, Kyle

    2017-04-15

    Microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across all 42 produced water samples. Bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales were found to be the most abundant organisms in the majority of the produced water samples, emphasizing their previously suggested role in hydraulic fracturing-related microbial activity. Statistical analyses identified correlations between well age and biocide formulation and the microbial community, in particular, the relative abundance of Halanaerobiales We further investigated the role of members of the order Halanaerobiales in produced water by reconstructing and annotating a Halanaerobium draft genome (named MDAL1), using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metagenomic binning. The recovered draft genome was found to be closely related to the species H. congolense, an oil field isolate, and Halanaerobium sp. strain T82-1, also recovered from hydraulic fracturing produced water. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways revealed Halanaerobium sp. strain MDAL1 to have the potential for acid production, thiosulfate reduction, and biofilm formation, suggesting it to have the ability to contribute to corrosion, souring, and biofouling events in the hydraulic fracturing infrastructure.IMPORTANCE There are an estimated 15,000 unconventional gas wells in the Marcellus Shale region, each generating up to 8,000 liters of hypersaline produced water per day

  16. Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shicheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Han, Li

    2016-09-01

    Shale formations are often characterized by low matrix permeability and contain numerous bedding planes (BPs) and natural fractures (NFs). Massive hydraulic fracturing is an important technology for the economic development of shale formations in which a large-scale hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is generated for hydrocarbon flow. In this study, HFN propagation is numerically investigated in a horizontally layered and naturally fractured shale formation by using a newly developed complex fracturing model based on the 3D discrete element method. In this model, a succession of continuous horizontal BP interfaces and vertical NFs is explicitly represented and a shale matrix block is considered impermeable, transversely isotropic, and linearly elastic. A series of simulations is performed to illustrate the influence of anisotropy, associated with the presence of BPs, on the HFN propagation geometry in shale formations. Modeling results reveal that the presence of BP interfaces increases the injection pressure during fracturing. HF deflection into a BP interface tends to occur under high strength and elastic anisotropy as well as in low vertical stress anisotropy conditions, which generate a T-shaped or horizontal fracture. Opened BP interfaces may limit the growth of the fracture upward and downward, resulting in a very low stimulated thickness. However, the opened BP interfaces favor fracture complexity because of the improved connection between HFs and NFs horizontally under moderate vertical stress anisotropy. This study may help predict the HF growth geometry and optimize the fracturing treatment designs in shale formations with complex depositional heterogeneity.

  17. Oil shale production and power generation in Estonia; Economic and environmental dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabaner, N.I.; Kaganovich, I.Z. (Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Economics)

    1993-06-01

    Combustive oil shale is the main type of fuel used in Estonian power plants. The economic state of the oil shale mining industry has deteriorated during the last decade. The development of oil shale production and use in power generation is accompanied by severe environmental pollution. The future of shale based power generation in Estonia depends on building new small capacity mines, in conjunction with the renovation and reconstruction of existing power plants and implementing measures to protect the environment. (author)

  18. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  19. CFBC to burn oil shale in the northern Negev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, M.; Podshivalov, V. (Israel Electric Corp., Haifa (Israel)); Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M. (PAMA, Mishov Rotem (Israel))

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes a 525 MWe power station designed to run on a high sulphur, high moisture content oil shale. Fluidized bed combustion is expected to be used by all three of the main 150 MWe units as well as by the initial demonstration unit which is rated at some 75 MWe. (UK)

  20. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Akkutlu, I. Y.

    2016-05-18

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work (Akkutlu et al. Transp. Porous Media 107(1), 235–260, 2015), where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (Efendiev et al. J. Comput. Phys. 251, 116–135, 2013, 2015). In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. In Efendiev et al. (2015), we developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations aligned with a Cartesian fine grid. The approach in Efendiev et al. (2015) does not allow handling arbitrary fracture distributions. In this paper, we (1) consider arbitrary fracture distributions on an unstructured grid; (2) develop GMsFEM for nonlinear flows; and (3) develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region represents the degrees of freedom needed to achieve a certain error threshold. Our approach is adaptive in a sense that the multiscale basis functions can be added in the regions of interest. Numerical results for two-dimensional problem are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of proposed approach. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  1. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  2. On the possibility of magnetic nano-markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits. The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures. Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing. Examining the properties of nano-materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect. Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano-materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano-materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano-markers in shale gas mining. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the NCBiR under Grant "Electromagnetic method to

  3. Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak.

  4. Changes in Texture and Retorting Yield in Oil Shale During Its Bioleaching by Bacillus Mucilaginosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-qing; REN He-jun; LIU Na; ZHANG Lan-ying; ZHOU Rui

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching of oil shale by Bacillus mucilaginosus was carried out in a reaction column for 13 d.The pH value of the leaching liquor decreased steadily from 7.5 to 5.5 and the free silicon dioxide concentration reached approximately 200 mg/L in it.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observations revealed that a mass of small particles separated from the matrix of oil shale.Energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS) analysis implied that the total content of Si,O,A1 was decreased in the particle area of the matrix.These facts indicate that the silicate was removed,leading to the structural transformation of oil shale.Comparison of the shale oil yields before and after bioleaching illustrated that approximately 10% extra shale oil was obtained.This finding suggests that the demineralisation of the oil shale by silicate bacteria improves shale oil yield.

  5. Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

    1977-12-01

    This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

  6. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  7. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-07

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  8. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  9. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  10. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  11. The effect of deformation on two-phase flow through proppant-packed fractured shale samples: A micro-scale experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Maziar; Zolfaghari, Arsalan; Piri, Mohammad; Al-Muntasheri, Ghaithan A.; Sayed, Mohammed

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of an extensive micro-scale experimental investigation of two-phase flow through miniature, fractured reservoir shale samples that contained different packings of proppant grains. We investigated permeability reduction in the samples by conducting experiments under a wide range of net confining pressures. Three different proppant grain distributions in three individual fractured shale samples were studied: i) multi-layer, ii) uniform mono-layer, and iii) non-uniform mono-layer. We performed oil-displacing-brine (drainage) and brine-displacing-oil (imbibition) flow experiments in the proppant packs under net confining pressures ranging from 200 to 6000 psi. The flow experiments were performed using a state-of-the-art miniature core-flooding apparatus integrated with a high-resolution, X-ray microtomography system. We visualized fluid occupancies, proppant embedment, and shale deformation under different flow and stress conditions. We examined deformation of pore space within the proppant packs and its impact on permeability and residual trapping, proppant embedment due to changes in net confining stress, shale surface deformation, and disintegration of proppant grains at high stress conditions. In particular, geometrical deformation and two-phase flow effects within the proppant pack impacting hydraulic conductivity of the medium were probed. A significant reduction in effective oil permeability at irreducible water saturation was observed due to increase in confining pressure. We propose different mechanisms responsible for the observed permeability reduction in different fracture packings. Samples with dissimilar proppant grain distributions showed significantly different proppant embedment behavior. Thinner proppant layer increased embedment significantly and lowered the onset confining pressure of embedment. As confining stress was increased, small embedments caused the surface of the shale to fracture. The produced shale fragments were

  12. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  13. The Shear Mechanisms of Natural Fractures during the Hydraulic Stimulation of Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The shearing of natural fractures is important in the permeability enhancement of shale gas reservoirs during hydraulic fracturing treatment. In this work, the shearing mechanisms of natural fractures are analyzed using a newly proposed numerical model based on the displacement discontinuities method. The fluid-rock coupling system of the model is carefully designed to calculate the shearing of fractures. Both a single fracture and a complex fracture network are used to investigate the shear mechanisms. The investigation based on a single fracture shows that the non-ignorable shearing length of a natural fracture could be formed before the natural fracture is filled by pressurized fluid. Therefore, for the hydraulic fracturing treatment of the naturally fractured shale gas reservoirs, the shear strength of shale is generally more important than the tensile strength. The fluid-rock coupling propagation processes of a complex fracture network are simulated under different crustal stress conditions and the results agree well with those of the single fracture. The propagation processes of complex fracture network show that a smaller crustal stress difference is unfavorable to the shearing of natural fractures, but is favorable to the formation of complex fracture network.

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  15. Mixed integer simulation optimization for optimal hydraulic fracturing and production of shale gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, B.; Wang, H. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimal development of shale gas fields involves designing a most productive fracturing network for hydraulic stimulation processes and operating wells appropriately throughout the production time. A hydraulic fracturing network design-determining well placement, number of fracturing stages, and fracture lengths-is defined by specifying a set of integer ordered blocks to drill wells and create fractures in a discrete shale gas reservoir model. The well control variables such as bottom hole pressures or production rates for well operations are real valued. Shale gas development problems, therefore, can be mathematically formulated with mixed-integer optimization models. A shale gas reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the production performance for a hydraulic fracturing and well control plan. To find the optimal fracturing design and well operation is challenging because the problem is a mixed integer optimization problem and entails computationally expensive reservoir simulation. A dynamic simplex interpolation-based alternate subspace (DSIAS) search method is applied for mixed integer optimization problems associated with shale gas development projects. The optimization performance is demonstrated with the example case of the development of the Barnett Shale field. The optimization results of DSIAS are compared with those of a pattern search algorithm.

  16. Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.W. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV); Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV)

    2007-01-01

    The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

  17. Modelling the drying of a parallelepipedic oil shale particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.S.S.; Lisboa, A.C.L. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering], Emails: porto@feq.unicamp.br, lisboa@feq.unicamp.br

    2005-04-15

    A numerical model is proposed to describe the process of drying a parallelepipedic oil shale particle. Assuming Fick's law, the diffusion equation for the shape of the particle was used. The objective of the study was to develop a computer program in Fortran to estimate the moisture content of an oil shale particle undergoing drying as a function of time and position. The average moisture content was also obtained. The model takes into account the migration of water by diffusion within the solid and its loss at the interface. The model results were compared to experimental data from an apparatus which measured the mass loss of a particle. The apparatus comprised an electronic balance attached by a thin wire to the particle placed inside an incubator. (author)

  18. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  19. Porous structure and specific surface of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Belyanin, Yu.I.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The total oil shale pore volume, measured by mercury porometry and benzene picnometry, was 0.157 cu m/g (0.225 cc/cc), with 62% of it made up of 200 to 600 angstrom pores and 3.2% of pores below 31.4 angstroms. The oil shale and kerogen specific surface, measured by low-temperature adsorption of radioactive krypton, decreased from 8.7 to 4.1 sq m/g with increase in the organic matter content from 29 to 97.16%. Crushing in a ball mill changed only the particle external surface and thus did not increase adsorptivity relative to flotation concentration reagents.

  20. Subsidence prediction in Estonia's oil shale mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastarus, J.R. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Toomik, A. [Institute of Ecology, Johvi (Estonia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper analysis the stability of the mining blocks in Estonian oil shale mines, where the room-and-pillar mining system is used. The pillars are arranged in a singular grid. The oil shale bed is embedded at the depth of 40-75 m. The processes in overburden rocks and pillars have caused the subsidence of the ground surface. The conditional thickness and sliding rectangle methods performed calculations. The results are presented by conditional thickness contours. Error does not exceed 4%. Model allows determining the parameters of spontaneous collapse of the pillars and surface subsidence. The surface subsidence parameters will be determined by conventional calculation scheme. Proposed method suits for stability analysis, failure prognosis and monitoring. 8 refs.

  1. Modelling the drying of a parallelepipedic oil shale particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. S. Porto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model is proposed to describe the process of drying a parallelepipedic oil shale particle. Assuming Fick's law, the diffusion equation for the shape of the particle was used. The objective of the study was to develop a computer program in Fortran to estimate the moisture content of an oil shale particle undergoing drying as a function of time and position. The average moisture content was also obtained. The model takes into account the migration of water by diffusion within the solid and its loss at the interface. The model results were compared to experimental data from an apparatus which measured the mass loss of a particle. The apparatus comprised an electronic balance attached by a thin wire to the particle placed inside an incubator.

  2. Numerical Study on the Permeability of the Hydraulic-Stimulated Fracture Network in Naturally-Fractured Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As hydraulic fracturing is a fluid-rock coupling process, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture network in the initial stage has great effects on the propagation of the hydraulic fracture network in the following stages. In this work, the permeability of the hydraulic-stimulated fracture network in shale gas reservoirs is investigated by a newly-proposed model based on the displacement discontinuity method. The permeability of the fracture network relies heavily on fracture apertures, which can be calculated with high precision by the displacement discontinuity method. The hydraulic fracturing processes are simulated based on the natural fracture networks reconstructed from the shale samples in the Longmaxi formation of China. The flow fields are simulated and the permeability is calculated based on the fracture configurations and fracture apertures after hydraulic fracturing treatment. It is found that the anisotropy of the permeability is very strong, and the permeability curves have similar shapes. Therefore, a fitting equation of the permeability curve is given for convenient use in the future. The permeability curves under different fluid pressures and crustal stress directions are obtained. The results show that the permeability anisotropy is stronger when the fluid pressure is higher. Moreover, the permeability anisotropy reaches the minimum value when the maximum principle stress direction is perpendicular to the main natural fracture direction. The investigation on the permeability is useful for answering how the reservoirs are hydraulically stimulated and is useful for predicting the propagation behaviors of the hydraulic fracture network in shale gas reservoirs.

  3. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  4. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  5. Will water scarcity in semiarid regions limit hydraulic fracturing of shale plays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Nicot, Jean Philippe

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing concern about water constraints limiting oil and gas production using hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale plays, particularly in semiarid regions and during droughts. Here we evaluate HF vulnerability by comparing HF water demand with supply in the semiarid Texas Eagle Ford play, the largest shale oil producer globally. Current HF water demand (18 billion gallons, bgal; 68 billion liters, bL in 2013) equates to ˜16% of total water consumption in the play area. Projected HF water demand of ˜330 bgal with ˜62 000 additional wells over the next 20 years equates to ˜10% of historic groundwater depletion from regional irrigation. Estimated potential freshwater supplies include ˜1000 bgal over 20 yr from recharge and ˜10 000 bgal from aquifer storage, with land-owner lease agreements often stipulating purchase of freshwater. However, pumpage has resulted in excessive drawdown locally with estimated declines of ˜100-200 ft in ˜6% of the western play area since HF began in 2009-2013. Non-freshwater sources include initial flowback water, which is ≤5% of HF water demand, limiting reuse/recycling. Operators report shifting to brackish groundwater with estimated groundwater storage of 80 000 bgal. Comparison with other semiarid plays indicates increasing brackish groundwater and produced water use in the Permian Basin and large surface water inputs from the Missouri River in the Bakken play. The variety of water sources in semiarid regions, with projected HF water demand representing ˜3% of fresh and ˜1% of brackish water storage in the Eagle Ford footprint indicates that, with appropriate management, water availability should not physically limit future shale energy production.

  6. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  7. Paraho oil shale module. Site development plan, Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A management plan and schedule which covers all requirements for gaining access to the site and for conducting a Paraho Process demonstration program have been prepared. The oil shale available should represent a regional resource of suitable size and quality for commercial development. Discussed in this report are: proof of ownership; requirements for rights-of-way for access to the site; local zoning restrictions; water rights; site availability verification; and other legal requirements. (DMC)

  8. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  9. Fluid flow from matrix to fractures in Early Jurassic shales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Hardebol, N.J.; Barnhoorn, A.; Boersma, Quinten; Carone, A.; Liu, Y.; de Winter, D.A.M.; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of shale reservoirs for gas extraction is largely determined by the permeability of the rock. Typical pore diameters in shales range from the μm down to the nm scale. The permeability of shale reservoirs is a function of the interconnectivity between the pore space and the natural

  10. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  11. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  12. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  13. Geology of the oil shales of Messel near Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G.

    1966-07-25

    The oil shale, with a thickness of nearly 190 m, represents the middle part of the strata of Messel. Freshly mined, it consists of about 40% water and about 25% organic matter. The rest are clay minerals, chiefly montmorillonite. Kaolinite, messelite, vivianite, pyrites, markasite, siderite, and gypsum occur in small quantities. The organic components are kerogens which are extraordinary rich in oxygen. They are tied adsorptively to montmorillonite. The bitumina are supposed to be chiefly derived from algae, in a smaller extent from fungi and pollen. Plants as well as the large ganoid fishes and the crocodiles indicate a tropical to subtropical climate and a larger extent of the former water system. The oil shales of Messel are preserved in a tectonic graben that is 1,000 m long and up to 700 m wide. This graben is divided into 3 depressions. Both depressions are close together in the south and diverge northward. The ground water lifted in the open mining shows high degrees of total hardness and unusual high sulfate and phosphate contents. These matters can be derived from the weathering events in the exposed oil shale. (133 refs.)

  14. Dioxin emission from two oil shale fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A. [FORCE Technology, Soborg (Denmark); Herrmann, T. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC), Tallinn (Estonia); Roots, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Tordik, A. [AS Narva Elektrijaamad, Narva (Estonia)

    2004-09-15

    In March 2003, dioxin emissions were measured from four oil shale fired boilers at two power plants located near the city of Narva in Estonia. The two power plants produce more than 90% of the electricity consumption in Estonia by combusting more than 10 million tons of oil shale per year, which is around 85% of the total consumption of oil shale in the country. These power plants are the world's largest thermal power stations burning low-grade oil shale. These measurements of dioxin air emission from oil shale fuelled plants are the first performed in Estonia. The aim of the measurements was to get background data for the estimation of the annual dioxin emission from oil shale power plants in Estonia, in order to improve or qualify the estimation based on emissions factors for large coal fired power stations given in the recent DANCEE Project: Survey of anthropogenic sources of dioxins in the Baltic Region.

  15. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  16. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

    1979-12-01

    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  17. MAPPING POTENTIAL AREAS OF GROUND SUBSIDENCE IN ESTONIAN UNDERGROUND OIL SHALE MINING DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Valgma, Ingo

    1999-01-01

    Northeast part of Estonia has been subject to oil shale mining since 1916. Oil shale as main source for power industry in Estonia is mined in amount of 12 million tonnes per year. The underground production rate is about 6 million tonnes of the mineral annually. Currently three open casts and six underground mines are operating, hi past 6 underground oil shale mines have been closed. Totally 979 million tonnes of rock, including oil shale has been mined underground. Today, about 305 km2 area ...

  18. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

  20. Depositional Environment of the Sangkarewang Oil Shale, Ombilin Basin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Anggayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five samples from 56 m long drill core of lacustrine Sangkarewang oil shale have been studied by means of petrography and organic geochemistry to investigate the organic matter composition and depositional environments of the shale. The organic matter consists of abundant lamalginite (30%, v/v and very limited amount of vitrinite, suggesting aquatic depositional environments with minor terrestrial influence. Organic geochemical analysis exhibits the dominance of pristane, phytane, and generally n-alkanes compounds. These compounds might originate mostly from aquatic photosynthetic organisms. The oil shale was likely deposited in anoxic lake environments, suggested by the presence of framboidal pyrite (6%, v/v and preserved organic matter with total organic carbon (TOC about 4.9%. The pristane/phytane ratio is relatively high about 3.9 and thought as source sensitive rather than redox sensitive. Hopanoid and aryl isoprenoid compounds are present in minor amounts. The latter compounds are interpreted to be derived from green sulfur bacteria dwelling in anoxic and the presence of H2S in bottom water.

  1. Dioxin and PAH emissions from a shale oil processing plant in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleicher, O.; Jensen, A.A. [FORCE Technology, Soborg (Denmark); Roots, O. [Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC), Tallinn (Estonia); Herrmann, T. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Tordik, A. [AS Narva Elektrijaamad, Narva (Estonia)

    2004-09-15

    In March 2003, dioxin emissions were measured from a shale oil producing plant located near the city of Narva in Estonia. The measurement was a part of a project on measuring the dioxin emission from four oil shale fired boilers at two power plants located near the city of Narva in Estonia. These power plants produce more than 90% of the electricity consumption in Estonia by combusting more than 10 million tons of oil shale per year, which is around 85 % of the total consumption of oil shale in the country. The oil plant is the second largest consumer of oil shale, with an annual consumption of around 800,000 ton. Two other smaller plants producing oil from oil shale is known to exist in Estonia, and one in Australia. These measurements of dioxin air emission from oil shale pyrolysis are the first performed in Estonia. The aim of the measurements was to get background data for the estimation of the annual dioxin emission from the use of oil shale in pyrolysis processes in Estonia, in order to improve or qualify the estimation based on emissions factors for large coal fired power stations given in the recent DANCEE Project: Survey of anthropogenic sources of dioxins in the Baltic Region. The Danish environmental assistance to Eastern Europe (DANCEE) has sponsored the project, and dk-TEKNIK ENERGY and ENVIRONMENT (now FORCE Technology) was responsible for the measurements, which where conducted in cooperation with EERC in Tallinn.

  2. Geolipids in the oil shale from Aleksinac (Yugoslavia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorovic, D.; Saban, M.

    1983-02-01

    Most of the geolipids so far identified in the oil shale from Aleksinac represent well known /eta/ and ubiquitous constituents of sediments: /eta/-alkanes, aliphatic and cyclic isoprenoid alkanes including steranes, triterpanes and tetraterpanes and aliphatic and aromatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Moreover, several classes of compounds were identified which were also known as constituents of some ancient sediments but were not found to be ubiquitous, such as aliphatic isoprenoid ketones C/sub 13/ and C/sub 18/, aliphatic methyl ketones C/sub 13/-C/sub 24/ and the triterpenoid ketone adiantone. However, in the Aleksinac shale bitumen geolipid constituents were identified which had not been found earlier in ancient sediments: a homologous C/sub 7/-C/sub 15/ series of aliphatic /tau/homologous series of 4 members of sigma-lactones, two cyclic ..gamma..-lactones (dihydro- and tetrahydroactinidiolide), as well as a homologous series of methyl esters of fatty acids (C/sub 4/-C/sub 25/). The composition and distribution of identified geolipids suggest: a) that the Aleksinac oil shale is a non-mature sediment (relatively high content of oxygen compounds with unchanged biolipid molecules, high /eta/-alkane CPI values, relatively high amount of unstable stereoisomers in the fraction of steranes and triterpanes) and b) that the organic matter of Aleksinac shale is of mixed origin; the following precursors of the organic substance were incorporated in this lacustrine sediment: residues of continental plants, ferns and algae, as well as residues of micro-organisms, most probably of those which took part in early diagenetic changes of sedimented organic matter.

  3. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  4. Predominance and Metabolic Potential of Halanaerobium spp. in Produced Water from Hydraulically Fractured Marcellus Shale Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipus, Daniel; Vikram, Amit; Ross, Daniel; Bain, Daniel; Gulliver, Djuna; Hammack, Richard; Bibby, Kyle; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2017-02-03

    ABSTRACT

    Microbial activity in the produced water from hydraulically fractured oil and gas wells may potentially interfere with hydrocarbon production and cause damage to the well and surface infrastructure via corrosion, sulfide release, and fouling. In this study, we surveyed the microbial abundance and community structure of produced water sampled from 42 Marcellus Shale wells in southwestern Pennsylvania (well age ranged from 150 to 1,846 days) to better understand the microbial diversity of produced water. We sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to assess taxonomy and utilized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate the microbial abundance across all 42 produced water samples. Bacteria of the orderHalanaerobialeswere found to be the most abundant organisms in the majority of the produced water samples, emphasizing their previously suggested role in hydraulic fracturing-related microbial activity. Statistical analyses identified correlations between well age and biocide formulation and the microbial community, in particular, the relative abundance ofHalanaerobiales. We further investigated the role of members of the orderHalanaerobialesin produced water by reconstructing and annotating aHalanaerobiumdraft genome (named MDAL1), using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metagenomic binning. The recovered draft genome was found to be closely related to the speciesH. congolense, an oil field isolate, andHalanaerobiumsp. strain T82-1, also recovered from hydraulic fracturing produced water. Reconstruction of metabolic pathways

  5. Iron Release and Precipitation in Fracture Fluid-Shale Fracturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, A. D.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Dustin, M. K.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs is important to the United States energy portfolio. Hydrocarbon production from new wells generally declines rapidly over the initial months of production. One possible reason for the decrease is the mineralization and clogging of microfracture networks proximal to propped fractures. One important but relatively unexplored class of reactions is oxidation of Fe(II) derived from Fe(II)-bearing mineral dissolution (primarily pyrite and siderite) and subsequent precipitation of Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxides. To explore this topic, we reacted fracture fluid with sand-sized and whole rock chips from four different geological localities (Marcellus Fm., Barnett Fm., Eagle Ford Fm., and Green River Fm.) containing highly varied concentrations of clays, carbonates, and TOC. Additionally, kerogen was isolated from the Green River Fm. and reacted with fracture fluid. All the shale sands showed an initial release of Fe into solution during the first 96 hours of reaction followed by a plateau or significant drop in Fe indicating that mineral precipitation occurred. Conversely, the Fe concentrations in the kerogen reactors kept increasing throughout the 3-week experiments. The whole rock samples showed a steady increase then a plateau in Fe during the 3-weeks, indicating a slower Fe release and subsequently, slower Fe precipitation. Reactors with Marcellus Fm. Sands contained dilute HCl, water only, the fracture fluid with no headspace, and fracture fluid with no HCl. Results from these experiments show that HCl is the most important additive for the promotion of Fe release into solution. Iron oxidation is not promoted solely by O2 or organics but instead requires a combination of the two for precipitation in these systems. These results indicate that Fe redox cycling is an important and complex part of hydraulic fracturing that most likely results in production slowdown over the life of a well.

  6. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  7. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Interbeds on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Shale Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how the characteristics of interbeds affect hydraulic fracture propagation in the continental shale formation, a series of 300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm concrete blocks with varying interbeds, based on outcrop observation and core measurement of Chang 7-2 shale formation, were prepared to conduct the hydraulic fracturing experiments. The results reveal that the breakdown pressure increases with the rise of thickness and strength of interbeds under the same in-situ field stress and injection rate. In addition, for the model blocks with thick and high strength interbeds, the hydraulic fracture has difficulty crossing the interbeds and is prone to divert along the bedding faces, and the fracturing effectiveness is not good. However, for the model blocks with thin and low strength interbeds, more long branches are generated along the main fracture, which is beneficial to the formation of the fracture network. What is more, combining the macroscopic descriptions with microscopic observations, the blocks with thinner and lower strength interbeds tend to generate more micro-fractures, and the width of the fractures is relatively larger on the main fracture planes. Based on the experiments, it is indicated that the propagation of hydraulic fractures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of interbeds, and the results are instructive to the understanding and evaluation of the fracability in the continental shale formation.

  8. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  9. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  10. Flow of products of thermal decomposition of oil shale through porous skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, A. G.; Maslov, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    Oil shale is sedimentary rock formed by the accumulation of pelagic sediments, minerals and their further transformation. Experimental investigation of shale decomposition is very complex and expensive. The model of underground oil shale retorting is formulated in this paper. Model takes into account the reactions in solid phase and in fluid, mass and heat exchange, gaseous product flow in pores. Example of the numerical solution of the developed system of equations for the particular problem is shown.

  11. Inflation and government indecisiveness: key deterrents to significant shale oil production by 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    This work examines the progress of the shale oil industry in its efforts to achieve production of synthetic crude oil from oil shale on a profitable, commercial basis. A projection is made regarding the ability of the shale oil industry to produce 1,000,000 bbl of synthetic crude oil by 1985. That year was chosen because of the long lead time required to obtained leases; to acquire investment capital; to gain approval of environmental impact documents; and to acquire the equipment and construct plants of sufficient magnitude to be economically feasible. 31 references.

  12. Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R.; Birot, M.; Pillot, J.-P.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil.

  13. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  14. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  15. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  16. Frictional stability-permeability relationships for fractures in shales: Friction-Permeability Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Department of Geosciences, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Wang, Chaoyi [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Ishibashi, Takuya [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, EMS Energy Institute, and G3 Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Koriyama Japan; Fitts, Jeffrey P. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey USA

    2017-01-01

    There is wide concern that fluid injection in the subsurface, such as for the stimulation of shale reservoirs or for geological CO2 sequestration (GCS), has the potential to induce seismicity that may change reservoir permeability due to fault slip. However, the impact of induced seismicity on fracture permeability evolution remains unclear due to the spectrum of modes of fault reactivation (e.g., stable versus unstable). As seismicity is controlled by the frictional response of fractures, we explore friction-stability-permeability relationships through the concurrent measurement of frictional and hydraulic properties of artificial fractures in Green River shale (GRS) and Opalinus shale (OPS). We observe that carbonate-rich GRS shows higher frictional strength but weak neutral frictional stability. The GRS fracture permeability declines during shearing while an increased sliding velocity reduces the rate of permeability decline. By comparison, the phyllosilicate-rich OPS has lower friction and strong stability while the fracture permeability is reduced due to the swelling behavior that dominates over the shearing induced permeability reduction. Hence, we conclude that the friction-stability-permeability relationship of a fracture is largely controlled by mineral composition and that shale mineral compositions with strong frictional stability may be particularly subject to permanent permeability reduction during fluid infiltration.

  17. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  18. Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

    2010-02-15

    Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed.

  19. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Efficient Two-Scale Hybrid Embedded Fracture Model for Shale Gas Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Amir, Sahar

    2016-12-27

    Natural and hydraulic fractures existence and state differs on a reservoir-by-reservoir or even on a well-by-well basis leading to the necessity of exploring the flow regimes variations with respect to the diverse fracture-network shapes forged. Conventional Dual-Porosity Dual-Permeability (DPDP) schemes are not adequate to model such complex fracture-network systems. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper, an iterative Hybrid Embedded multiscale (two-scale) Fracture model (HEF) is applied on a derived fit-for-purpose shale gas model. The HEF model involves splitting the fracture computations into two scales: 1) fine-scale solves for the flux exchange parameter within each grid cell; 2) coarse-scale solves for the pressure applied to the domain grid cells using the flux exchange parameter computed at each grid cell from the fine-scale. After that, the D dimensions matrix pressure and the (D-1) lower dimensional fracture pressure are solved as a system to apply the matrix-fracture coupling. HEF model combines the DPDP overlapping continua concept, the DFN lower dimensional fractures concept, the HFN hierarchical fracture concept, and the CCFD model simplicity. As for the fit-for-purpose shale gas model, various fit-for-purpose shale gas models can be derived using any set of selected properties plugged in one of the most popularly used proposed literature models as shown in the appendix. Also, this paper shows that shale extreme low permeability cause flow behavior to be dominated by the structure and magnitude of high permeability fractures.

  1. Experience and prospects of oil shale utilization for power production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, O. P.

    2016-09-01

    Due to termination of work at the Leningrad Shale Deposit, the Russian shale industry has been liquidated, including not only shale mining and processing but also research and engineering (including design) activities, because this deposit was the only commercially operated complex in Russia. UTT-3000 plants with solid heat carrier, created mainly by the Russian specialists under scientific guidance of members of Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, passed under the control of Estonian engineers, who, alongside with their operation in Narva, construct similar plants in Kohtla-Jarve, having renamed the Galoter Process into the Enifit or Petroter. The main idea of this article is to substantiate the expediency of revival of the oil shale industry in Russia. Data on the UTT-3000 plants' advantages, shale oils, and gas properties is provided. Information on investments in an UTT-3000 plant and estimated cost of Leningrad oil shale mining at the Mezhdurechensk Strip Mine is given. For more detailed technical and economic assessment of construction of a complex for oil shale extraction and processing, it is necessary to develop a feasibility study, which should be the first stage of this work. Creation of such a complex will make it possible to produce liquid and gaseous power fuel from oil shale of Leningrad Deposit and provide the opportunity to direct for export the released volumes of oil and gas for the purposes of Russian budget currency replenishment.

  2. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiéry, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.thiery@mines-douai.fr [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Université de Lille (France); Bourdot, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.bourdot@gmail.com [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Bulteel, David, E-mail: david.bulteel@mines-douai.fr [Université de Lille (France)

    2015-08-15

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  3. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  4. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  5. Technical-economic parameters of the new oil shale mining-chemical complex in Northeast Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale Company ' Eesti Polevkivi, Johvi (Estonia); Fraiman, J. [Mining Engineer, Kohtla-Jarve (Estonia)

    2006-05-15

    The history of oil shale mining in Estonia has reached its century mark. Three oil shale branches have been formed and have been working on the basis of Estonian oil shale deposits: the mining industry (underground and surface extraction), the power industry (heat and electric energy generation), and the chemical industry (gas and synthetic oils). The authors attempted to summarize the experience of the activities of these branches and to make into a whole the results of their research developments in the past years, as well as to form a notion about perspectives of oil shale in Estonia. Variants of the mining-chemical oil shale complex production and trade patterns differed from used ones. Mining methods, thermal processing of oil shale, and solid, liquid, and gas waste recovery have been studied, analyzed, and worked out up to the present. Setting up a flexible trade structure within the framework of that complex is considered the main economic mechanism capable of balancing production costs of such a complex with its earnings, which could respond properly to any, even peak, fluctuations of the market for final products processed from oil shale. Data of the working 'Estonia' oil shale mine were used as the basis of the analysis and practical conclusions. Information on the mine being projected in the region of Ojamaa in the northeast of Estonia was taken as the data of the worthwhile supplier. Oil shale processing chemical complex is considered in two structural alternatives: in technological chain with the 'Estonia' mine (the first variant), and the projected mine of a new technical level (the second variant). (author)

  6. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  7. A new post-frac evaluation method for shale gas wells based on fracturing curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Bian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-fracturing evaluation by using limited data is of great significance to continuous improvement of the fracturing programs. In this paper, a fracturing curve was divided into two stages (i.e., prepad fluid injection and main fracturing so as to further understand the parameters of reservoirs and artificial fractures. The brittleness and plasticity of formations were qualitatively identified by use of the statistics of formation fracture frequency, and average pressure dropping range and rate during the prepad fluid injection. The composite brittleness index was quantitatively calculated by using the energy zones in the process of fracturing. It is shown from the large-scale true triaxial physical simulation results that the complexity of fractures is reflected by the pressure fluctuation frequency and amplitude in the main fracturing curve, and combined with the brittleness and plasticity of formations, the fracture morphology far away from the well can be diagnosed. Well P, a shale gas well in SE Chongqing, was taken as an example for post-fracturing evaluation. It is shown that the shale beds are of stronger heterogeneity along the extension directions of horizontal wells, and with GR 260 API as the dividing line between brittleness and plasticity in this area, complex fracture systems tend to form in brittleness-prone formations. In Well P, half of the fractures are single fractures, so it is necessary to carry out fine subsection and turnaround fracturing so as to improve development effects. This paper provides a theoretical basis for improving the fracturing well design and increasing the effective stimulated volume in this area.

  8. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  9. Permeability evolution due to dissolution of natural shale fractures reactivated by fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Kwiatkowski, Tomasz; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of cores drilled from gas-bearing shale formations reveals a relatively large number of calcite-cemented fractures. During fracking, some of these fractures will be reactivated [1-2] and may become important flow paths in the resulting fracture system. In this communication, we investigate numerically the effect of low-pH reactive fluid on such fractures. The low-pH fluids can either be pumped during the initial fracking stage (as suggested e.g. by Grieser et al., [3]) or injected later, as part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) processes. In particular, it has been suggested that CO2 injection can be considered as a method of EGR [4], which is attractive as it can potentially be combined with simultaneous CO2 sequestration. However, when mixed with brine, CO2 becomes acidic and thus can be a dissolving agent for the carbonate cement in the fractures. The dissolution of the cement leads to the enhancement of permeability and interconnectivity of the fracture network and, as a result, increases the overall capacity of the reservoir. Importantly, we show that the dissolution of such fractures proceeds in a highly non-homogeneous manner - a positive feedback between fluid transport and mineral dissolution leads to the spontaneous formation of pronounced flow channels, frequently referred to as "wormholes". The wormholes carry the chemically active fluid deeper inside the system, which dramatically speeds up the overall permeability increase. If the low-pH fluids are used during fracking, then the non-uniform dissolution becomes important for retaining the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. Whereas a uniformly etched fracture will close tightly under the overburden once the fluid pressure is removed, the nonuniform etching will tend to maintain the permeability since the less dissolved regions will act as supports to keep more dissolved regions open. [1] Gale, J. F., Reed, R. M., Holder, J. (2007). Natural fractures in the Barnett

  10. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  11. THE SURFACE MINER SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION FOR OIL-SHALE MINING IN ESTONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Oleg; Väli, Erik; Sabanov, Sergei; Pastarus, Jyri-Rivaldo

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces a high-selective oil-shale mining technology and the first results of surface miner Wirtgen 2500SM tests. The technology allows to decrease oil-shale loses from 10-15% up to 5-7%. Mining process of the surface miner has a lower disturbing impact, which is topical in open pits and quarries especially in densely populated areas. The low level of dust and noise emissions and also very’ low vibration are arguments to mine oil shale with surface miner instead of drilling-blast...

  12. Survival of the Unfit : Path Dependence and the Estonian Oil Shale Industry

    OpenAIRE

    HOLMBERG Rurik

    2008-01-01

    Estonia is the only country in the world, which is totally dependent on oil shale in its energy system. Although this fossil fuel exists in enormous quantities around the world, it has so far not been utilized on a larger scale. The reasons for this have been both economic and, in recent times, ecological. It can therefore be argued that in most cases, oil shale represents an inferior solution compared to other energy sources. This work examines why a technology utilizing oil shale has develo...

  13. Multiscale Characterization of Geological Properties of Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, Y.; Burnham, A. K.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Tchelepi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed characterization of geologic properties of oil shale is important for predictive modeling of geomechanics as well as heat and mass transfer in these geomaterials. Specifically, quantitative knowledge of the spatial distribution of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties is requisite. The primary parameter upon which these properties strongly depend is kerogen content. We have developed a simple but accurate method for quantifying the spatial distribution of kerogen content, spanning scales from a few microns to a hundred feet. Our approach is based on analyzing raw optical images. Promising results regarding the viability of this approach, based on comparison with lab measurements, are presented for the well-known Mahogany Zone of the Green River Formation, Utah. A combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and appropriately chosen mixing rules allows for the quantification of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties with micron-scale resolution. Numerical upscaling can subsequently produce averaged properties at the scale of individual grid blocks in field-scale simulators.

  14. Baseflow recession analysis in a large shale play: Climate variability and anthropogenic alterations mask effects of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Esparza, Saúl; Breña-Naranjo, Jose Agustín; Hernández-Espriú, Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrián; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Nicot, Jean Philippe; Young, Michael H.; Wolaver, Brad D.; Alcocer-Yamanaka, Victor Hugo

    2017-10-01

    Water resources development and landscape alteration exert marked impacts on water-cycle dynamics, including areas subjected to hydraulic fracturing (HF) for exploitation of unconventional oil and gas resources found in shale or tight sandstones. Here we apply a conceptual framework for linking baseflow analysis to changes in water demands from different sectors (e.g. oil/gas extraction, irrigation, and municipal consumption) and climatic variability in the semiarid Eagle Ford play in Texas, USA. We hypothesize that, in water-limited regions, baseflow (Qb) changes are partly due (along with climate variability) to groundwater abstraction. For a more realistic assessment, the analysis was conducted in two different sets of unregulated catchments, located outside and inside the Eagle Ford play. Three periods were considered in the analysis related to HF activities: pre-development (1980-2000), moderate (2001-2008) and intensive (2009-2015) periods. Results indicate that in the Eagle Ford play region, temporal changes in baseflow cannot be directly related to the increase in hydraulic fracturing. Instead, substantial baseflow declines during the intensive period of hydraulic fracturing represent the aggregated effects from the combination of: (1) a historical exceptional drought during 2011-2012; (2) increased groundwater-based irrigation; and (3) an intensive hydraulic fracturing activity.

  15. Market Efficiency in the Crude Oil Futures Market - an Empirical Study after the Shale Oil Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lade, Ragne Myrhol

    2016-01-01

    This thesis has studied efficiency in the crude oil futures market for WTI and the Brent Blend for a period including the “shale oil revolution”. The main objective was to provide new information by investigating a period in time not much explored in already published articles. Furthermore, the thesis sought to close a gap of earlier empirical studies performed, by combining the two crude oil types and including up to 6 months maturities for futures contracts, while at the same time having a ...

  16. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  17. A Framework for Fracture Network Formation in Overpressurised Impermeable Shale: Deformability Versus Diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Sotiris; Poulet, Thomas; Sari, Mustafa; Lesueur, Martin; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Veveakis, Manolis

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the formation, geometry and fluid connectivity of nominally impermeable unconventional shale gas and oil reservoirs is crucial for safe unlocking of these vast energy resources. We present a recent discovery of volumetric instabilities of ductile materials that may explain why impermeable formations become permeable. Here, we present the fundamental mechanisms, the critical parameters and the applicability of the novel theory to unconventional reservoirs. We show that for a reservoir under compaction, there exist certain ambient and permeability conditions at which diagenetic (fluid-release) reactions may provoke channelling localisation instabilities. These channels are periodically interspersed in the matrix and represent areas where the excess fluid from the reaction is segregated at high velocity. We find that channelling instabilities are favoured from pore collapse features for extremely low-permeability formations and fluid-release diagenetic reactions, therefore providing a natural, periodic network of efficient fluid pathways in an otherwise impermeable matrix (i.e. fractures). Such an outcome is of extreme importance the for exploration and extraction phases of unconventional reservoirs.

  18. Advanced reservoir characterization in the Antelope Shale to establish the viability of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in California`s Monterey Formation siliceous shales. Annual report, February 7, 1997--February 6, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, M.F.

    1998-06-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery project in the antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The proposed pilot consists of four existing producers on 20 acre spacing with a new 10 acre infill well drilled as the pilot CO{sub 2} injector. Most of the reservoir characterization during Phase 1 of the project will be performed using data collected in the pilot pattern wells. During this period the following tasks have been completed: laboratory wettability; specific permeability; mercury porosimetry; acoustic anisotropy; rock mechanics analysis; core description; fracture analysis; digital image analysis; mineralogical analysis; hydraulic flow unit analysis; petrographic and confocal thin section analysis; oil geochemical fingerprinting; production logging; carbon/oxygen logging; complex lithologic log analysis; NMR T2 processing; dipole shear wave anisotropy logging; shear wave vertical seismic profile processing; structural mapping; and regional tectonic synthesis. Noteworthy technological successes for this reporting period include: (1) first (ever) high resolution, crosswell reflection images of SJV sediments; (2) first successful application of the TomoSeis acquisition system in siliceous shales; (3) first detailed reservoir characterization of SJV siliceous shales; (4) first mineral based saturation algorithm for SJV siliceous shales, and (5) first CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments for siliceous shale. Preliminary results from the CO{sub 2} coreflood experiments (2,500 psi) suggest that significant oil is being produced from the siliceous shale.

  19. Fractures system within Qusaiba shale outcrop and its relationship to the lithological properties, Qasim area, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed I. M.; Hariri, Mustafa M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Elzain, Hussam

    2017-09-01

    The basal Qusaiba hot shale member of Qalibah Formation is considered to be an important source rock in the Paleozoic petroleum system of Saudi Arabia and an exploration target for tight shale as one of the Unconventional resources of petroleum. This work has been carried out to understand the fractures network of Qusaiba shale member in outcrops located to the west of Qusayba' village in Al-Qasim area, Central Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to understand the distribution of natural fractures over different lithological units. Description data sheets were used for the detailed lithological description of Qusaiba shale member on two outcrops. Spot-7 and Landsat ETM+ satellite images were used for lineament mapping and analyses on a regional scale in a GIS environment. Fractures characterization in outcrop-scale was conducted by using linear scanline method. Qusaiba shale member in the study area consists of 5 main lithofacies, divided based on their sedimentary structures and petrographical properties, from base to top in the outcrops, the lithofacies are; fissile shale, very fine-grained micaceous siltstone, bioturbated mudstone, very fine to fine-grained hummocky cross-stratified sandstone, and fine to medium-grained low/high angle cross-stratified sandstone lithofacies. Lineaments interpretation of the Spot-7 and Landsat ETM+ satellite images showed two major directions in the study area; 320° that could be related to Najd fault system and 20° that could be related to the extensional activities which took place after Amar collision. Fractures are much denser in the fissile shale and mudstone lithofacies than sandstones lithofacies, and average spacing is smaller in the fissile shale and mudstone lithofacies than sandstones lithofacies. Lineaments and large-scale fractures are Non-Stratabound fractures and they deal with the area as one big mechanical unit, but small-scale fractures are Stratabound fractures that propose different mechanical

  20. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase (Compiled from 3 legacy publications)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman...

  1. Oil Shale Core Hole and Rotary Hole Locations in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes and rotary holes in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile, Google...

  2. Oil Shale Core Holes Containing Nahcolite in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes that contain nahcolite in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile,...

  3. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  4. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stanchina, William [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (< 200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant ({epsilon}') and imaginary permittivity ({epsilon}'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, {epsilon}' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while {epsilon}'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (> 200 C) and constant frequency, {epsilon}' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while {epsilon}'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools. (author)

  5. Characterization of hydraulic fractures and reservoir properties of shale using natural tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Malama, B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing plays a major role in the economic production of hydrocarbon from shale. Current fracture characterization techniques are limited in diagnosing the transport properties of the fractures on the near wellbore scale to that of the entire stimulated reservoir volume. Microseismic reveals information on fracture geometries, but not transport properties. Production analysis (e.g., rate transient analysis using produced fluids) estimates fracture and reservoir flow characteristics, but often relies on simplified models in terms of fracture geometries and fluid storage and transport. We present the approach and potential benefits of incorporating natural tracers with production data analysis for fracture and reservoir characterization. Hydraulic fracturing releases omnipresent natural tracers that accumulate in low permeability rocks over geologic time (e.g., radiogenic 4He and 40Ar). Key reservoir characteristics govern the tracer release, which include: the number, connectivity, and geometry of fractures; the distribution of fracture-surface-area to matrix-block-volume; and the nature of hydrocarbon phases within the reservoir (e.g., methane dissolved in groundwater or present as a separate gas phase). We explore natural tracer systematics using numerical techniques under relevant shale-reservoir conditions. We evaluate the impact on natural tracer transport due to a variety of conceptual models of reservoir-transport properties and boundary conditions. Favorable attributes for analysis of natural tracers include the following: tracer concentrations start with a well-defined initial condition (i.e., equilibrium between matrix and any natural fractures); there is a large suite of tracers that cover a range of at least 7x in diffusion coefficients; and diffusive mass-transfer out of the matrix into hydraulic fractures will cause elemental and isotopic fractionation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  6. Characterization and Thermal/Catalytic Upgrading of Kerogen in a Green River Oil Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive structural characterization of oil shale (kerogen) and subsequent upgrading to fuels are of paramount scientific and industrial importance, calling for a better understanding. In this work, an oil shale from Green River formation was employed and characterized by multiple techniques such as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, TOC, XRD, FTIR and TGA-MS. It is found that the inorganic matter were mainly calcite, dolomite and Fe-doped quartz, while the organic matter consists of soluble bitumen a...

  7. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  8. Joint DoD/DoE Shale Oil Project. Volume 3. Testing of Refined Shale Oil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    10-9. GROWTH RATINGS OF CLADOSPORIUM RESINAE AT VARIOUS INCUBATION STAGES ......................... 10-25 S 0 xv - LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE 10...both shale DFM and shale JP-5 support heavy growth of Cladosporium resinae . Short-term engine performance tests were conducted on two gas turbine...microbiological growth of shale DFM and shale JP-5 was investigated by inoculating a mixture of fuel and 0 nutrient medium with Cladosporium resinae

  9. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Seepage flow behaviors of multi-stage fractured horizontal wells in arbitrary shaped shale gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Long; Shan, Bao-Chao; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Liu, Qi-Guo

    2016-10-01

    The horizontal well incorporated with massive hydraulic fracturing has become a key and necessary technology to develop shale gas reservoirs efficiently, and transient pressure analysis is a practical method to evaluate the effectiveness of the fracturing. Until now, however, the related studies on the pressure of such wells have mainly focused on regular outer-boundaries, such as infinite, circular and rectangular boundary shapes, which do not always fulfill the practical conditions and, of course, could cause errors. By extending the boundary element method (BEM) into the application of multi-staged fractured horizontal wells, this paper presents a way of analyzing the transient pressure in arbitrary shaped shale gas reservoirs considering ad-/de-sorption and diffusion of the shale gas with the ‘tri-porosity’ mechanism model. The boundary integral equation can be obtained by coupling the fundamental solution of the Helmholtz equation with the dimensionless diffusivity equation. After discretizing the outer-boundaries and the fractures, the boundary integral equations are linearized and the coefficient matrix of the pressure on the boundaries is assembled, after which bottom-hole pressure can be calculated conveniently. Comparing the BEM solution with semi-analytical solution cases, the accuracy of the new solution can be validated. Then, the characteristic curves of the dimensionless pseudo pressure, as well as its derivative for a well in shale gas reservoirs, are drawn, based on which the parameters’ sensitivity analyses are also conducted. This paper not only enriches the well testing theory and method in shale gas reservoirs, but also provides an effective method to solve problems with complex inner- and outer-boundaries.

  11. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  12. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlep, Riho, E-mail: riho.motlep@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Sild, Terje, E-mail: terje.sild@maaamet.ee [Estonian Land Board, Mustamaee tee 51, 10621 Tallinn (Estonia); Puura, Erik, E-mail: erik.puura@ut.ee [Institute of Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Kirsimaee, Kalle, E-mail: kalle.kirsimae@ut.ee [Department of Geology, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2010-12-15

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years.

  13. Evaluation of Geochemical Fracture Conductivity Alterations in Shale under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonjic, M.; Olabode, A.

    2015-12-01

    In large scale subsurface injection of carbondioxide as obtainable in carbon sequestration programs and in environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing processes (using supercritical CO2), rock-fluid interaction can affect reservoir and seal rocks properties which are essential in monitoring the progress of these operations. The mineralogical components of sedimentary rocks are geochemically active particularly under enormous earth stresses. While geomechanical properties such as rock stiffness, Poisson's ratio and fracture geometry largely govern fluid flow characteristics in deep fractured formations, the effect of mineralization can lead to flow impedance in the presence of favorable geochemical and thermodynamic conditions. Experimental works which employed the use of analytical tools such as ICP-OES, XRD, SEM/EDS, TOC and BET techniques in investigating diagenetic and micro-structural properties of crushed shale caprock/CO2-brine system concluded that net precipitation reaction processes can affect the distribution of petrophysical nanopores in the shale as a result of rock-fluid interactions. Simulation results previously reported, suggest that influx-induced mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within clay-based sedimentary rocks can continuously close micro-fracture networks, though injection pressure and effective-stress transformation first rapidly expand these fractures. This experimental modelling research investigated the impact of in-situ geochemical precipitation on conductivity of fractures under geomechanical stress conditions. Conductivity is measured as differential-pressure drop equivalence, using a pressure pulse-decay liquid permeametry/core flooding system, as geochemically saturated-fluid is transported through composite cores with embedded micro-tubings that mimic fractures. The reactive fluid is generated from crushed shale rocks of known mineralogical composition when flooded with aqueous CO2 at elevated temperature and pressure

  14. 4D synchrotron X-ray imaging to understand porosity development in shales during exposure to hydraulic fracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, A. M.; Bargar, J.; Kohli, A. H.; Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Lim, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Maher, K.; Zoback, M. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional (shale) reservoirs have emerged as the most important source of petroleum resources in the United States and represent a two-fold decrease in greenhouse gas emissions compared to coal. Despite recent progress, hydraulic fracturing operations present substantial technical, economic, and environmental challenges, including inefficient recovery, wastewater production and disposal, contaminant and greenhouse gas pollution, and induced seismicity. A relatively unexplored facet of hydraulic fracturing operations is the fluid-rock interface, where hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) contacts shale along faults and fractures. Widely used, water-based fracturing fluids contain oxidants and acid, which react strongly with shale minerals. Consequently, fluid injection and soaking induces a host of fluid-rock interactions, most notably the dissolution of carbonates and sulfides, producing enhanced or "secondary" porosity networks, as well as mineral precipitation. The competition between these mechanisms determines how HFF affects reactive surface area and permeability of the shale matrix. The resultant microstructural and chemical changes may also create capillary barriers that can trap hydrocarbons and water. A mechanistic understanding of the microstructure and chemistry of the shale-HFF interface is needed to design new methodologies and fracturing fluids. Shales were imaged using synchrotron micro-X-ray computed tomography before, during, and after exposure to HFF to characterize changes to the initial 3D structure. CT reconstructions reveal how the secondary porosity networks advance into the shale matrix. Shale samples span a range of lithologies from siliceous to calcareous to organic-rich. By testing shales of different lithologies, we have obtained insights into the mineralogic controls on secondary pore network development and the morphologies at the shale-HFF interface and the ultimate composition of produced water from different facies. These results

  15. New boundary conditions for oil reservoirs with fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyanova, Elena; Astafev, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    Based on the fact that most of oil fields are on the late stage of field development, it becomes necessary to produce hard-to-extract oil, which can be obtained only by use of enhance oil recovery methods. For example many low permeable or shale formations can be developed only with application of massive hydraulic fracturing technique. In addition, modern geophysical researches show that mostly oil bearing formations are complicated with tectonic faults of different shape and permeability. These discontinuities exert essential influence on the field development process and on the well performance. For the modeling of fluid flow in the reservoir with some area of different permeability, we should determine the boundary conditions. In this article for the first time the boundary conditions for the problem of fluid filtration in the reservoir with some discontinuity are considered. This discontinuity represents thin but long area, which can be hydraulic fracturing of tectonic fault. The obtained boundary condition equations allow us to take into account pressure difference above and below the section and different values of permeability.

  16. Quantitative characterization of fractures and pores in shale beds of the Lower Silurian, Longmaxi Formation, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractures and pores are important storage and percolation spaces in tight reservoirs, and the identification, characterization and quantitative evaluation on them are the key aspects and difficulties in shale gas reservoir evaluation. In view of this, quantitative evaluation was performed on the fracture porosity of organic-rich shale intervals of Longmaxi Fm, Lower Silurian, Sichuan Basin (Wufeng Fm, Upper Ordovician included, after a dual-porosity medium porosity interpretation model was built on the basis of drilling data of Fuling Gasfield and Changning gas block in the Sichuan Basin. And then, the following conclusions are reached. First, shale fracture porosity interpretation by using dual-porosity medium model is the effective method to evaluate quantitatively the fracture porosity of shale reservoirs, and the development of quantitative characterization techniques of marine shale reservoir spaces. Second, the matrix pore volume of the principal pay zones in this area and its constitution regions are stably distributed with matrix porosity generally in the range of 4.6%–5.4%. And third, the development characteristics of fracture porosity vary largely in different tectonic regions and indifferent wellblocks and intervals even in the same tectonic region, presenting strong heterogeneity in terms of shale reservoir storage and percolation properties. It is indicated by quantitative characterization of fractures and pores that there are two types of shale gas reservoirs in Wufeng Fm – Longmaxi Fm, Sichuan Basin, including matrix porosity + fracture type and matrix porosity type. The former are mainly developed in the areas with special structure settings and they are characterized by developed fracture pores, high gas content, high free gas content, thick pay zones and high single-well production rate. And in the Sichuan Basin, its distribution is possibly in a restricted range. The latter are characterized by high matrix porosity

  17. Military Fuels Refined from Paraho-II Shale Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Laboratories showed that growth of Cladosporium resinae was supported by the shale-derived JP-5 and DFM. 1t The performances of shale fuels in a turbine...27 11 Corrosion Tendencies of Shale Fuels ............................. 28 12 Growth Rating of Cladosporium Resinae in Tubes After Days of...screw cap test tubes and overlayed with 3 ml of the test fuel. Each tube was inoculated with one drop of a spore suspension of Cladosporium resinae , QM

  18. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  19. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Sunbury shale and Devonian–Mississippian Chattanooga shale in the Appalachian Basin Province, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Drake, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Doolan, Colin; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-11-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources that total 464 million barrels of oil and 4.08 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Mississippian Sunbury Shale and Middle Devonian–Lower Mississippian Chattanooga Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  1. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  2. Oil shale plant siting methodology: A guide to permits and approvals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, J.S.; Hill, S.; Barker, F.; Renk, R.; Dean, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a guide to the permits and approvals required to develop an oil shale resource. The permitting requirements of the federal government, six states (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio), and selected county or local governments are reviewed. The permits and approvals are organized into nine categories: (1) mineral leases and rights-of-way, (2) acquisition of a water supply, (3) environmental impact statement, (4) environmental quality (air quality, water quality, waste disposal, and wildlife values), (5) historical and cultural protection, (6) land use and socioeconomics, (7) prospecting and mining, (8) safety and health, and (9) transportation and communication. This report also contains examples of the permitting process required for the startup of two hypothetical oil shale plants. The first example is for a hypothetical 50,000 barrel-per-day oil shale plant located near Rio Blanco, Colorado. This plant uses conventional open pit mining and surface (Lurgi) processing of the shale. The permitting costs for this plant, including baseline data acquisition and monitoring, exceed $2 million. The second example, a 5,000 barrel-per-day demonstration plant in eastern Montgomery County, Kentucky, is based on open pit mining and surface (Hytort) processing of the shale. Permitting costs for the demonstration plant, including an environmental impact statement, could approach $500,000. Several potential impediments to the development of an oil shale resource are identified and discussed. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. Hydrodenitrogenation of Aleksinac shale oil distillates in a pilot trickle-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.D.; Skala, D.U.; Jovanovic, J.A.; Mayn, V.W.; Rahimian, I.G.-H. (University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy)

    1992-02-01

    Hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of the Aleksinac shale oil distillates was studied in a pilot trickle-bed reactor at 340-435{degree}C, 8.0 MPa, 1-4.57 h{sup -1} liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and 500 cm{sup 3} (STP) of H{sub 2}/cm{sup 3} oil. The commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} presulfided catalysts were evaluated for the HDN of three different shale oil distillates. The initial HDN catalyst deactivation was followed using a linear catalyst deactivation model. The Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst showed somewhat higher initial HDN activity and lower initial deactivation rate than the Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for the first 30-45 h on shale oil feedstock. Nitriles in shale oil first undergo HDN reaction at mild operating conditions, much faster than five-and six-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. The overall HDN kinetics of refractive nitrogen in shale oil was analyzed using a modified pseudo-first order behaviour. The on-line measured hydrogen consumption was in the range 200-300 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 3} for HDN{gt}80% regardless of the catalyst type and feedstock. 31 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Investigation into co-pyrolysis characteristics of oil shale and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhenyong; Wu Guoguang; Li Ping; Meng Xianliang; Zheng Zhilei

    2012-01-01

    Samples of five types of coal and oil shale from the Daqing region have been subjected to co-pyrolysis in different blending ratios with thermo-gravimetry (TG).given a heating rate of 30 ℃/min to a final temperature of 900 ℃.Investigations on pyrolysis of mixing coal and oil shale in different proportions were carried out,indicating that the main scope of weight loss corresponding to hydrocarbon oil and gas release was between 350 and 550 ℃.At higher temperatures,significant weight loss was attributed to coke decomposition.Characteristic pyrolysis parameters of blends from oil shale and the high ranked XZ coal varied with the blending ratio,but oil shale dominated the process.At the same blending proportions,highly volatile medium and low ranked coal of low moisture and ash content reacted well during pyrolysis and could easily create synergies with oil shale.Medium and high ranked coal with high moisture content played a negative role in co-pyrolysis.

  6. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  7. Interactive Matching between the Temperature Profile and Secondary Reactions of Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Zhennan; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    degrees C and a shale char bed operating at different temperatures. At low temperatures (550 degrees C), severe cracking occurred, converting both heavy and light oil to carbon and gas. The desirably matched reactor temperature profile for high oil yield is discussed via analysis of the tendency......This article investigates the effect of the reactor temperature profile on the distribution and characteristics of the products from fixed-bed pyrolysis of oil shale. Experiments were performed in a one-stage fixed-bed reactor and in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor. In the one-stage reactor......, the shale oil yield reached 7.40 wt % with a reactor temperature profile from 900 to 550 degrees C and decreased to 2.23 wt % with the reverse temperature profile. The effect of the temperature profile was investigated further in the two-stage fixed-bed reactor combining a pyrolysis stage operating at 550...

  8. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, T. [Jaakko Poyry International, Helsinki (Finland); Bird, G.; Wallace, D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  9. Microfossils and molecular records in oil shales of the Songliao Basin and implications for paleo-depositional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several oil shale beds, over 10 m thick, occur at the base of the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin. They act both as excellent source rocks for conventional oil and as potential oil deposit for shale oil production. Here we combine micropaleon-tology with organic geochemistry to investigate the paleo-depositional environment and organic source characteristics of the oil shales and black shales. Our results indicate that algal remains are dominant microfossils in K2qn1 oil shales, and their relatively high abundance suggests a major algal thriving event during the oil shale deposition. The presence of fresh water and brackish water species, Sentusidinium, Vesperopsis and Nyktericysta, and marine or brackish water deltaic and lagoonal species such as Kiokansium and Dinogymniopsis demonstrate that this paleo-continental lake was influenced by marine transgressions at the time of K2qn1 oil shale formation. The extremely low pristine/phytane ratios, relatively high abundance of gammacerane and 4-methyl steranes, and low δ 13C values of C14-C37 n-alkanes in the oil shale organic extracts indicate the deposition of oil shales in anoxic and highly stratified water columns and the significant contribution of lacustrine algae to sedimentary organic matter. High molecular-weight paraffinic hydrocarbons with unusually high abundance of nC43, nC45, and nC47 may be related to special algal species associated with marine transgression events. The giant water body of Songliao paleo-lake and the change in the organic and chemical environment (such as nutrition source and water column salinity) associated with seawater transgression into the lake are among the most important reasons for oil shales in the Songliao Basin being different from mudstone and oil shale in other rifted basins.

  10. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  11. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  12. Dynamic imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Tarik; Lin, Qingyang; Singh, Kamaljit; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2016-07-01

    The structure and connectivity of the pore space during the pyrolysis of oil shales determines hydrocarbon flow behavior and ultimate recovery. We image the time evolution of the pore and microfracture networks during oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Immature Green River (Mahogany Zone) shale samples were thermally matured under vacuum conditions at temperatures up to 500°C while being periodically imaged with a 2 µm voxel size. The structural transformation of both organic-rich and organic-lean layers within the shale was quantified. The images reveal a dramatic change in porosity accompanying pyrolysis between 390 and 400°C with the formation of micron-scale heterogeneous pores. With a further increase in temperature, the pores steadily expand resulting in connected microfracture networks that predominantly develop along the kerogen-rich laminations.

  13. Microbial diversity and methanogenic activity of Antrim Shale formation waters from recently fractured wells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eWuchter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin is one of the most productive shale gas formations in the U.S, but optimal resource recovery strategies must rely on a thorough understanding of the complex biogeochemical, microbial, and physical interdependencies in this and similar systems. We used Illumina Miseq 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the diversity and relative abundance of prokaryotic communities present in Antrim shale formation water of three closely spaced recently fractured gas-producing wells. In addition, the well waters were incubated with a suite of fermentative and methanogenic substrates in an effort to stimulate microbial methane generation. The three wells exhibited substantial differences in their community structure that may arise from their different drilling and fracturing histories. Bacterial sequences greatly outnumbered those of archaea and shared highest similarity to previously described cultures of mesophiles and moderately halophiles within the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and δ- and ε-Proteobacteria. The majority of archaeal sequences shared highest sequence similarity to uncultured euryarchaeotal environmental clones. Some sequences closely related to cultured methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were also present in the initial well water. Incubation with methanol and trimethylamine stimulated methylotrophic methanogens and resulted in the largest increase in methane production in the formation waters, while fermentation triggered by the addition of yeast extract and formate indirectly stimulated hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The addition of sterile powdered shale as a complex natural substrate stimulated the rate of methane production without affecting total methane yields. Depletion of methane indicative of anaerobic methane oxidation was observed over the course of incubation with some substrates. This process could constitute a substantial loss of methane in the shale formation.

  14. Upfront predictions of hydraulic fracturing and gas production in underexplored shale gas basins: Example of the posidonia shale formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TerHeege, J.H.; Zijp, M.; DeBruin, G.; Buijze, L.

    2014-01-01

    Upfront predictions of hydraulic fracturing and gas production of potential shale gas targets in Europe are important as often large potential resources are deduced without detailed knowledge on the potential for successful stimulation. Such predictions are challenging as they need to be based on li

  15. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  16. Selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia over oil shale ash and fly ash catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changtao Yue; Shuyuan Li [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab of Heavy Oil Processing

    2003-07-01

    Acid rain and urban air pollution, produced mainly by pollutants such as SOX and NOX and other volatile organic compounds, has become the most serious environmental problem. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} in the presence of oxygen is a wellproven method to limit the NOX emissions. The work in this field has been the subject of much research in recent years. In this paper, NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over oil shale ash or fly ash catalysts was studied. Fe, Cu, V or Ni as active elements was loaded by adding aqueous solutions of the metal nitrate over the oil shale ash or fly ash support. The activities of the catalysts for NO removal were measured in a fixed-bed reactor. According to the results, oil shale ash or fly ash, after pre-treatment, can be reasonably used as the SCR catalyst support to remove NO from flue gas. Cu gave the highest catalytic activity and NO conversion for fly ash while V for oil shale ash. As the support, fly ash is more feasible than oil shale ash. Because of their low cost and high efficiency, the catalysts should be used in the SCR process. Further research on this subject is necessary in the future to understand more details of the SCR system and issue of pollution control. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  18. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  19. 页岩气开采中的液化石油气无水压裂技术%LPG Waterless Fracturing Technology for Exploitation of Shale Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓宇; 张志全; 燕明慧; 袁时雨; 张稷瑜

    2016-01-01

    The large amount of water resource consumption and related pollution caused by fracturing are two major problems in the exploitation of shale gas by using the common hydraulic fracturing technology. In order to realize the green and efficient development of shale gas, it is very important and urgent to develop new type of fracturing technology. At present, foreign oil researchers are developing LPG waterless fracturing technology, namely using liquefied petroleum gas as fracturing fluid; it may be the key to open shale gas resources in China. This technology can solve the problems that there is no perfect system of hydraulic fracturing operations and the lack of water resources in China, so its application prospect is very broad.%水资源的大量消耗和压裂导致的相关污染一直以来都是页岩气开采中常用的水力压裂技术始终面临着两大难题.为了实现页岩气能够绿色高效地开发,探索适宜的新型无水压裂技术已经显得十分重要和紧迫了.而目前,外国的石油科研人员正在研发的 LPG 无水压裂,即使用液化石油气作为压裂液,则可能是打开中国页岩气资源的钥匙.这种技术可以解决我国尚无完善水力压裂作业体系和缺乏水资源的情况,应用前景相当广阔.

  20. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  1. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Annual report, June 1991--May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States); Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  2. Temporal Trends in Freshwater Withdrawals for Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Naftilan, E.; Saiers, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Development of the Marcellus Shale, the nation's largest shale gas producing formation, is estimated to use two to seven million gallons of water per well. Because Marcellus Shale wells are located in relatively water-rich areas, there has been less pressure in the region to recycle and reuse freshwater sourced from surface water streams for stimulating new wells. We review trends in actual freshwater withdrawals from surface water streams over time, and examine which regulations are most protective of flows intra- and inter-annually. Pass-by flow protective requirements appear to be most effective when set based on monthly flows, rather than annual flows, though not all regulatory agencies are using this protective mechanism. Total water use by industry in a shale play doesn't appear to follow trends of seasonal availability until three to five years after development begins in that play, and intensity of water use from surface water withdrawal sites appears to decrease over time. Trends in water use can be tied to a number of factors including changing gas prices and demand (number of wells hydraulically fractured), increasing length of laterals, increasing recycling rates, increasing industrial efficiency, and others.

  3. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the th

  4. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The first year of this effort was focussed on the following broad objectives: (1) Analyze the molecular types present in shale oil (as a function of molecular weight distribution); (2) Determine the behavior of these molecular types in liquid-liquid extraction; (3) Develop the analytical tools needed to systematize the process development; (4) Survey the markets to assure that these have high value uses for the types found in shale oil; (5) Explore selective process means for extracting/converting shale oil components into concentrates of potentially marketable components; (6) Compile overview of the venture development strategy and begin implementation of that strategy. Each of these tasks has been completed in sufficient detail that we can now focus on filling in the knowledge gaps evident from the overview.

  5. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  6. Oil shale mining and processing impact on landscapes in north-east Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomik, Arvi; Liblik, Valdo [North-East Estonian Department of Institute of Ecology, 15 Pargi Street, EE2045 Johvi (Estonia)

    1998-07-06

    As the world`s largest commercial oil shale reserve, the Estonian Oil Shale Deposit has been exploited since 1916. As a result of mining, storing of solid wastes from the oil shale separation, combustion in the power plants and its thermal processing, the landscape in northeastern Estonia has been essentially changed and the man-made landforms have developed: the new microreliefs of natural and artificial structure are formed, as well as `mountainous` and hilly reliefs in the form of waste heaps, ash plateaus, coke-ash dumps etc. Deformed (stable) and undeformed (unstable) areas from underground mining currently cover about 220km{sup 2}. About 90km{sup 2} (80%) of the area damaged by open pits are recultivated and reformed as forested and agricultural (grassland) areas. The total area occupied by solid waste has reached up to 26km{sup 2}. New technogenic landscape units, i.e. made by technical means, will essentially influence the environment

  7. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  8. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Koryashov, I. A.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones.

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  10. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  11. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  12. Composition, diagenetic transformation and alkalinity potential of oil shale ash sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõtlep, Riho; Sild, Terje; Puura, Erik; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2010-12-15

    Oil shale is a primary fuel in the Estonian energy sector. After combustion 45-48% of the oil shale is left over as ash, producing about 5-7 Mt of ash, which is deposited on ash plateaus annually almost without any reuse. This study focuses on oil shale ash plateau sediment mineralogy, its hydration and diagenetic transformations, a study that has not been addressed. Oil shale ash wastes are considered as the biggest pollution sources in Estonia and thus determining the composition and properties of oil shale ash sediment are important to assess its environmental implications and also its possible reusability. A study of fresh ash and drillcore samples from ash plateau sediment was conducted by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The oil shale is highly calcareous, and the ash that remains after combustion is derived from the decomposition of carbonate minerals. It is rich in lime and anhydrite that are unstable phases under hydrous conditions. These processes and the diagenetic alteration of other phases determine the composition of the plateau sediment. Dominant phases in the ash are hydration and associated transformation products: calcite, ettringite, portlandite and hydrocalumite. The prevailing mineral phases (portlandite, ettringite) cause highly alkaline leachates, pH 12-13. Neutralization of these leachates under natural conditions, by rainwater leaching/neutralization and slow transformation (e.g. carbonation) of the aforementioned unstable phases into more stable forms, takes, at best, hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  14. Application of zipper-fracturing of horizontal cluster wells in the Changning shale gas pilot zone, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After several years of exploration practices in the Changning-Weiyuan national shale gas pilot zone, the industrial production has been achieved in a number of vertical and horizontal wells completed by SRV fracturing, and a series of independent shale gas reservoir stimulation technologies have come into being. Next, it is necessary to consider how to enhance the efficiency of fracturing by a factory-mode operation. This paper presents the deployment of Changning Well Pad A, the first cluster horizontal shale gas well group, and proposes the optimal design for the factory operation mode of this Pad according to the requirements of wellpad fracturing stimulation technologies and the mountainous landform in the Sichuan Basin. Accordingly, a zipper-fracturing mode was firstly adopted in the factory fracturing on wellpad. With the application of standardized field process, zipper operation, assembly line work, staggered placement of downhole fractures, and microseismic monitoring in real time, the speed of fracturing reached 3.16 stages a day on average, and the stimulated reservoir volume was maximized, which has fully revealed how the factory operation mode contributes to the large-scale SRV fracturing of horizontal shale gas cluster wells on wellpads in the aspect of speed and efficiency. Moreover, the fracturing process, operation mode, surface facilities and post-fracturing preliminary evaluation of the zipper-fracturing in the well group were examined comprehensively. It is concluded from the practice that the zipper-fracturing in the two wells enhanced the efficiency by 78% and stimulated reservoir volume by 50% compared with the single-well fracturing at the preliminary stage in this area.

  15. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  16. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  17. Research on anisotropy of shale oil reservoir based on rock physics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cai; Liu, Xi-Wu; Dong, Ning; Liu, Yu-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Rock physics modeling is implemented for shales in the Luojia area of the Zhanhua topographic depression. In the rock physics model, the clay lamination parameter is introduced into the Backus averaging theory for the description of anisotropy related to the preferred alignment of clay particles, and the Chapman multi-scale fracture theory is used to calculate anisotropy relating to the fracture system. In accordance with geological features of shales in the study area, horizontal fractures are regarded as the dominant factor in the prediction of fracture density and anisotropy parameters for the inversion scheme. Results indicate that the horizontal fracture density obtained has good agreement with horizontal permeability measured from cores, and thus confirms the applicability of the proposed rock physics model and inversion method. Fracture density can thus be regarded as an indicator of reservoir permeability. In addition, the anisotropy parameter of the P-wave is higher than that of the S-wave due to the presence of horizontal fractures. Fracture density has an obvious positive correlation with P-wave anisotropy, and the clay content shows a positive correlation with S-wave anisotropy, which fully shows that fracture density has a negative correlation with clay and quartz contents and a positive relation with carbonate contents.

  18. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  19. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Wendy; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  20. Discrimination of moist oil shale and limestone using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, P.; Piip, K.; Lepp, A.; Lissovski, A.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission spectra of Estonian oil shale and associated limestone with varying moisture content were studied. Time gated spectra excited by 1064 nm laser radiation were recorded. Spectral lines for determination of plasma parameters were selected. Moisture causes the reduction of the intensity of the total emission, and increases the intensity of the Hα line. It was found that the effect of the moisture content on the plasma temperature and electron concentration was inconsiderable. Using the ratio of intensities of Hα and Mg spectral lines, it was possible to distinguish reliably between limestone and oil shale independently of their moisture content.

  1. 页岩油分类与评价%Classification and evaluation of shale oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金川; 林腊梅; 李玉喜; 唐玄; 朱亮亮; 邢雅文; 姜生玲; 荆铁亚; 杨升宇

    2012-01-01

    Shale oil is liquid hydrocarbon formed in the effective source rocks with free phase(condense oil),adsorbed and dissolved phase(dissolved in gas,kerogen and residual water).According to hydrocarbon phase,genesis and exploration procedures of hydrocarbon within the shale,the shale oil and gas are classified into two groups and eight classes.Based on the shale oil characteristics in China,the shale oil forming conditions and distribution law were concluded.Large scale distribution of effective shales,development of organic rich shales in deep water-half deep water with thermal maturity,and good matrix physical properties are the necessary conditions for the formation of shale oil.Furthermore,we created the shale oil development mode in the continental faulted lake basin,and pointed out that the probability volumetric calculation method can be used to assess shale oil resource,and also put forward the parameter system and criteria for shale oil prospective area,favorable area and target area.The success in shale oil development has significant impact on the energy consumption structure in China.%页岩油是以游离(含凝析态)、吸附及溶解(可溶解于天然气、干酪根和残余水等)态等多种方式赋存于有效生烃泥页岩地层层系中且具有勘探开发意义的非气态烃类。根据泥页岩地层中所含烃类相态、成因机理及勘探开发等特点,将页岩类油气划分为页岩气和页岩油等两类八种。结合页岩油特点,指出了我国页岩油形成条件和分布规律,即规模分布的有效生烃泥页岩、形成于深水-半深水相的富有机质泥页岩、较高的有机质丰度和适当的热演化程度以及较好的基质物性条件等是页岩油形成的主要条件。建立了中国陆相断陷湖盆页岩油发育模式,指出概率体积法可以作为页岩油资源评价的主要方法,提出了页岩油远景区、有利区及目标区优选的参数体系和标准。作为非常规

  2. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  3. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

  4. Simulation of complex fracture networks influenced by natural fractures in shale gas reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jinzhou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When hydraulic fractures intersect with natural fractures, the geometry and complexity of a fracture network are determined by the initiation and propagation pattern which is affected by a number of factors. Based on the fracture mechanics, the criterion for initiation and propagation of a fracture was introduced to analyze the tendency of a propagating angle and factors affecting propagating pressure. On this basis, a mathematic model with a complex fracture network was established to investigate how the fracture network form changes with different parameters, including rock mechanics, in-situ stress distribution, fracture properties, and frac treatment parameters. The solving process of this model was accelerated by classifying the calculation nodes on the extending direction of the fracture by equal pressure gradients, and solving the geometrical parameters prior to the iteration fitting flow distribution. With the initiation and propagation criterion as the bases for the propagation of branch fractures, this method decreased the iteration times through eliminating the fitting of the fracture length in conventional 3D fracture simulation. The simulation results indicated that the formation with abundant natural fractures and smaller in-situ stress difference is sufficient conditions for fracture network development. If the pressure in the hydraulic fractures can be kept at a high level by temporary sealing or diversion, the branch fractures will propagate further with minor curvature radius, thus enlarging the reservoir stimulation area. The simulated shape of fracture network can be well matched with the field microseismic mapping in data point range and distribution density, validating the accuracy of this model.

  5. Numerical analysis of fracture propagation during hydraulic fracturing operations in shale gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers used the TOUGH+ geomechanics computational software and simulation system to examine the likelihood of hydraulic fracture propagation (the spread of fractures) traveling long distances to connect with drinking water aquifers.

  6. Investigation of post hydraulic fracturing well cleanup physics in the Cana Woodford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong

    Hydraulic fracturing was first carried out in the 1940s and has gained popularity in current development of unconventional resources. Flowing back the fracturing fluids is critical to a frac job, and determining well cleanup characteristics using the flowback data can help improve frac design. It has become increasingly important as a result of the unique flowback profiles observed in some shale gas plays due to the unconventional formation characteristics. Computer simulation is an efficient and effective way to tackle the problem. History matching can help reveal some mechanisms existent in the cleanup process. The Fracturing, Acidizing, Stimulation Technology (FAST) Consortium at Colorado School of Mines previously developed a numerical model for investigating the hydraulic fracturing process, cleanup, and relevant physics. It is a three-dimensional, gas-water, coupled fracture propagation-fluid flow simulator, which has the capability to handle commonly present damage mechanisms. The overall goal of this research effort is to validate the model on real data and to investigate the dominant physics in well cleanup for the Cana Field, which produces from the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. To achieve this goal, first the early time delayed gas production was explained and modeled, and a simulation framework was established that included all three relevant damage mechanisms for a slickwater fractured well. Next, a series of sensitivity analysis of well cleanup to major reservoir, fracture, and operational variables was conducted; five of the Cana wells' initial flowback data were history matched, specifically the first thirty days' gas and water producing rates. Reservoir matrix permeability, net pressure, Young's modulus, and formation pressure gradient were found to have an impact on the gas producing curve's shape, in different ways. Some moderately good matches were achieved, with the outcome of some unknown reservoir information being proposed using the

  7. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2013-07-01

    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned towards conditions usually encountered in the Marcellus shale play in the Northeastern US at an approximate depth of 1500 m (~;;4,500 feet). Our modeling simulations indicate that when faults are present, micro-seismic events are possible, the magnitude of which is somewhat larger than the one associated with micro-seismic events originating from regular hydraulic fracturing because of the larger surface area that is available for rupture. The results of our simulations indicated fault rupture lengths of about 10 to 20 m, which, in rare cases can extend to over 100 m, depending on the fault permeability, the in situ stress field, and the fault strength properties. In addition to a single event rupture length of 10 to 20 m, repeated events and aseismic slip amounted to a total rupture length of 50 m, along with a shear offset displacement of less than 0.01 m. This indicates that the possibility of hydraulically induced fractures at great depth (thousands of meters) causing activation of faults and creation of a new flow path that can reach shallow groundwater resources (or even the surface) is remote. The expected low permeability of faults in producible shale is clearly a limiting factor for the possible rupture length and seismic magnitude. In fact, for a fault that is initially nearly-impermeable, the only possibility of larger fault slip event would be opening by hydraulic fracturing; this would allow pressure to penetrate the matrix along the fault and to reduce the frictional strength over a sufficiently large fault surface patch. However, our simulation results show that if the fault is initially impermeable, hydraulic fracturing along the fault results in numerous small micro-seismic events along with the propagation, effectively

  8. Microbial metabolisms in a 2.5-km-deep ecosystem created by hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Rebecca A.; Borton, Mikayla A.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Hoyt, David W.; Kountz, Duncan J.; Wolfe, Richard A.; Welch, Susan A.; Marcus, Daniel N.; Trexler, Ryan V.; MacRae, Jean D.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Cole, David R.; Mouser, Paula J.; Wrighton, Kelly C.

    2016-09-05

    Hydraulic fracturing is the industry standard for extracting hydrocarbons from shale formations. Attention has been paid to the economic benefits and environmental impacts of this process, yet the biogeochemical changes induced in the deep subsurface are poorly understood. Recent single-gene investigations revealed that halotolerant microbial communities were enriched after hydraulic fracturing. Here the reconstruction of 31 unique genomes coupled to metabolite data from the Marcellus and Utica shales revealed that methylamine cycling supports methanogenesis in the deep biosphere. Fermentation of injected chemical additives also sustains long-term microbial persistence, while sulfide generation from thiosulfate represents a poorly recognized corrosion mechanism in shales. Extensive links between viruses and microbial hosts demonstrate active viral predation, which may contribute to the release of labile cellular constituents into the extracellular environment. Our analyses show that hydraulic fracturing provides the organismal and chemical inputs for colonization and persistence in the deep terrestrial subsurface.

  9. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  10. Case study of an application of computer mapping in oil-shale resource mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.G.F. Jr.; Smith, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The Laramie Energy Technology Center, U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for evaluating the resources of potential oil and the deposit characteristics of oil shales of the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. While the total oil shale resource represents perhaps 2 trillion barrels of oil, only parts of this total are suitable for any particular development process. To evaluate the resource according to deposit characteristics, a computer system for making resource calculations and geological maps has been established. The system generates resource tables where the calculations have been performed over user-defined geological intervals. The system also has the capability of making area calculations and generating resource maps of geological quality. The graphics package that generates the maps uses corehole assay data and digitized map data. The generated maps may include the following features: selected drainages, towns, political boundaries, township and section surveys, and corehole locations. The maps are then generated according to user-defined scales.

  11. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  12. Environmental assessment: Geokinetics, Inc. oil shale research project, Uintah County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) proposes to complete the remaining experimental program to develop the LOFRECO modified horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. This Environmental Assessment Report addresses the impacts of the project, located in a remote area of east-central Utah, about 70 miles south of both Vernal and Roosevelt.

  13. Geochemical Characteristics and its Geological Significance of Oil Shale from the Youganwo Formation, Maoming Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Nansheng

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical elements of oil shale in the Maoming Basin were analyzed to discuss provenance attribute and depositional environment of the Youganwo formation. Experimental date of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of 24 samples from the Maoye 1 well were examined.The analyzed oil shale samples were characterized by enrichment of Th, U, Pb and LREE, depleted of Zr, Cr and Hf,negative Eu and Ce anomalies, indicating that these samples were originated from continental crust. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the Zr/Sc-Th/Sc diagrams indicate that source rocks had undergone intense chemical weathering and deposition recirculation. Based on the La/Th-Hf and La/Yb-∑REE diagrams and the negative anomaly of Eu element, the oil shale in the Maoming Basin has diverse sources, which mainly came from felsic source region of the upper crust or the mixture of felsic volcanic rocks, granite and sedimentary rocks. Ratios of the Sr/Cu, MgO/CaO suggest that oil shale was formed in fresh water under warm and humid climate, shallow water column became deeper during the middle and late sedimentary period. The depositional environment is interpreted to be limnetic with weak reduction at the early stage and gradually turned into semi-deep to deep lacustrine.

  14. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 2.. Continuous washing of the ash layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M.; Kuosa, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work a possible approach to the utilization of oil shale ash containing free lime in precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production is elucidated. This paper investigates the Ca (calcium) dissolution process during continuous washing of pulverized firing (PF) and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) oil shale ash layers in a packed-bed leaching column. The main characteristics of the Ca dissolution process from ash are established. The effect of water flow rate is investigated by conducting leaching experiments of oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The values of the overall and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients are evaluated based on experiments using the developed ash layer washing model. The model is a set of partial differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the stagnant layer of ash and in the water flowing through the ash layer. An example in which the model is applied to environmental assessment and estimation of Ca leaching from industrial oil shale ash fields is provided. (author)

  15. Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2008-02-01

    The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment.

  16. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  17. The serious effect of oil shale industry on air quality in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetsep, A.; Liblik, V. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Spain). North-East Estonian Dept. Inst. of Ecology

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is the most important mineral resource of Estonia and that is why the extremely serious environmental problems in north-eastern Estonia (Ida-Virumaa) during the last decades are frequently connected with mining, combustion and thermal processing of this resource. Estonian oil shale is unique due to its composition containing besides chemically complicated organic matter (24-30 %) many mineral components as Mg- and Ca-carbonates, clay minerals, quartz, orthoclase, gypsum, heavy metals etc. Organic matter (kerogene) contains in addition to carbon (77.5 %) and hydrogen (9.7 %, atomic ratio H/C=1.5), oxygen (10 %), sulphur (1.5-1.7 %), nitrogen (0.5 %) and chlorine (0.8%). Such complicated physico-chemical structure (organic-mineral high-molecular complex) decomposes during the processes of oil shale combustion and thermal processing (semi-coking) causing in different ways the volatilization of hundreds of toxic chemical compounds into atmospheric air. Dispersion of those in the atmosphere has influenced and influences seriously the chemical composition of the air in north-eastern region of Estonia. In this presentation the effect of aerotechnogenic influxes as dangerous environmental factors, connected immediately with utilization of oil shale, on the state of atmospheric air and on formation of concentration fields of pollutants in north-eastern Estonia is analyzed and discussed

  18. Discrimination of moist oil shale and limestone using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, P., E-mail: peeter.paris@ut.ee; Piip, K.; Lepp, A.; Lissovski, A.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission spectra of Estonian oil shale and associated limestone with varying moisture content were studied. Time gated spectra excited by 1064 nm laser radiation were recorded. Spectral lines for determination of plasma parameters were selected. Moisture causes the reduction of the intensity of the total emission, and increases the intensity of the H{sub α} line. It was found that the effect of the moisture content on the plasma temperature and electron concentration was inconsiderable. Using the ratio of intensities of H{sub α} and Mg spectral lines, it was possible to distinguish reliably between limestone and oil shale independently of their moisture content. - Highlights: • Laser induced plasma emission spectra of both; Estonian oil shale and limestone with varying moisture content were studied. • The temporal change of the laser induced plasma plume temperature T{sub e} and electron density n{sub e} were evaluated. • Plasma temperature and electron concentration changed with the moisture content inconsiderably. • Limestone and oil shale are distinguished independently of their moisture content by the intensity ratio of H{sub α} and Mg lines.

  19. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  20. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  1. Pyrolysis and Hydropyrolysis of Kentucky Oil Shale with Product Oil Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Reacticn Time (min.) j67 J n IcT .± o ! dram At i(aliv. This result reinforces the conc lusion that the rates of the gas forming reactions are slow...bonds hold in the kerogen in the. i nur ian1C mal rix of the oil shale react by ’"capping" r., Ict Io 11 in the presen’e of the free radical scavanging...8217 Al.,AP’x IF HFATFP TEF RERATUP1 EX(’EDS 740 - >32 !’ ’ = 1 TO( lt’r,, P!ER ( 163𔄀) --: .,!":I !’! 3! F ElT I’,EN -. ’ ’l .., ) (1 A, SES 1)ATA E A E

  2. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  3. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  4. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa [gamma]-proteobacteria, [alpha]-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the [alpha]-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments.

  5. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Minnick, Matthew D [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering; Mattson, Earl D [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States) Dept. of Cilvil and Environmental Engineering; Murray, Kyle E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States) Oklahoma Geological Survey

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  6. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Activities during this quarter focused on integrating the various tasks and elements. During Phase-1, substantial effort was placed on designing and automating the identification of molecular types present in shale oil. The ability to know the molecular composition and to track a given ``target`` species through the initial concentration steps was deemed critically important to the ultimate success of the three-phase project. It has been this molecular tracking ability that clearly distinguishes the JWBA work from prior shale oil research. The major software and hardware tasks are not in place to rapidly perform these analytical efforts. Software improvements are expected as new questions arise. The existence of the major nitrogen and oxygen types in shale oil has been confirmed. Most importantly, the ability to convert higher molecular weight types to lower molecular weight types was preliminarily confirmed in the present quarter. This is significant because it confirms earlier hypothesis that values are found though out the boiling range. Potential yields of extremely high value chemicals, e.g., $1000/bbl of up to 10% by weight of the barrel remain a feasible objective. Market and economic assessment continue to show encouraging results. Markets for specialty and fine chemicals containing a nitrogen atom are expanding both in type and application. Initial discussions with pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries show a strong interest in nitrogen-based compounds. Major progress was made during this quarter in completing agreements with industry for testing of shale oil components for biological activity. Positive results of such testing will add to the previously known applications of shale oil components as pure compounds and concentrates. During this quarter, we will formulate the pilot plant strategy for Phase-11(a).

  7. Gasification of oil shale for hydrogen containing gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); United Research and Development Center Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Zhagfarov, F.G.; Usova, T.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-30

    Qualified using of combustible shale, peat and wood for production of fuel and chemical products is a very actual problem for our country because of their large resource. It is possible to carry out two principal different ways of their use: thermal processing and gasification with following processing of gas products. Production of synthesis gas with composition CO:H{sub 2}=1:2 (vol) is possible at gasification of combustible shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalysts at 170-280 C at 1-3 bar. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. We proposed the effective catalysts at which conversion of synthesis gas in liquid products equals 80-90%. (orig.)

  8. Variations in the geochemistry of closely interbedded oil-prone coals and shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, D.J. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Paralic and deltaic environments frequently contain closely interbedded oil-prone coals and carbonaceous shales of similar organic facies. However, differences in depositional and diagenetic conditions can result in significant variations in geochemistry between these coals and shales. These variations are observed in sediments from a range of ages and areas, including Australia, New Zealand, and Indonesia. For example, pristane/phytane and pristane/n-C[sub 17] ratios are frequently higher in coals than in associated shales, although n-alkane distributions are similar. The C[sub 27] Ts/Tm ratios are frequently much lower in coals, although most other biomarker ratios are generally the same for coals and shales. However, absolute biomarker concentrations, particularly of C[sub 27] Tm hopane, can be two to four times higher in coals. Significantly, many coals contain high concentrations of diasteranes (equivalent to those observed in shales). Differences in other parameters such as the C[sub 30] diahopane/C[sub 30] hopane ratios and pyrolysate compositions are also evident. Data indicate that rocks begin to become more coal-like at TOCs of approximately 25%. The variations in these parameters are probably the result of variability in early depositional and diagenetic conditions, such as eH, pH, and microbial action. In addition, these parameters are probably influenced by the effects of an organic vs. an inorganic matrix. The impact of this variability must be considered when conducting oil-source correlation studies and when assessing the relative contributions of coals and shales to the generation of oil in a basin.

  9. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons in oil shales from the Aleksinac deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M.; Tesic, Z.; Vitorovic, D.

    1983-01-01

    It is established that the basic components of the fraction of branched and cyclic alkanes, isolated from shale bitumens, are aliphatic and polycyclic isoprenoid compounds. All members of the homological C15 to C20 series are identified among the aliphatic compounds, except for C17; C27 to C29 stearines and methyl to C29 styrene are discovered among the polycyclic compounds and C27 to C29 triterpenes and bicyclic tetraterpenes are identified among the pentacyclic compounds.

  10. The Xiamaling oil shale generated through Rhodophyta over 800 Ma ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A suit of oil shales, predominated by black argillaceous silicalite and finely laminated black-brown shale, has been discovered in a set of carbonaceous-siliceous mudstone formations (350 m in thickness) in the third member of Xiamaling Formation of the Upper Proterozoic Qingbaikou Series (900―873 MaBP), Xiahuayuan, Hebei Province, China. The oil shale, combustible with strong bitumen odour, has su- per-high TOC contents ranging from 21.4% to 22.9%, bitumen “A” contents from 0.58% to 0.88% and oil length from 5.29% to 10.57%. The ultrathin section observation of the shale and the identification of its kerogen demonstrate that its hydrocarbon-generative parent material is mainly benthonic Rhodophyta whose specific tetrasporangia are legible and abundant. It is rarely reported in the literature that such a hydrocarbon-generative parent material, composed mainly of Rhodophyta and with extraordinarily high contents of TOC and bitumen “A”, developed into a set of high-quality source rocks. The extracts of the oil shale are characteristic of richness in 17α(H)-diahopanes and n-alkyl tricyclic terpenoids but low in steranes. Such a biomarker feature is obviously different from that of the extracts from other Proterozoic marine carbonate source rocks of the studied area. Since the biological constitution of this oil shale is rather simple, it is clear that these biomarkers most likely represent to certain extent the specific mo- lecular constitutions of the benthonic Rhodophyta identified in the ultrathin sections of the samples. Studies on its lithologic association and depositional sequences suggest that this suit of the carbona- ceous-siliceous mudstone formation, which contains oil shales, was probably developed in an under- compensation deep-bay environment when a maximum transgression occurred during the formation of the third member of Xiamaling Formation. The high concentration of SiO2 in this organic-rich rock and the positive correlation between TOC

  11. The Xiamaling oil shale generated through Rhodophyta over 800 Ma ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHANG BaoMin; BIAN LiZeng; JIN ZhiJun; WANG DaRui; CHEN JianFa

    2007-01-01

    A suit of oil shales, predominated by black argillaceous silicalite and finely laminated black-brown shale, has been discovered in a set of carbonaceous-siliceous mudstone formations(350 m in thickness)in the third member of Xiamaling Formation of the Upper Proterozoic Qingbaikou Series(900-873 MaBP), Xiahuayuan, Hebei Province, China. The oil shale, combustible with strong bitumen odour, has super-high TOC contents ranging from 21.4%to 22.9%,bitumen"A"contents from 0.58%to 0.88%and oil length from 5.29%to 10.57%.The ultrathin section observation of the shale and the identification of its kerogen demonstrate that its hydrocarbon-generative parent material is mainly benthonic Rhodophyta whose specific tetrasporangia are legible and abundant. It is rarely reported in the literature that such a hydrocarbon-generative parent material, composed mainly of Rhodophyta and with extraordinarily high contents of TOC and bitumen "A", developed into a set of high-quality source rocks. The extracts of the oil shale are characteristic of richness in 17α(H)-diahopanes and n-alkyl tricyclic terpenoids but low in steranes. Such a biomarker feature is obviously different from that of the extracts from other Proterozoic marine carbonate source rocks of the studied area. Since the biological constitution of this oil shale is rather simple, it is clear that these biomarkers most likely represent to certain extent the specific molecular constitutions of the benthonic Rhodophyta identified in the ultrathin sections of the samples. Studies on its lithologic association and depositional sequences suggest that this suit of the carbonsceous-siliceous mudstone formation, which contains oil shales, was probably developed in an undercompensation deep-bay environment when a maximum transgression occurred during the formation of the third member of Xiamaling Formation. The high concentration of SiO2 in this organic-rich rock and the positive correlation between TOC and some trace elements such as

  12. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  13. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  14. Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

  15. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  16. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  17. 页岩灰对油页岩低温干馏产物的影响%Impact of the Shale Ash on the Low-temperature Carbonization of the Oil Shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛玉梅; 张静; 孟宪鑫; 邢方亮; 朱晓霞

    2011-01-01

    分别介绍了油页岩低温干馏试验、油页岩与页岩灰掺混的干馏试验,结果表明,其他条件相同时,页岩灰与油页岩以4:1比例掺混时,油页岩干馏所产页岩油(凝点10℃,密度0.898 2g/cm3)与油页岩不掺混页岩灰干馏所得页岩油(凝点26℃,密度0.909 6g/cm3)相比,页岩油品质有所提升,有助于后续加工.%In the low-temperature carbonization process of the oil shale, the process conditions of the shale oil production in the presence of gray shale was introduced in this paper. The studies have shown that in the temperature around 520℃, comparing with shale oil (solidifying point of 26℃, density of 0.909 6g/cm3) produced by distillation of oil shale without mixing gray shale, shale oil (solidifying point of 10℃, density of 0.898 2g/cm3) produced by distillation of oil shale under the dry distillation conditions of oil shale and gray shale in a ratio of 4:1, enjoys higher quality and is helpful for subsequent processing.

  18. Making Knowledge from Numbers : The Shale Network as an Honest Broker for Evaluating and Educating about the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, J.; Brantley, S.; Williams, J.; Dykhoff, S.; Brazil, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Network is an NSF-funded project that investigates the impacts of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development on water resources in and around the state of Pennsylvania. It is a collaborative effort that aims to be an honest broker in the shale gas conversation by involving multiple entities (including universities, government agencies, industry groups, nonprofits, etc.) to collect, analyze, and disseminate data that describe the past and current conditions of water in the Marcellus shale region. A critical component of this project has been to engage multiple types of stakeholders - academia, government agencies, industry, and citizen science groups - in annual workshops to present and discuss how to ensure the integrity of water resources in light of the challenges that natural gas extraction can present. Each workshop has included a hands-on activity that allows participants to access water quality data using the tools provided by the CUAHSI Water Data Center. One of these tools is HydroDesktop, which is an open source GIS application that can be used in formal and informal education settings as a geoscience research tool. In addition to being a GIS, HydroDesktop accesses CUAHSI's large catalog of water data thus enabling students, professional researchers, and citizen scientists to discover data that can expand the understanding of water quality issues in one's local environment and beyond. This presentation will highlight the goals of the Shale Network project and the stakeholders involved in addition to how cyberinfrastructure is being used to create a democratic, data-driven conversation about the relationship between energy production from shale gas and our water resources.

  19. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  20. Landscape Disturbance from Unconventional and Conventional Oil and Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale Region of Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Terrence Slonecker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1 occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2 was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3 was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4 was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5 occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6 occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7 tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8 had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  1. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  2. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  3. Contesting Technologies in the Networked Society: A Case Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Shale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Jill E.

    In this dissertation, I study the network structure and content of a transnational movement against hydraulic fracturing and shale development, Global Frackdown. I apply a relational perspective to the study of role of digital technologies in transnational political organizing. I examine the structure of the social movement through analysis of hyperlinking patterns and qualitative analysis of the content of the ties in one strand of the movement. I explicate three actor types: coordinator, broker, and hyper-local. This research intervenes in the paradigm that considers international actors as the key nodes to understanding transnational advocacy networks. I argue this focus on the international scale obscures the role of globally minded local groups in mediating global issues back to the hyper-local scale. While international NGOs play a coordinating role, local groups with a global worldview can connect transnational movements to the hyper-local scale by networking with groups that are too small to appear in a transnational network. I also examine the movement's messaging on the social media platform Twitter. Findings show that Global Frackdown tweeters engage in framing practices of: movement convergence and solidarity, declarative and targeted engagement, prefabricated messaging, and multilingual tweeting. The episodic, loosely-coordinated and often personalized, transnational framing practices of Global Frackdown tweeters support core organizers' goal of promoting the globalness of activism to ban fracking. Global Frackdown activists use Twitter as a tool to advance the movement and to bolster its moral authority, as well as to forge linkages between localized groups on a transnational scale. Lastly, I study the relative prominence of negative messaging about shale development in relation to pro-shale messaging on Twitter across five hashtags (#fracking, #globalfrackdown, #natgas, #shale, and #shalegas). I analyze the top actors tweeting using the #fracking

  4. Spatial and temporal correlation of water quality parameters of produced waters from devonian-age shale following hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Elise; Vidic, Natasa S; Gregory, Kelvin B; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-03-19

    The exponential increase in fossil energy production from Devonian-age shale in the Northeastern United States has highlighted the management challenges for produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells. Confounding these challenges is a scant availability of critical water quality parameters for this wastewater. Chemical analyses of 160 flowback and produced water samples collected from hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania were correlated with spatial and temporal information to reveal underlying trends. Chloride was used as a reference for the comparison as its concentration varies with time of contact with the shale. Most major cations (i.e., Ca, Mg, Sr) were well-correlated with chloride concentration while barium exhibited strong influence of geographic location (i.e., higher levels in the northeast than in southwest). Comparisons against brines from adjacent formations provide insight into the origin of salinity in produced waters from Marcellus Shale. Major cations exhibited variations that cannot be explained by simple dilution of existing formation brine with the fracturing fluid, especially during the early flowback water production when the composition of the fracturing fluid and solid-liquid interactions influence the quality of the produced water. Water quality analysis in this study may help guide water management strategies for development of unconventional gas resources.

  5. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  6. Temporal Changes in Microbial Metagenomic Signatures and Lipid Profiles After Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, R.; Wrighton, K. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wilkins, M.; Daly, R. A.; Mouser, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas formations represent understudied deep biosphere ecosystems with important implications to terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and global energy resources. Recent 16S rRNA gene studies examining temporal microbial community dynamics of returned fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale indicate ecosystem changes from aerobic, low-salt associated microbes in injected fluids to anaerobic, halophilic taxa in produced fluids several months after fracturing. To further characterize changes in the ecology, functional potential and biosignatures of observed taxa, we sequenced genomic DNA from three key time points after fracturing (T7, T82, and T328; Tn, n = days) and analyzed their lipid signatures. The metagenomic profiles verify 16S rRNA gene trends, revealing strain-type changes in dominant Bacteria of Marinobacter, Halomonas, and Halanaerobium and the Archaeal genus Methanolobus through time. Novel species within the γ-Proteobacteria were also observed. Reconstructed genomes show as bioavailable N decreases through time, genes associated with N2 fixing and obtaining N from organic pools (ncd2, nit1, and eutCB) increase in T82 and T328 samples after oxidized nitrogen species (NO3) are depleted. Further, S oxidizing genes were only detected in the T7 sample with incomplete pathways for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR). Later time points showed an increase in abundance of sulfonate importer genes and the anaerobic DSR gene, asrA, suggesting the use of sulfite and sulfonates for S acquisition after sulfate is depleted. Lipid analyses confirmed distinct profiles between T82 and T328 and revealed differences in 16 and 18 C monounsaturated fatty acids, indicative of gram (-) bacteria. The lipid profile from T328 was markedly less diverse than that of T82 and indicated a very limited community, as supported by the 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic data. This research integrates metagenomic data with lipid profiles to characterize temporal

  7. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspecti...

  8. In-bed sulphur capture during pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-11-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology is developing a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for the production of oil from Eastern oil shales. The sulphur present in the Eastern oil shales is converted to H{sub 2}S during hydroretorting. A solid sorbent (limestone or siderite) may be added to the PFH reactor with the oil shale to achieve in-bed desulphurization. The effects of operating conditions on the effectiveness of in-bed sulphur capture with limestone and siderite have been investigated. Reactivities of a limestone and a siderite towards H{sub 2}S were determined in experiments conducted in an ambient pressure thermogravimetric analyser. These tests were conducted in the temperature range of 480-565{degree}C using solid sorbents with an average particle diameter of 0.018 cm ({minus}60{plus}100 mesh). The results of thermogravimetric analysis tests indicate that both limestone and siderite should be capable of capturing a significant fraction of H{sub 2}S removal with in-bed sorbents. The results of these tests confirm that a significant fraction of H{sub 2}S produced in the PFH reactor can be removed with in-bed sorbents. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Paleoenvironmental signals and paleoclimatic condition of the Early Maastrichtian oil shales from Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Zaki, Rafat; Mohamed, Ramadan S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Early Maastrichtian oil shales are hosted in the Duwi Formation of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. The examined member represents up to 20% of the total Duwi Formation. This interval is mainly composed of siliciclastic facies, phosphorites facies and carbonate facies. Oil shales microfacies is mainly composed of smectite, kaolinite, calcite, fluorapatite, quartz and pyrite. They are enriched in a number of major elements and trace metals in particular Ca, P, V, Ni, Cr, Sr, Zn, Mo, Nb, U and Y compared to the post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS). Chondrite-normalized REEs patterns of oil shales for the studied area display light rare earth elements enrichment relatively to heavy rare earth elements with negative Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* anomalies. The most remarkable indicators for redox conditions are enrichments of V, Mo, Ni, Cr, U content and depletion of Mn content. Besides, V/V+Ni, V/Ni, U/Th, Ni/Co, authigentic uranium ratios with presence of framboidal shape of pyrite and its size are reflecting the deposition of these shales under marine anoxic to euxinic environmental conditions. Additionally, the ratio of Strontium (Sr) to Barium (Ba) Sr/Ba reflected highly saline water during deposition. Elemental ratios critical to paleoclimate and paleoweathering (Rb /Sr, Al2O3/TiO2), CIA values, binary diagram between (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) and SiO2 and types of clay minerals dominated reflect warm to humid climate conditions prevailing during the accumulation of these organic-rich petroleum source rocks.

  10. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. (GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Macko, S. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)) Engel, M. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  11. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumberge, J.E. [GeoMark Research Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Macko, S. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] Engel, M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  12. Fracturing controlled primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids during heating of organic-rich shales

    CERN Document Server

    Kobchenko, Maya; Renard, Francois; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheibert, Julien; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Meakin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved three-dimensional in situ high resolution synchrotron x-ray tomographic imaging was used to investigate the effects of slowly heating organic-rich Green River Shale from 60\\deg; to 400\\deg;C, in air without confinement, to better understand primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids in very low permeability source rock. Cracks nucleate in the interior of the sample at a temperature around 350\\deg;C. As the temperature increases, they grow and coalesce along lamination planes to form bigger cracks. This process is accompanied by a release of light hydrocarbons generated by decomposition of the initially immature organic matter, as determined by thermogravimetry and gas chromatography. These results provide the first 4D monitoring of an invasion percolation-like fracturing process in organic-rich shales. This process increases the permeability of the sample and provides pathways for fluid expulsion - an effect that might also be relevant for primary migration under natural conditions. We propose a 2D...

  13. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  14. Production Behavior of Fractured Horizontal Well in Closed Rectangular Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established a triple porosity physical model in rectangular closed reservoirs to understand the complex fluid flowing mechanism and production behavior of multifractured horizontal wells in shale gas reservoirs, which is more appropriate for practical situation compared with previous ones. According to the seepage theory considering adsorption and desorption process in stable state, the gas production rate of a well producing at constant wellbore pressure was obtained by utilizing the methods of Green’s and source function theory and superposition principle. Meanwhile, the volume of adsorbed gas (GL and the number of hydraulic fractures (M as well as permeabilities of matrix system (km and microfractures (kf were discussed in this paper as sensitive factors, which have significant influences on the production behavior of the wells. The bigger the value of GL is, the larger the well production rate will be in the later flowing periods, and the differences of production rate with the increasing of M are small, which manifest that there is an optimum M for a given field. Therefore, the study in this paper is of significant importance to understand the dynamic production declining performance in shale gas reservoirs.

  15. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  16. The Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Eagle Ford Shale Region, South Texas: Hands-On Activities for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, C.; Loisel, J.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Shale (EFS) region of south-central Texas is strongly affected by a rapid increase in unconventional oil and gas production, and it ranks amongst the top production regions of the country. Across the EFS region and elsewhere, the fracking boom has been causing large emissions of methane (CH4) and non-methane hydrocarbons to the atmosphere, with direct consequences on atmospheric GHG concentration and air quality. An increase in seismic activity has also been reported in the area. Since these effects were initially underestimated, fracking operations remain largely unmitigated by regulation. As a result, large-scale oil and gas operations are found in close geographical proximity to rural communities who are uninformed and/or not accustomed to such operations and their effects on the environment and human health. Here we present a few hands-on activities that are being developed to educate middle and high school students on hydraulic fracturing and associated land-use change, water and air pollution, and seismicity induced by deep well injection. Modules on the carbon cycle (with an emphasis on CO2 and CH4), global environmental change, and human energy consumption around the world and main energy sources are also under development. Each activity is either based on scientific data gathered by students or information that is freely available; mapping exercises and time series analysis are included. For example, students will implement a geographic information system (GIS) to study local land-use change using satellite imagery analysis. These activities will be implemented in Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 in at least one Independent School District of the Eagle Ford Shale area. A broadly applicable educational booklet/teaching module on atmospheric CH4 emissions, with an emphasis on the environmental impacts of the oil and gas industry as the dominant source of emissions and land use change in shale areas, will be published.

  17. Polar constituents isolated from Aleksinac oil shale. [Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, M. (Univ. of Beograd, Yugoslavia); Porter, S.; Costello, C.; Djuricic, M.; Vitorovic, D.

    1980-01-01

    Continuing an investigation of the composition of bitumen from Aleksinac (Yugoslavia) shale, we report here in the bitumen extracted with benzene the following compounds: aromatic hydrocarbons, C/sub n/H/sub 2n-14/ (biphenyls) and C/sub n/H/sub 2n-18/ (anthracenes and/or phenanthrenes), oxygen compounds C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O/sub 2/ (methyl esters of fatty acids), C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O (aliphatic methyl ketones), and the triterpenoid ketone adiantone. The presence of these compounds in the bitumen is due to diagenetic changes of precursor biological material; adiantone alone presumably represents an intact residue of Miocene ferns.

  18. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  19. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  20. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  1. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  2. New pitches with enhanced graphitization ability obtained from Moroccan oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourriche, A.; Oumam, M.; Mouhssim, A.; Dahiri, M.; Hannache, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Faculte des Sciences Ben Mminutes or feetsik, B.P. 7955, Casablanca (Morocco); Chollon, G.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, UMR 5801, CNRS-CEA-SNECMA-Universite Bordeaux I, Domaine Universitaire, 3 Allee de la Boetie, F-33600 Pessac (France); Birot, M.; Pillot, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802, CNRS-Universite Bordeaux I, 351 cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2004-06-01

    New pitches were obtained from the extraction of Moroccan oil shales. Their pyrolysis was studied in the temperature range of 1100-2800C by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The graphitization degree of the resulting carbon was tightly dependent on the composition of the pitch. Moreover, it was shown that phenol was a suitable extraction solvent to produce graphitizable carbon at relatively low temperature (T{>=}1800C)

  3. Evidence of stability of sedimentary organic matter during bacterial desilicification of an oil shale (SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOMIR VITOROVIC

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Aleksinac oil shale organic matter appeared to remain unchanged, according to ele-mental, IR, P-GC and P-GC-MS analytical characterization, after exposure to Bacillus circulans-Jordan desilicification for 30 days. These experiments indicate that “siliceous bacteria” may have potential as an alternative, “biochemical agent” for the isolation of native kerogen, and justify further efforts toward continuedevaluation of this advantageous process.

  4. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia) threatened by oil shale mining

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Hiiemaa; Mario Mustasaar; Marko Kohv; Tiit Hang; Argo Jõeleht; Katrin Lasberg; Volli Kalm

    2014-01-01

    The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perp...

  5. The distribution of worm borings in brachiopod shells from the Caradoc Oil Shale of Estonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vinn, Olev

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Abundant worm borings were found in some brachiopod shells (Clitambonites, Estlandia, Nicolella) from the Ordovician (Caradoc) oil shale in North Estonia. 9 of 21 brachiopod genera (43 %) have been bored. Excluding the size and thickness of valves, no common morphological feature discriminates the brachiopods with borings from those without them. The Trypanites are host-specific, and the frequency of bored valves varies from 6.5 % in Bekkerina to 51 % in Estlandia. The...

  6. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  7. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  8. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  10. Medium and Long Term Crude Oil Price Outlook: Economic research on shale oil and gas production behavior in the United States (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    It has been pointed out that the steep fall in crude oil prices after the latter half of 2014 has been strongly affected by both demand side factors such as the slowdown of world economic growth and supply side factors such as a massive increase in shale oil production in the United States and other structural factors. Shale oil and gas production is well known for its different aspects compared to conventional oil and gas production such as differences in oil and gas reserves, differences in...

  11. Geokinetics in situ shale oil recovery project. Third annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conductd at a field site located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. During 1979, five retorts were blasted. Four of these were small retorts (approx. 7000 tons), designed to collect data for improving the blast method. The fifth retort was a prototype of a full-sized retort measuring approximately 200 ft on each side. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned, and a third retort was ignited near the end of the year. A total of 5170 bbl of oil was produced during the year.

  12. The Long-Run Oil-Natural Gas Price Relationship And The Shale Gas Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The gas extraction technological developments of the 2000s have allowed shale gas production, which in the US has become a significant part of the total gas production. Such a significant change might have affected the long-run relationship between oil and natural gas prices postulated by several authors. By using monthly data of oil and gas prices, as well as gas quantities from 1997 to 2013, we test for the presence of a long-run relationship, allowing also for possible breaks. We first sho...

  13. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  14. Implicit fracture modelling in FLAC3D: Assessing the behaviour of fractured shales, carbonates and other fractured rock types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.; Pizzocolo, F.; Veer, E.F. van der; Heege, J.H. ter

    2016-01-01

    Fractured rocks play an important role in many types of petroleum and geo-energy operations. From fractured limestone reservoirs to unconventionals, understanding the geomechanical behaviour and the dynamically coupled (dual) permeability system is paramount for optimal development of these systems.

  15. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  16. Application of innovative technologies to fractured Devonian shale reservoir exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.P.; Frantz, J.H.; MacDonald, R.J.; Merriam, G.W.; Zyglowicz, P. [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Ground-truth measurements collected from two Upper Devonian Shale wells located within the Athens gas field in Pennsylvania were used to better understand the gas production mechanism and gas potential of a reservoir in western New York. Both test wells are located adjacent to the Tyrone Mount Union lineament, an area of natural fractures that provide a conduit for natural gas production. The wells were completed open hole without any stimulation. Gas-in-place was estimated by running geophysical logs, gas sample analysis and rotary sidewall core examinations, thereby determining the geologic, reservoir and fluid flow characteristics. The gas-in-place was found to be very lean in organic content and mostly thermogenic with some traces of biogenic origin. It is produced from a dual porosity system via fractures and, to a lesser extent, from the matrix. The lean organic content suggests this is only a limited source of gas, with little adsorption taking place near the test well. The Great Lakes Energy Company drilled the two test wells and provided initial shut-in pressures, open flows, production data and flowing pressures. Gas sample analysis was used to determine reservoir and geologic factors such as net pay thickness, permeability and porosity. The PROMAT reservoir analysis tool was used to determine the drainage area and the original gas-in-place of the two wells. 2 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs.

  17. Jet Fuel from Shale Oil - 1981 Technology Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    PA 18105 Inc. Waverly Glover ASD/PMRSA WPAFB, OH 45433 Timothy N. Gootee AFWAL/POFF WPAFB, OH 45433 Dr. Shri K. Goya ! Amoco Oil Co. - R&D...Engineering Box 3965 San Francisco , CA 94119 Barry E. McMillen WPAFB - AFWAL/POFF 9578 Lower Valley Pk. Medway, OH 45341 Warren K. McOmber

  18. Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H. [Universite Hassan II, Lab. des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux (LCTS), 33 - Pessac (France); Birot, M.; Pillot, J.P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-03-01

    In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil. The yield and the composition of oil obtained by toluene+phenol extraction were markedly different from that obtained by toluene. Higher yield and maturation of the obtained oil of the toluene+phenol extraction indicate that the phenol not only acts as an extraction solvent but also reacts with the molecules from kerogen. This can be explained by the presence of a very reactive O-H group able to react with the majority of the kerogen functions.

  19. Proximate analysis of coal, oil shale, low quality fossil fuels and related materials by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, S.S.J. (University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology)

    The massive oil price increases of the 'oil crises' of 1973 and 1979 followed by continuing volatile price fluctuations have reduced the over-dependence on oil by increased coal utilization and generated interest in oil shale. Basic to the economic viability of this is the detailed characterization of a wide range of coals, particularly those of poorer quality (high ash) and lower cost. Fundamental to this is 'proximate analysis' where increased speed, lower unit cost per determination together with complementary and related determinations have been achieved by the technique of thermogravimetry. Other applications using different furnace atmosphere combinations and magnetic fields have contributed further data of economic and environmental importance. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  1. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  2. Development and application of a permit information system for shale oil (PERMISSO). Final report appendix: summary sheets of regulations required for oil shale development, June 1978--May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This appendix is comprised of summaries of various governmental permits, licenses and other approvals required for oil shale development. The summaries were completed during the period June--October 1978, and are current as of July 1, 1978, although more recent authority was cited in some cases. One of the major purposes of Phase II of the project will be to update these summaries as statutes and regulations are added, changed or eliminated. This updating will be particularly important in the case of environmental permits and approvals. Many legislative and regulatory changes affecting environmental requirements are pending at this time and will alter many of the summaries herein. In addition, many regulatory proposals have been or likely will be challenged in the courts. When such conflicts are resolved further changes may be in order.

  3. Preliminary Study on PAHs Distribution in High-grade Oil Shale and Its Spontaneous Combustion Product in Fushun, Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Liping; ZENG Rongshu; XU Wendong

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of oil shale is very common as a result of long-time exposure to the air in the Fushun West Open-Pit Mine and West Dump. The PAHs in the high-grade oil shale and its spontaneous combustion product were analyzed semiquantitatively by GC-MS in order to investigate their distribution in different states and their potential negative effects on the environment. Totally 57and 60 PAHs and their alkyl homologues were identified in the two analyzed samples, among which the alkyl derivatives were predominant, taking up to about 65 % in the total PAHs. Those low-molecular mass PAHs (3- or 4-ring) were the main compounds in the two samples. Ten of sixteen USEPA priority pollutant PAHs were detected in two samples, of which phenanthrene was the richest whose contents were 6.93% and 15.03%. Based on comparison of analysis results, the amount and contents of PAHs,except for triaromatic steroid group, were higher in the burning oil shale. So it can be determined that the effects caused by spontaneous combustion of oil shale would be more serious and that the effects of the Fushun oil shale and its spontaneous combustion on the environment should not be ignored in the future work.

  4. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  5. Economic and social impacts of rapid shale oil development in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Wannakuwatte Mitiwaduge Felix Nirmal

    This dissertation comprises of five qualitative and exploratory studies. The studies focus on the social and economic impacts of rapid shale oil development, which is colloquially referred to as an "oil boom" on the communities and its members in western North Dakota. The dissertation presents a detailed exploration of the impacts and implications of the boom on community values and attitudes, quality of life, and community development. Impact of the boom on each topic is presented as an independent article or chapter. The data for the dissertation was collected through open-ended, face-to-face interviews. The findings highlight the opportunities created by the boom, barriers inhibiting community development, and the solutions necessary to achieve the community development potential created by the economic activity of the oil boom.

  6. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  7. Study of the environmental hazard caused by the oil shale industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põllumaa, L; Maloveryan, A; Trapido, M; Sillak, H; Kahru, A

    2001-01-01

    The environmental hazard was studied of eight soil and solid waste samples originating from a region of Estonia heavily polluted by the oil shale industry. The samples were contaminated mainly with oil products (up to 7231mg/kg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; up to 434mg/kg). Concentrations of heavy metals and water-extractable phenols were low. The toxicities of the aqueous extracts of solid-phase samples were evaluated by using a battery of Toxkit tests (involving crustaceans, protozoa, rotifers and algae). Waste rock and fresh semi-coke were classified as of "high acute toxic hazard", whereas aged semi-coke and most of the polluted soils were classified as of "acute toxic hazard". Analysis of the soil slurries by using the photobacterial solid-phase flash assay showed the presence of particle-bound toxicity in most samples. In the case of four samples out of the eight, chemical and toxicological evaluations both showed that the levels of PAHs, oil products or both exceeded their respective permitted limit values for the living zone (20mg PAHs/kg and 500mg oil products/kg); the toxicity tests showed a toxic hazard. However, in the case of three samples, the chemical and toxicological hazard predictions differed markedly: polluted soil from the Erra River bank contained 2334mg oil/kg, but did not show any water-extractable toxicity. In contrast, spent rock and aged semi-coke that contained none of the pollutants in hazardous concentrations, showed adverse effects in toxicity tests. The environmental hazard of solid waste deposits from the oil shale industry needs further assessment.

  8. Spatial Risk Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing near Abandoned and Converted Oil and Gas Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Joshua W; Yelderman, Joe C; James, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Interaction between hydraulically generated fractures and existing wells (frac hits) could represent a potential risk to groundwater. In particular, frac hits on abandoned oil and gas wells could lead to upward leakage into overlying aquifers, provided migration pathways are present along the abandoned well. However, potential risk to groundwater is relatively unknown because few studies have investigated the probability of frac hits on abandoned wells. In this study, actual numbers of frac hits were not determined. Rather, the probability for abandoned wells to intersect hypothetical stimulated reservoir sizes of horizontal wells was investigated. Well data were compiled and analyzed for location and reservoir information, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumed sizes of stimulated reservoirs. This study used public and industry data for the Eagle Ford Shale play in south Texas, with specific attention paid to abandoned oil and gas wells converted into water wells (converted wells). In counties with Eagle Ford Shale activity, well-data analysis identified 55,720 abandoned wells with a median age of 1983, and 2400 converted wells with a median age of 1954. The most aggressive scenario resulted in 823 abandoned wells and 184 converted wells intersecting the largest assumed stimulated reservoir size. Analysis showed abandoned wells have the potential to be intersected by multiple stimulated reservoirs, and risks for intersection would increase if currently permitted horizontal wells in the Eagle Ford Shale are actually completed. Results underscore the need to evaluate historical oil and gas activities in areas with modern unconventional oil and gas activities. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  10. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles.

  11. Atmospheric behaviour of oil-shale combustion fly ash in a chamber study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinemaa, Erik; Kirso, Uuve; Strommen, Michael R.; Kamens, Richard M.

    There are huge world deposits of oil shale, however, little is known about the fate of atmospheric oil-shale combustion fly ash. In the present work, oil-shale combustion fly-ash aerosol was investigated under simulated daytime and nighttime conditions. Fly-ash particles collected from the Baltic Power Plant (Estonia) were injected directly to a 190 m 3 outdoor Teflon film chamber. The initial concentration of particles was in the range from 15 to 20 mg/m 3. Particle size distributions were monitored continuously by various optical and electrical devices. During the course of an experiment the particle phase was collected on filters, and the gas phase was collected using denuders. The initial aerosol mass concentration decreased quickly due to the deposition of larger particles. Since fine particles dominated the count distribution, the change in aerosol number concentration was less significiant than the mass concentration over time. Experimental data showed a bimodal particle size distribution with maximums at about 0.07 and 4 μm. SEM images of aerosol particles also provided particle shape and size distribution information. The respirable fraction of particles, which contributes most to the health effects of the aerosol, significantly increased during the experiment, being 25% by mass immediately after the injection of fly ash and achieving 65% at the end of the experiment. Results of CG/MS analysis confirm the presence of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particle phase of the aerosol. Some of the individual compounds included phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Several PAHs were found in the gas phase of the chamber after fly ash had aged for 2 h, indicating that PAHs desorbed from the particles over time.

  12. Carbon sequestration in a chronosequence of Scots pine stands in a reclaimed opencast oil shale mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karu, H. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology and Earth Sciences; Tallinn Univ., Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology; Szava-Kovats, R.; Kull, O. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology and Earth Sciences; Pensa, M. [Tallinn Univ., Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology

    2009-08-15

    The carbon balance of ecosystems emerging on former opencast mining areas was discussed. Since the carbon content of mine spoils is usually very low, soils developing on mine spoils can act as important sinks for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) through accumulation of biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC). This study estimated the rate of carbon accumulation and its distribution along forest ecosystem partitions in young Scots pine plantations in the Narva opencast oil shale mine in Estonia. Although plantations established on mine spoils are useful sites to study carbon sequestration in forests, mine soils often contain large amounts of fossil carbon, which complicates the estimation of carbon sequestration. Measurement of radiocarbon activity has been used to differentiate between plant-derived recent carbon and fossil carbon. The objectives of this study were to estimate the rate of carbon accumulation in young Scots pine plantations growing on severely degraded land; to determine the distribution of sequestered carbon along forest ecosystem partitions; and to develop a simple and robust method for finding the recent carbon contribution to total SOC. The plantations of Scots pine showed remarkably good growth on calcareous and stony oil shale mining spoils, having the potential to accumulate over 130 t C per ha less than 40 years after establishment. Most of the sequestered carbon was allocated to tree stems, with their portion increasing with age from 28 to 51 per cent. The portion of recent SOC increased from 5 to 23 per cent, indicating that soils contribute significantly to carbon accumulation during early forest succession on degraded land. According to our results, soils contribute a significant part to total stand carbon sequestration. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the average rate of SOC accumulation in reclaimed oil shale opencast mines because of the high variability of the parent substrate. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing Wastewater Practices in Unconventional Shale Development: Newspaper Coverage of Stakeholder Concerns and Social License to Operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review prior literature regarding the concept of social license to operate, and related concepts, including corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, stakeholder management and cumulative effects. Informed by these concepts, we search for newspaper articles published in North American provinces and states where the Barnett, Duvernay, Marcellus and Montney shale plays are located. Using these data, we tabulate coverage of stakeholder concerns related to hydraulic fracturing and wastewater practices, and compare the extent to which these concerns vary over place and time. Our vocabulary analyses identify differences in the types and quantities of newspaper coverage devoted to concerns regarding hydraulic fracturing activities in general and wastewater practices in particular. We interpret these differences as suggesting that obtaining a social license to operate is likely not a one size fits all proposition. By understanding which stakeholder concerns are most salient in particular places and times, oil and gas operators and regulators can better tailor their strategies and policies to address local concerns. In other words, the findings from this study indicate that conventional understandings of risk as a technical or economic problem may not be adequate for dealing with unconventional resource challenges such as hydraulic fracturing. Operators and regulators may also need to manage social and cultural risks.

  14. Oil-shale gasification for obtaining of gas for synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation); Avakyan, T.; Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of qualified usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. Gasification with further processing of gaseous products is a one of possible ways of their use. Production of synthesis gas with H{sub 2}/CO ratio equal 2 is possible by gasification of oil-shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalyst at temperature from 160 to 210 C at atmospheric pressure. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. (orig.)

  15. Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangur, Maie

    2007-01-01

    Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded.

  16. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  17. Tectonic context of the penetrative fracture system origin in the Early Paleozoic shale complex (Baltic Basin, Poland/Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiński, Marek; Gluszynski, Andrzej; Bobek, Kinga; Dyrka, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of natural fracture and fault pattern play significant role for reservoir stimulation design and evaluation of its results. Having structural observations limited to immediate borehole surrounding it is a common need to build up a fracture model of reservoir in a range of stimulation reservoir volume or even beyond. To do this we need both a 3D seismic model and a consistent concept of the regional tectonic evolution. We present the result of integrated tectonic study in several deep boreholes target the Lower Paleozoic shale complex of Baltic Basin (BB), combined with analysis of 3D seismic survey and outcrop screening in Scania (Swedish part of the BB). During deposition of shale complex in the Ordovician and Silurian the research area was located 200-300 km away from the continental margin of Baltica involved in the Caledonian collision with the Eastern Avalonia. This distance allowed the shale complex to avoid significant tectonic deformation. Regional seismic cross section reveals the general pattern of the BB infill characteristic for the foreland basin underwent post-collisional isostatic rebound. Due to stress changes in collisional context the shale complex was cross-cut by steep, mostly inverse faults trending NW-SE and NE-SW. The fault zones oriented NW-SE are associated with an array of en echelon faults characteristic for strike-slip displacement. In our interpretation, these faults of Silurian (Wenlock) age create pattern of the regional pop-up structure, which is simultaneously involved in the plate flexure extension. Seismic attributes (e.g. curvature or ant tracking) highlight lineaments which mostly mimic the faults orientation. However, attributes show also some artefacts that come from regular array of seismic sources and receivers, which mimic the orthogonal joint system. Structural observations on borehole core lead us to conclusion that regular, orthogonal fracture system developed after maximum burial of the complex

  18. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitsberg, Randel; Baršienė, Janina; Freiberg, Rene; Andreikėnaitė, Laura; Tammaru, Toomas; Rumvolt, Kateriina; Tuvikene, Arvo

    2013-12-01

    In North-East Estonia, considerable amounts of toxicants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, heavy metals) leach into water bodies through discharges from the oil-shale industry. In addition, natural and anthropogenic hypoxic events in water bodies affect the health of aquatic organisms. Here we report a study on the combined effects of contaminated sediment and hypoxia on the physiology of gibel carp (Carssius auratus gibelio). We conducted a laboratory exposure study that involved exposure to polluted sediments from oil-shale industries (River Purtse) and sediments from a relatively clean environment (River Selja), together with sediments spiked with PAHs. The oxygen content (saturation vs. hypoxia (oil-shale industry on fish health parameters was clear under different oxygen levels. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  20. Fracture network of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale, east-central Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fracture network at the outcrop of the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale was studied to gain an understanding of the tectonic history of the region and to contribute data to studies of gas and water transmissivity related to the occurrence and production of coal-bed methane. About 1900 fracture readings were made at 40 coal outcrops and 62 sandstone outcrops in the area from Willow Springs Wash in the south to Farnham dome in the north of the study area in east-central Utah.Two sets of regional, vertical to nearly vertical, systematic face cleats were identified in Ferron coals. A northwest-striking set trends at a mean azimuth of 321??, and a northeast-striking set has a mean azimuth of 55??. Cleats were observed in all coal outcrops examined and are closely spaced and commonly coated with thin films of iron oxide.Two sets of regional, systematic joint sets in sandstone were also identified and have mean azimuths of 321?? and 34??. The joints of each set are planar, long, and extend vertically to nearly vertically through multiple beds; the northeast-striking set is more prevalent than the northwest-striking set. In some places, joints of the northeast-striking set occur in closely spaced clusters, or joint zones, flanked by unjointed rock. Both sets are mineralized with iron oxide and calcite, and the northwest-striking set is commonly tightly cemented, which allowed the northeast-striking set to propagate across it. All cleats and joints of these sets are interpreted as opening-mode (mode I) fractures. Abutting relations indicate that the northwest-striking cleats and joints formed first and were later overprinted by the northeast-striking cleats and joints. Burial curves constructed for the Ferron indicate rapid initial burial after deposition. The Ferron reached a depth of 3000 ft (1000 m) within 5.2 million years (m.y.), and this is considered a minimum depth and time for development of cleats and joints. The Sevier orogeny produced southeast

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BDAL1 Reconstructed from a Bakken Shale Hydraulic Fracturing-Produced Water Storage Tank Metagenome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipus, Daniel; Ross, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle; Gulliver, Djuna

    2017-03-16

    ABSTRACT

    We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome ofPseudomonassp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water.

  3. Ductile damage Cam-Clay plasticity and fracture modeling of shale based on nano-characterization experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2015-12-01

    A finite strain ductile damage formulation of Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) plasticity has been developed in order to model the observed elastoplastic behavior of shale at nano- to micro-scales. Nano-indentation combined with both 2D and 3D imaging was performed on a sample of Woodford shale. Significant plastic deformation was observed in the nano-indentation testing, and nano-scale resolution FIB-SEM imaging of the post-indented regions has revealed that the plastic deformation is accompanied by extensive micro-fracture of the shale's highly heterogeneous micro-structure. A spatial tensor that is similar to Eshelby's energy momentum tensor is shown to be energy conjugate to the plastic velocity gradient under large inelastic volume strain. These results are cast in MCC framework drawing on the concept of continuum damage. The resulting formulation provides a connection between density (porosity), elastic (and plastic) moduli, and micro damage/healing. Nonlinear finite element modeling is used for implementation of the constitutive model in simulation of both laboratory-scale and nano- to micro-scale experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the inception and propagation of micro-fractures around inhomogeneities, as well as capture the resulting behavior observed at the much larger laboratory scale.

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  5. Modeling calcium dissolution from oil shale ash: Part 1. Ca dissolution during ash washing in a batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O.; Kallas, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Hautaniemi, M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Laboratory of Separation Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Kuusik, R. [Tallinn University of Technology, Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, 5 Ehitajate Str., Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2010-05-15

    Batch dissolution experiments were carried out to investigate Ca leachability from oil shale ashes formed in boilers operating with different combustion technologies. The main characteristics of Ca dissolution equilibrium and dynamics, including Ca internal mass transfer through effective diffusion coefficients inside the ash particle were evaluated. Based on the collected data, models allowing simulation of the Ca dissolution process from oil shale ashes during ash washing in a batch reactor were developed. The models are a set of differential equations that describe the changes in Ca content in the solid and liquid phase of the ash-water suspension. (author)

  6. Viscoelastic Fracturing As a Migration and Expulsion Mechanism for Hydrocarbons in Shales: Analog Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, H.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of simple laboratory experiments aimed at mimicking the generation, migration, and expulsion process of oil or gas from soft clayey sediments, triggered by thermal decomposition of organic matter. In previously published work, we showed that the injection of fluids into a soft sediment layer confined within a quasi-2D Hele-Shaw cell led to the transition from a viscous fingering invasion regime to a viscoelastic fracturing regime. The transition is controlled by the ratio of the characteristic times for the invasion process and for the structural relaxation in the sediment, respectively (Deborah number). Here we show that expulsion is a discontinuous quasi-periodic process, driven by the elastic energy stored in the embedding layers. We report also about two sets of experiments aimed at understanding the conditions in which fluid generation from multiple sources can generate a highly connected network of fractures for expulsion. In a first set of experiments, a Hele-Shaw cell with multiple injection points and multiple outlets was used. It is shown that, due to attractive elastic interactions between cracks, a network spontaneously forms as soon as invasion proceeds in the viscoelastic regime. On the contrary, no network of migration paths is forming in the viscous fingering regime, due to the effective repulsion of the fluid channels. In the second set of analog experiments, we used a thermostated mini-Hele-Shaw cell, the gap of which was filled with a strong clay mud in which microcrystals of reactive organic matter (azoisobutyronitrile, AIBN) are dispersed, or with a mud prepared with clay particles on which the organic matter was pre-impregnated. AIBN decomposes around 70°C, releasing nitrogen gas. It was again observed that, depending on the viscoelastic properties of the clay matrix, gas evolution occurs either by formation and coalescence of bubbles, or by formation of a percolating network of fractures. The length of the fracture

  7. Long-Term Acid-Generating and Metal Leaching Potential of a Sub-Arctic Oil Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Mumford

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Shales are increasingly being exploited for oil and unconventional gas. Exploitation of sub-arctic oil shales requires the creation of gravel pads to elevate workings above the heaving effects of ground ice. These gravel pads can potentially generate acidic leachate, which can enhance the mobility of metals from the shale. To examine this potential, pyrite-bearing shale originating from sub-Arctic gravel pad sites were subjected to leaching tests for 600 days at initial pH values ranging from 2 to 5, to simulate potential real world conditions. At set times over the 600 day experiment, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP, dissolved oxygen and temperature were recorded and small liquid samples withdrawn and analysed for elemental concentrations using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TRXRF. Six of eight shale samples were found to be acid generating, with pH declining and ORP becoming increasingly positive after 100 days. Two of the eight shale samples produced increasingly alkaline leachate conditions with relatively low ORP after 100 days, indicating an inbuilt buffering capacity. By 600 days the buffering capacity of all samples had been consumed and all leachate samples were acidic. TRXRF analyses demonstrated significant potential for the leaching of S, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn with greatest concentrations found in reaction vessels with most acidic pH and highest ORP.

  8. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  9. {sup 13}C NMR and EPR spectroscopic evaluation of oil shale mined soil recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.V. dos, E-mail: mangrich@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Mangrich, A.S. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia: Energia e Ambiente, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pereira, B.F. [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Pillon, C.N. [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Estacao Experimental Cascata; Novotny, E.H. [EMBRAPA Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bonagamba, T.J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Abbt-Braun, G.; Frimmel, F.H. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, TH (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, native forest soil (NFS) organic matter (SOM) sample and SOM samples from a neighboring forest soil area of an oil shale mine which is being rehabilitated for thirty years (RFS) were analyzed. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to evaluate the soil reclamation of the Brazilian oil shale mining process. Two-dimensional heterospectral correlation studies of the results obtained from EPRand {sup 13}C NMR were used to obtain information about SOM structures and their interactions with residual paramagnetic metal ion. The signal of the residual metallic oxycation, VO{sup 2+} correlated positively with uronic acid-type hydrophilic organic structures, determined from the {sup 13}C NMR spectra, and correlated negatively with the organic free radical (OFR) signal associated with oxygen atoms (g = 2.0042). The hydrophobic aromatic structures correlate positively with the EPR OFR signal associated with carbon atoms (g = 2.0022). The data from the two spectroscopic magnetic techniques show that the used recuperation process is effective. (author)

  10. Source characterization studies at the Paraho semiworks oil shale retort. [Redistribution of trace and major elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sanders, R.W.; Abel, K.W.

    1979-05-01

    In order to determine the redistribution of trace and major elements and species during aboveground oil shale retorting, a comprehensive program was carried out for the sampling and analysis of feedstock, products, effluents, and ambient particulates from the Paraho Semiworks Retort. Samples were obtained during two periods in 1977 when the retort was operating in the direct mode. The data were used to construct mass balances for 31 trace and major elements in various effluents, including the offgas. The computed mass balances indicated that approx. 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S, and Se were released during retorting and redistributed to the product oil, retort water, or product offgas. The fraction released for these seven elements ranged from approx. 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% each of the As and Se were released. Ambient aerosols were found to be elevated near the retorting facility and associated crushing and retorted shale disposal sites. Approximately 50% of these particles were in the respirable range (< 5 ..mu..m). The elevated dust loadings are presented very local, as indicated by relatively low aerosol loadings at background sites 100 to 200 m away. State-of-the-art dust control measures were not employed. 15 figures, 19 tables.

  11. Removal of Cu2+from Aqueous Solutions Using Na-A Zeolite from Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维维; 刘璐; 邹海峰; 甘树才; 徐学纯; 季桂娟; 高桂梅; 郑克岩

    2013-01-01

    Na-A zeolite was synthesized using oil shale ash (OSA), which is a solid by-product of oil shale proc-essing. The samples were characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffrac-tion and Brunauer Emmet Teller method. The batch isothermal equilibrium adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Na-A zeolite for removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions. The effects of operating pa-rameters, such as concentration of copper solutions, adsorbent dosages, pH value of solutions and temperature, on the adsorption efficiency were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity of Na-A zeolite obtained from the Langmuir adsorption iso-therm is 156.7 mg·g−1 of Cu (II). The increase of pH level in the adsorption process suggests that the uptake of heavy metals on the zeolite follows an ion exchange mechanism. The batch kinetic data fit the pseudo-second order equation well. The thermodynamic parameters, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and en-tropy (ΔS), are used to predict the nature of the adsorption process. The negativeΔG values at different tempera-tures confirm that the adsorption processes are spontaneous.

  12. Developments in CO{sub 2} mineral carbonation of oil shale ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uibu, M., E-mail: maiuibu@staff.ttu.ee [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Velts, O.; Kuusik, R. [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2010-02-15

    Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} cubic meters of Ca{sup 2+}-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO{sub 2} captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed.

  13. Groundwater flow model of the Estonian oil shale mining area towards to innovative system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, H. [Tallinn Univ. of Technology (Estonia). Dept. of Mining

    2010-07-01

    Changes in the Estonian groundwater regime are anticipated as oil shale deposits are mined. This paper described a dynamic groundwater flow model used to develop a 3-D groundwater elevation map of the Estonian oil shale mining area. The model was used to provide preliminary estimations of water inflow into the working underground mine areas. The model included 9 closed underground mines, 5 active mine sites, and 2 small open-cast sites. The closed mine sites were filled with water flowing in from the working mine sites. New mines and dewatering programs are planned for the future. A database from observation wells installed within the Keila-Kukruse aquifer was used to extract outputs and determine time steps. The model included 35 pumping stations from the active mine sites. The hydraulic properties for each model layer were defined in 4 model zones. Results of the model showed higher water in-flows from the closed underground sites than earlier predictions had anticipated. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. CO2 Rebinding by Oil Shale CFBC Ashes: Effect of Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikkel, Andres; Keelmann, Merli; Aranson, Aljona; Kuusik, Rein

    Power production in Estonia is predominantly based on combustion of a local low-grade fossil fuel Estonian oil shale. Due to the high content of carbonaceous mineral matter in oil shale, its combustion is related to formation of lime-containing ashes (content of free CaO 10-30%) which could be utilized as sorbents for CO2. In the present research CO2 uptake by circulating fluidized bed and pulverized firing ashes from different technological devices (furnace, cyclones etc) of an operating power plant was studied and the effect of pre-treatment (grinding, calcination at different temperatures) of these ashes on their capture capacity was estimated using thermogravimetric, SEM, X-Ray and EDX analysis methods. It was found that capture capacities were determined mainly by free CaO content in the ashes, thereby, fluidized bed ashes showed higher CaO conversion levels (19.2-74.2%) as compared to pulverized firing ones (8.7-51.8%). Pre-treatment conditions influenced noticeably CO2 uptake. Grinding decreased CO2 capture capacity of fluidized bed ashes, calcination at higher temperatures decreased capture capacity of both types of ashes. Clarification of this phenomenon was given. Kinetic analysis of the process has been carried out, mechanism of the reactions and respective kinetic constants have been estimated.

  15. Releases of natural radionuclides from oil-shale-fired power plants in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Realo, E.; Realo, K.; Jogi, J. [AN Ehstonskoj SSR, Tartu (Estonia). Inst. Fiziki

    1996-11-01

    In the vicinity of two large oil-shale-fired power plants in northeast Estonia, depth-dependent activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil were determined by gamma spectrometry. In the surface soil considerably higher (or lower) concentrations of {sup 40}k, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found than in deeper soil layers. The observed increase or decrease of the enrichment of radionuclides for different sampling sites was dependent on the relative concentrations of radionuclides in fly-ash and in deep soil layers. The fraction of the radionuclides deposited onto the ground was characterized by a mean {sup 226}Ra/{sup 232}Th activity concentration ratio of 2.2, approximately equal to the one (2.1) found for oil-shale filter ash. The atmospheric deposition rates of fly-ash radionuclides onto the ground were estimated and compared to other relevant published data. The migration of the deposited fly-ash radionuclides into soil was satisfactorily described assuming an exponential depth distribution with the relaxation length value, {alpha}{sup -1} = 2.9 {+-} 0.6 cm, for both {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. (Author).

  16. High-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique in deep-well oil shale roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang; Bai Jianbiao; Wang Xiangyu; Wang Junde; Xue Shizhi; Xu Ke

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the deep-well oil shale roadway being deformed, damaged, or difficult to maintain after excavating and supporting in Haishiwan coal mine, this paper has analyzed the characteristics of the deformed roadway and revealed its failure mechanism by taking comprehensively the methods of field geological investigation, displacement monitoring of surrounding rock, rock properties and hydration properties experiments and field application tests. Based on this work, the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting principle is proposed, which is:to‘resist’ by high pre-tightening force and high stiff-ness in the early stage, to‘yield’ by making use of the controlled deformation of a yielding tube in the middle stage, and to‘fix’ by applying total-section Gunite in the later stage. A high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique of‘high pre-tightening force yielding anchor bolt+small-bore pre-tight-ening force anchor cable+rebar ladder beam+rhombic metal mesh+lagging gunite’ has been estab-lished, and industrial on site testing implemented. The practical results show that the high-resistance controlled yielding supporting technique can effectively control the large deformation and long-time rhe-ology of deep-well oil shale roadways and can provide beneficial references for the maintenance of other con-generic roadways.

  17. The specific carbon isotopic compositions of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons from Fushun oil shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi; WU Baoxiang; ZHENG Guodong; ZHANG Hui; ZHENG Chaoyang

    2004-01-01

    Various branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are isolated from the Fushun oil shale and their carbon isotopes are determined. The analytical results show that the branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are fully separated from n-alkanes by 5 A Molecular-sieve adduction using long time and cold solvent. The branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction obtained by this method is able to satisfy the analytic requests of GC-IRMS. The carbon isotopic compositions of these branched and cyclic hydrocarbons obtained from the sample indicate that they are derived from photoautotrophic algae, chemoautotrophic bacteria (-3.4‰ --39.0‰) and methanotrophic bacteria (-38.4‰--46.3‰). However the long-chain 2-methyl-branched alkanes indicate that their carbon isotopic compositions reflect biological origin from higher plants. The carbon isotopic composition of C30 4-methyl sterane (-22.1‰) is the heaviest in all studied ste- ranes, showing that the carbon source or growth condition for its precursor, dinoflagellate, may be different from that of regular steranes. The variation trend of δ13C values between isomers of hopanes shows that 13C-enriched precursors take precedence in process of their epimerization. Methanotrophic hopanes presented reveal the processes of strong transformation of organic matter and cycling of organic carbon in the water column and early diagenesis of oil shale.

  18. Engineering geological characteristics and the hydraulic fracture propagation mechanism of the sand-shale interbedded formation in the Xu5 reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cong; Li, Mei; Guo, Jian-Chun; Tang, Xu-Hai; Zhu, Hai-Yan; Yong-Hui, Wang; Liang, Hao

    2015-06-01

    In the Xu5 formation the sandstone reservoir and the shale reservoir are interbedded with each other. The average thickness of each formation is about 8 m, which increases the difficulty of the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shale thickness ratio (the ratio of shale thickness to formation thickness) is 55-62.5%. The reservoir is characterized by ultra-low porosity and permeability. The brittleness index of sandstone is 0.5-0.8, and the brittleness index of shale is 0.3-0.8. Natural fractures are poorly developed and are mainly horizontal and at a low angle. The formation strength is medium and the reservoir is of the hybrid strike-slip fault and reverse fault stress regime. The difference between the minimum principal stress and the vertical stress is small, and the maximum horizontal principal stress is 20 MPa higher than the minimum horizontal principal stress and vertical stress. A mechanical model of a hydraulic fracture encountering natural fractures is built according to geological characteristics. Fracture mechanics theory is then used to establish a hydraulic fracturing model coupling the seepage-stress-damage model to simulate the initiation and propagation of a fracture. The hydraulic fracture geometry is mainly I-shaped and T-shaped, horizontal propagation dominates the extension, and vertical propagation is limited. There is a two to three meter stress diversion area around a single hydraulic fracture. The stress diversion between a hydraulic fracture and a natural fracture is advantageous in forming a complex fracture. The research results can provide theoretical guidance for tight reservoir fracturing design.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  20. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  1. The Pennsylvania Experience with Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development: Relatively Infrequent Water Quality Incidents with Lots of Public Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Li, Z.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Vidic, R.

    2015-12-01

    New techniques of hydraulic fracturing - "fracking" - have changed the United States over the last 10 years into a leading producer of natural gas extraction from shale. The first such gas well in Pennsylvania was drilled and completed using high-volume hydraulic fracturing in 2004. By late 2014, more than 8500 of these gas wells had been drilled in the Marcellus Shale gas field in Pennsylvania alone. Almost 1000 public complaints about groundwater quality were logged by the PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) between 2008 and 2012. Only a fraction of these were attributed to unconventional gas development. The most common problem was gas migration into drinking water, but contamination incidents also included spills, seepage, or leaks of fracking fluids, brine salts, or very occasionally, radioactive species. Many problems of gas migration were from a few counties in the northeastern part of the state. However, sometimes one gas well contaminated multiple water wells. For example, one gas well was reported by the state regulator to have contaminated 18 water wells with methane near Dimock PA. It can be argued that such problems at a relatively small fraction of gas wells initiated pockets of pushback against fracking worldwide. This resistance to fracking has grown even though fracking has been in use in the U.S.A. since the 1940s. We have worked as part of an NSF-funded project (the Shale Network) to share water quality data and publish it online using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. Sharing data has led to collaborative investigation of specific contamination incidents to understand how problems can occur, and to efforts to quantify the frequency of impacts. The Shale Network efforts have also highlighted the need for more transparency with water quality data in the arena related to the energy-water nexus. As more data are released, new techniques of data analysis will allow better understanding of how to tune best practices to be

  2. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  3. Challenges related to flotation cleaning of oil shales. Issues due to compositional and surface features and post-grinding surface behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun N. Emre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale is an important energy resource alternative. Despite its recognition as an unconventional oil source, oil shale is also considered as an important solid fossil fuel alternative to coal and lignites due to the solid form and remarkable extent of organic content. Utilization possibilites, similar to coal and lignites, have been considered in the past decades and direct use of oil shales in thermal power production has been possible in countries like Estonia and China. In the perspective of utilization of oil shales in a similar manner to coal and lignites, problems and restrictions related to the inorganic ash-making and potentially pollutant constituents are applied. In this respect, cleaning of this important energy source through mineral processing methods, particularly by flotation, is an outstanding option. However, on the basis of unique features and distinctive characteristics, treatment of oil shales like a type of coal is a big perception and may be highly misleading. This paper discusses specific challenges regarding flotation behavior of oil shales with reference to the surface characteristics and behavior of oil shale entities – probably the most important aspect that determines the efficiency and success of the flotation based cleaning process.

  4. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  5. Characterization of Fractures and Flow Zones in a Contaminated Shale at the Watervliet Arsenal, Albany County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2002-01-01

    Flow zones in a fractured shale in and near a plume of volatile organic compounds at the Watervliet Arsenal in Albany County, N. Y. were characterized through the integrated analysis of geophysical logs and single- and cross-hole flow tests. Information on the fracture-flow network at the site was needed to design an effective groundwater monitoring system, estimate offsite contaminant migration, and evaluate potential containment and remedial actions.Four newly drilled coreholes and four older monitoring wells were logged and tested to define the distribution and orientation of fractures that intersected a combined total of 500 feet of open hole. Analysis of borehole-wall image logs obtained with acoustic and optical televiewers indicated 79 subhorizontal to steeply dipping fractures with a wide range of dip directions. Analysis of fluid resistivity, temperature, and heat-pulse and electromagnetic flowmeter logs obtained under ambient and short-term stressed conditions identified 14 flow zones, which consist of one to several fractures and whose estimated transmissivity values range from 0.1 to more than 250 feet squared per day.Cross-hole flow tests, which were used to characterize the hydraulic connection between fracture-flow zones intersected by the boreholes, entailed (1) injection into or extraction from boreholes that penetrated a single fracture-flow zone or whose zones were isolated by an inflatable packer, and (2) measurement of the transient response of water levels and flow in surrounding boreholes. Results indicate a wellconnected fracture network with an estimated transmissivity of 80 to 250 feet squared per day that extends for at least 200 feet across the site. This interconnected fracture-flow network greatly affects the hydrology of the site and has important implications for contaminant monitoring and remedial actions.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  7. Analysis and Modeling of Wangqing Oil Shale Drying Characteristics in a Novel Fluidized Bed Dryer with Asynchronous Rotating Air Distributor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ning; Zhou Yunlong; Miao Yanan

    2016-01-01

    In order to replace the conventional distributor, a novel asynchronous rotating air distributor, which can optimize the drying ability of lfuidized bed and strengthen the drying performance of oil shale particles, is creatively designed in this study. The rotating speed of the asynchronous rotating air distributor with an embedded center disk and an encircling disk is regulated to achieve the different air supply conditions. The impacts of different drying conditions on the drying characteristic of Wangqing oil shale particles are studied with the help of electronic scales. The dynamics of experimental data is analyzed with 9 common drying models. The results indicate that the particles distribution in lfuidized bed can be improved and the drying time can be reduced by decreasing the rotating speed of the embedded center disk and increasing the rotating speed of the encircling disk. The drying process of oil shale particles involves a rising drying rate period, a constant drying rate period and a falling drying rate period. Regulating the air distributor rotating speed reasonably will accelerate the shift of particles from the rising drying rate period to the falling drying rate period directly. The two-term model ifts properly the oil shale particles drying simulation among 9 drying models at different air supply conditions. Yet the air absorbed in the particles’ pores is diffused along with the moisture evaporation, and a small amount of moisture remains on the wall of lfuidized bed in each experiment, thus, the values of drying simulation are less than the experimental values.

  8. The Influence of Shale Rock Fracturing Equipment Operation on Atmospheric Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Marek; Macuda, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing jobs performed on shale rocks are connected with atmospheric emissions of dusts and exhaust gases from high-power motors supplying pump aggregates used for fracturing operations and from other technological devices. The total power of motors driving technological systems depends on the specific character of deposit and well and may range between a dozen to tens of thousands kW. An exemplary set of technological systems used for frac jobs is presented in figure 1. The following substances are emitted to the atmosphere during engine operation, e.g. nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxide (CO), dust PM10, ammonia, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), benzene, toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein. As a consequence admissible concentrations of these substances in air can be exceeded. The influence of dust and gaseous emissions accompanying shale rock fracturing jobs is addressed in this paper. Model analyses were performed. An exemplary model of a process used for simulating propagation of atmospheric emissions in a specified calculation area (1,150 m × 1,150 m) were based on the analysis of hydraulic fracturing jobs performed in wells in Poland and abroad. For making calculations more actual, the model was located in the Gdańsk area and was ascribed its typical meteorological and orographic parameters. In the center of this area a rig site 150 m x 150 m was distinguished. The emission field was generated by 12 high-power engines supplying pump aggregates, 1680 kW each. The time of work of particular engines was established for 52 hrs (13 frac jobs, each lasting 4 hrs). It was assumed that all engines will operate simultaneously and using 100% of their power. Attention was paid to the correct modelling of the real emission field. Technical parameters of motors and the applied fuels were characterized. Emission indices were worked out by, e.g. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or European Environment Agency. The

  9. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND FACIES ARCHITECTURE OF THE CRETACEOUS MANCOS SHALE ON AND NEAR THE JICARILLA APACHE INDIAN RESERVATION, NEW MEXICO-THEIR RELATION TO SITES OF OIL ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennie Ridgley

    2000-03-31

    Oil distribution in the lower part of the Mancos Shale seems to be mainly controlled by fractures and by sandier facies that are dolomite-cemented. Structure in the area of the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation consists of the broad northwest- to southeast-trending Chaco slope, the deep central basin, and the monocline that forms the eastern boundary of the San Juan Basin. Superimposed on the regional structure are broad low-amplitude folds. Fractures seem best developed in the areas of these folds. Using sequence stratigraphic principals, the lower part of the Mancos Shale has been subdivided into four main regressive and transgressive components. These include facies that are the basinal time equivalents to the Gallup Sandstone, an overlying interbedded sandstone and shale sequence time equivalent to the transgressive Mulatto Tongue of the Mancos Shale, the El Vado Sandstone Member which is time equivalent to part of the Dalton Sandstone, and an unnamed interbedded sandstone and shale succession time equivalent to the regressive Dalton Sandstone and transgressive Hosta Tongue of the Mesaverde Group. Facies time equivalent to the Gallup Sandstone underlie an unconformity of regional extent. These facies are gradually truncated from south to north across the Reservation. The best potential for additional oil resources in these facies is in the southern part of the Reservation where the top sandier part of these facies is preserved. The overlying unnamed wedge of transgressive rocks produces some oil but is underexplored, except for sandstones equivalent to the Tocito Sandstone. This wedge of rocks is divided into from two to five units. The highest sand content in this wedge occurs where each of the four subdivisions above the Tocito terminates to the south and is overstepped by the next youngest unit. These terminal areas should offer the best targets for future oil exploration. The El Vado Sandstone Member overlies the transgressive wedge. It produces most of

  10. Shale Hydrocarbon Potential of Brown Shale, Central Sumatera Basin Based on Seismic and Well Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Abdul; Agil Almunawwar, Husein; Riyanto, Agus; Bachtiar, Andang

    2017-04-01

    The development of unconventional shale hydrocarbon is really depending on integrating approach of wide range disciplines. The integrated approach for analysing organic-rich shale reservoirs involves calibration of core and well-log data, building petrophysical and rock-physics models, and finally characterizing the key reservoir parameters (TOC, porosity, and natural fractures) and mechanical properties evaluation from seismic data. In this research, integrated approach of geochemical, geomechanical, mineralogy, petrophysical, and geophysical analysis are carried out in Brown Shale, Central Sumatera Basin. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), maturity, and brittleness index are the main parameters used in this study to analyse the shale hydrocarbon potential. The result of geochemical analysis shows that the maturity level of shale in the interest zone in oil window, which means it can generate shale oil in early mature phase at depth of 6400 ft. Quantity of shale hydrocarbon potential is indicated by the TOC value of 0.5-1.2 wt. % (fair to good), with average of shale thickness for over 50 ft. The result of geomechanical analysis shows that brittleness index of interest zone for over 0.48 and rock strength below 10000 Psi.

  11. CT Experiment Research of Oil Shale under High Temperature%油页岩高温CT实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨栋; 康志勤; 赵静; 赵阳升

    2011-01-01

    The microcharacters of three kinds of oil shale from Nong' an, Changqing and Daqing were investigated under different temperatures from 100℃ to 600℃ by using high resolution CT test system. The comparison of the CT images of the oil shales under 100℃ and 600℃,reveals that: for oil shale from Nong'an, a great mount of crack 1 occurred with increasing temperature, but these cracks closed under even higher temperature; for oil shale from Changqing,there were many initial stratifications and high density minerals, cracks were continuously increasing with increasing temperature; for oil shale from Daqing, its pyrolysis style was closer to that of coal, there were many interconneted holes developed under high temperature. So the thermal crack characters of oil shale from different places were quite different. This difference was directly related to the difference in the techuological parameters for final oil shale heating production.%利用高分辨率显微CT实验系统,对农安、长庆和大庆的油页岩从100℃到600℃不同温度下的细观变化进行了CT测试.通过对比100℃与600℃三个矿区油页岩CT图像的变化,实验结果揭示农安油页岩随温度升高,首先会产生大量热破裂,但部分裂缝会在更高的温度下闭合;长庆的油页岩层理发育且密度大的矿物较多,随温度的升高,其内部的裂缝一直在增加.大庆油页岩更接近煤的热解模式,在高温作用下,会形成大量的连通空洞.与其他两矿油页岩相比,大庆油页岩在高温下孔隙、裂隙的发育最为明显.这种差异反映了油页岩油母成因的本质差别,这种不同将直接导致油页岩最终开采工艺参数选择的不同.

  12. Assessment of continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.

    2017-03-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous petroleum resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas. This is the first U.S. Geological Survey evaluation of continuous resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin. Since the 1980s, the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin has been part of the “Wolfberry” play. This play has traditionally been developed using vertical wells that are completed and stimulated in multiple productive stratigraphic intervals that include the Wolfcamp shale and overlying Spraberry Formation. Since the shift to horizontal wells targeting the organic-rich shale of the Wolfcamp, more than 3,000 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in the Midland Basin Wolfcamp section. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of associated gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin.

  13. Minimum bed parameters for in situ processing of oil shale. Third quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C. E.

    1980-11-01

    Oil shale retort runs 028 (16% void) and 029 (7% void), composed of competent shale blocks plus shale rubble, were completed. Retort 028, processed with air at a flux of 0.017 kg/sub air//m/sup 2/ /sub shale/.second, had peak temperatures of 700/sup 0/C, a retorting rate of 1.1 m/day, and a yield of 82% FA. Retort 029, processed with air at a flux of 0.027 kg/sub air//m/sup 2//sub shale/.second, had peak temperatures of 750/sup 0/C, a retorting rate of 1.6 m/day, and a yield of 75% FA. Comparisons of retort model calculations with experimental data from previous retort run 027 (16% void, air flux of .029 kg/sub air//m/sup 2//sub shale/.second were good; observed experimental yield was 95% FA, calculated yield, 92.8%; experimental retorting rates varied from 9.5 to 8.9 cm/h, calculated rates from 10.3 to 10.0 cm/h; observed local heating rates ranged from 29 to 14/sup 0/C/h, calculated heating rates from 20 to 16/sup 0/C/h; and observed peak temperatures ranged from 815 to 825/sup 0/C, calculated from 820 to 825/sup 0/C.

  14. Evaluation of oil shale from Eastern Canada by retorting and by concentration of a kerogen-rich fraction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.W.; Abbott, D.

    1981-12-16

    An apparatus was developed for testing the retorting behaviour of oil shales under pressures up to 500 psi hydrogen and 700/sup 0/C. Equipment was also constructed and brought into service for the determination of oil yields by the Fischer assay method. Six samples of Albert shale of varying oil content (<10 to 40-50 gals/ton) were tested by the Fischer method and by hydrogen retorting to determine yields of liquid distillate under different conditions of retorting. The Fischer assays gave oil yields of 2.9 to 47.5 gals/ton which corresponded to carbon conversion of 50.5 to 87.8 per cent. The hydrogen retorting tests at 700/sup 0/C and 500/sup 0/C gave carbon conversion rates of 53 to 87 per cent which are comparable to that for the Fischer retorting. Retorting at 500/sup 0/C gave oil yields similar to the Fischer assay but at 700/sup 0/C oil yields were reduced, 4 to 30 gals/ton, although gas yields increased. In the retorting tests performed, the use of hydrogen at 500 psi did not increase yields. More work is needed to understand the retorting behaviour of New Brunswick and other Canadian oil shales. Retorting tests for resource assessment purposes are also needed. These should be coupled to determining the rate of carbon conversion and hence the effectiveness of the retorting technique. Petrographic, chemical and thermogravimetric analyses of the oil shales were undertaken to characterize the materials for retorting tests. The second part of the project involved producing a kerogen concentrate by standard beneficiation methods, spherical agglomeration, gravity methods and by flotation. Only gravity separation showed promise of being a viable industrial process. Fine grinding and gravity separation gave high concetrations up to 70 gals/ton but yields were low. 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Fracking in Tight Shales: What Is It, What Does It Accomplish, and What Are Its Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L.; Moores, Eldridge M.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Rundle, John B.

    2016-06-01

    Fracking is a popular term referring to hydraulic fracturing when it is used to extract hydrocarbons. We distinguish between low-volume traditional fracking and the high-volume modern fracking used to recover large volumes of hydrocarbons from shales. Shales are fine-grained rocks with low granular permeabilities. During the formation of oil and gas, large fluid pressures are generated. These pressures result in natural fracking, and the resulting fracture permeability allows oil and gas to escape, reducing the fluid pressures. These fractures may subsequently be sealed by mineral deposition, resulting in tight shale formations. The objective of modern fracking is to reopen these fractures and/or create new fractures on a wide range of scales. Modern fracking has had a major impact on the availability of oil and gas globally; however, there are serious environmental objections to modern fracking, which should be weighed carefully against its benefits.

  16. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  17. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  18. Rehabilitation potential and practices of Colorado oil shale lands. Progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, P.L.

    1977-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards implementing all of the prescribed studies and satisfying the stated objectives since the Oil Shale Rehabilitation Project was actively initiated in June 1976. Concurrent with implementation, research objectives were substantively defined and supplemented without distracting or departing from the original purpose. Current studies are designed to fill voids in the present status of knowledge regarding lands disturbed by an impending oil shale industry in Colorado. The efforts of all contributing investigators have therefore been integrated and directed toward the goal of developing methodologies requisite for restoring diverse and complex ecosystems which will require only a minimal amount of maintenance or input of scarce resources. An intensive study site southeast of the Oil Shale Tract C-a has been obtained through a Cooperative Agreement with the Bureau of Land Management. Following this agreement, most subprojects were initiated at the intensive site. Additional programs will be implemented as spent shale becomes available this summer. Studies conducted principally in the laboratory and greenhouse, such as the microbiological and plant genetic studies, have achieved significant results.

  19. Oil shale fueled FBC power plant - ash deposits and fouling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Yoffe; A. Wohlfarth; Y. Nathan; S. Cohen; T. Minster [Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2007-12-15

    41 MWth oil shale fired demonstration power plant was built in 1989 by PAMA in Mishor Rotem, Negev, Israel. The raw material for the plant is the local 'oil shale', which is in fact organic-rich marl. Since then, and until today, the unit is operated at high reliability and availability. At first, heavy soft fouling occurred due to the Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) mode of operation, which caused a considerable reduction in the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchangers. By going over to the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) mode of operation the soft fouling phenomenon stopped at once, the heat transfer coefficient improved, and the power plant could be operated at its designed values. After five months of operation at the FBC mode the boiler had to be shut down because Hard Deposits (HD) blocked physically the passes in the boiler. These deposits could be removed only with the help of mechanical devices. During the first two years the boiler had to be stopped, at least, three times a year for deposit cleaning purposes. Research conducted at the plant and in the laboratories of the Geological Survey of Israel enabled us to understand the mechanism of formation of these deposits. The results showed that the HD are formed in two stages: (1) Deposition of very fine ash particles on the pipes of the boiler, as a result of the impact of larger particles on the pipes. The fine particles adhere to the pipes and to each other, and step by step build the deposit. The growth of the deposit on the pipe surface is always perpendicular to the particles flow direction. (2) The deposits harden due to chemical reactions. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River formation of Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.H.

    1931-01-01

    The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins--the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northeastern Utah. The ancient lakes served as a basin for the accumulation of tremendous quantities of aquatic organisms. The predominance of microscopic fresh-water algae and protozoa over the remains of land plants, pollens and spores suggests that the greater part of the organic matter was derived from microorganisms that grew in the lakes. The pollens and spores were carried into the lakes by wind. Fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic insect larvae were also plentiful; and turtles, crocodiles, birds, small camels, and insects may have contributed to the organic matter. The ancient lakes apparently were shallow and had a large area, compared with depth. The abundance of organisms and the decaying organic matter produced a strongly reducing environment. Mechanical and chemical action, such as the mastication and digestion of the organic material by bottom-living organisms, caused disintegration of the original organic matter. When the residue was reduced to a gelatinous condition, it apparently resisted further bacterial decay, and other organisms accidently entombed in the gel were protected from disintegration. An accumulation of inorganic material occurred simultaneously with the disintegration of the organic ooze, and the entire mass became lithified. After most of the oil shale was deposited, the lake reverted nearly to the conditions that prevailed during its early stage, when the marlstone and low-grade oil shale of the basal member were formed. The streams in the vicinity of the lake were rejuvenated and carried great quantities of medium- to coarse-grained sand into the basin and formed a thick layer over the lakebeds.

  1. Adsorption of hydraulic fracturing fluid components 2-butoxyethanol and furfural onto granular activated carbon and shale rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Katherine E; Haerr, Gregory; Lucchesi, Jessica; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adsorption ability of a surfactant and a non-surfactant chemical additive used in hydraulic fracturing onto shale and GAC. Experiments were performed at varying temperatures and sodium chloride concentrations to establish these impacts on the adsorption of the furfural (a non-surfactant) and 2-Butoxyethanol (2-BE) (a surfactant). Experiments were carried out in continuously mixed batch experiments with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm modeling. The results of the experiments showed that adsorption of these compounds onto shale does not occur, which may allow these compounds to return to the surface in flowback and produced waters. The adsorption potential for these chemicals onto GAC follows the assumptions of the Langmuir model more strongly than those of the Freundlich model. The results show uptake of furfural and 2-BE occurs within 23 h in the presence of DI water, 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride, and in lab synthesized hydraulic fracturing brine. Based on the data, 83% of the furfural and 62% of the 2-BE was adsorbed using GAC.

  2. Regulation of Water Pollution from Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontally-Drilled Wells in the Marcellus Shale Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Hatzenbuhler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process used to extract fossil fuel reserves that lie deep underground. With the introduction of horizontal drilling, new commercial sources of energy have become available. Wells are drilled and injected with large quantities of water mixed with specially selected chemicals at high pressures that allow petroleum reserves to flow to the surface. While the increased economic activities and the outputs of domestic energy are welcomed, there is growing concern over negative environmental impacts from horizontal drilling in shale formations. The potential for water contamination, land destruction, air pollution, and geologic disruption has raised concerns about the merits of production activities used during extraction. This paper looks at the impacts of horizontal drilling using hydraulic fracturing on water supplies and takes a comprehensive look at legislative and regulatory approaches to mitigate environmental risks in the Marcellus shale region. The overview identifies shortcomings associated with regulatory controls by local and state governments and offers two policy suggestions to better protect waters of the region.

  3. Production and disposal of waste materials from gas and oil extraction from the Marcellus Shale Play in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Yoxtheimer, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing world demand for energy has led to an increase in the exploration and extraction of natural gas, condensate, and oil from unconventional organic-rich shale plays. However, little is known about the quantity, transport, and disposal method of wastes produced during the extraction process. We examined the quantity of waste produced by gas extraction activities from the Marcellus Shale play in Pennsylvania for 2011. The main types of wastes included drilling cuttings and fluids from vertical and horizontal drilling and fluids generated from hydraulic fracturing [i.e., flowback and brine (formation) water]. Most reported drill cuttings (98.4%) were disposed of in landfills, and there was a high amount of interstate (49.2%) and interbasin (36.7%) transport. Drilling fluids were largely reused (70.7%), with little interstate (8.5%) and interbasin (5.8%) transport. Reported flowback water was mostly reused (89.8%) or disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (8.0%) and largely remained within Pennsylvania (interstate transport was 3.1%) with little interbasin transport (2.9%). Brine water was most often reused (55.7%), followed by disposal in injection wells (26.6%), and then disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (13.8%). Of the major types of fluid waste, brine water was most often transported to other states (28.2%) and to other basins (9.8%). In 2011, 71.5% of the reported brine water, drilling fluids, and flowback was recycled: 73.1% in the first half and 69.7% in the second half of 2011. Disposal of waste to municipal sewage treatment plants decreased nearly 100% from the first half to second half of 2011. When standardized against the total amount of gas produced, all reported wastes, except flowback sands, were less in the second half than the first half of 2011. Disposal of wastes into injection disposal wells increased 129.2% from the first half to the second half of 2011; other disposal methods decreased. Some

  4. XFEM-Based CZM for the Simulation of 3D Multiple-Cluster Hydraulic Fracturing in Quasi-Brittle Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mahdi; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-12-01

    The cohesive zone model (CZM) honors the softening effects and plastic zone at the fracture tip in a quasi-brittle rock, e.g., shale, which results in a more precise fracture geometry and pumping pressure compared to those from linear elastic fracture mechanics. Nevertheless, this model, namely the planar CZM, assumes a predefined surface on which the fractures propagate and therefore restricts the fracture propagation direction. Notably, this direction depends on the stress interactions between closely spaced fractures and can be acquired by integrating CZM as the segmental contact interaction model with a fully coupled pore pressure-displacement model based on extended finite element method (XFEM). This integrated model, called XFEM-based CZM, simulates the fracture initiation and propagation along an arbitrary, solution-dependent path. In this work, we modeled a single stage of 3D hydraulic fracturing initiating from three perforation clusters in a single-layer, quasi-brittle shale formation using planar CZM and XFEM-based CZM including slit flow and poroelasticity for fracture and matrix spaces, respectively, in Abaqus. We restricted the XFEM enrichment zones to the stimulation regions as enriching the whole domain leads to extremely high computational expenses and unrealistic fracture growths around sharp edges. Moreover, we validated our numerical technique by comparing the solution for a single fracture with KGD solution and demonstrated several precautionary measures in using XFEM in Abaqus for faster solution convergence, for instance the initial fracture length and mesh refinement. We demonstrated the significance of the injection rate and stress contrast in fracture aperture, injection pressure, and the propagation direction. Moreover, we showed the effect of the stress distribution on fracture propagation direction comparing the triple-cluster fracturing results from planar CZM with those from XFEM-based CZM. We found that the stress shadowing effect of

  5. Mineralogy and fracture development characteristics of marine shale-gas reservoirs: A case study of Lower Silurian strata in southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ling; JIANG Zai-xing; GUO Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mineral contents and fractures of shale from well Yuye-1 and outcrops were examined mainly based on systematic description of the cores and outcrops, and data from experimental analyses. The data enabled us to thoroughly explore the mineralogy and developmental features of shale of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the study area. The results show that, the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale (SLS) in the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin, China, is primarily characterized by a high content of brittle minerals and a relatively low content of clay minerals. The total content of brittle minerals is approximately 57%, including 27% quartz, 12.2% feldspar, 11.2% carbonate and 2.4% pyrite. The total content of clay minerals reaches 41.6%, composed of illite (23.8%), mixed-layer of illite and smectite (I/S) (10.8%) and chlorite (7.0%). The SLS accommodates the widespread development of various types of fractures, including tectonic fractures, diagenetic fractures, inter-layer fractures and slip fractures. The developmental level of the fracture in the SLS is mainly influenced by faults, lithology, mineral contents and total organic carbon content (TOC) in study area.

  6. Oil and gas shales of Northern Germany : implications from organic geochemical analyses, petrophysical measurements and 3D numerical basin modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Rippen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Based on an increasing demand the recent development of the world energy led to a shift of interest towards the assessment and, partially, exploitation of unconventional petroleum resources, especially in the U.S. Strong advances in well completion technologies such as artificial reservoir stimulation (hydraulic fracturing) and multi-lateral wells enabled the utilization of these previously inoperable assets. Following these initial successes in exploration and production of shale gas in part...

  7. Important geological properties of unconventional resource shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The revelation of vast global quantities of potentially productive gas and oil-prone shales has led to advancements in understanding important geological properties which impact reservoir performance. Based upon research on a variety of shales, several geological properties have been recognized as being common and important to hydrocarbon production. (1) transport/depositional processes include hemipelagic `rain', hyperpycnal flows, turbidity current flows, tempestites, wave-reworking, and contour currents in both shallow and deep water settings. (2) Common shale minerals include clays, quartz, calcite, dolomite, apatite, and pyrite; organic constituents include spores (Tasmanites), plant remains, biogenic quartz and calcite, and arenaceous foraminifera. (3) Porosity and permeability are characteristically low with pore sizes ranging down to the nanoscale. Main pore types include intergranular (including pores within clay floccules), porous organic matter, porous fecal pellets, and microfractures. (4) Important geochemical characteristics include organic richness (>3%), maturity (>1.1%Ro for shale gas and 0.6-0.9% for shale oil) and type (I-IV), in addition to certain biomarkers which are indicators of bottom water oxicity during deposition. Remaining hydrocarbon potential [RHP = (S1 + S2)/TOC] also reflects temporal environmental changes. `Isotopic reversals' can be used to detect best producing areas in shale-gas plays. (5) Lithofacies stacking patterns and sequence stratigraphy are the result of eustatic depositional history. A general sequence stratigraphic model is presented here that highlights this commonality. (6) Geomechanical properties are key to drilling, fracturing and production of hydrocarbons. Brittle-ductile couplets at several scales occur in shale sequences. (7) Geophysical properties, when calibrated to rock properties, provide a means of regionally to locally mapping the aforementioned properties. (8) Economic and societal considerations in the

  8. The Geopolitics of Shale Gas : The Implications of the US' Shale Gas Revolution on Intrastate Stability within Traditional Oil- and Natural Gas-Exporting Countries in the EU Neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S. de; Auping, W.; Govers, J.; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Widdershoven, C.J.C.G.; Weterings, R.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution could in the long term destabilize traditional oil- and gas exporters in the European Union (EU) neighborhood: A combination of substitution effects and greater energy efficiency, could put pressure on the price of oil, leading to fiscal difficulties in traditional hydro

  9. The Geopolitics of Shale Gas : The Implications of the US' Shale Gas Revolution on Intrastate Stability within Traditional Oil- and Natural Gas-Exporting Countries in the EU Neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S. de; Auping, W.; Govers, J.; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Widdershoven, C.J.C.G.; Weterings, R.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution could in the long term destabilize traditional oil- and gas exporters in the European Union (EU) neighborhood: A combination of substitution effects and greater energy efficiency, could put pressure on the price of oil, leading to fiscal difficulties in traditional

  10. XCT quantified: a multiscale roughness study of fractures and veins in Pomeranian shale on samples collected at 4 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Renard, Francois

    2016-04-01

    In low-permeability rocks, such as shale, fractures are an important control on permeability, where the formation permeability will be a combination of matrix permeability plus that of the natural and induced fractures. We obtained shale samples from borehole material, originating at 4 km depth in the Polish Pomeranian basin. They consist of 40-60% illite plus mica, 1-10% organic matter, 10% chlorite, 10% carbonates, plus minor amounts of K-feldspar, plagioclase and kaolinite. There are many bedding-parallel fractures present in the retrieved core material, as well as bedding-parallel carbonate-rich veins. The existence and origin of these fractures at depth is debated, as they could have formed as well during drilling plus exhumation of the borehole samples. However, vein formation occurs at depth, and as such the topography of the vein-rock interface is preserved even upon sample extraction. We have imaged 4 samples in 3D using X-ray microtomography performed on a laboratory tomograph. One sample was also analyzed on the beamline ID19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, with final voxel spatial sizes ranging between 0.6-26 micrometers, thus allowing a multi-scale analysis of fractures and veins. The shape and aperture of the fractures and veins have been extracted in 3D. Fluid flow is controlled by fracture aperture plus the surface roughness of the fracture wall. Hence, fracture and vein roughness plus their spatial scaling properties are characterized using the Hurst exponent H. At low resolution (11-26 μm per voxel) there is a small difference in Hurst exponents parallel or perpendicular to the bedding, but on average veins exhibit H = 0.47, and cracks H = 0.35. Thus, veins exhibit more texture than cracks. This may be related to a different aperture mechanism, or to a characteristic 'grain size' present in the vein fill material. The sample scanned at multiple resolutions showed that an increase in resolution leads to an increase in the Hurst

  11. 油页岩地层测井解释评价技术探讨%On Oil Shale Reservoir Log Evaluation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新龙; 罗安银; 祗淑华; 李振苓

    2013-01-01

    The lithologic character,mineral composition,physical property and quality characteristics of oil shale reservoir are introduced.There are obvious differences in well logging response characteristics and interpretation evaluation methods between oil shale reservoir and conventional oil and gas reservoir.Logging data are used to study the following aspects of the reservoir:lithologic identification,mineral composition,physical parameters calculation,organic carbon content,oil content,fracture evaluation,rock mechanics parameters,and so on.And through cuttings,core data analysis and comparison,the results of quantitative evaluation of the reservoir log data,testing interval selection,and fracturing plans can meet the technical needs of reservoir exploration and development.The reservoir log evaluation technique is an important reference to further study other non-conventional oil and gas zone interpretation methods.%介绍了油页岩储层的岩性特征、矿物组成、物性和品质特征,它的测井响应特征及解释评价方法与常规油气层存在明显区别.利用测井资料,针对油页岩地层特点,在岩性判别、矿物组分处理、物性参数求取、有机碳含量、含油率、裂缝评价、岩石力学参数等方面进行了研究.通过和岩屑、岩心等资料分析对比,油页岩地层测井解释定量评价结果、试油层段选择、压裂方案制定等均能满足勘探开发等方面的技术需求.油页岩储层测井评价技术对其他非常规油气层解释技术的深入研究有着重要的参考意义.

  12. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation. Topical report for Task 4, Beneficiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  14. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, June 1 - August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunter, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Tsai, J.C.H.; Cogswell, D.E.; Mihamou, H.; Wright, A.D. [Bunger (James W.) and Associates, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products from shale oil. The quarter`s efforts were concentrated on (a) THDA and reaction of alkylpyridines at elevated conditions, (b) compound type analysis of kerogen oil and its derived products, (b) thermal hydrodealkylation of the > 290{degrees}C polar fraction, (c) secondary reactions of pyridinic type compounds to form marketable products, and (d) preparation of presentation to the Dawnbreaker Commercial Assistance Program. Excellent progress is being made in all cases. Our market analysis and industrial feedback indicate that the low molecular weight pyridines are the main market driving force. We are concentrating our effort toward increasing the yield of ``light`` pyridines before the end of Phase II(a). Our current laboratory set-up can only produce analytical quantity of samples, which is not sufficient for marketing purpose. However, the completion of a secondary flow THDA unit for a pilot-scale production depends on the availability of the Phase-II(b) and Phase-III funding.

  15. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  16. Oil shale project: run summary for small retort Run S-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandholtz, W.A.; Ackerman, F.J.; Bierman, A.; Kaehler, M.; Raley, J.; Laswell, B.H.; Tripp, L.J. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    Results are reported on retort run S-11 conducted to observe the effects of combustion retorting with undiluted air at relatively rapid burn (retorting) rates and to provide a base case for retorting small uniform shale (Anvil Points master batch -2.5 +- 1.3 cm) with undiluted air. It was found that a 0.6 m/sup 3//m/sup 2//minute superficial gas velocity gave an average rate of propagation of the combustion peak of about 2.7 m/day and an average maximum temperature on the centerline of the rubble bed of 1003/sup 0/C. Oil yield was 93 percent of Fischer assay. For small uniform shale particles (-2.5 + 1.3 cm) it is concluded that only small losses in yield (92 percent vs 96 percent in Run S-10) result from high retorting rates. Maximum temperature considerations preclude going to higher rates with undiluted air. Without diluent, a larger air flux would give excessive bed temperatures causing rock melting and potential closure to gas flow. In experimental retorts, another problem of excessive temperatures is potential damage to metal walls and in-situ sensors. No advantage is seen to using recycled off-gas as a combustion gas diluent. Inert diluents (e.g. nitrogen or steam) may be necessary for process control, but the fuel values in the off-gas should best be used for energy recovery rather than burned in the retort during recycle. Another consideration from model calculations is that the use of recycle gas containing fuel components retards the retorting rate and so is undesirable. No further recycle experiments are planned as the results of this run proved satisfactory.

  17. [Analyzing and modeling methods of near infrared spectroscopy for in-situ prediction of oil yield from oil shale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Dong; Teng, Fei; Li, Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-10-01

    In order to in-situ detect the oil yield of oil shale, based on portable near infrared spectroscopy analytical technology, with 66 rock core samples from No. 2 well drilling of Fuyu oil shale base in Jilin, the modeling and analyzing methods for in-situ detection were researched. By the developed portable spectrometer, 3 data formats (reflectance, absorbance and K-M function) spectra were acquired. With 4 different modeling data optimization methods: principal component-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD) for eliminating abnormal samples, uninformative variables elimination (UVE) for wavelength selection and their combina- tions: PCA-MD + UVE and UVE + PCA-MD, 2 modeling methods: partial least square (PLS) and back propagation artificial neural network (BPANN), and the same data pre-processing, the modeling and analyzing experiment were performed to determine the optimum analysis model and method. The results show that the data format, modeling data optimization method and modeling method all affect the analysis precision of model. Results show that whether or not using the optimization method, reflectance or K-M function is the proper spectrum format of the modeling database for two modeling methods. Using two different modeling methods and four different data optimization methods, the model precisions of the same modeling database are different. For PLS modeling method, the PCA-MD and UVE + PCA-MD data optimization methods can improve the modeling precision of database using K-M function spectrum data format. For BPANN modeling method, UVE, UVE + PCA-MD and PCA- MD + UVE data optimization methods can improve the modeling precision of database using any of the 3 spectrum data formats. In addition to using the reflectance spectra and PCA-MD data optimization method, modeling precision by BPANN method is better than that by PLS method. And modeling with reflectance spectra, UVE optimization method and BPANN modeling method, the model gets the highest analysis precision

  18. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved.

  19. Complementary hydro-mechanical coupled finite/discrete element and microseismic modelling to predict hydraulic fracture propagation in tight shale reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Matthew; Dutko, Martin; Yu, Jianguo; Cole, Sarah; Angus, Doug; Baird, Alan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to predict the propagation of hydraulic fractures in tight shale reservoirs. Many hydraulic fracture modelling schemes assume that the fracture direction is pre-seeded in the problem domain discretisation. This is a severe limitation as the reservoir often contains large numbers of pre-existing fractures that strongly influence the direction of the propagating fracture. To circumvent these shortcomings, a new fracture modelling treatment is proposed where the introduction of discrete fracture surfaces is based on new and dynamically updated geometrical entities rather than the topology of the underlying spatial discretisation. Hydraulic fracturing is an inherently coupled engineering problem with interactions between fluid flow and fracturing when the stress state of the reservoir rock attains a failure criterion. This work follows a staggered hydro-mechanical coupled finite/discrete element approach to capture the key interplay between fluid pressure and fracture growth. In field practice, the fracture growth is hidden from the design engineer and microseismicity is often used to infer hydraulic fracture lengths and directions. Microseismic output can also be computed from changes of the effective stress in the geomechanical model and compared against field microseismicity. A number of hydraulic fracture numerical examples are presented to illustrate the new technology.

  20. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  1. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product.

  2. Inorganic wastes in manufacturing of glass-ceramics. Slurry of phosphorous fertilizer production and oil shale ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Mendez-Nonell, J.; Escalante-Garcia, J.I.; Pech-Canul, M.I.; Vargas-Gutierrez, G. [Department of Engineering Ceramics of CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Saltillo-Monterrey, km 13.5, Apartado Postal 663, CP 25000, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Gorokhovsky, V.A.; Mescheryakov, D.V. [Department of Building Materials of Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-01

    The use of bicomponent raw material mixtures of industrial wastes to produce pyroxene glass ceramics was investigated. It is shown that oil shale ash from heat power stations can promote the production of crystalline phases and the slurry from phosphorous fertilizer production can provide sufficient concentration of nucleating agents. Mechanical and chemical properties, as well as the structure and crystallization mechanism were characterized. An increase of phosphorous oxide and fluorine concentrations leads to a change of the crystallization mechanism.

  3. Waste oil shale ash as a novel source of calcium for precipitated calcium carbonate: Carbonation mechanism, modeling, and product characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velts, O., E-mail: olga.velts@ttu.ee [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Laboratory of Separation Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta FI-53851 (Finland); Uibu, M.; Kallas, J.; Kuusik, R. [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A method for converting oil shale waste ash into precipitated CaCO{sub 3} is elucidated. {yields} We discuss the mechanism of hazardous alkaline ash leachates carbonation. {yields} We report a model describing precipitation of CaCO{sub 3} from multi-ionic ash leachates. {yields} Model enables simulation of reactive species concentration profiles. {yields} Product contained {approx}96% CaCO{sub 3} with 4-10 {mu}m size calcite or/and vaterite particles. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for converting lime-containing oil shale waste ash into precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), a valuable commodity is elucidated. The mechanism of ash leachates carbonation was experimentally investigated in a stirred semi-batch barboter-type reactor by varying the CO{sub 2} partial pressure, gas flow rate, and agitation intensity. A consistent set of model equations and physical-chemical parameters is proposed to describe the CaCO{sub 3} precipitation process from oil shale ash leachates of complex composition. The model enables the simulation of reactive species (Ca{sup 2+}, CaCO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, CaSO{sub 4}, OH{sup -}, CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, H{sup +}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) concentration profiles in the liquid, gas, and solid phases as well as prediction of the PCC formation rate. The presence of CaSO{sub 4} in the product may also be evaluated and used to assess the purity of the PCC product. A detailed characterization of the PCC precipitates crystallized from oil shale ash leachates is also provided. High brightness PCC (containing up to {approx}96% CaCO{sub 3}) with mean particle sizes ranging from 4 to 10 {mu}m and controllable morphology (such as rhombohedral calcite or coexisting calcite and spherical vaterite phases) was obtained under the conditions studied.

  4. 17alpha/H/ hopane identified in oil shale of the Green River formation /Eocene/ by carbon-13 NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Christiansen, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    During an investigation of C-13 NMR shifts and the structural correspondence of pentacyclic triterpenes a C-13 NMR study was conducted on one of the most abundant components of the hexane soluble fraction of oil shale bitumen of the Green River formation. A rigorous proof was derived exclusively from C-13 NMR data for the structure of the important triterpenoid fossil molecule. It was established that the structure of the isolated triterpane was 17alpha(H) hopane.

  5. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of low-permeability oil-shales - Case study from HaShfela sub-basin, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Avihu; Gersman, Ronen

    2016-09-01

    Low permeability rocks are of great importance given their potential role in protecting underlying aquifers from surface and buried contaminants. Nevertheless, only limited data for these rocks is available. New appraisal wells drilled into the oil shale unit (OSU) of the Mt. Scopus Group in the HaShfela sub-basin, Central Israel, provided a one-time opportunity for detailed study of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of this very low permeability unit. Methods used include: slug tests, electrical logs, televiewer imaging, porosity and permeability measurements on core samples, chemical analyses of the rock column and groundwater analyses. Slug tests yielded primary indication to the low permeability of the OSU despite its high porosity (30-40%). Hydraulic conductivities as low as 10-10-10-12 m/s were calculated, using both the Hvorslev and Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos decoding methods. These low conductivities were confirmed by direct measurements of permeability in cores, and from calculations based on the Kozeny-Carman approach. Storativity was found to be 1 · 10-6 and specific storage - 3.8 · 10-9 m-1. Nevertheless, the very limited water flow in the OSU is argued to be driven gravitationally. The extremely slow recovery rates as well as the independent recovery of two adjacent wells, despite their initial large head difference of 214 m, indicate that the natural fractures are tight and are impermeable due to the confining stress at depth. Laboratory measured permeability is similar or even higher than the field-measured values, thereby confirming that fractures and bedding planes do not form continuous flow paths. The vertical permeability along the OSU is highly variable, implying hydraulic stratification and extremely low vertical hydraulic conductivity. The high salinity of the groundwater (6300-8000 mgCl/L) within the OSU and its chemical and isotopic compositions are explained by the limited water flow, suggesting long residence time of the water

  6. Hydrogeology of a fractured shale (Opalinus Clay): Implications for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautschi, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Swiss programme for high-level radioactive-waste disposal, a Jurassic shale (Opalinus Clay) is being investigated as a potential host rock. Observations in clay pits and the results of a German research programme focusing on hazardous waste disposal have demonstrated that, at depths of 10-30 m, the permeability of the Opalinus Clay decreases by several orders of magnitude. Hydraulic tests in deeper boreholes (test intervals below 300 m) yielded hydraulic conductivities base - part of which derives from particularly unfavourable geological environments - provides arguments that advective transport through faults and joints is not a critical issue for the suitability of Opalinus Clay as a host rock for deep geological waste disposal. Résumé. Dans le cadre du programme suisse de stockage de déchets hautement radioactifs, une formation argileuse du Jurassique, l'argile à Opalinus, a été étudiée en tant que roche hôte potentielle. Des observations dans des cavités dans l'argile et les résultats du programme de recherche allemand consacré au stockage de déchets à risques ont démontré que, à des profondeur de 10 à 30 m, la perméabilité des argiles à Opalinus décroît de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. Des essais hydrauliques dans des forages plus profonds (intervalles de test á une profondeur de plus de 300 m) ont donné des conductivités hydrauliques inférieures à 10-12 m/s, même lorsque des fractures et des failles existaient dans certains des intervalles d'essais. Ces mesures sont conformes aux données hydrogéologiques tirées du recoupement des argiles à Opalinus par dix tunnels du Jura plissé du nord de la Suisse. Malgré une tectonique intense, peu de manifestations de faibles venues d'eau ont été rencontrées dans plus de 6600 m de tunnel. Toutes les venues d'eau se sont produites dans des sections de tunnel où le recouvrement est inférieur à 200 m. Les données hydrauliques sont en bon accord avec les donn

  7. Assessing the geochemical variability of oil shale in the Attarat Um Ghudran deposit, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Voolma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous to Palaeogene oil shale (OS of Jordan is predominantly calcareous mudstone with intervals of mostly siliceous minerals, quartz and cristobalite–tridymite. Oil shale is rich in organic sulphur and trace elements. According to preliminary micropalaeontological data, the OS succession of the studied area, the south-central part of the Attarat Um Ghudran (AUG deposit in central Jordan, is of Maastrichtian age. A representative collection of 392 samples from 9 drill cores reliably characterizes the sequence of the OS seam, on average 70 m thick. The composition of AUG OS varies significantly. The major compounds CaO and SiO2 range within 3–70 wt% and 10–50 wt%, respectively, and also the contents of organic matter, MgO, P2O5, Al2O3 and S change. The concentrations of metals (especially Zn, V, Cr, Ni and Mo change many dozens of times in the cross section. The aim of our statistical analysis was to determine the most significant OS types and their positions in the OS sequence. Two multivariate statistical analysis methods, principal components analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering of PCA groups, gave an interpretable result. Four principal components account for 88.6% of data variability. Variation in six main chemical components or groups of components is reflected in parameters of the four principal components. The component PC1 accounts for 47% of the data variance, expressing the highest correlation with organic matter, S, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mo, and PC2 accounts for 22.82% of the data variability, being strongly correlated with TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 and K2O and negatively correlated with CaO. The next two significant component groups express covariance with CaO and MgO. The applied statistical analysis proves to be a powerful tool for the interpretation of the chemically variable structure of the OS unit when using a representative enough sample collection. In the complex study of the OS unit, variation in the chemical

  8. Predicting the Toxicity of Oil-shale Industry Wastewater by its Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Põllumaa, L; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and toxicity of five phenolic wastewater samples collected from the Kohtla-Järve (Estonia) oil-shale industry region were analysed. The total phenolic contents (HPLC data) of these samples ranged from 0.7mg/l to 195mg/l. A total of 11 phenolic compounds were found in the wastewater samples, the most abundant being phenol (up to 84mg/l) and p-cresol (up to 74mg/l). Artificial phenolic mixtures were also composed, to mimic the content of phenolic compounds in the wastewater samples. The theoretical toxicities of these artificial mixtures were calculated by using the toxicities of the individual phenolic constituents to photobacteria (the BioTox™ test) and were assumed to have an additive mode of action. From the BioTox data, the additive toxic effects of phenolic compounds in the artificial mixtures were confirmed to be highly probable. The toxicities of the wastewater samples and their artificial phenolic analogues (mixtures) were studied by using a battery of Toxkit microbiotests (Daphtoxkit F™ magna, Thamnotoxkit F™, Protoxkit F™ and Rotoxkit F™) and three photobacterial tests (Microtox™, BioTox™ and Vibrio fischeri 1500). The wastewaters were classified as toxic (two samples), very toxic (two samples) and extremely toxic (one sample). Comparison of the test battery responses showed that the industrial wastewaters were 2-28-fold more toxic than the respective artificial phenolic mixtures. The photobacterial tests proved to be the most appropriate for screening purposes. This was the first attempt to use a test battery approach in the toxicity testing of Estonian wastewaters. The study showed that the toxicity of oil-shale industry wastewaters could not be predicted solely on the basis of their phenolic composition, since only 7-50% of their toxicity was shown to be due to phenolic compounds. It is true, to a certain extent, that the majority of environmental samples are usually very complex and contain various types of

  9. A novel application of Egyptian oil shale as a filler in the production of lithium lubricating grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Wakeel, M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Geology Department; Al Adly, R. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-12-15

    This article reports on the preparation and characterization of six formulations of grease based on soybean soapstock and aromatic extracts using oil shale as a filler. The oil shale that occurs within the Quseir-Safaga district is subjected to a detailed petrography, size distribution, mineralogy, and chemical studies. The total extracted hydrocarbon content, using an organic solvent, is analyzed for molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The physicochemical properties of the aromatic extracts are determined. The processing conditions following the blending are optimized to produce the appropriate lithium soap structure, as well as dispersion of the filler. The work also includes a study of the competitive effectiveness of different grades of aromatic extracts and also various percentages of oil shale, along with an evaluation of their effects on the properties of formulated lubricating greases. The prepared greases are assessed in accordance with National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) and Egyptian Standard (ES). It is concluded that the above-mentioned ingredients can be used for the preparation of lithium greases. (author)

  10. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  11. Atomistic modeling of oil shale kerogens and asphaltenes along with their interactions with the inorganic mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facelli, Julio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pimienta, Ian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-31

    The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

  12. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  13. Resilient but not sustainable? Public perceptions of shale gas development via hydraulic fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrick Evensen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex energy development, such as associated with extraction and processing of shale gas, may affect the future sustainability and resilience of the small, often rural communities where development occurs. A difficulty for understanding the connection between sustainability, resilience, and shale gas development (hereafter "SGD" is that definitions of sustainability and resilience are often muddled and unclear. Nevertheless, the ways in which development could affect sustainability and resilience have been discussed and contested in academic literature. Little is known, however, about the general public's thoughts on how SGD relates to sustainability and resilience. Despite the overlap and conflation of these two concepts, research indicates some differences between characterizations of the two. While acknowledging difficulties in defining the terms, we included questions on a few broad attributes of the two concepts in a survey (n = 1202 of a random sample of residents in the Marcellus Shale region of NY and PA, to explore the relationship between support for / opposition to SGD and perceived importance of community sustainability and resilience. Our survey revealed that beliefs about the importance of sustainability, as measured by three items that clearly pool together as a single factor, are associated with opposition to SGD; beliefs about the importance of resilience, measured by four clearly connected items, are associated with support for SGD. This finding is particularly intriguing and relevant for communication and policy about sustainability and resilience in connection with energy development, because of the common conflation of the two terms.

  14. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  15. Properties Analysis and Processing Scheme of Baoming Shale Oil From Xinjiang%新疆宝明页岩油性质分析及加工方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金阳; 韩冬云; 曹祖宾; 庞海全; 王艳清; 李文岐

    2016-01-01

    Properties of Baoming shale oil were analyzed.Baoming shale oil contains more than 50% the normal pressure fractions, which contains about 40% of diesel fraction. Compared with the properties of different regional shale oil, Baoming shale oil has low viscosity, low paraffin content, low condensation point, and belongs to low sulfur intermediate based oil with high nitrogen content. For the properties of the oil and the use direction of the product, simple processing scheme was put forward, which could provide the reference to the oil shale processing in the future.%对宝明页岩油的性质进行了分析,宝明页岩油含有50%以上的常压馏分,其中柴油馏分的质量收率占40%左右。将宝明页岩油与不同区域页岩油的性质进行对比表明,宝明页岩油的粘度、含蜡量及凝点都比较低,属于含氮量较高的低硫中间基油。针对油品的性质及产品的使用方向,简单提出加工方案,为今后页岩油的加工利用提供参考。

  16. 页岩气开采中压裂废液处理技术的发展及应用%Development and Application of the Treatment Technology of Fracturing Liquid Waste in Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅霖; 李婷; 张晓飞

    2012-01-01

    As the new resource of natural gases,the development of shale gas is increasingly enforced in recent years.This article widely conducts research for the environmental contaminating risks of site remediation,fracturing liquid waste management and other respects in the developing course of shale gas,and for the fracturing liquid waste management technology in force domestic and abroad.It also analyzes the management technologies including neutralization method,flocculence method,and oxygenization method.Technology tendency is also predicted in line with actual applying effect and industrial needs,which provides theoretical reference for the unconventional oil and gas resource development.%作为新型的天然气资源,近年来页岩气的开采力度不断增加.文章广泛调研页岩气开采过程中的场地修复、压裂废液处理等方面的环境污染风险,国内外现行压裂废液的处理工艺,系统分析了中和法、絮凝法和氧化法等处理工艺,并结合实际应用效果和企业需求对技术发展方向进行了预测,可为非常规油气资源开发领域提供理论参考.

  17. Cytochrome P4501A induction and porphyrin accumulation in PLHC-1 fish cells exposed to sediment and oil shale extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, S E; Tuvikene, A; Trapido, M; Fent, K; Hahn, M E

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a fish hepatoma cell line (PLHC-1) in monitoring the biological effects of sediments collected from recipient waters of the oil shale industry. Sampling sites were located in River Purtse and River Kohtla in northeast Estonia. The effects of pure oil shale on the PLHC-1 cells were also studied. The cells were exposed to n-hexane-extracted samples in 48-well plates for 24 h, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total protein, and porphyrin content were measured in the exposed cells. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in the samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the sediment and oil shale samples induced CYP1A activity and led to porphyrin accumulation in the cells. The most potent inducers were the sediments collected near the oil shale processing plants (site Lüganuse in River Purtse and Kohtla in River Kohtla), as well as those at the most downstream site in River Purtse (Purtse). These samples possessed high total PAH contents, ranging from 4,270 to nearly 150,000 microg/kg dry sediment. The presence of other lipophilic organic contaminants in the samples was not determined in this study. Both EROD activity and porphyrin content exhibited biphasic induction curves, and the ED(50)(1) values for EROD activity were lower than the ED(50)s for porphyrin content. 2,3,7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induction equivalents (TCDD-EQs) calculated from EROD induction potencies correlated well with total PAHs (r(2) = 0.827 and p = 0.003 for log-transformed data) and also with individual PAHs. TCDD-EQs for porphyrin content did not correlate significantly with total PAHs (log-log r(2) = 0.785, p = 0. 116). The biological potency and PAH contamination of the samples showed the same rank order, except at Lüganuse, where sediment extracts induced CYP1A and porphyrins more than could have been expected based on PAH contents. Bioassay-derived induction EQs (normalized to

  18. Residual shale-oil/diesel-engine operating compatibility program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, M.; Derbidge, C.; Kuby, W.; Niven, H.; Richard, R.

    1983-10-01

    As part of a DOE study to determine the effective utilization of alternate fuels in medium-speed diesel engines, a residual shale oil (RSO) was fired in an APE-Allen, 1000-rpm, 9.5-in. bore diesel engine. Various fuel injection modes were considered. Based on a fuel characterization study and go/no-go tests, it was determined that the direct firing of 100 percent RSO gave performance comparable with that using No. 2 diesel fuel; consequently, performance/endurance tests were performed using 100 percent RSO. Conclusions of this test program are: Laboratory tests showed low levels of corrosion and deposit-causing elements. Therefore, corrosion and wear of engine components, when using RSO, should be no worse than for standard diesel fuel. The high wax content of RSO requires heating for supply, handling, and injection systems. Laboratory tests showed that the cetane number of RSO was equivalent to No. 2 diesel; hence, no engine modifications should be needed to burn RSO. The engine performance on RSO was essentially similar to standard diesel fuel. The thermal efficiency was slightly lower and Bosch smoke and particulates were slightly higher, especially at low load. Soft carbon deposits, formed on injectors when using RSO, did not affect performance. The 115-hour endurance test showed no significant performance deterioration. The deposit accumulation in combustion chambers and ports was not severe but was greater than standard diesel fuel would produce. Longer endurance tests are required to fully establish this conclusion. 41 figures, 21 tables.

  19. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  20. Analysis of Paraho oil shale products and effluents: an example of the multi-technique approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Wilkerson, C. L.; Evans, J. C.; Sanders, R. W.

    1979-06-10

    Inorganic analysis of solid, liquid and gaseous samples from the Paraho Semiworks Retort was completed using a multitechnique approach. The data were statistically analyzed to determine both the precision of each method and to see how closely the various techniques compared. The data were also used to determine the redistribution of 31 trace and major elements in the various effluents, including the offgas for the Paraho Retort operating in the direct mode. The computed mass balances show that approximately 1% or greater fractions of the As, Co, Hg, N, Ni, S and Se are released during retorting and redistributed to the product shale oil, retort water or product offgas. The fraction for these seven elements ranged from almost 1% for Co and Ni to 50 to 60% for Hg and N. Approximately 20% of the S and 5% of the As and Se are released. The mass balance redistribution during retorting for Al, Fe, Mg, V and Zn was observed to be no greater than .05%. These redistribution figures are generally in agreement with previous mass balance studies made for a limited number of elements on laboratory or smaller scale pilot retorts. 7 tables.

  1. Growth responses of Scots pine to climatic factors on reclaimed oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metslaid, Sandra; Stanturf, John A; Hordo, Maris; Korjus, Henn; Laarmann, Diana; Kiviste, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Afforestation on reclaimed mining areas has high ecological and economic importance. However, ecosystems established on post-mining substrate can become vulnerable due to climate variability. We used tree-ring data and dendrochronological techniques to study the relationship between climate variables and annual growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on reclaimed open cast oil shale mining areas in Northeast Estonia. Chronologies for trees of different age classes (50, 40, 30) were developed. Pearson's correlation analysis between radial growth indices and monthly climate variables revealed that precipitation in June-July and higher mean temperatures in spring season enhanced radial growth of pine plantations, while higher than average temperatures in summer months inhibited wood production. Sensitivity of radial increment to climatic factors on post-mining soils was not homogenous among the studied populations. Older trees growing on more developed soils were more sensitive to precipitation deficit in summer, while growth indices of two other stand groups (young and middle-aged) were highly correlated to temperature. High mean temperatures in August were negatively related to annual wood production in all trees, while trees in the youngest stands benefited from warmer temperatures in January. As a response to thinning, mean annual basal area increment increased up to 50 %. By managing tree competition in the closed-canopy stands, through the thinning activities, tree sensitivity and response to climate could be manipulated.

  2. Investigation on pyrolysis of Moroccan oil shale/plastic mixtures by thermogravimetric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulkas, A.; El harfi, K. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Nadifiyine, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); El bouadili, A. [Departement de chimie, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Thermal degradation processes for a series of mixtures of oil shale/plastic were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at four heating rates of 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min{sup -} {sup 1} from ambient temperature to 1273 K. High density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) were selected as plastic samples. Based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first is attributed to the drying of absorbed water; the second was dominated by the overlapping of organic matter and plastic pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the mineral matter pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on co-pyrolysis. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those of the individual components; thus an increase in thermal stability was expected. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their mixtures. (author)

  3. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  4. Wet scrubbing for control of particular emissions from oil shale retorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, G.M.; Thurnau, R.C.; Lotwala, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A mobile pilot-scale venturi scrubber was tested for control of particulate emissions from the Laramie Energy Techonolgy Center's 136-mg (150-ton)-capacity oil shale retort. The entire retort off-gas flow of 15.4 m/sup 3//min (545 ft/sup 3//min), discharged from a heat exchanger at a temperature of 58 /degree/C and saturated with water, was scrubbed at liquid-to-gas ratios of l.5 to 2.4 L/m/sup 3/. Sampling and analysis of the scrubber inlet and outlet gases were conducted to determine particulate removal. Outlet particulate concentrations were consistently reduced to 35 mg/m/sup 3/, even through inlet loadings varied from 125 to 387 mg/m/sup 3/ and 50 weight percent of the particles were less than four micrometers in diameter. Particulate control efficiencies up to 94 percent were achieved, although no correlation to liquid-to-gas ratio was observed. Simultaneous control of ammonia emissions, at efficiencies up to 75 percent, was also observed. 5 refs.

  5. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  6. XFEM-Based CZM for the Simulation of 3D Multiple-Stage Hydraulic Fracturing in Quasi-brittle Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, M.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) engages the plastic zone and softening effects at the fracture tip in a quasi-brittle rock, e.g. shale, which concludes a more precise fracture geometry and pumping pressure compared to those from Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. Nevertheless, this model, namely planar CZM, assumes a predefined surface on which the fractures propagate and therefore, restricts the fracture propagation direction. Notably, this direction depends on the stress interactions between closely spaced fractures and can be acquired integrating CZM as the segmental contact interaction model with a fully coupled pore pressure-displacement, extended finite element model (XFEM). This later model simulates the fracture initiation and propagation along an arbitrary, solution-dependent path. In this work, we modeled double- and triple-cluster 3D hydraulic fracturing in a single-layer, quasi-brittle shale formation using planar CZM and XFEM-based CZM including slit flow and poro-elasticity for fracture and matrix spaces, respectively, in Abaqus. Our fully-coupled pore pressure-stress Geomechanics model includes leak-off as a continuum-based fluid flow component coupled with the other unknowns in the problem. Having compared the triple-cluster fracturing results from planar CZM with those from XFEM-based CZM, we found that the stress shadowing effect of multiple hydraulic fractures on each other can cause these fractures to rationally propagate out of plane; this also demonstrates the advantages of the second method compared to the first one. We investigated the effect of this arbitrary propagation direction on not only the fractures' length, aperture, and the required injection pressure, but also fractures' connection to the wellbore. Depending on the spacing and the number of clusters per stage, this connection can be gradually disrupted with time due to the near-wellbore fracture closure which may embed proppant particles on the fracture wall, or screen out the

  7. The toxicity and fate of phenolic pollutants in the contaminated soils associated with the oil-shale industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, Anne; Maloverjan, Alla; Sillak, Helgi; Põllumaa, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols considered major pollutants in the oil-shale semi-coke dump leachates (up to 380 mg phenols/L) that contaminate the surrounding soils and pose a threat to the groundwater in the North-East of Estonia. However; despite high residual concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil products in these soils, the concentration of phenols (especially their water-extractable fraction) was low, not exceeding 0.7 mg/kg dwt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of biodegradation and aging on the decrease of hazard caused by phenolic pollution. The extractability of phenols (phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols) and their biodegradability by the microbial population was studied in the 13 soils sampled from the Estonian oil-shale region, territories of former gas stations, and from presumably non-polluted areas. Phenol, 5-methylresorcinol, p-cresol and resorcinol could be considered easily degradable in the soils as the microbial populations from majority of the soils studied were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with these phenols as a single source of carbon. 2,3- and 2,4- and 3,4-dimethylphenols could be considered less easily biodegradable. The semi-coke dump leachate polluted soil (containing no dibasic phenols, 43 mg of monobasic phenols, 1348 mg of oil products and 35 mg of PAHs per g dwt) was analyzed chemically (HPLC) and toxicologically (Flash-Assay using Vibrio fischeri) for the leaching of phenols during shaking of soil-water slurries for 24 h. Only 5.8% of the total concentration of phenols was water-extractable, whereas about 50% of the leached amount was biodegraded by the soil microorganisms. Phenol and cresols were biodegraded by 80%, but the concentration of dimethylphenols practically did not change. The pollutants (measured as total water-extractable toxicity) were desorbed from the soil particles by the 8th h of extraction, whereas the toxicity of the aqueous

  8. The Critical Flow back Velocity in Hydraulic-Fracturing Shale Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The loss of prop pant during the flow back process in hydraulic fracturing treatments has been a problem for many years. The effectiveness of the fracture treatment is reduced. A well cleanup is often required to remove the unwanted proppant from the wellbore to re-establish production. Among sever