Sample records for fracture criteria lengthscales

  1. On the damage and fracture of nuclear graphite at multiple length-scales (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Mingard, Ken; Lord, Oliver T.; Flewitt, Peter


    Gilsocarbon graphite, as a neutron moderator and load-bearing component in the core of the UK fleet of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors, possesses complex microstructural features including defects/pores over a range of length-scales from nanometres to millimetres in size. As a consequence, this material exhibits different characteristics when specimens of different length-scale are deformed. In this work, the deformation and fracture of this material have been characterised using in situ methods for specimens of micrometre size (meso-scale) and the results are then compared with those measured one length-scale smaller, and those at the macro-scale. At the micro-scale, sampling a volume of material (2 × 2 × 10 μm) excludes micro- and macro-size pores, the strength was measured to be as high as 1000 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 67 GPa). When the specimen size is increased by one order of magnitude to the meso-scale, the strength is reduced to about 100 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 20 GPa) due to the inclusion of micro-size pores. For larger engineering-size specimens that include millimetre-size pores, the strength of the material averages about 20 MPa (an elastic modulus of about 11 GPa). This trend in the data is discussed and considered in the context of selecting the appropriate data for relevant multi-scale modelling.

  2. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent mechanism of defect formation and fracture in carbon nanotubes under tensile loading (United States)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Raha, S.; Mahapatra, D. Roy


    Electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical forces play a major role in nanotube-based materials and devices. Under high-energy electron transport or high current densities, carbon nanotubes fail via sequential fracture. The failure sequence is governed by certain length scale and flow of current. We report a unified phenomenological model derived from molecular dynamic simulation data, which successfully captures the important physics of the complex failure process. Length-scale and strain rate-dependent defect nucleation, growth, and fracture in single-walled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range of 0.47 to 2.03 nm and length which is about 6.17 to 26.45 nm are simulated. Nanotubes with long length and small diameter show brittle fracture, while those with short length and large diameter show transition from ductile to brittle fracture. In short nanotubes with small diameters, we observe several structural transitions like Stone-Wales defect initiation, its propagation to larger void nucleation, formation of multiple chains of atoms, conversion to monatomic chain of atoms, and finally complete fracture of the carbon nanotube. Hybridization state of carbon-carbon bonds near the end cap evolves, leading to the formation of monatomic chain in short nanotubes with small diameter. Transition from ductile to brittle fracture is also observed when strain rate exceeds a critical value. A generalized analytical model of failure is established, which correlates the defect energy during the formation of atomic chain with aspect ratio of the nanotube and strain rate. Variation in the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, tensile strength, and fracture strain with the size and strain rate shows important implications in mitigating force fields and ways to enhance the life of electronic devices and nanomaterial conversion via fracture in manufacturing.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinhua; Chen Chuanyao; Hu Yuantai; Wang Cheng


    Mechanical and electrical damages are introduced to study the fracture mechanics of piezoelectric ceramics in this paper. Two kinds of piezoelectric fracture criteria are established using the method of least squares combined with a damage analysis of the well-known piezoelectric fracture experiments of Park and Sun's. One is based on a linear combination of the mechanical and electrical damages and the other on their nonlinear combination. When the combined damage D is up to its critical value Dc, piezoelectric fracture occurs. It is found from the qualitative comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data that the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion can give a better prediction of piezoelectric fracture. And it is concluded from the nonlinearly combined damage fracture criterion that a negative electric field impedes fracture whereas the effect of a positive electric field on fracture depends on its magnitude.

  4. In Vitro Fracture of Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, R; Stolken, J; Kinney, J; Ritchie, R


    A micro-mechanistic understanding of bone fracture that encompasses how cracks interact with the underlying microstructure and defines their local failure mode is lacking, despite extensive research on the response of bone to a variety of factors like aging, loading, and/or disease. Micro-mechanical models for fracture incorporating such local failure criteria have been widely developed for metallic and ceramic materials systems; however, few such deliberations have been undertaken for the fracture of bone. In fact, although the fracture event in mineralized tissues such as bone is commonly believed to be locally strain controlled, until recently there has been little experimental evidence to support this widely held belief. In the present study, a series of in vitro experiments involving a double-notch bend test geometry are performed in order to shed further light on the nature of the local cracking events that precede catastrophic fracture in bone and to define their relationship to the microstructure. Specifically, crack-microstructure interactions are examined to determine the salient toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone and to characterize how these may affect the anisotropy in fracture properties. Based on preliminary micro-mechanical models of these processes, in particular crack deflection and uncracked ligament bridging, the relative importance of these toughening mechanisms is established.

  5. Mechanistic fracture criteria for the failure of human cortical bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Ravi K.; Kinney, John H.; Ritchie, Robert O.


    A mechanistic understanding of fracture in human bone is critical to predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease. Despite extensive work, a mechanistic framework for describing how the underlying microstructure affects the failure mode in bone is lacking.

  6. Use of notched beams to establish fracture criteria for beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayville, R.A.


    The fracture of an improved form of pure beryllium was studied under triaxial tensile stresses. This state of stress was produced by testing notched beams, which were thick enough to be in a state of plane strain at the center. A plane strain, elastic-incremental plasticity finite element program was then used to determine the stress and strain distributions at fracture. A four-point bend fixture was used to load the specimens. It was carefully designed and manufactured to eliminate virtually all of the shear stresses at the reduced section of the notched beams. The unixial properties were obtained.

  7. Fracture criteria for automobile crashworthiness simulation of wrought aluminium alloy components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Magd, E. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gese, H. [MATFEM, Munich (Germany); Tham, R. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Freiburg (Germany); Hooputra, H.; Werner, H. [BMW Group, Munich (Germany)


    In automobile crashworthiness simulation, the prediction of plastic deformation and fracture of each significant, single component is critical to correctly represent the transient energy absorption through the car structure. There is currently a need, in the commercial FEM community, for validated material fracture models which adequately represent this phenomenon. The aim of this paper is to compare and to validate existing numerical approaches to predict failure with test data. All studies presented in this paper were carried out on aluminium wrought alloys: AlMgSi1.F31 and AlMgSiCu-T6. A viscoplastic material law, whose parameters are derived from uniaxial tensile and compression tests at various strain rates, is developed and presented herein. Fundamental ductile fracture mechanisms such as void nucleation, void growth, and void coalescence as well as shear band fracture are present in the tested samples and taken into consideration in the development of the fracture model. Two approaches to the prediction of fracture initiation are compared. The first is based on failure curves expressed by instantaneous macroscopic stresses and strains (i.e. maximum equivalent plastic strain vs. stress triaxiality). The second approach is based on the modified Gurson model and uses state variables at the mesoscopic scale (i.e. critical void volume fraction). Notched tensile specimens with varying notch radii and axisymmetric shear specimens were used to produce ductile fractures and shear band fractures at different stress states. The critical macroscopic and mesoscopic damage values at the fracture initiation locations were evaluated using FEM simulations of the different specimens. The derived fracture criteria (macroscopic and mesoscopic) were applied to crashworthiness experiments with real components. The quality of the prediction on component level is discussed for both types of criteria. (orig.)

  8. 10 CFR 50.60 - Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for... (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures for lightwater nuclear power reactors for normal operation. 50.60 Section 50.60 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... of Licenses and Construction Permits § 50.60 Acceptance criteria for fracture prevention measures...

  9. On the failure analysis of bondlines: Stress or energy based fracture criteria?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos


    that characterizes a given bondline, both its cohesive strength and fracture toughness material parameters must be experimentally defined. Based on these properties, failure analysis of the bondline can be done either through stress- or energy-based criteria. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness...... of each criteria type to effectively predict debonding initiation/propagation of different bondlines (brittle, quasi-brittle, ductile), which are eventually utilized for the evaluation of the joint's failure load. By representing a bondline according to its cohesive length scale, an effort is made...... experimentation programme. Fracture initiation and propagation of the bondlines was numerically simulated by cohesive zone models. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Three- to nine-year survival estimates and fracture mechanisms of zirconia- and alumina-based restorations using standardized criteria to distinguish the severity of ceramic fractures


    Moraguez, Osvaldo; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne


    The aims of this study were set as follows: 1. To provide verifiable criteria to categorize the ceramic fractures into non-critical (i.e., amenable to polishing) or critical (i.e., in need of replacement) 2. To establish the corresponding survival rates for alumina and zirconia restorations 3. To establish the mechanism of fracture using fractography

  11. The Evaluation of Varying Ductile Fracture Criteria for 3Cr20Ni10W2 Austenitic Heat-Resistant Alloy


    Yu-Feng Xia; Gui-Chang Luo; Dong-Sen Wu; Guo-Zheng Quan; Jie Zhou


    Most bulk metal forming processes may be limited by ductile fracture, such as an internal or surface fracture developing in the workpiece. Finding a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC) and identify the relationships between damage evolution and strain-softening behavior of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resistant alloy is very important, which, however, is a nontrivial issue that still needs to be addressed in greater depth. Based on cumulative damage theory, an innovative approach involvin...

  12. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics


    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  13. The criteria of fracture in the case of the leak of pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habil; Ziliukas, A.


    In order to forecast the break of the high pressure vessels and the network of pipes in a nuclear reactor, according to the concept of leak before break of pressure vessels, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of project, production, and mounting quality as well as of exploitation. It is also necessary to evaluate the process of break by the help of the fracture criteria. In the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant of, in Lithuania, the most important objects of investigation are: the highest pressure pipes, made of Japanese steel 19MN5 and having an anticorrosive austenitic: coal inside, the pipes of distribution, which arc made of 08X1810T steel. The steel of the network of pipes has a quality of plasticity: therefore the only criteria of fragile is impossible to apply to. The process of break would be best described by the universal criteria of elastic - plastic fracture. For this purpose the author offers the criterion of the double parameter.

  14. The impact of different aperture distribution models and critical stress criteria on equivalent permeability in fractured rocks (United States)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamidreza M.


    Predicting equivalent permeability in fractured reservoirs requires an understanding of the fracture network geometry and apertures. There are different methods for defining aperture, based on outcrop observations (power law scaling), fundamental mechanics (sublinear length-aperture scaling), and experiments (Barton-Bandis conductive shearing). Each method predicts heterogeneous apertures, even along single fractures (i.e., intrafracture variations), but most fractured reservoir models imply constant apertures for single fractures. We compare the relative differences in aperture and permeability predicted by three aperture methods, where permeability is modeled in explicit fracture networks with coupled fracture-matrix flow. Aperture varies along single fractures, and geomechanical relations are used to identify which fractures are critically stressed. The aperture models are applied to real-world large-scale fracture networks. (Sub)linear length scaling predicts the largest average aperture and equivalent permeability. Barton-Bandis aperture is smaller, predicting on average a sixfold increase compared to matrix permeability. Application of critical stress criteria results in a decrease in the fraction of open fractures. For the applied stress conditions, Coulomb predicts that 50% of the network is critically stressed, compared to 80% for Barton-Bandis peak shear. The impact of the fracture network on equivalent permeability depends on the matrix hydraulic properties, as in a low-permeable matrix, intrafracture connectivity, i.e., the opening along a single fracture, controls equivalent permeability, whereas for a more permeable matrix, absolute apertures have a larger impact. Quantification of fracture flow regimes using only the ratio of fracture versus matrix permeability is insufficient, as these regimes also depend on aperture variations within fractures.

  15. Three- to nine-year survival estimates and fracture mechanisms of zirconia- and alumina-based restorations using standardized criteria to distinguish the severity of ceramic fractures. (United States)

    Moráguez, Osvaldo D; Wiskott, H W Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne S


    The aims of this study were set as follows: 1. To provide verifiable criteria to categorize the ceramic fractures into non-critical (i.e., amenable to polishing) or critical (i.e., in need of replacement) 2. To establish the corresponding survival rates for alumina and zirconia restorations 3. To establish the mechanism of fracture using fractography Fifty-eight patients restored with 115 alumina-/zirconia-based crowns and 26 zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) were included. Ceramic fractures were classified into four types and further subclassified into "critical" or "non-critical." Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures." Intra-oral replicas were taken for fractographic analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for "critical fractures only" and "all fractures" were respectively: Alumina single crowns: 90.9 and 68.3 % after 9.5 years (mean 5.71 ± 2.6 years). Zirconia single crowns: 89.4 and 80.9 % after 6.3 years (mean 3.88 ± 1.2 years). Zirconia FDPs: 68.6 % (critical fractures) and 24.6 % (all fractures) after 7.2 and 4.6 years respectively (FDP mean observation time 3.02 ± 1.4 years). No core/framework fractures were detected. Survival estimates varied significantly depending on whether "all" fractures were considered as failures or only those deemed as "critical". For all restorations, fractographic analyses of failed veneering ceramics systematically demonstrated heavy occlusal wear at the failure origin. Therefore, the relief of local contact pressures on unsupported ceramic is recommended. Occlusal contacts on mesial or distal ridges should systematically be eliminated. A classification standard for ceramic fractures into four categories with subtypes "critical" and "non-critical" provides a differentiated view of the survival of ceramic restorations.

  16. A New Method to Calculate Threshold Values of Ductile Fracture Criteria for Advanced High-Strength Sheet Blanking (United States)

    Wang, Changsheng; Chen, Jun; Xia, Cedric; Ren, Feng; Chen, Jieshi


    A new approach is presented in this paper to calculate the critical threshold value of fracture initiation. It is based on the experimental data for forming limit curves and fracture forming limit curves. The deformation path for finally a fractured material point is assumed as two-stage proportional loading: biaxial loading from the beginning to the onset of incipient necking, followed plane strain deformation within the incipient neck until the final fracture. The fracture threshold value is determined by analytical integration and validated by numerical simulation. Four phenomenological models for ductile fracture are selected in this study, i.e., Brozzo, McClintock, Rice-Tracey, and Oyane models. The threshold value for each model is obtained through best-fitting of experimental data. The results are compared with each other and test data. These fracture criteria are implemented in ABAQUS/EXPLICIT through user subroutine VUMAT to simulate the blanking process of advanced high-strength steels. The simulated fracture surfaces are examined to determine the initiation of ductile fracture during the process, and compared with experimental results for DP780 sheet steel blanking. The comparisons between FE simulated results coupled with different fracture models and experimental one show good agreements on punching edge quality. The study demonstrates that the proposed approach to calculate threshold values of fracture models is efficient and reliable. The results also suggest that the McClintock and Oyane fracture models are more accurate than the Rice-Tracey or Brozzo models in predicting load-stroke curves. However, the predicted blanking edge quality does not have appreciable differences.

  17. Criteria of validity in the measurement of shearing fracture toughness; Gueltigkeitskriterien zur Bestimmung von Scherbruchzaehigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiese, W.


    The investigations aimed at the development of criteria for measuring valid shearing fracture toughness data K{sub IIc} in analogy to the measurement of mode-I fracture toughness K{sub Ie}. Details are presented, and practical recommendations are given. [German] Die Brucheigenschaften von Werkstoffen werden ueblicherweise unter Zugbeanspruchungsbedingungen (Mode-I) bestimmt. Im Anwendungsbereich der linear-elastischen Bruchmechanik bzw. des Kleinbereichsfliessens geschieht dieses in Form der Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub Ic}. Es existieren entsprechende Richtlinien zur Durchfuehrung des Tests sowie zur Registrierung und Auswertung der Daten. Diese Kriterien sind in Standards festgelegt. Empfehlungen zur Bestimmung der Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub IIc} unter ebener Scherbelastung (Mode-II) fuer Werkstoffe mit im wesentlichen linear-elastischem Verhalten existieren nicht. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden durch den Vergleich der Groesse der plastischen Rissspitzenzonen im Verhaeltnis zu den Abmessungen von Probe bzw. Bauteil Kriterien zur Messung gueltiger Scherbruchzaehigkeiten K{sub IIc} analog zur Messung der Mode-I-Bruchzaehigkeit K{sub Ic} entwickelt. Der Groessenvergleich der plastischen Rissspitzenzonen fuer beide Beanspruchungsarten zeigt unter aequivalenten Beanspruchungen, d.h. K{sub II}=K{sub I}, dass bei Mode-II beanspruchten Rissen die plastischen Zonen groesser, aber die Differenzen in der Groesse der plastischen Zonen fuer die Zustaende ebener Spannung und ebener Dehnung kleiner sind als unter entsprechenden Mode-I-Beanspruchungen.

  18. The Evaluation of Varying Ductile Fracture Criteria for 3Cr20Ni10W2 Austenitic Heat-Resistant Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Xia


    Full Text Available Most bulk metal forming processes may be limited by ductile fracture, such as an internal or surface fracture developing in the workpiece. Finding a way to evaluate the ductile fracture criteria (DFC and identify the relationships between damage evolution and strain-softening behavior of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resistant alloy is very important, which, however, is a nontrivial issue that still needs to be addressed in greater depth. Based on cumulative damage theory, an innovative approach involving heat physical compression experiments, numerical simulations, and mathematical computations provides mutual support to evaluate ductile damage cumulating process and DFC diagram along with deformation conditions. It is concluded that, as for strain-softening material, ductile damage starts at work hardening phase, and the damage cumulation is more sensitive in work hardening phase than in work softening phase. In addition, DFC of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resistant alloy in a wide temperature range of 1203∼1403 K and the strain rate of 0.01∼10 s−1 are not constant but change in a range of 0.099∼0.197; thus they have been defined as varying ductile fracture criteria (VDFC and characterized by a function of strain rate and temperature. According to VDFC diagram, the exact fracture moment and position during various forming processes will be predicted conveniently.

  19. Dynamic Leidenfrost effect: relevant time- and length-scales

    CERN Document Server

    Shirota, Minori; Sun, Chao; Prosperetti, Andrea; Lohse, Detlef


    When a liquid droplet impacts a hot solid surface, enough vapor may be generated under it as to prevent its contact with the solid. The minimum solid temperature for this so-called Leidenfrost effect to occur is termed the Leidenfrost temperature, or the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature when the droplet velocity is non-negligible. We observe the wetting/drying and the levitation dynamics of the droplet impacting on an (isothermal) smooth sapphire surface using high speed total internal reflection imaging, which enables us to observe the droplet base up to about 100 nm above the substrate surface. By this method we are able to reveal the processes responsible for the transitional regime between the fully wetting and the fully levitated droplet as the solid temperature increases, thus shedding light on the characteristic time- and length-scales setting the dynamic Leidenfrost temperature for droplet impact on an isothermal substrate.

  20. Hydrodynamic length-scale selection in microswimmer suspensions (United States)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Dunkel, Jörn; Klapp, Sabine H. L.; Bär, Markus


    A universal characteristic of mesoscale turbulence in active suspensions is the emergence of a typical vortex length scale, distinctly different from the scale invariance of turbulent high-Reynolds number flows. Collective length-scale selection has been observed in bacterial fluids, endothelial tissue, and active colloids, yet the physical origins of this phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we systematically derive an effective fourth-order field theory from a generic microscopic model that allows us to predict the typical vortex size in microswimmer suspensions. Building on a self-consistent closure condition, the derivation shows that the vortex length scale is determined by the competition between local alignment forces, rotational diffusion, and intermediate-range hydrodynamic interactions. Vortex structures found in simulations of the theory agree with recent measurements in Bacillus subtilis suspensions. Moreover, our approach yields an effective viscosity enhancement (reduction), as reported experimentally for puller (pusher) microorganisms.

  1. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.


    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  2. Tomographic index as auxiliary criteria for surgery indication in fracture dislocation of acetabulum posterior wall


    Fujiki, Edison N; Yamaguchi, Eduardo N; Miachiro, Edison; Chikude, Takechi; Ikemoto,Roberto Y.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia [UNESP; Rodrigues, Luciano M. R.; Monteiro, Carlos B; Milani, Carlo


    There are situations which the tomographic exam is done on the affected hip or situations where the contralateral hip presents abnormalities that make it impossible to compare. In this study we aimed to evaluate a tomographic index that does not require comparison between the both hips. Twenty two patients with unilateral acetabular fracture dislocation with fracture of posterior wall were studied. We established the relationship between the remaining posterior wall and the femoral head diame...

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales (United States)

    Curran, P. J.; Desoky, W. M.; Milos̆ević, M. V.; Chaves, A.; Laloë, J.-B.; Moodera, J. S.; Bending, S. J.


    Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications. PMID:26492969

  4. Multivariate injury risk criteria and injury probability scores for fractures to the distal radius. (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M; Dunning, Cynthia E


    The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate distal radius injury risk prediction model that incorporates dynamic loading variables in multiple directions, and interpret the distal radius failure data in order to establish injury probability thresholds. Repeated impacts with increasing intensity were applied to the distal third of eight human cadaveric radius specimens (mean (SD) age=61.9 (9.7)) until injury occurred. Crack (non-propagating damage) and fracture (specimen separated into at least two fragments) injury events were recorded. Best subsets analysis was performed to find the best multivariate injury risk model. Force-only risk models were also determined for comparison. Cumulative distribution functions were developed from the parameters of a Weibull analysis and the forces and risk scores (i.e., values calculated from the injury risk models) from 10% to 90% probability were calculated. According to the adjusted R(2), variance inflation factor and p-values, the model that best predicted the crack event included medial/lateral impulse, Fz load rate, impact velocity and the natural logarithm of Fz (Adj. R(2)=0.698), while the best predictive model of the fracture event included medial/lateral impulse, impact velocity and peak Fz (Adj. R(2)=0.845). The multivariate models predicted injury risk better than both the Fz-only crack (Adj. R(2)=0.551) and fracture (Adj. R(2)=0.293) models. Risk scores of 0.5 and 0.6 corresponded to 10% failure probability for the crack and fracture events, respectively. The inclusion of medial/lateral impulse and impact velocity in both crack and fracture models, and Fz load rate in the crack model, underscores the dynamic nature of these events. This study presents a method capable of developing a set of distal radius fracture prediction models that can be used in the assessment and development of distal radius injury prevention interventions.

  5. Numerical Simulation and Dynamic Fracture Criteria of Thin Cylindrical Shells under Inner Explosive Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An FAE (Fuel-Air-Explosives) device is used to develop a numerical and theoretical analysis of a thin cylindrical shell with inner explosive loading. The dynamic fracture process is simulated numerically in the DYNA3D program using the finite element method. The material's dynamic properties are described by a strain hardening viscoplastic constitution. A damage variable is introduced in the determination of the dynamic fracture criterion. Final rupture of structure is decided by a rupture-strain criterion which is deduced in terms of a critical damage variable. The numerical results have been compared with theoretical solutions.

  6. [Amputation or reconstruction of IIIB and IIIC open tibial fracture. Decision criteria in the acute phase and late functional outcome]. (United States)

    Seekamp, A; Regel, G; Ruffert, S; Ziegler, M; Tscherne, H


    In IIIB and IIIC type open tibial fractures (according to Gustilo) the primary decision that has to be made regarding therapy is wether or not the limb can be salvaged. To standardize the criteria for amputation different salvage scores have been established in recent years. In this study the Hannover Fracture Scale (HFS), the Predictive Salvage Index (PSI), the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) and the NISSSA score were evaluated regarding their clinical relevance. When ROC Analysis was performed for all these scores in our patients the HFS revealed the highest sensitivity (0.91), but low specificity (0.71). The highest specificity was noted for the MESS (0.97), which in parallel showed the lowest sensitivity (0.59). In general it seems to be essential to make the right decision initially in order to avoid secondary amputation. All the scores mentioned here appear to be helpful in decision making. Salvaged limbs in IIIB and IIIC fractures presented a comparable good outcome, whereas salvaged IIIC injuries with a high score presented an outcome which was as bad as in secondary amputations. Secondary amputated patients required not only significant longer hospitalization but also resulted in poor outcome compared with the patients having received reconstruction or primary amputation.

  7. Temperature effect on the small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. (United States)

    Djikaev, Y S; Ruckenstein, E


    The thermodynamics of hydration is expected to change gradually from entropic for small solutes to enthalpic for large ones. The small-to-large crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration depends on the thermodynamic conditions of the solvent such as temperature, pressure, presence of additives, etc. We attempt to shed some light on the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale by using a probabilistic approach to water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a solute and solute radius. Incorporating that approach into the density functional theory, one can examine the solute size effects on its hydration over the entire small-to-large lengthscale range at a series of different temperatures. Knowing the dependence of the hydration free energy on the temperature and solute size, one can also obtain its enthalpic and entropic contributions as functions of both temperature and solute size. These functions can provide some interesting insight into the temperature dependence of the crossover lengthscale of hydrophobic hydration. The model was applied to the hydration of spherical particles of various radii in water in the temperature range from T = 293.15 K to T = 333.15 K. The model predictions for the temperature dependence of the hydration free energy of small hydrophobes are consistent with the experimental and simulational data on the hydration of simple molecular solutes. Three alternative definitions for the small-to-large crossover length-scale of hydrophobic hydration are proposed, and their temperature dependence is obtained. Depending on the definition and temperature, the small-to-large crossover in the hydration mechanism is predicted to occur for hydrophobes of radii from one to several nanometers. Independent of its definition, the crossover length-scale is predicted to decrease with increasing temperature.

  8. Hydrophobic hydration from small to large lengthscales: Understanding and manipulating the crossover (United States)

    Rajamani, Sowmianarayanan; Truskett, Thomas M.; Garde, Shekhar


    Small and large hydrophobic solutes exhibit remarkably different hydration thermodynamics. Small solutes are accommodated in water with minor perturbations to water structure, and their hydration is captured accurately by theories that describe density fluctuations in pure water. In contrast, hydration of large solutes is accompanied by dewetting of their surfaces and requires a macroscopic thermodynamic description. A unified theoretical description of these lengthscale dependencies was presented by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks [(1999) J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4570-4577]. Here, we use molecular simulations to study lengthscale-dependent hydrophobic hydration under various thermodynamic conditions. We show that the hydration of small and large solutes displays disparate dependencies on thermodynamic variables, including pressure, temperature, and additive concentration. Understanding these dependencies allows manipulation of the small-to-large crossover lengthscale, which is nanoscopic under ambient conditions. Specifically, applying hydrostatic tension or adding ethanol decreases the crossover length to molecular sizes, making it accessible to atomistic simulations. With detailed temperature-dependent studies, we further demonstrate that hydration thermodynamics changes gradually from entropic to enthalpic near the crossover. The nanoscopic lengthscale of the crossover and its sensitivity to thermodynamic variables imply that quantitative modeling of biomolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions requires elements of both molecular and macroscopic hydration physics. We also show that the small-to-large crossover is directly related to the Egelstaff-Widom lengthscale, the product of surface tension and isothermal compressibility, which is another fundamental lengthscale in liquids. Author contributions: S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. designed research; S.R. performed research; S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. analyzed data; and S.R., T.M.T., and S.G. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: LCW

  9. A Study On Critical Thinning In Thin-walled Tube Bending Of Al-Alloy 5052O Via Coupled Ductile Fracture Criteria (United States)

    Li, Heng; Yang, He; Zhan, Mei


    Thin-walled tube bending(TWTB) method of Al-alloy tube has attracted wide applications in aerospace, aviation and automobile,etc. While, under in-plane double tensile stress states at the extrados of bending tube, the over-thinning induced ductile fracture is one dominant defect in Al-alloy tube bending. The main objective of this study is to predict the critical wall-thinning of Al-alloy tube bending by coupling two ductile fracture criteria(DFCs) into FE simulation. The DFCs include Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM)-based model and GTN porous model. Through the uniaxial tensile test of the curved specimen, the basic material properties of the Al-alloy 5052O tube is obtained; via the inverse problem solution, the damage parameters of both the two fracture criteria are interatively determined. Thus the application study of the above DFCs in the TWTB is performed, and the more reasonable one is selected to obtain the critical thinning of Al-alloy tube in bending. The virtual damage initiation and evolution (when and where the ductile fracture occurs) in TWTB are investigated, and the fracture mechanisms of the voided Al-alloy tube in tube bending are consequently discussed.

  10. The impact of different aperture distribution models and critical stress criteria on equivalent permeability in fractured rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisdom, Kevin; Bertotti, Giovanni; Nick, Hamid


    Predicting equivalent permeability in fractured reservoirs requires an understanding of the fracture network geometry and apertures. There are different methods for defining aperture, based on outcrop observations (power law scaling), fundamental mechanics (sublinear length-aperture scaling...

  11. Application of DDES and IDDES with shear layer adapted subgrid length-scale to separated flows (United States)

    Guseva, E. K.; Garbaruk, A. V.; Strelets, M. Kh


    A comparative study is conducted of the original versions of Delayed Detached- Eddy Simulation (DDES) and Improved DDES (IDDES) and these approaches combined with “shear-layer-adapted” (SLA) subgrid length-scale proposed recently for resolving the issue of delayed RANS-to-LES transition in separated shear layers in global hybrid RANS-LES approaches. Computations were carried out of two separated flows: a transonic flow past M 219 cavity and a subsonic flow over NASA wall mounted hump. Results of the computations suggest that the use of the SLA subgrid length-scale considerably accelerates transition to resolved three-dimensional turbulence in the separated shear layers and substantially improves agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Hydrophobic hydration from small to large lengthscales: Understanding and manipulating the crossover


    Rajamani, Sowmianarayanan; Truskett, Thomas M.; Garde, Shekhar


    Small and large hydrophobic solutes exhibit remarkably different hydration thermodynamics. Small solutes are accommodated in water with minor perturbations to water structure, and their hydration is captured accurately by theories that describe density fluctuations in pure water. In contrast, hydration of large solutes is accompanied by dewetting of their surfaces and requires a macroscopic thermodynamic description. A unified theoretical description of these lengthscale dependencies was pres...

  13. An updated length-scale formulation for turbulent mixing in clear and cloudy boundary layers (United States)

    Lenderink, G.; Holtslag, A. A. M.


    A new mixing-length scale is presented for turbulence-closure schemes, with special emphasis on neutral-to-convective conditions in clear and cloudy boundary layers. The length scale is intended for a prognostic turbulent-kinetic-energy closure. It is argued that present-day length-scale formulations may easily fail in one of two limiting situations. Schemes based on a local stability measure (e.g.the Richardson number) display unrealistic behaviour and instabilities in the convective limit. This strongly limits the representation of mixing in cloudy boundary layers. On the other hand, it is shown that non-local parcel methods may misrepresent mixing near the surface. The new length-scale formulation combines local and non-local stability in a new way; it uses vertical integrals over the stability (the Richardson number) in a simple 'parcel' framework. The length scale matches with surface-layer similarity for near-neutral conditions and displays a realistic convective limit. The use of the length-scale formulation can be extended easily to cloudy boundary layers. The scheme is numerically stable and computationally cheap. The behaviour of the length scale is evaluated in a single-column model (SCM) and in a high-resolution limited-area model (LAM). The SCM shows good behaviour in three cases with and without boundary-layer clouds. The prediction of the near-surface wind and temperature in the LAM compares favourably with tower measurements at Cabauw (the Netherlands).

  14. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.


    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  15. Protein micro patterned lattices to probe a fundamental lengthscale involved in cell adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Herve; Chaussy, Jacques; Block, Marc R


    Cell adhesion, a fundamental process of cell biology is involved in the embryo development and in numerous pathologies especially those related to cancers. We constrained cells to adhere on extracellular matrix proteins patterned in a micro lattices. The actin cytoskeleton is particularly sensitive to this constraint and reproducibly self organizes in simple geometrical patterns. Such highly organized cells are functional and proliferate. We performed statistical analysis of spread cells morphologies and discuss the existence of a fundamental lengthscale associated with active processes required for spreading.

  16. Fractures network analysis and interpretation in carbonate rocks using a multi-criteria statistical approach. Case study of Jebal Chamsi and Jebal Belkhir, South-western part of Tunisia (United States)

    Msaddek, Mohamed Haythem; Moumni, Yahya; Chenini, Ismail; Mercier, Eric; Dlala, Mahmoud


    The quantitative analysis of fractures in carbonate rocks across termination folds is important for the understanding of the fractures network distribution and arrangement. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis and interpretation of fracture network to identify the fracture networks type. For this reason, we used a multi-criteria statistical analysis. The distribution of directional families in all measured stations and their elemental distribution are firstly examined. Then we performed the analysis of directional criteria for each of the two and three neighbouring stations. Finally, the elemental analyses of fracture families crossing others were carried out. This methodology was applied to the folds of Jebal Chamsi and Jebal Belkhir areas located in south western Tunisia characterized by simple folds of carbonate geological formations. The application of the global and the elemental statistical analysis criteria of directional families show a random arrangement of fractures. However, elemental analysis of two and three neighbouring stations for families crossing one another shows a pseudo-organization of fracture arrangements.

  17. Coalescence judgment criteria for the interaction between two close surface cracks by WES2805 and its safety margin for brittle fracture assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kawabata


    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interaction between multiple cracks in evaluating the reliability of a structure. In this study, the stress intensity factor (K value is evaluated using the finite element method for interacting surface cracks. Although there are an infinite number of possible conditions of the locations and sizes of two close cracks, the cracks shall be located parallel to each other and have the same dimensions for simplification in this study. The K values on the crack front are calculated under various aspect ratios and relative locations. When there is a strong interaction (ΔKmax ≥ 10%, fracture analysis is generally performed after the coalescence of the two cracks by the FFS standard. As a result of the investigation of the critical condition of the positional parameters for coalescence, judgement criteria were introduced in WES2805 with some simplification. It was revealed that the coalescence process in WES2805 provides a safety margin.

  18. The length-scale dependence of strain in networks by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Botti, A.; Heinrich, M.; Richter, D. [IFF-Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Westermann, S. [Goodyear, 7750 Colmar-Berg (Luxembourg); Straube, E. [University of Halle, FB Physik, 06099 Halle (Germany)


    We present a SANS study of the length-scale dependence of chain deformation by means of a suitable labeling in dense, cross-linked elastomers of the HDH-type. This length scale is controlled by the size of the label as well as the cross-link density. The results are compared to long homopolymers. The data are analyzed by means of the tube model of topology in rubber elasticity in combination with the random-phase approximation (RPA) to account for interchain correlations. Chain degradation during cross linking is treated by the standard RPA approach for polydisperse multicomponent systems. A transition from locally freely fluctuating to tube-constrained segmental motion was observed. (orig.)

  19. The length-scale dependence of strain in networks by SANS

    CERN Document Server

    Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Heinrich, M; Richter, D; Westermann, S; Straube, E


    We present a SANS study of the length-scale dependence of chain deformation by means of a suitable labeling in dense, cross-linked elastomers of the HDH-type. This length scale is controlled by the size of the label as well as the cross-link density. The results are compared to long homopolymers. The data are analyzed by means of the tube model of topology in rubber elasticity in combination with the random-phase approximation (RPA) to account for interchain correlations. Chain degradation during cross linking is treated by the standard RPA approach for polydisperse multicomponent systems. A transition from locally freely fluctuating to tube-constrained segmental motion was observed. (orig.)

  20. Active microrheology of Chaetopterus mucus determines three intrinsic lengthscales that govern material properties

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, W J; Deheyn, D D; Morales-Sanz, A; Blair, D L; Urbach, J S; Robertson-Anderson, R M


    We characterize the scale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the Chaetopterus marine worm and determine the intrinsic lengthscales controlling distinct rheological and structural regimes. Mucus produced by this ubiquitous filter feeder serves a host of roles including filtration, protection and trapping nutrients. The ease of clean mucus extraction coupled with similarities to human mucus rheology also make Chaetopterus mucus a potential model system for elucidating human mucus mechanics. We use optically trapped microsphere probes of 2-10 microns, to induce oscillatory strains and measure mucus stress response. We show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on the strain scale (l) with three distinct regimes emerging: microscale: l_110 microns. While mucus response is similar to water for l_1 indicating that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, for l_2 the response is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, demonstrating that the mucus behaves as a continuum. However, t...

  1. A Generic Length-scale Equation For Second-order Turbulence Models of Oceanic Boundary Layers (United States)

    Umlauf, L.; Burchard, H.

    A generic transport equation for a generalized length-scale in second-order turbulence closure models for geophysical boundary layers is suggested. This variable consists of the products of powers of the turbulent kinetic energy, k, and the integral length-scale, l. The new approach generalizes traditional second-order models used in geophysical boundary layer modelling, e.g. the Mellor-Yamada model and the k- model, which, however, can be recovered as special cases. It is demonstrated how this new model can be calibrated with measurements in some typical geophysical boundary layer flows. As an example, the generic model is applied to the uppermost oceanic boundary layer directly influenced by the effects of breaking surface waves. Recent measurements show that in this layer the classical law of the wall is invalid, since there turbulence is dominated by turbulent transport of TKE from above, and not by shear-production. A widely accepted approach to describe the wave-affected layer with a one-equation turbulence model was suggested by Craig and Banner (1994). Here, some deficien- cies of their solutions are pointed out and a generalization of their ideas for the case of two-equation models is suggested. Direct comparison with very recently obtained measurements of the dissipation rate, , in the wave-affected boundary layer with com- puted results clearly demonstrate that only the generic two-equation model yields cor- rect predictions for the profiles of and the turbulent length scale, l. Also, the pre- dicted velocity profiles in the wave-affected layer, important e.g. for the interpretation of surface drifter experiments, are reproduced correctly only by the generic model. Implementation and computational costs of the generic model are comparable with traditonal two-equation models.

  2. On materials destruction criteria


    Kremnev, L. S.


    In terms of nonlinear material fracture mechanics, the real (discrete)-structure material fracture model has been developed. The model rests on the demonstration of the fact that crack resistance $K_{1c}=2\\sigma \\sqrt l$ and fracture toughness are $G_{1c}=J_{1c}=2\\sigma l$ obtained on the basis of energy conservation law and derived without linear material fracture mechanics assumptions can be respectively taken as force and energy criteria for non-linear fracture mechanics. It is shown that ...

  3. Fracture Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zehnder, Alan T


    Fracture mechanics is a vast and growing field. This book develops the basic elements needed for both fracture research and engineering practice. The emphasis is on continuum mechanics models for energy flows and crack-tip stress- and deformation fields in elastic and elastic-plastic materials. In addition to a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, the text includes practical sections on fracture criteria, fracture toughness testing, and methods for measuring stress intensity factors and energy release rates. Class-tested at Cornell, this book is designed for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and contributing to a diverse and vital field of knowledge. Alan Zehnder joined the faculty at Cornell University in 1988. Since then he has served in a number of leadership roles including Chair of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Director of the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering.  He teaches applied mechanics and his research t...

  4. Instantaneous equations for multiphase flow in porous media without length-scale restrictions using a non-local averaging volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto, E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.m [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Apartado Postal 55-535, Mexico D.F. 09340 (Mexico)


    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.

  5. Subcritical growth of natural hydraulic fractures (United States)

    Garagash, D.


    Joints are the most common example of brittle tensile failure in the crust. Their genesis at depth is linked to the natural hydraulic fracturing, which requires pore fluid pressure in excess of the minimum in situ stress [Pollard and Aidyn, JSG1988]. Depending on the geological setting, high pore pressure can result form burial compaction of interbedded strata, diagenesis, or tectonics. Common to these loading scenarios is slow build-up of pore pressure over a geological timescale, until conditions for initiation of crack growth are met on favorably oriented/sized flaws. The flaws can vary in size from grain-size cracks in igneous rocks to a fossil-size flaws in clastic rock, and once activated, are inferred to propagate mostly subcritically [Segall JGR 1984; Olson JGR 1993]. Despite many observational studies of natural hydraulic fractures, the modeling attempts appear to be few [Renshaw and Harvey JGR 1994]. Here, we use boundary integral formulation for the pore fluid inflow from the permeable rock into a propagating joint [Berchenko et al. IJRMMS 1997] coupled with the criteria for subcritical propagation assisted by the environmental effects of pore fluid at the crack tip to solve for the evolution of a penny-shape joint, which, in interbedded rock, may eventually evolve to short-blade geometry (propagation confined to a bed). Initial growth is exceedingly slow, paced by the stress corrosion reaction kinetics at the crack tip. During this stage the crack is fully-drained (i.e. the fluid pressure in the crack is equilibrated with the ambient pore pressure). This "slow" stage is followed by a rapid acceleration, driven by the increase of the mechanical stress intensity factor with the crack length, towards the terminal joint velocity. We provide an analytical expression for the latter as a function of the rock diffusivity, net pressure loading at the initiation (or flaw lengthscale), and parameters describing resistance to fracture growth. Due to a much slower

  6. Fracture Criterion for Fracture Mechanics of Magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘灏; 杨文涛


    The applicability and limitation of some fracture criteria in the fracture mechanics of magnets are studied.It is shown that the magnetic field intensity factor can be used as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is only affected by a magnetic field. For some magnetostrictive materials in which the components of magnetostriction strain do not satisfy the compatibility equation of deformation, the stress intensity factor can no longer be effectively applicable as a fracture criterion when the crack in a magnet is affected by a magnetic field and mechanical loads simultaneously.

  7. Dynamic fracture mechanics (United States)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.


    Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.

  8. A review of pelvic fractures in adult pedestrians: experimental studies involving PMHS used to determine injury criteria for pedestrian dummies and component test procedures. (United States)

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Kerrigan, Jason R; Sanchez-Molina, David; Velazquez-Ameijide, Juan; Crandall, Jeff R


    Perform a systematic review for the most relevant pelvic injury research involving PMHS. The review begins with an explanation of the pelvic anatomy and a general description of pelvic fracture patterns followed by the particular case of pelvic fractures sustained in pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Field data documenting the vehicle, crash, and human risk factors for pedestrian pelvic injuries are assessed. A summary of full-scale PMHS tests and subsystem lateral pelvic tests is provided with an interpretation of the most significant findings for the most relevant studies. Based on the mechanisms of pedestrian pelvic injury, force, acceleration, and velocity and compression have been assessed as predictive variables by researchers although no consensus criterion exists.

  9. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases. (United States)

    Dimai, Hans P


    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid prototyping of all-solution-processed multi-lengthscale electrodes using polymer-induced thin film wrinkling (United States)

    Gabardo, Christine M.; Adams-McGavin, Robert C.; Fung, Barnabas C.; Mahoney, Eric J.; Fang, Qiyin; Soleymani, Leyla


    Three-dimensional electrodes that are controllable over multiple lengthscales are very important for use in bioanalytical systems that integrate solid-phase devices with solution-phase samples. Here we present a fabrication method based on all-solution-processing and thin film wrinkling using smart polymers that is ideal for rapid prototyping of tunable three-dimensional electrodes and is extendable to large volume manufacturing. Although all-solution-processing is an attractive alternative to vapor-based techniques for low-cost manufacturing of electrodes, it often results in films suffering from low conductivity and poor substrate adhesion. These limitations are addressed here by using a smart polymer to create a conformal layer of overlapping wrinkles on the substrate to shorten the current path and embed the conductor onto the polymer layer. The structural evolution of these wrinkled electrodes, deposited by electroless deposition onto a nanoparticle seed layer, is studied at varying deposition times to understand its effects on structural parameters such as porosity, wrinkle wavelength and height. Furthermore, the effect of structural parameters on functional properties such as electro-active surface area and surface-enhanced Raman scattering is investigated. It is found that wrinkling of electroless-deposited thin films can be used to reduce sheet resistance, increase surface area, and enhance the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal.

  11. Influence of the shielding currents lengthscale and anisotropy effects on the magnetic flux profiles of high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Vanderbemden, P.; Lovchinov, V.


    The so-called "magnetic flux profile" AC inductive technique is a powerful method for determining the critical current density Jc of bulk superconductors. In this work we aim at reporting analytical expressions for magnetic flux profiles of superconducting rectangular samples exhibiting a critical current density anisotropy. The results are used for examining the error resulting from approximating a rectangular cross-section by an "infinite cylinder" or "infinite slab" geometry. It is found that such approximations can lead to an artificial curvature of the flux profiles and errors of 10%-20% in the determination of Jc. Next, the effects of how planar defects (cracks, platelet boundaries,...) affect the magnetic flux profile signal are discussed. It is found that the magnetic flux profiles are much sensitive to the lengthscale of shielding currents, thereby providing means of investigation of the typical size of induced current loops in bulk superconductors. Finally some illustrative flux profile data measured on a bulk, large grain melt-processed YBCO single domain exhibiting Jc anisotropy are presented and discussed in relation with theoretical predictions.

  12. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases]. (United States)

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R


    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  13. Study on micro mechanism-based ductile fracture criteria for Q460 steel%Q460钢基于微观机制的延性断裂判据研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳芳; 王睿智; 李文超; 周天华


    基于微观机制的断裂模型可用来预测钢结构的延性断裂。为校准Q460钢的微观断裂模型参数,进行了材料试验和对应的有限元分析,以及断口的扫描电镜试验。试件由Q460钢板焊接节点抽取的母材和熔敷金属圆棒制作而成。用自编的VUMAT子程序,分别以校准的应力修正临界应变模型(SMCS)和空穴扩张模型(VGM)为断裂判据,分析了18个圆周平滑槽口单向拉伸试件的开裂全过程,得到了裂后荷载位移曲线,其与试验结果吻合较好,验证了SMCS和VGM模型用于节点裂后路径分析的可行性。%Micromechanical facture models can be used to predict ductile fracture in steel structures. In order to calibrate the parameters in the micromechanical models for Q460 steel, material tests, their corresponding finite element analyses, and scanning electron microscope tests were conducted. The test specimens were made from round bars of base metal and deposit metal extracted from welded connections of Q460 steel plates. The VUMAT subroutine edited by the author was employed. Taking the calibrated stress modified critical strain (SMCS) model and void growth model (VGM) as fracture criteria, the whole cracking processes of eighteen circumferentially smooth-notched tensile specimens were simulated, the post-fracture load displacement curves were obtained, which are close to the test results. The results verify the feasibility of using SMCS and VGM models in the post fracture path analysis of connections.

  14. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)


    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  15. Hip Fracture (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Hip fracture By Mayo Clinic Staff A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age. Older people are at a ...

  16. Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria for Rotorcraft (United States)


    C0-C1). The maximum Nij Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria October 2011 Page 97 as measured at the cervical vertebrae (C7-T1) is 1.5 (Table...regions including the head, neck, cervical spine, upper extremities, thorax, abdomen, thoracic lumbar spine, lower extremities, and general. The body...injury mechanisms, such as fractured vertebra , ruptured spleen, or lower leg fracture are not included. Full Spectrum Crashworthiness Criteria

  17. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  18. [Atlas fractures]. (United States)

    Schären, S; Jeanneret, B


    Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.

  19. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios


    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  20. Stress Fractures (United States)

    Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...

  1. Hydraulic fracture propagation modeling and data-based fracture identification (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    Successful shale gas and tight oil production is enabled by the engineering innovation of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulically induced fractures will most likely deviate from the bi-wing planar pattern and generate complex fracture networks due to mechanical interactions and reservoir heterogeneity, both of which render the conventional fracture simulators insufficient to characterize the fractured reservoir. Moreover, in reservoirs with ultra-low permeability, the natural fractures are widely distributed, which will result in hydraulic fractures branching and merging at the interface and consequently lead to the creation of more complex fracture networks. Thus, developing a reliable hydraulic fracturing simulator, including both mechanical interaction and fluid flow, is critical in maximizing hydrocarbon recovery and optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multistage horizontal wells. A novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple nonplanar fractures' propagation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs with or without pre-existing natural fractures. Initiation, growth, and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. This physics-based modeling approach leads to realistic fracture patterns without using the empirical rock failure and fracture propagation criteria required in conventional continuum methods. Based on this model, a sensitivity study is performed to investigate the effects of perforation spacing, in-situ stress anisotropy, rock properties (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive strength), fluid properties, and natural fracture properties on hydraulic fracture propagation. In addition, since reservoirs are buried thousands of feet below the surface, the

  2. [Acetabular fractures]. (United States)

    Gänsslen, A; Oestern, H J


    Treatment of acetabular fractures requires extensive knowledge of the bony anatomy, the amount of possible exposure of the bone with the selected approaches and fracture type-dependent indications of operative treatment. Classification of the fracture with detailed analysis of the fracture morphology is the basis for decision making and planning. The primary treatment aim is the anatomic reconstruction of the acetabulum which results in optimal long-term results.The basis of this overview is the presentation of standard treatment concepts in acetabular fracture surgery. Beside characteristics of the acetabular bony anatomy, biomechanical and pathomechanical principles and the relevant radiological anatomy, the treatment options, both conservative and operative and basic principles of the indications for standard surgical approaches will be discussed.The special fracture type is discussed in detail regarding incidence, injury mechanism, concomitant injuries, options for conservative and operative treatment, quality of operative reduction and long-term results.Furthermore, epidemiological data on typical postoperative complications are evaluated.

  3. Sports fractures.


    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.


    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level o...

  4. Hamate fractures. (United States)

    Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L


    The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Colles Fracture


    Sánchez León, Belisario; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú


    Our expertise is the study of more than 2,000 cases of Colles' fractures. Colles name should in this case to synthesize the type of fractures of the lower end of the radius. There have been various proposed classifications according to the different fracture lines can be demonstrated radiologically in the region of the wrist. We believe that these ratings should only be retained if the concept of the articular fracture or not in the classical sense, since it has great value in the functional ...

  6. Spine fractures in falling accidents: analysis of multidetector CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensch, Frank V.; Kiuru, Martti J.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Koskinen, Seppo K. [Department of Radiology, Toeoeloe Trauma Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Topeliuksenkatu 5, 00029, Helsinki (Finland)


    The purpose of the present study was to assess incidence, fracture type, and location of spine fractures due to falls. All emergency room CT requests during a time period of 26 months were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had fallen or jumped and were initially examined with multidetector CT (MDCT) were included. The MDCT studies were evaluated by two radiologists for trauma location, fracture type, and multiple level involvement. A total of 237 patients (184 males, 53 female, age range 16-86 years, mean age 42 years) met the inclusion criteria. A total of 203 vertebral fractures were seen in 127 patients. Burst fracture (n=78) was the most frequent type of trauma, usually located in the thoracolumbar junction (50%). Also, compression fracture (n=52) was most common in the thoracolumbar junction (39%). Posterior column fracture (n=52) was most frequently detected in the cervical spine (40%). Multiple-level spine fractures were seen in 41 (32%) of the injured patients, of which 12 (29%) had fractures at noncontinuous levels. With increasing height the overall incidence of fractures increased, and burst fractures and multiple level spine fractures became more frequent. Age had no effect on fracture type or location. Spine fractures due to falls are common. Burst fracture is the most common fracture type and most frequently seen in the thoracolumbar junction. Multiple-level fractures were seen in 32% of the cases, of which 29% were seen at noncontinuous levels. Serious spine fractures are seen in all falling height and age groups. (orig.)

  7. Osteoporotic fractures: a brain or bone disease? (United States)

    Birge, Stanley J


    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder that predisposes individuals to increased risk of fracture. However, most osteoporotic fractures occur in women who do not meet criteria for osteoporosis. Hence, bone density, by itself, is a relatively poor predictor of fracture. Age and age-related factors are now recognized as increasingly important in determining fracture risk. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with increased disability and mortality, suggesting that osteoporosis may be a clinical manifestation of an underlying disease process affecting multiple systems. The systems affected, the musculo-skeletal system and the central nervous system, are shared in many respects with the frailty syndrome. Vitamin D deficiency is a major contributor to the frailty syndrome, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures. Its effects are mediated by the development of cerebrovascular disease, postural instability, muscle weakness, and bone fragility. Thus, osteoporotic fractures result from both a bone and brain disease.

  8. Fractures in infants and toddlers with rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Teresa; Done, Stephen [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Sugar, Naomi; Feldman, Kenneth [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Children' s Protection Program, Seattle, WA (United States); Marasigan, Joanne; Wambold, Nicolle [University of Washington, College of Arts and Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Rickets affects young infants and toddlers. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the types of fractures that occur in rachitic patients. To evaluate the age of patients at which radiographically evident rickets occurs, and to characterize the age incidence and fractures that are observed in infants and toddlers with radiographically evident rickets. A retrospective study of children younger than 24 months was performed. Clinical data and radiographs were reviewed. Radiographs obtained within 1 month of the diagnosis were evaluated for the presence or absence of osteopenia, presence or absence of fraying-cupping, and presence and characterization of fractures. After exclusion criteria were applied, 45 children were included in the study. Children with rickets evident by radiograph were in the age range of 2-24 months. Fractures were present in 17.5% of the study group, exclusively in mobile infants and toddlers. Fracture types included transverse long bone fractures, anterior and anterior-lateral rib fractures, and metaphyseal fractures. All fractures occurred exclusively in patients with severe, overtly evident rickets. Fractures occur in older infants and toddlers with overt rickets and can be seen by radiograph. Fractures do not resemble high-risk non-accidental trauma fractures. (orig.)

  9. On the Characteristics of Rheological Fracture of Rock%岩石的蠕变断裂特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈有亮; 秦爱芳; 金孝杰


    Based on the traditional theory of fracture, time-dependence of rock fracture is taken into account and the creep fracture criteria are given. The effect of the microcrack zone on fracture toughness is analyzed. Finally, a model for time prediction of rheological fracture is derived and its feasibility is proven.

  10. Crushing and Fracture of Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper


    . Crushing experiments conducted on full-scale aluminum plate intersections reveal that the crushing behaviour is highly affected by material fracture during the deformation. Several fracture criteria from the literature have been reviewed and three fracture models have been compared with material...... criteria for first-ply failure of unidirectional composites (UD), from the literature, are compared with experiments conducted on composite specimens. It is found that a failure criterion by Chang and Chang (1987) agrees well with the experiments on UD. A progressive failure procedure by Chang and Chang...

  11. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: fracture risk and prevention. (United States)

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; McClung, Michael R; Feldman, Robert G; Wysocki, Susan


    In the estrogen-regulated RANK ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathway, estrogen deficiency favors osteoclast maturation, leading to increased bone resorption compared with bone formation. Treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD) should be based on fracture risk, assessed using the WHO Fracture Risk Algorithm (FRAX(R)). Criteria for treatment are 10-year overall fracture risk ≥ 20% or 10-year hip fracture risk ≥ 3%. Vitamin D supplementation at levels higher than those traditionally recommended may be appropriate for healthy menopausal women. Multiple strategies are needed to effectively manage osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  12. Fracture mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Nestor


    The second edition of this textbook includes a refined presentation of concepts in each chapter, additional examples; new problems and sections, such as conformal mapping and mechanical behavior of wood; while retaining all the features of the original book. The material included in this book is based upon the development of analytical and numerical procedures pertinent to particular fields of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and plastic fracture mechanics (PFM), including mixed-mode-loading interaction. The mathematical approach undertaken herein is coupled with a brief review of several fracture theories available in cited references, along with many color images and figures. Dynamic fracture mechanics is included through the field of fatigue and Charpy impact testing. Explains computational and engineering approaches for solving crack-related problems using straightforward mathematics that facilitate comprehension of the physical meaning of crack growth processes; Expands computational understandin...

  13. Fracture mechanics (United States)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.


    The application of fracture mechanics to the design of ceramic structures will require the precise measurement of crack growth and fracture resistance of these materials over their entire range of anticipated service temperatures and standardized test methods for making such measurements. The development of a standard test for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness is sought. Stress intensity factor coefficients were determined for three varieties of chevron-notch specimens, and fracture toughness measurements were made on silicon nitrides, silicon carbides, and aluminum oxides to assess the performance of each specimen variety. It was determined that silicon nitride and silicon carbides have flat crack growth resistance curves, but aluminum oxide does not. Additionally, batch-to-batch differences were noticed for the aluminum oxide. Experiments are continuing to explain the rising crack growth resistance and batch-to-batch variations for the aluminum oxide.

  14. A proposal for an international brittle fracture acceptance criterion for nuclear material transport cask applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, K.B.; Salzbrenner, R.J.; Nickell, R.E.


    This paper presents a fundamental basis for a brittle fracture acceptance criterion, examine several existing criteria and propose examples for consideration as international brittle fracture acceptance criteria. The proposed criteria are intended to stimulate discussion in order to advance the development of a consensus approach. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Does Early Functional Outcome Predict 1-year Mortality in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Marković-Denić, Ljiljana; Marinković, Jelena; Nedeljković, Una; Bumbaširević, Marko


    ... fractures.A total of 228 consecutive patients (average age, 77.6 ± 7.4 years) with hip fractures who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in an open, prospective, observational cohort study...

  16. Atypical femoral fractures bilaterally in a patient receiving bisphosphonate: a case report (United States)

    Moghnie, Alessandro; Scamacca, Veronica; De Fabrizio, Giovanni; Valentini, Roberto


    Summary Atypical femoral fractures are often associated with prolonged bisphosphonate use. The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) has set the diagnosis criteria for atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures by classifying them according to their major and minor criteria. Prolonged bisphosphonate use is correlated with AFF, but the pathogenetic mechanism that causes this kind of fracture has not been defined yet. We describe simultaneous bilaterally femoral fractures in a 76-year-old woman. PMID:27252749

  17. Galeazzi fracture. (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C


    Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.

  18. Fracture Blisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uebbing, Claire M


    Full Text Available Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn.These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1;131-133.

  19. Fracture mechanical model and criteria of insidious fault water inrush in coal mines%煤矿隐伏断层突水的断裂力学模型及力学判据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈忠辉; 胡正平; 李辉; 陈庆丰


    针对导水断层和底板塑性滑移场的空间关系,把导水断层和底板塑性滑移场的最短距离视为断层突水的关键路径,建立了底板隐伏断层突水的简化断裂力学模型.利用断裂力学理论分析了含斜裂缝有限板裂缝尖端的应力强度因子计算公式,推导了导水断层发生劈裂破坏的临界水压力以及影响因素.结果表明:发生断层突水的临界水压力随着断层长度增加而减小、随着断层到底板距离的增加而减小、随着水平压力增大而增大的趋势.根据压剪裂缝扩展时翼型分支裂纹扩展理论,获得底板隐伏断层突水的必要条件是承压水达到临界水压力,充分条件为断层到煤层底板的最短距离达到一个的临界值以及相应的理论公式.%The shortest distance between a permeable fault and the mine floor is considered the main path for water inrush.A simplified fracture model of water inrush through a fault in the floor was developed based on the spatial relationship between the permeable fault and the plastic region of the floor.Fracture mechanics was used to analyze the stress intensity factor on a finite plate having an oblique crack.This allowed the critical water pressure for hydraulic splitting to be obtained.The results show that the critical water pressure decreases as the length of the fault increases.An increase in the distance between the fault and floor,and a decrease in horizontal pressure,also will cause a decrease in critical water pressure.Crack propagation theory in a state of compressive shear requires that water inrush through an insidious fault be preceded by the water pressure reaching a critical value.It is sufficient that the distance between fault and floor reach a critical value.A theoretical formula expressing these relationships is presented.

  20. Hand Fractures (United States)

    ... Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ... serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist ... When one of these hand bones is broken (fractured), it can prevent you ...

  1. Fracture source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The fracture properties of many different types of fibers are covered in a timely new book that will prove to be a tremendous source of information and references for researchers in the wide and diverse field of fibers and composites, says Bill Clegg.

  2. Rib Fractures (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... or a collapsed lung (pneumothorax—see Traumatic Pneumothorax ). An injury that fractures the lower ribs sometimes also damages the liver (see Liver ...

  3. [Thoracolumbar fractures]. (United States)

    Freslon, M; Bouaka, D; Coipeau, P; Defossez, G; Leclercq, N; Nebout, J; Marteau, E; Poilbout, N; Prebet, R


    Thoracolumbar fractures are frequent and the functional outcomes are sometimes severe. This multicentric study, including five medical centers, was performed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the patients. One hundred and thirty six patients with thoracolumbar fracture (T11 to L2) was evaluated with a minimal follow-up of two years. Every one had a clinical exam with a score of Oswestry and an X-Ray study (before and after treatment and at revision). Most of them presented compression fractures, the most often at L1 level. On X-rays, a gain was noted on the vertebral kyphosis immediately after surgery, but there is a loss of correction over time whatever the treatment. The clinical outcomes for the patients were great, with an Oswestry average score of 6,4. A correlation was noted between this functional score and vertebral kyphosis. So, an anterior column strengthening (isolated or performed during the surgery) could improve these functional outcomes. Moreover, the Thoraco Lumbar Injury Severity Score (TLISS) seems to be a simple organigram to determine the most appropriate treatment of these fractures, with particular attention to the distraction mechanism or posterior ligamentous complex lesions. However, RMI before surgery is necessary to evaluate these lesions.

  4. Experimental and finite element analysis of fracture criterion in general yielding fracture mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Kulkarni; Ravi Prakash; A N Kumar


    Efforts made over the last three decades to understand the fracture behaviour of structural materials in elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics are numerous, whereas investigations related to fracture behaviour of materials in thin sheets or general yielding fracture regimes are limited in number. Engineering simulative tests are being used to characterize formability and drawability of sheet metals. However, these tests do not assure consistency in quality of sheet metal products. The prevention of failure in stressed structural components currently requires fracture mechanics based design parameters like critical load, critical crack-tip opening displacement or fracture toughness. The present attempt would aim to fulfill this gap and generate more information thereby increased understanding on fracture behaviour of sheet metals. In the present investigation, using a recently developed technique for determining fracture criteria in sheet metals, results are generated on critical CTOD and fracture toughness. Finite element analysis was performed to support the results on various fracture parameters. The differences are within 1 to 4%. At the end it is concluded that magnitude of critical CTOD and/or critical load can be used as a fracture criterion for thin sheets.

  5. Developing consensus criteria for sarcopenia: an update. (United States)

    McLean, Robert R; Kiel, Douglas P


    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a major cause of impaired physical function, which contributes to mobility disability, falls and hospitalizations in older adults. Lower muscle mass and strength are also associated with lower bone mineral density and greater risk for osteoporotic fractures. Thus, identification of sarcopenia could be important for fracture prevention as it may help improve fracture risk assessment, and muscle mass and strength can be improved with exercise, even among the frailest older adults. Unfortunately, there are no consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Consequently there is no guidance to help clinicians identify older adults with clinically meaningful low muscle mass or weakness. Further, development of novel sarcopenia therapies is hindered not only due to the difficulty in identifying participants for clinical trials, and but also because there are no validated, clinically appropriate endpoints for assessment of treatment efficacy. There is currently a major push to establish a consensus definition of sarcopenia, and recent work holds promise that this goal may be within reach. This article discusses the evolution of the definition of sarcopenia, and focuses on the latest recommended diagnostic criteria proposed by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project. While these empirically-based cut-points for clinically important low muscle mass and weakness are a significant step forward for the sarcopenia field, important questions remain to be answered before consensus diagnostic criteria can be definitively established. Ongoing work to refine sarcopenia criteria will further advance the field and bring this important contributor to falls, fractures and disability into the mainstream of clinical care and ultimately lead to better quality of life with aging. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Experience in the management of patients with nasal fractures.


    Sahily Espino Otero; Julio Romero Rodrígez; Odalys Acevedo Sierra; Jorge Luis Estepa Pérez


    Background: Nasal fracture is the most frequent facial trauma; its immediate treatment help avoiding further complications. Objective: to characterize the patients with nasal fracture who meet the criteria for treatment. Method: An observational, descriptive study was developed, including all patients (114) of 15 years or more with nasal fracture received at the Emergency Maxilo-Facial Surgical Department in the provincial hospital of Cienfuegos from June 2006 to April 2007. The studies varia...

  7. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    Full Text Available Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM, mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs. (United States)

    Su, Yuliang; Ren, Long; Meng, Fankun; Xu, Chen; Wang, Wendong


    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM), mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP) and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing.

  9. Growth Plate Fractures (United States)

    ... the most widely used by doctors is the Salter-Harris system, described below. Type I Fractures These ... incidence of growth plate fractures peaks in adolescence. Salter-Harris classification of growth plate fractures. AAOS does ...

  10. Intramedullary nailing in distal tibial fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Arroquy


    Methods The inclusion criteria of this study were skeletally mature patients with displaced fractures of the distal tibia treated with intramedullary nail with a minimum follow up of one year. Gustilo III open fractures and type C fractures of the AO classification (complete articular Stroke were excluded. The sample comprised 35 patients remained. The follow-up was 29.2 months. We evaluated the time of consolidation, malunion and complications. The functional results were described according to the AOFAS score. Results Of the 35 patients with fracture of the distal third of the tibia all of them presented fracture healing. The average time to union was 17.2 weeks (range: 11-26. Of the total sample, 5 patients had delayed union, requiring dynamic nail on average at 12 weeks. The malunion was present in 4 (11.4% patients. We found no  difference (p = 0.201 in the time to union between fractures associated with fractures of the fibula treated (13sem or not (17sem. The AOFAS score was 86 points. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing with multiple distal locks like a good alternative treatment for distal tibia fractures AO type A or B, with low complication rate and a high rate of consolidation.

  11. Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺


    Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.

  12. Chopart fractures. (United States)

    Klaue, Kaj


    The Chopart articular space was described by François Chopart (1743-1795) as a practical space for amputations in cases of distal foot necrosis. It corresponds to the limit between the anatomical hind-foot and the mid-foot. The bones involved are the talus and the calcaneus proximally, and the navicular and the cuboid distally. This space thus holds two functionally distinct entities, the anterior part of the coxa pedis (an essential functional joint) and the calcaneo-cuboidal joint,which can be considered to be an "adaptive joint" within a normal foot. Trauma to this region may cause fractures and/or dislocations and, in high energy trauma,compartment syndromes. Principles of treatment are immediate reduction of dislocations and realignment of the medial and lateral column of the foot in length and orientation. Open reduction and internal fixation of talus and navicular fractures are often indicated to restore the "coxa pedis". Open reconstruction or fusion in correct length of the calcaneo-cuboidal joint is occasionally indicated. Salvage procedures in malunions include navicular osteotomies and calcaneo-cuboidal bone block fusions. Treatment of joint destructions, especially involving the talo-navicular joint, include triple arthrodesis.

  13. The Place of Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Rib Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bakılan


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray in detecting rib fractures in patients with minor blunt chest trauma and chest pain. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography findings of 32 patients with minor blunt chest trauma showing no evidence of a rib fracture on anteroposterior chest x-rays, were documented. Presence of cortical discontinuities, acoustic shadows, reverberation artifacts, and hematoma by ultrasonography was proposed as the diagnostic criteria for detecting the rib fracture. Results: Rib fracture was detected in 20 patients (62.5% according to ultrasonography results. A mildly displaced fracture was detected in 7 patients (35%, hematoma was detected in 3 patients (15% and multiple fractures (in 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th ribs were detected in 1 patient (5%. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray, in detecting rib fractures.

  14. Fractures of the distal radius (Colles' fracture)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    João Carlos Belloti; João Baptista Gomes dos Santos; Álvaro Nagib Atallah; Walter Manna Albertoni; Flavio Faloppa


    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Although Colles' fracture is a common clinical situation for the orthopedist, we did not find any information in the literature that would allow safe decision-making on the best treatment for each fracture type...

  15. Mixed-Mode Fracture Behavior and Related Surface Topography Feature of a Typical Sandstone (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, L. Z.; Xie, H. P.; Ai, T.; He, B.


    The geo-mechanical properties of reservoirs, especially the morphology of the rock surface and the fracture properties of rocks, are of great importance in the modeling and simulation of hydraulic processes. To better understand these fundamental issues, five groups of mixed-mode fracture tests were conducted on sandstone using edge-cracked semi-circular bend specimens. Accordingly, the fracture loads, growth paths and fracture surfaces for different initial mixities of the mixed-mode loadings from pure mode I to pure mode II were then determined. A surface topography measurement for each rough fracture surface was conducted using a laser profilometer, and the fractal properties of these surfaces were then investigated. The fracture path evolution mechanism was also investigated via optical microscopy. Moreover, the mixed-mode fracture strength envelope and the crack propagation trajectories of sandstone were theoretically modeled using three widely accepted fracture criteria (i.e., the MTS, MSED and MERR criterions). The published test results in Hasanpour and Choupani (World Acad Sci Eng Tech 41:764-769, 2008) for limestone were also theoretically investigated to further examine the effectiveness of the above fracture criteria. However, none of these criteria could accurately predict the fracture envelopes of both sandstone and limestone. To better estimate the fracture strength of mixed-mode fractures, an empirical maximum tensile stress (EMTS) criterion was proposed and found to achieve good agreement with the test results. Finally, a uniformly pressurized fracture model was simulated for low pressurization rates using this criterion.

  16. Development of structural design criteria for ITER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.


    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors such as HER presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the interim ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  17. Case study: the impact of VSB fracturing (United States)

    Dillon, Brian; Norris, Tim


    Yield of a Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) created photomask is directly related to the quality of the fracture. The quality of a fracture is determined by three criteria: split CDs, slivers, and fracture consistency. Split CDs of figures whose widths are under the beam's shot size affect the quality due to adding an unnecessary shot registration error. Slivers, or extremely skinny shots, are harmful because they increase write time, adversely affect lithography patterning, and subsequently can cause inspection errors. Inconsistent fracturing of identical geometry compounds these issues that affect uniformity. Testmask structures devoted to grading the impact of slivers and consistency will be created, manufactured, and measured to enable statistical analysis of fracture data. These structures will be systematically designed to cover a wide range of sliver widths and feature geometries. The mean to target will be evaluated for these test structures, and from this, impact on CD linearity and CD uniformity can be judged. The effect of slivers on write time will be discussed in a more general scope. When evaluating the impact of slivers, five criteria should be investigated: sliver length, sliver width, proximity, avoidability, and location. Each of these criteria either affect lithography or write time. Determining how to define the maximum width of a sliver is fracture algorithm dependent, but this paper gives guidelines that should ease that process. The goal is to fracture identical geometry in an identical fashion, regardless of orientation or mirroring, while making the shots as large as possible and avoiding slivers; and when avoiding a sliver is impossible, trying to embed the sliver between large shots.

  18. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa


    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  19. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.


    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  20. Fracture channel waves (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael


    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  1. Traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Siebenga (Jan)


    textabstractTraumatic spinal fractures have the lowest functional outcomes and the lowest rates of return to work after injury of all major organ systems.1 This thesis will cover traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures and not osteoporotic spine fractures because of the difference in fracture

  2. Assessment of fracture risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanis, John A. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); McCloskey, Eugene V. [WHO Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Osteoporosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  3. [Periprosthetic Acetabulum Fractures]. (United States)

    Schreiner, A J; Stuby, F; de Zwart, P M; Ochs, B G


    In contrast to periprosthetic fractures of the femur, periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are rare complications - both primary fractures and fractures in revision surgery. This topic is largely under-reported in the literature; there are a few case reports and no long term results. Due to an increase in life expectancy, the level of patients' activity and the number of primary joint replacements, one has to expect a rise in periprosthetic complications in general and periprosthetic acetabular fractures in particular. This kind of fracture can be intra-, peri- or postoperative. Intraoperative fractures are especially associated with insertion of cementless press-fit acetabular components or revision surgery. Postoperative periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are usually related to osteolysis, for example, due to polyethylene wear. There are also traumatic fractures and fractures missed intraoperatively that lead to some kind of insufficiency fracture. Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum are treated conservatively if the implant is stable and the fracture is not dislocated. If surgery is needed, there are many possible different surgical techniques and challenging approaches. That is why periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum should be treated by experts in pelvic surgery as well as revision arthroplasty and the features specific to the patient, fracture and prosthetic must always be considered. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Imaging of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Panda


    Full Text Available Vertebral fracture is a common clinical problem. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of non-traumatic vertebral fracture. Often, vertebral fractures are not clinically suspected due to nonspecific presentation and are overlooked during routine interpretation of radiologic investigations. Moreover, once detected, many a times the radiologist fails to convey to the clinician in a meaningful way. Hence, vertebral fractures are a constant cause of morbidity and mortality. Presence of vertebral fracture increases the chance of fracture in another vertebra and also increases the risk of subsequent hip fracture. Early detection can lead to immediate therapeutic intervention improving further the quality of life. So, in this review, we wish to present a comprehensive overview of vertebral fracture imaging along with an algorithm of evaluation of vertebral fractures.

  5. Response of wells producing layered reservoirs: Unequal fracture length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, R.G.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.


    The response of fractured wells producing noncommunicating layered reservoirs is the focus of this work. The conductivity of the fracture is assumed to be finite. The fracture length is assumed to vary from layer to layer. Two modes of production - constant wellbore pressure and constant rate - are considered. In the first part, the fractures are assumed to communicate only at the wellbore. The results given in this section are intended to provide engineers with analytical capabilities to examine responses in wells where the layers that have been stimulated are separated by considerable distances. Procedures to interpret the results of pressure buildup and/or production tests (drawdown responses) in terms of layer properties are presented. Criteria to ensure maximum productivity are specified. The second part examines well responses when the fractures are in communication at points other than the wellbore. All other things being identical, we show that communication between fractures increases productivity.

  6. Response of wells producing layered reservoirs: Unequal fracture length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-V., R.G.; Raghavan, R.; Reynolds, A.C.


    The response of fractured wells producing noncommunicating layered reservoirs is the focus of this work. The conductivity of the fracture is assumed to be finite. The fracture length is assumed to vary from layer to layer. Two modes of production--constant wellbore pressure and constant rate--are considered. In the first part of this work the fractures are assumed to communicate only at the wellbore. The results given in this section are intended to provide engineers with analytical capabilities to examine responses in wells where the layers that have been stimulated are separated by considerable distances. Procedures to interpret the results of pressure buildup and/or production tests (drawdown responses) in terms of layer properties are presented. Criteria to ensure maximum productivity are specified. The second part of this work examines well responses when the fractures are in communication at points other than the wellbore. All other things being identical, the authors show that communication between fractures increases productivity.

  7. Sliding contact fracture of dental ceramics: Principles and validation. (United States)

    Ren, Linlin; Zhang, Yu


    Ceramic prostheses are subject to sliding contact under normal and tangential loads. Accurate prediction of the onset of fracture at two contacting surfaces holds the key to greater long-term performance of these prostheses. In this study, building on stress analysis of Hertzian contact and considering fracture criteria for linear elastic materials, a constitutive fracture mechanics relation was developed to incorporate the critical fracture load with the contact geometry, coefficient of friction and material fracture toughness. Critical loads necessary to cause fracture under a sliding indenter were calculated from the constitutive equation, and compared with the loads predicted from elastic stress analysis in conjunction with measured critical load for frictionless normal contact-a semi-empirical approach. The major predictions of the models were calibrated with experimentally determined critical loads of current and future dental ceramics after contact with a rigid spherical slider. Experimental results conform with the trends predicted by the models.

  8. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Mobli, Hossein


    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  9. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)


    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  10. Intestinal dysfunction associated with acute thoracolumbar fractures. (United States)

    Peschiera, J L; Beerman, S P


    The frequency of intestinal dysfunction, particularly intestinal ileus, among patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise was assessed. We reviewed the medical records of 70 patients who met specific criteria. Only four (6%) of these patients developed intestinal dysfunction, manifested by vomiting, abdominal distention, diminished bowel sounds, or an intestinal ileus documented by an abdominal roentgenogram. Conservative initial nutritional management of the patients did not reduce the incidence of intestinal dysfunction. This study suggests that patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise are not at substantial risk of intestinal dysfunction and that nasogastric suction and restriction of oral intake are unnecessary in the initial management of these patients.

  11. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  12. Plating of proximal humeral fractures. (United States)

    Martetschläger, Frank; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Weier, Michael; Sandmann, Gunther; Ahrens, Philipp; Braun, Karl; Elser, Florian; Stöckle, Ulrich; Freude, Thomas


    The optimal treatment for proximal humeral fractures is controversial. Few data exist concerning the influence of the surgical approach on the outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal humeral fractures treated with locking plate fixation through a deltopectoral vs an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. Of 86 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 70 were available for follow-up examination. Thirty-three patients were treated through a deltopectoral approach and 37 through an anterolateral deltoid-splitting approach. In all cases, open reduction and internal fixation with a PHILOS locking plate (Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) was performed. Clinical follow-up included evaluation of pain, shoulder mobility, and strength. Constant score and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score were assessed. A clinical neurological examination of the axillary nerve was also performed. Consolidation, reduction, and appearance of head necrosis were evaluated radiographically. After a mean follow-up of 33 months, Constant scores, DASH scores, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed no significant differences between the groups. Clinical neurologic examination of the axillary nerve revealed no obvious damage to the nerve in either group. Deltopectoral and anterolateral detoid-splitting approaches for plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures are safe and provide similar clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the approach can be chosen according to surgeon preference.

  13. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures (United States)

    ... energy collisions, such as an automobile or motorcycle crash, are common causes of tibial sha fractures. In cases like these, the bone can be broken into several pieces (comminuted fracture). Sports injuries, such as a fall while skiing or running ...

  14. Fractures in anisotropic media (United States)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  15. Sprains, Strains and Fractures (United States)

    ... Young Physicians Annual Scientific Meeting Webinars Careers in Podiatry APMA 2040 Student Profiles CPME REdRC Manage Your ... and fractures. Many fractures and sprains occur during sports. Football players are particularly vulnerable to foot and ...

  16. Hip fracture - discharge (United States)

    ... this page: // Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  17. Hip fracture surgery (United States)

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis - hip ... You may receive general anesthesia for this surgery. This means you ... spinal anesthesia . With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  18. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare (United States)

    ... page: // Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... that connect your ankle to your toes. A stress fracture is a break in the bone that ...

  19. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures. (United States)

    Benazzo, Francesco; Formagnana, Mario; Bargagliotti, Marco; Perticarini, Loris


    The aim of this article is to propose a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the acetabular periprosthetic fractures. This article explores the current literature on the epidemiology, causes and classification of periprosthetic acetabular fractures. Integrating data with the experience of the authors, it offers a guide to diagnosis and possible therapeutic strategies. Intra-operative fractures can occur during rasping, reaming or implant impaction, and they must be treated immediately if the component(s) is (are) unstable. Post-operative fractures can be due to major trauma (acute fractures) or minor forces in bone osteolysis; it is possible to plan reconstruction and fixation according to fracture characteristics. Treatment choice depends upon fracture site and implant stability. Periprosthetic acetabular fractures are uncommon complications that can occur intra-operatively or post-operatively, and a reconstructive surgeon must be able to manage the procedure. Accurate planning and reconstruction implant are necessary to achieve good cup stability.

  20. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture


    Griffith, James F.


    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral f...

  1. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine (United States)

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  2. Constant rate solutions for a fractured well with an asymmetric fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berumen, S.; Rodriguez, F. [PEMEX E and P and UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Postal 70-256, 04510 Coyoacan (Mexico); Tiab, D. [School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, T301 SEC Norman, OK (United States)


    This paper presents solutions for the pressure response on hydraulically fractured wells flowing at constant flow rate through an asymmetric vertical fracture. The pressure behavior of wells intercepting asymmetric fractures of both infinite and finite conductivity was investigated by solving numerically and analytically the mathematical model. The new solutions developed for the dimensionless wellbore pressure under production at constant flow rate are presented in terms of an asymmetry factor {xi}. New curves for these systems were generated and the deviation from the classical solution was readily detected. Some qualitative criteria to interpret the intensity of this effect are provided. Results of our investigation indicated that at early times for fractures of moderate conductivity (C{sub D}<5) the characteristic slope of one fourth is present, except for cases of strong asymmetry (0.85<{xi}{<=}1) where no evidence of straight line having one fourth slope was observed. However, it was also detected that at intermediate fracture conductivities (5fracture characterization of fractured wells.

  3. Evaluation of vertebral hidden fractures in patients with proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Sebben


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the Spine Deformity Index (SDI and serum levels of vitamin D in patients surgically treated for proximal femur fracture and its relationship with osteoporosis. Methods: Between August and November 2013, patients older than 50 years-old with surgical fracture of the proximal femur by low-energy trauma underwent radiographic evaluation of the spine and the vitamin D levels, and enquired about diagnoses and previous treatment of osteoporosis. Results: Sixty-six patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 78 years; the average level of vitamin D was 19 ng/mL. The SDI ranged between zero and 25, with a mean of 8.2. Eighty percent of these patients had never been treated for osteoporosis. Of the patients analyzed, 89.3% had insufficient levels of vitamin D. Of these, 68.1% had also SDI above 5, and only one fifth of them had any treatment for osteoporosis. Statistical significance was found between age and levels of vitamin D as well as age and SDI. Gender was not predictive of the vitamin D levels or the amount of hidden spine fractures. The season of the year had no direct influence on vitamin D levels. Conclusions: Hospitalized patients with surgical fractures of the proximal femur had a higher SDI associated with vitamin D insufficiency, with osteoporosis most often untreated, which results in delayed spinal fractures diagnosis of spinal fractures and increased risk of new fractures.

  4. Fracture prevention in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusens, PP; Sambrook, P.N.; Lems, W.F.


    The lifetime risk of experiencing a fracture in 50-year-old men is lower (20%) than the risk in women (50%). Consequently, much less research has been carried out on osteoporosis and fracture risk in men. Differences in the risk and incidence of fractures between men and women are related to differe

  5. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)


    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T


    This paper proposes an alternative methodology to determine the failure criteria for use in dynamic simulations of radioactive material shipping packages in the events of hypothetical accident conditions. The current stress failure criteria defined in the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.6 [1] and the ASME Code, Section III, Appendix F [2] for Level D Service Loads are based on the ultimate strength of uniaxial tensile test specimen rather than on the material fracture in the state of multi-axial stresses. On the other hand, the proposed strain-based failure criteria are directly related to the material failure mechanisms in multi-axial stresses. In addition, unlike the stress-based criteria, the strain-based failure criteria are applicable to the evaluation of cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads in the hypothetical accident events as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.8 [4].

  7. Fragility fracture: recent developments in risk assessment. (United States)

    Aspray, Terry J


    More than half of older women who sustain a fragility fracture do not have osteoporosis by World Health Organization (WHO) bone mineral density (BMD) criteria; and, while BMD has been used to assess fracture risk for over 30 years, a range of other skeletal and nonskeletal clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture have been recognized. More than 30 assessment tools using CRFs have been developed, some predicting fracture risk and others low BMD alone. Recent systematic reviews have reported that many tools have not been validated against fracture incidence, and that the complexity of tools and the number of CRFs included do not ensure best performance with poor assessment of (internal or comparative) validity. Internationally, FRAX® is the most commonly recommended tool, in addition to QFracture in the UK, The Canadian Association of Radiologists and Osteoporosis Canada (CAROC) tool in Canada and Garvan in Australia. All tools estimate standard 10-year risk of major osteoporotic and 10-year risk of hip fracture: FRAX® is able to estimate fracture risk either with or without BMD, but CAROC and Garvan both require BMD and QFracture does not. The best evidence for the utility of these tools is in case finding but there may be future prospects for the use of 10-year fracture risk as a common currency with reference to the benefits of treatment, whether pharmacological or lifestyle. The use of this metric is important in supporting health economic analyses. However, further calibration studies will be needed to prove that the tools are robust and that their estimates can be used in supporting treatment decisions, independent of BMD.

  8. Proximal humerus fractures. (United States)

    Price, Matthew C; Horn, Pamela L; Latshaw, James C


    Proximal humerus fractures are among the most common fractures associated with osteoporosis. With an aging population, incidence of these fractures will only increase. The proximal humerus not only forms the lateral portion of the shoulder articulation but also has significant associations with musculoskeletal and neurovascular structures. As a result, fractures of the proximal humerus can significantly impact not only the function of the shoulder joint, but the health and function of the entire upper extremity as well. Understanding of these fractures, the management options, and associated nursing care, can help reduce morbidity rate and improve functional outcomes.

  9. Stress fractures in runners. (United States)

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T


    Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention.

  10. Role of MRI in hip fractures, including stress fractures, occult fractures, avulsion fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtrab, O. [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, V.N., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom); Lalam, R.; Tins, B.; Tyrrell, P.N.M.; Singh, J. [Department of Radiology, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Gobowen, Oswestry Shropshire SY10 7AG (United Kingdom)


    MR imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of hip fractures in all age groups, in a large spectrum of patient groups spanning the elderly and sporting population. It allows a confident exclusion of fracture, differentiation of bony from soft tissue injury and an early confident detection of fractures. There is a spectrum of MR findings which in part is dictated by the type and cause of the fracture which the radiologist needs to be familiar with. Judicious but prompt utilisation of MR in patients with suspected hip fractures has a positive therapeutic impact with healthcare cost benefits as well as social care benefits.

  11. Fractures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K


    In a cross-sectional study of 299 MS patients 22 have had fractures and of these 17 after onset of MS. The fractures most frequently involved the femoral neck and trochanter (41%). Three patients had had more than one fracture. Only 1 patient had osteoporosis. The percentage of fractures increased...... with increasing age and disease duration. Among 34 deceased MS patients 4 had had fractures. These findings are discussed in relation to physical and cognitive impairment in MS. A case-control study is recommended....

  12. [Fractures of carpal bones]. (United States)

    Lögters, T; Windolf, J


    Fractures of the carpal bones are uncommon. On standard radiographs fractures are often not recognized and a computed tomography (CT) scan is the diagnostic method of choice. The aim of treatment is to restore pain-free and full functioning of the hand. A distinction is made between stable and unstable carpal fractures. Stable non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively. Unstable and displaced fractures have an increased risk of arthritis and non-union and should be stabilized by screws or k‑wires. If treated adequately, fractures of the carpal bones have a good prognosis. Unstable and dislocated fractures have an increased risk for non-union. The subsequent development of carpal collapse with arthrosis is a severe consequence of non-union, which has a heterogeneous prognosis.

  13. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph


    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  14. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen


    Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...... Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... type" fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1-C3/4 posterior fusion and the course...

  15. Numerical evaluation of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Zhihong Zhao; Lanru Jing


    Knowledge of the strength and deformability of fractured rocks is important for design, construction and stability evaluation of slopes, foundations and underground excavations in civil and mining engineering. However, laboratory tests of intact rock samples cannot provide information about the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses that include many fractures of varying sizes, orientations and locations. On the other hand, large-scale in situ tests of fractured rock masses are economically costly and often not practical in reality at present. Therefore, numerical modeling becomes necessary. Numerical predicting using discrete element methods (DEM) is a suitable approach for such modeling because of their advantages of explicit representations of both fractures system geometry and their constitutive behaviors of fractures, besides that of intact rock matrix. In this study, to generically determine the compressive strength of fractured rock masses, a series of numerical experiments were performed on two-dimensional discrete fracture network models based on the realistic geometrical and mechanical data of fracture systems from field mapping. We used the UDEC code and a numerical servo-controlled program for controlling the progressive compressive loading process to avoid sudden violent failure of the models. The two loading conditions applied are similar to the standard laboratory testing for intact rock samples in order to check possible differences caused by such loading conditions. Numerical results show that the strength of fractured rocks increases with the increasing confining pressure, and that deformation behavior of fractured rocks follows elasto-plastic model with a trend of strain hardening. The stresses and strains obtained from these numerical experiments were used to fit the well-known Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) and Hoek-Brown (H-B) failure criteria, represented by equivalent material properties defining these two criteria. The results show

  16. Formability Prediction of Advanced High Strength Steel with a New Ductile Fracture Criterion (United States)

    Lou, Yanshan; Lim, Sungjun; Huh, Jeehyang; Huh, Hoon


    A ductile fracture criterion is newly proposed to accurately predict forming limit diagrams (FLD) of sheet metals. The new ductile fracture criterion is based on the effect of the non-dimensional stress triaxiality, the stress concentration factor and the effective plastic strain on the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. The new ductile fracture criterion has been applied to estimate the formability of four kind advanced high strength steels (AHSS): DP780, DP980, TRIP590, and TWIP980. FLDs predicted are compared with experimental results and those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The comparison demonstrates that FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion are in better agreement with experimental FLDs than those predicted by other ductile fracture criteria. The better agreement of FLDs predicted by the new ductile fracture criterion is because conventional ductile fracture criteria were proposed for fracture prediction in bulk metal forming while the new one is proposed to predict the onset of fracture in sheet metal forming processes.

  17. Experience in the management of patients with nasal fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahily Espino Otero


    Full Text Available Background: Nasal fracture is the most frequent facial trauma; its immediate treatment help avoiding further complications. Objective: to characterize the patients with nasal fracture who meet the criteria for treatment. Method: An observational, descriptive study was developed, including all patients (114 of 15 years or more with nasal fracture received at the Emergency Maxilo-Facial Surgical Department in the provincial hospital of Cienfuegos from June 2006 to April 2007. The studies variables were age, sex, aetiology, clinical signs, classification depending on the fractures focus and direction of the trauma, treatment following the guidelines for good clinical practices and post-treatment assessment. Results: There was higher incidence of males and the age group between 15 and 44. The main cause of fracture were fights, the most frequent clinical sign was epistaxis. The most common fractures were closed fractures and lateral deviation fractures. Most of the patients received immediate treatment. Among the clinical postsurgical sing was nasal congestion. Conclusions: We proved that immediate care should be provided to patients with this kind of fractures with local anaesthesia to avoid further risks.

  18. Study on mechanical parameters of fractured rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are prerequisite for stability analysis of geotechnical engineering projects constructed in fractured rock masses which are encountered frequently in western china.Based on generated mesh of fractured rock masses,combined with statistic damage constitutive model of intact rock and damage model of structural plane,progressive failure of fractured rock masses is studied using finite element method(FEM) .Furthermore,Scale effect and anisotropy of compressive strength of fractured rock masses are studied.Study results show that the strength decreases and tend towards stability rapidly from intact rock to fractured rock masses,and the anisotropy of strength of fractured rock masses is not significant.At last,based on numerical simulation conducted on 10 m scale rock masses under different confining pressures,the equivalent strength parameters of fractured rock masses are gained and the results are compared with Hoek-Brown criteria.The method developed is helpful for determination of strength parameters of fractured rock masses.

  19. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;


    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  20. Meteor Stream Membership Criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J


    Criteria for the membership of individual meteors in meteor streams are discussed from the point of view of their mathematical and also physical properties. Discussion is also devoted to the motivation. It is shown that standardly used criteria (mainly D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins, 1963) have unusual mathematical properties in the sense of a term ``distance'', between points in a phase space, and, physical motivation and realization for the purpose of obtaining their final form is not natural and correct, and, moreover, they lead also to at least surprising astrophysical results. General properties of possible criteria are discussed. A new criterion for the membership in meteor streams is suggested. It is based on probability theory. Finally, a problem of meteor orbit determination for known parent body is discussed.

  1. Physical concept of shear fracture mesomechanism and its applications (United States)

    Dzidowski, Edward


    The key objective of the present paper is an attempt to create an interface between the existing inconsistent views on the microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the mechanism of plastic deformation and shear fracture. This will be enabled by a focus on the course and effects of the evolution of dislocation structure, and will consist in considering an indirect, i.e. a mesoscopic scale of the discussed phenomena. Thanks to this, a synergy between the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of materials will be proven, which will provide an opportunity for a smooth transfer from the microscopic, through mesoscopic, to macroscopic scale of the analysed phenomena. This in turn will offer an opportunity to define and use the new criteria for controlling the mechanism of shear fracture. These criteria will be applicable to the complete range of temperatures and strain rates which are typical of metal working processes. Some examples of how these criteria may be applied in order to optimise the parameters of metal working will also be provided. These examples have made it possible to prove that the physical approach to shear fracture mesomechanism offers much broader cognitive and utilitarian opportunities than the existing purely mathematical methods. This is due to the fact that the physical approach allows for a deeper understanding of shear fracture meso- and macromechanism, and generates new criteria controlling this mechanism.

  2. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.


    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  3. [Fracture endoprosthesis of distal humerus fractures]. (United States)

    Müller, L P; Wegmann, K; Burkhart, K J


    The treatment of choice for fractures of the distal humerus is double plate osteosynthesis. Due to anatomical preshaped angle stable plates the primary stability and management of soft tissues has been improved. However, osteoporotic comminuted fractures in the elderly are often not amenable to stable osteosynthesis and total elbow arthroplasty has been established as an alternative therapy. Although complication rates have been reduced, complications of total elbow arthroplasty are still much more frequent than in total hip replacement. Furthermore, patients are advised not to exceed a weight bearing of 5 kg. Therefore, the indications for elbow arthroplasty must be evaluated very strictly and should be reserved for comminuted distal humeral fractures in the elderly with poor bone quality that are not amenable to stable osteosynthesis or for simple fractures in cases of preexisting symptomatic osteoarthritis. This article introduces and discusses modern concepts of elbow arthroplasty, such as modular convertible prosthesis systems, hemiarthroplasty and radial head replacement in total elbow arthroplasty.

  4. A tool for computing time-dependent permeability reduction of fractured volcanic conduit margins. (United States)

    Farquharson, Jamie; Wadsworth, Fabian; Heap, Michael; Baud, Patrick


    Laterally-oriented fractures within volcanic conduit margins are thought to play an important role in tempering eruption explosivity by allowing magmatic volatiles to outgas. The permeability of a fractured conduit margin - the equivalent permeability - can be modelled as the sum of permeability contributions of the edifice host rock and the fracture(s) within it. We present here a flexible MATLAB® tool which computes the time-dependent equivalent permeability of a volcanic conduit margin containing ash-filled fractures. The tool is designed so that the end-user can define a wide range of input parameters to yield equivalent permeability estimates for their application. The time-dependence of the equivalent permeability is incorporated by considering permeability decrease as a function of porosity loss in the ash-filled fractures due to viscous sintering (after Russell and Quane, 2005), which is in turn dependent on the depth and temperature of each fracture and the crystal-content of the magma (all user-defined variables). The initial viscosity of the granular material filling the fracture is dependent on the water content (Hess and Dingwell, 1996), which is computed assuming equilibrium depth-dependent water content (Liu et al., 2005). Crystallinity is subsequently accounted for by employing the particle-suspension rheological model of Mueller et al. (2010). The user then defines the number of fractures, their widths, and their depths, and the lengthscale of interest (e.g. the length of the conduit). Using these data, the combined influence of transient fractures on the equivalent permeability of the conduit margin is then calculated by adapting a parallel-plate flow model (developed by Baud et al., 2012 for porous sandstones), for host rock permeabilities from 10-11 to 10-22 m2. The calculated values of porosity and equivalent permeability with time for each host rock permeability is then output in text and worksheet file formats. We introduce two dimensionless

  5. Medical Cost Analysis of the Osteoporotic Hip Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Çamur


    Full Text Available Objective: Osteoporotic hip fractures decrease the life expectancy for 20% about 20-50% of the patients become permanently dependent in terms of walking for the rest of their life. Life expectancy is increasing in Turkey in the last 20 years. We investigated the impact of osteoporotic hip fractures which increase the morbidity and mortality on the national economy. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 patients admitted to our emergency department with the diagnosis of femur intertrochanteric fracture and femoral neck fracture between 2008 and 2012 were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records and the medical costs of these patients from hospital information management system. Results: Of the 81 patients 32 (39.6% males and 49 (60.4% females meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The mean age was 80.1 years (range, 61-103. Twenty-three (27.5% patients had femoral neck fracture and 58 (72.5% patients had intertrochanteric femur fracture. The mean length of hospital stay was 13.4 days in intertrochanteric femur fracture and 15.5 days in femoral neck fracture; average of the total days of hospitalization of all patients was 13.9 days. The average treatment cost per patient was 5,912.36 TL for intertrochanteric fractures, 5,753.00 TL for neck fractures, and 5,863.09 TL for the whole patient population. Conclusion: Hip fracture is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. Taking preventive measures before the fracture occurs may help to prevent this problem which has a high cost treatment and which is a substantial burden for the national economy.

  6. Jaw fractures in children. (United States)

    Kotilainen, R; Kärjä, J; Kullaa-Mikkonen, A


    From a total of 350 jaw fractures treated in 1980-1984 at Kuopio University Central Hospital, 20% were in children. These injuries were evaluated retrospectively regarding age, sex, incidence and etiology. Forty-five of the patients were boys and 25 girls. The frequency of maxillary and mandibular fractures in 70 young patients was 28.6%. The most common type of bone fractures was fracture of the alveolar process, which was prevalent in persons with mixed dentition. Before the age of 7 years, falls from height were the common causes of jaw fractures. The major cause of the jaw fractures in children from 7 to 15 years old was road accidents (47.1%), especially in boys. Most of these were cycling accidents, only a few patients were victims of automobile accidents. In addition, about one third (25.7%) of the patients were treated in the hospital because of multiple injuries to other organs.

  7. Growing skull fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Miljan H.


    Full Text Available Background. Growing skull fracture or craniocerebral erosion is a rare complication of linear skull fracture in childhood. It is characterized by progressive diastatic enlargement of the fracture line, which leads to a cranial defect, dural cleft, and cerebral herniation. It is presented as a soft pulsabile scalp swelling above the fracture, with a clear cranial defect. Case report. In this paper we presented a patient, an 8-month-old boy with the growing skull fracture revealed four weeks after the injury. After the surgical treatment, the boy was in a good general condition without the presence of neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Early recognition of craniocerebral erosion is very important. Timely detection prevents further progression of the disease and the evolution of neurological impairment. Surgery is the method of choice for treating a growing skull fracture .

  8. Location of fractures and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures: analyses of 38 Japanese cases. (United States)

    Hyodo, Kojiro; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Daisuke; Mishima, Hajime; Yamazaki, Masashi


    The purpose of this study was to determine fracture location and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). We studied 38 AFFs in 34 patients admitted to our institution between November 2007 and July 2013. The diagnostic criteria for the AFFs were based on 2014 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research guidelines. We classified the fracture location as proximal, middle, or distal to trisect the femoral diaphysis from just distal to the lesser trochanter to just proximal to the supracondylar flare. Bowing was defined as a line through the inside of the tip of the great trochanter and a condylar center that was outside the medullary cavity. We investigated the fracture's location, existence of coronal bowing, and bisphosphonates (BPs), glucocorticoids (GCs), and proton pump inhibitors therapy. We analyzed associations between fracture location and demographic and clinical factors. Twelve fractures were proximal, 25 were middle, and one was distal. Nineteen limbs showed femoral bowing. Thirty-one patients received BP treatment-20 patients received alendronic acid, eight risedronic acid, and three minodronic acid. Fourteen patients received a GC, and 16 received a proton pump inhibitor. There was a significant association between coronal bowing and middle fracture locations, GC therapy and proximal fracture locations, and older age and middle fracture locations. Tall height and heavy weight had an association with proximal fracture location, and short height and light weight had an association with middle fracture location. In conclusion, we provide evidence supporting a causal relationship between BP-related severely suppressed bone turnover and AFFs. We also provide evidence supporting additional influences from altered distribution of mechanical stress with femoral bowing and various factors, such as GC therapy, age, body weight, and height, which might negatively affect bone intensity and quality and result in fracture.

  9. Pelvic fractures and mortality.


    K.H. Chong; DeCoster, T.; Osler, T.; Robinson, B.


    A retrospective study of all patients (N = 343) with pelvic fractures admitted to our trauma service was conducted to evaluate the impact of pelvic fractures on mortality. All patients sustained additional injuries with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of twenty. Thirty-six patients died. This group had more severe pelvic fractures as graded by the Tile classification as well as a greater number and severity of associated injuries. Six patients died as a direct result of pelvic hemorrha...

  10. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen;


    was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion......Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...

  11. Conservatively treated acetabular fractures: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narender Kumar Magu


    Full Text Available Background: There are a few studies reporting the long term outcome of conservatively treated acetabular fractures. The present study aims to evaluate the quality of reduction, and radiological and functional outcome in displaced acetabular fractures treated conservatively. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine patients (55 men and 14 women with 71 displaced acetabular fractures (mean age 38.6 years managed conservatively were retrospectively evaluated. There were 11 posterior wall, 5 posterior column, 6 anterior column, 13 transverse, 2 posterior column with posterior wall, 9 transverse with posterior wall, 6 T-shaped, 1 anterior column with posterior hemi-transverse, and 18 both-column fractures. The follow-up radiographs were graded according to the criteria developed by Matta J. Functional outcome was assessed using Harris hip score and Merle d′Aubigne and Postel score at final followup. Average follow-up was 4.34 years (range 2-11 years. Results: Patients with congruent reduction (n=45 had good or excellent functional outcome. Radiologic outcome in incongruent reduction (n=26 was good or excellent in 6 and fair or poor in 20 hips. The functional outcome in patients with incongruent reduction was good or excellent in 16 and satisfactory or poor in 10 hips. Good to excellent radiologic and functional outcome was achieved in all patients with posterior wall fractures including four having more than 50% of broken wall. Good to excellent functional outcome was observed in 88.8% of both-column fractures with secondary congruence despite medial subluxation. Conclusions: Nonoperative treatment of acetabular fractures can give good radiological and functional outcome in congruent reduction. Posterior wall fractures with a congruous joint without subluxation on computed tomography axial section, posterior column, anterior column, infratectal transverse or T-shaped, and both-column fractures may be managed conservatively. Small osteochondral fragments

  12. [(Impending) pathological fracture]. (United States)

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P


    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  13. Fracture mechanics safety approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Eisele, U. [Materials Testing Inst. (MPA), Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)


    Component integrity assessments require the knowledge of reliable fracture toughness parameters characterising the initiation of the failure process in the whole relevant temperature range. From a large number of fracture mechanics tests a statistically based procedure was derived allowing to quantify the initiation of fracture toughness as a function of temperature as a closed function as well as the temperature dependence of the cleavage instability parameters. Alternatively to the direct experimental determination one also can use a correlation between fracture toughness and notch impact energy. (orig.)

  14. Scaphoid fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe


    Full Text Available Introduction. Scaphoid fractures are rare in childhood. Diagnosis is very difficult to establish because carpal bones are not fully ossified. In suspected cases comparative or delayed radiography is used, as well as computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and bone scintigraphy. Majority of scaphoid fractures are treated conservatively with good results. In case of delayed fracture healing various types of treatment are available. Objective. To determine the mechanism of injury, clinical healing process, types and outcome of treatment of scaphoid fractures in children. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone over a ten-year period (2002-2011. The outcome of the treatment of “acute” scaphoid fracture was evaluated using the Mayo Wrist Score. Results. There were in total 34 patients, of mean age 13.8 years, with traumatic closed fracture of the scaphoid bone, whose bone growth was not finished yet. Most common injury mechanism was fall on outstretched arm - 76% of patients. During the examined period 31 children with “acute” fracture underwent conservative treatment, with average immobilization period of 51 days. Six patients were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 25 patients, after completed rehabilitation, functional results determined by the Mayo Wrist Score were excellent. Conclusion. Conservative therapy of “acute” scaphoid fractures is an acceptable treatment option for pediatric patients with excellent functional results.

  15. Atraumatic First Rib Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu


    Full Text Available Rib fractures are usually seen after a trauma, while atraumatic spontaneous rib fractures are quite rare. A first rib fracture identified in our 17 years old female patient who had not a history of trauma except lifting a heavy weight was examined in details in terms of the potential complications and followed-up for a long time. We presented our experience on this case with atraumatic first rib fracture that has different views for the etiology in light of the literature.

  16. Fracture of the styloid process associated with the mandible fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Dubey


    Full Text Available Fracture of the styloid process (SP of temporal bone is an uncommon injuries. Fracture of the SP can be associated with the facial injuries including mandible fracture. However, injury to the SP may be concealed and missed diagnosis may lead to the improper or various unnecessary treatments. A rare case of SP fracture associated with the ipsilateral mandibular fracture and also the diagnostic and management considerations of the SP fracture are discussed.

  17. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens


    the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions.......This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...

  18. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.


    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in conjunc......This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen...... in conjunction with the one on the theoretical framework for robustness (Sørensen et al. 2009). In the present factsheet, the focus is on normative implications....

  19. Hip Fractures among Older Adults (United States)

    ... online training for health care providers. Learn More Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... get older. What You Can Do to Prevent Hip Fractures You can prevent hip fractures by taking steps ...

  20. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant


    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  1. Pneumothorax complicating isolated clavicle fracture. (United States)

    Hani, Redouane; Ennaciri, Badr; Jeddi, Idriss; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh


    Isolated clavicle fractures are among the commonest of traumatic fractures in the emergency department. Complications of isolated clavicle fractures are rare. Pneumothorax has been described as a complication of a fractured clavicle only rarely in English literature. In all the reported cases, the pneumothorax was treated by a thoracostomy and the clavicle fracture was treated conservatively. In our case, the pneumothorax required a chest drain insertion and the clavicle fracture was treated surgically with good result.

  2. Length-scale dependent phonon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Gyaneshwar


    This book presents  a comprehensive description of phonons and their interactions in systems with different dimensions and length scales. Internationally-recognized leaders describe theories and measurements of phonon interactions  in relation to the design of materials with exotic properties such as metamaterials, nano-mechanical systems, next-generation electronic, photonic, and acoustic devices, energy harvesting, optical information storage, and applications of phonon lasers in a variety of fields. The emergence of techniques for control of semiconductor properties and geometry has enabled engineers to design structures in which functionality is derived from controlling electron behavior. As manufacturing techniques have greatly expanded the list of available materials and the range of attainable length scales, similar opportunities now exist for designing devices whose functionality is derived from controlling phonon behavior. However, progress in this area is hampered by gaps in our knowledge of phono...

  3. Vertebral Fracture Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Vertebral Fracture Prediction A method of processing data derived from an image of at least part of a spine is provided for estimating the risk of a future fracture in vertebraeof the spine. Position data relating to at least four neighbouring vertebrae of the spine is processed. The curvature...

  4. Radial head fracture - aftercare (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 6. Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff M, Hatch R, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  5. Displaced patella fractures. (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J


    Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective. To investigate the unique characteristics and treatment of thoracic spine fractures.Methods. Severty-seven patients with thoracic spine fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, therewere 37 compressior fractures, 34 fracture-dislocations, 3 burst fractures and 3 burst-dislocations. Twenty-six pa-tients had a complete lesion of the spinal cord, 14 sustained a neurologically incomplete injury, and 37 wereneurologically intact. Fifty-three patients were treated nonoperatively and 24 treated operatively.Results. All patients were followed up for 2 ~ 15 years. None of the 26 patients with a complete lesion recov-ered any significant function. Of 37 neurologically intact patients, 13 had local pain although all of them re-mained normal function. Two of 14 patients with incomplete paraplegia returned to normal, 7 recovered some func-tion and 5 did not recovered.Conclusions. E ecause of the unique anatomy and biomechanics of the thoracic spine, the classification common-ly applied to thoracolumbar fractures is not suitable for thoracic fractures. Fusion and instrumentation are indicat-ed when the fractures are unstable, while patients with incomplete lesion of the spinal cord may be the candidatesfor supplemented decompression.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter W. Virkus


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION: A user-friendly, unique resource for the treatment of fractures designed in a casual questions and answers format which provides basic knowledge, current information and evidence based expert advices enhanced by images and diagrams and supported by ref-erences.PURPOSE: Designing this book the editor has aimed to prepare not only a source of current knowledge and opin-ions by experienced authors in fracture management for decision making in daily practice but also a brief refer-ence and useful educational resource in orthopedic trauma surgery.FEATURES: Three Sections are composed of 49 sub-jects in a form of the answers of frequently asked ques-tions richly illustrated by images and diagrams and in-cluding references at the end of each subject.The Section I is “UPPER EXTREMITIES” including: Neck fracture; Humerus shaft fracture; Management of radial nerve palsy associated with humeral fracture; Clavicle fractures; Elbow fractures in children; Fasciot-omy technic of the forearm; Distal radius fracture; Indica-tions of radial head replacement, Femur and humeral shaft fractures; Treatment of posterolateral elbow dislocation; The Section II is “LOWER EXTREMITIES” including : Femur fractures; Pelvic fractures; Life threatening pelvic fractures; Decision for surgical treatment in pelvic frac-tures; Treatment of anterior fracture of femoral head and hip joint incongruity; Management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in young patient in ER; Elder patients with displaced femoral head fracture; Patella and tibial plateau fractures; Criteria for compartment syndromes in the tibia; Tricks in nailing proximal and distal tibial fractures; Surgical management of distal tibia spiral fracture in middle aged women; Pilon fracture; Management of syn-desmotic screws in adult patient; The management of minimally displaced posterior malleol in three malleolar fractures; Postoperative management of bimalleolar frac-tures; Management of minimally

  8. Feasibility of Progressive Strength Training Implemented in the Acute Ward after Hip Fracture Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik;


    IMPORTANCE: Patients with a hip fracture lose more than 50% knee-extension strength in the fractured limb within one week of surgery. Hence, immediate progressive strength training following hip fracture surgery may be rational, but the feasibility unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility...... of in-hospital progressive strength training implemented in the acute ward following hip fracture surgery, based on pre-specified criteria for feasibility. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A prospective cohort study conducted in an acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. A consecutive...... sample of 36 patients, 18 with a cervical and 18 with a trochanteric hip fracture (27 women and 9 men, mean (SD) age of 79.4 (8.3) years) were included between June and December 2012. INTERVENTION: A daily (on weekdays) program of progressive knee-extension strength training for the fractured limb, using...

  9. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture. (United States)

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian


    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle.

  10. Galeazzi fracture-dislocations. (United States)

    Mikić, Z D


    Among 125 patients with the Galeazzi-type fracture-dislocation of the forearm, there were fourteen children and eighty-six adults with the classic Galeazzi lesion, and twenty-five patients with a special type -- fracture of both bones and dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint. Conservative management was successful only in children. In adults this method resulted in failure in 80 per cent of cases. The results of operative treatment were much better. The fracture fragments of the radius and the dislocation of the radio-ulnar joint in this complex injury are very unstable, especially in the lesion with fractures of the radius and ulna, and it appears that rigid internal fixation is necessary for the dislocation as well as the fracture. With combined fixation over half of the results were excellent.

  11. Tibial Plateau Fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Rasmus

    This PhD thesis reported an incidence of tibial plateau fractures of 10.3/100,000/year in a complete Danish regional population. The results reported that patients treated for a lateral tibial plateau fracture with bone tamp reduction and percutaneous screw fixation achieved a satisfactory level...... with only the subgroup Sport significantly below the age matched reference population. The thesis reports a level of health related quality of life (Eq5d) and disability (KOOS) significantly below established reference populations for patients with bicondylar tibial plateau fracture treated with a ring...... fixator, both during treatment and at 19 months following injury. In general, the thesis demonstrates that the treatment of tibial plateau fractures are challenging and that some disabilities following these fractures must be expected. Moreover, the need for further research in the area, both with regard...

  12. The Effect of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture on Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Eryavuz Sarıdoğan


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vertebral fracture on life quality by two different measures. Methods: This clinical study was performed in the Osteoporosis Clinic of our PTR Departmant and comprised of 25 female patients with osteoporotic vertebral fracture on x-ray and 12 control patients. Inclusion Criteria: 55-80 year age group , at least five years of menopause, one or several vertebral fractures. Exclusion Criteria: New vertebral fracture (less than one month, new femoral fracture, secondary osteoporosis . Control group consisted of persons in the same age group, without osteoporosis or cronic back and low back pain. Results: Assessment by QUALEFFO-41 revealed no significant difference between patient and control group concerning pain, activites of daily living and free time activities. Significant difference for pain caused by walking, climbing stairs and raising from a chair, general health and mental function were found (p=0.05. Assessment by SF-36 showed significant difference between the two groups for climbing stairs, bending and kneeling as well as general mental health and awareness of general health status (p=0.05. Conclusion: QUALEFFO-41 and SF-36 both are tools which can be used for assessment of quality of life in women with osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  13. A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin


    The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.

  14. Web site Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdgan binesh


    Full Text Available The ever-increasing evolution of the Internet and the growing number of the resources accessible through this medium, has turned the issue of resource evaluation of the internet-based information into a controversial and cogent issue. By nature, the internet milieu is uncontrollable. It concomitantly contains both verifiable and unverifiable information. Thus it behooves the internet users to develop resource evaluation and critical thinking skills in order to discern appropriate quality resources. Through review and comparison of the available checklists, the present paper endeavors to offer criteria for website evaluation

  15. An Improved Ductile Fracture Criterion for Fine-blanking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen; ZHUANG Xin-cun; XIE Xiao-long


    In order to accurately simnulate the fine-blanking process,a suitable ductile fracture is significant.So an evaluation strategy based on experimental and corresponding simulation results of tensile,compression,torsion and fine-blanking test is designed to evaluate five typical ductile fracture criteria,which are widely-used in metal forming process.The stress triaxiality and ductile damage of each test specimen are analyzed.The results show that none of these five criteria is sufficient for all tests.Furthermore,an improved fracture criterion based on Rice and Tracey model,taking the influence of both volume change and shape change of voids into account,is proposed.The characterization of this model for fine-blanking process is easily done by the tensile test and the prediction result shows good.

  16. Computed tomograms of blowout fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Haruhide; Hayashi, Minoru; Shoin, Katsuo; Hwang, Wen-Zern; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Yonemura, Taizo


    We studied 18 cases of orbital fractures, excluding optic canal fracture. There were 11 cases of pure blowout fracture and 3 of the impure type. The other 4 cases were orbital fractures without blowout fracture. The cardinal syndromes were diplopia, enophthalmos, and sensory disturbances of the trigeminal nerve in the pure type of blowout fracture. Many cases of the impure type of blowout fracture or of orbital fracture showed black eyes or a swelling of the eyelids which masked enophthalmos. Axial and coronal CT scans demonstrated: 1) the orbital fracture, 2) the degree of enophthalmos, 3) intraorbital soft tissue, such as incarcerated or prolapsed ocular muscles, 4) intraorbital hemorrhage, 5) the anatomical relation of the orbital fracture to the lacrimal canal, the trochlea, and the trigeminal nerve, and 6) the lesions of the paranasal sinus and the intracranial cavity. CT scans play an important role in determining what surgical procedures might best be employed. Pure blowout fractures were classified by CT scans into these four types: 1) incarcerating linear fracture, 2) trapdoor fracture, 3) punched-out fracture, and 4) broad fracture. Cases with severe head injury should be examined to see whether or not blowout fracture is present. If the patients are to hope to return to society, a blowout fracture should be treated as soon as possible. (author).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Over 270 single-hole (Guzman et al., 1996) and 44 cross-hole pneumatic injection tests (Illman et al., 1998; Illman, 1999) have been conducted at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. They have shown that the pneumatic pressure behavior of fractured tuff at the site is amenable to analysis by methods which treat the rock as a continuum on scales ranging from meters to tens of meters, and that this continuum is representative primarily of interconnected fractures. Both the single-hole and cross-hole test results are free of skin effect. Single-hole tests have yielded estimates of air permeability at various locations throughout the tested rock volume, on a nominal support scale of about 1 m. The corresponding log permeability data exhibit spatial behavior characteristic of a random fractal and yield a kriged estimate of how these 1-m scale log permeabilities vary in three-dimensional space (Chen et al., 2000). Cross-hole tests have been analyzed by means of a three-dimensional inverse model (Vesselinov et al., 2000) in two ways: (a) by interpreting pressure records from individual borehole monitoring intervals, one at a time, while treating the rock as if it was spatially uniform; and (b) by using the inverse model to interpret pressure records from multiple tests and borehole monitoring intervals simultaneously, while treating the rock as a random fractal characterized by a power variogram. The first approach has yielded equivalent air permeabilities and air-filled porosities for a rock volume characterized by a length-scale of several tens of meters. Comparable results have been obtained by means of type-curves (Illman and Neuman, 2001). The second approach amounts to three-dimensional pneumatic tomography, or stochastic imaging, of the rock. It has yielded a high-resolution geostatistical estimate of how air permeability and air-filled porosity, defined over grid blocks having a length-scale of 1 m, vary throughout the modeled rock volume

  18. Observation and analysis of a pronounced permeability and porosity scale-effect in unsaturated fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illman, W. A. (Walter A.); Hyun, Y. (Yunjung); Neuman, S. P.; Di Federico, V. (Vittorio); Tartakovsky, D. M. (Daniel M.); Vesselinov, V. V. (Velimir V.)


    Over 270 single-hole (Guzman et d., 1996) and 44 cross-hole pneumatic injection tests (Illman et al., 1998; Illman, 1999) have been conducted at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) near Superior, Arizona. They have shown that the pneumatic pressure behavior of fractured tuff at the site is amenable to analysis by methods which treat the rock as a continuum on scales ranging from meters to tens of meters, and that this continuum is representative primarily of interconnected fractures. Both the single-hole and cross-hole test results are free of skin effect. Single-Role tests have yielded estimates of air permeability at various locations throughout the tested rock volume, on a nonind support scale of about 1 m. The corresponding log permeability data exhibit. spatial behavior characteristic of a random fractal and yield a kriged estimate (Fig. 1) of how these 1-m scale log permeabilities vary in three-dimemional space (Chen et al., 2000). Cross-hole tests have been analyzed by means of a thee-dimensional inverse model (Vesselinov et al., 2000) in two ways: (a) by interpreting pressure 1n:ccirds from individual borehole monitoring intervals, one at a time, while treating the rock as if it was spatially uniform; and (b) by using the inverse model to interpret pressure records from multiple tests and borehole monitoring intervals simultaneously, while treating the rock as a random fractal characterized by a power variogram. The first approach has yielded equivalent air permeabilities and air-filled porosities for a rock volume characterized by a length-scale of several tens of meters. Comparable results have been obtained by means of type-curves (Illman and Neuman, 2001). The second approach mounts to three-tlimensional pneumatic tomography, or stochastic imaging, of the rock. It has yielded a high-resolution geostatistical estimate of how air permeability and air-filled porosity, defined over grid blocks having a length-scale of 1 m, vary throughout the modeled rock

  19. Spontaneous rib fractures. (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber


    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Starkov


    Full Text Available Criteria of efficiency the slitting process. For example double-line rolling of rebar No. 20 identified such criteria separation efficiency in non-dividing device as the size of the crossbar.

  1. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  2. Characterization of Metacarpal Fractures in a Military Population. (United States)

    Dichiera, Robert; Dunn, John; Bader, Julia; Bulken-Hoover, Jamie; Pallis, Mark


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and type of metacarpal (MC) fractures in a military population, and whether these fractures are related to age, military occupational specialty, aggression, or accidental injury. A retrospective record-based review was conducted at a single military center over a 5-year period. Service members with index finger through small finger MC fracture were identified. Data were collected utilizing Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application and electronic profile (e-profile) databases. Data collected included demographic information, mechanism of injury, nature of injury, total number of visits, and estimated time on physical restriction. 400 patients met inclusion criteria. Males accounted for 94% of the study population, 75% of fractures were of the small finger MC, 54% of patients were between 20 and 24 years, 90% were sustained by junior enlisted personnel, and most occurred by punching. Men aged readiness.

  3. Criteria for Assessing Naturalistic Inquiries as Reports. (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Research on the assessment of naturalistic inquiries is reviewed, and criteria for assessment are outlined. Criteria reviewed include early foundational and non-foundational criteria, trustworthiness criteria, axiomatic criteria, rhetorical criteria, action criteria, and application/transferability criteria. Case studies that are reports of…

  4. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk


    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  5. Current status of the quantification of roughness and the peak shear strength criteria for rock joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Kang, Chul Hyung


    In order to understand the effects of spent nuclear fuel on the hydraulic behaviour of the rock mass it is necessary to have knowledge about the relationship between the stresses and hydraulic properties of the fractures. The roughness of a fracture surface govern the dilation of the fracture and the displacement of the fracture surface under shear stress. The peak shear strength and hydraulic flow properties of fractures depend very much on the surface roughness. This report describes different methods and techniques used in the characterization of rock joint surfaces and their applications in rock mechanics. Joint roughness is an important factor in the shear resistance of a joint. The joint shear strength shows anisotropic properties due to roughness variation with the shearing direction in direct shear tests. Various shear strength criteria are described in this report. (author)

  6. Criteria for Restructuring Postsecondary Education. (United States)

    Slaughter, Sheila


    Criteria most often used by higher education administrators in restructuring higher education in the 1980s and 1990s are outlined. A distinction is made between retrenchment and restructuring. Criteria recommended in the literature are compared with criteria actually used, and the results. Some alternatives are suggested. (MSE)

  7. Diagnostic Criteria for Pediatric MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago review the diagnostic criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis, the differential diagnosis, the 2010 McDonald criteria, and Callen criteria.

  8. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.


    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  9. Study on interaction between induced and natural fractures by extended finite element method (United States)

    Xu, DanDan; Liu, ZhanLi; Zhuang, Zhuo; Zeng, QingLei; Wang, Tao


    Fracking is one of the kernel technologies in the remarkable shale gas revolution. The extended finite element method is used in this paper to numerically investigate the interaction between hydraulic and natural fractures, which is an important issue of the enigmatic fracture network formation in fracking. The criteria which control the opening of natural fracture and crossing of hydraulic fracture are tentatively presented. Influence factors on the interaction process are systematically analyzed, which include the approach angle, anisotropy of in-situ stress and fluid pressure profile.

  10. Management of neglected femoral neck fracture in above knee amputated limb: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh Meena; Ramesh Meena; Balaji S; Sahil Gaba


    The treatment of an above knee amputee who has sustained a fracture of the femoral neck is a challenging situation for both the orthopedic surgeon and the rehabilitation team.These fractures may be managed acutely either by reduction and internal fixation or by endoprosthetic replacement based on the same criteria as in any other patient with otherwise intact limbs.We present a neglected case treated successfully with valgus osteotomy.We conclude that these fractures should be treated with the same urgency and expertise as similar fractures in non-amputees as long-term survival and good quality of life can be expected.

  11. Study on interaction between induced and natural fractures by extended finite element method (United States)

    Xu, DanDan; Liu, ZhanLi; Zhuang, Zhuo; Zeng, QingLei; Wang, Tao


    Fracking is one of the kernel technologies in the remarkable shale gas revolution. The extended finite element method is used in this paper to numerically investigate the interaction between hydraulic and natural fractures, which is an important issue of the enigmatic fracture network formation in fracking. The criteria which control the opening of natural fracture and crossing of hydraulic fracture are tentatively presented. Influence factors on the interaction process are systematically analyzed, which include the approach angle, anisotropy of in-situ stress and fluid pressure profile.

  12. Inappropriate benzodiazepine use in older adults and the risk of fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. van der Hooft (Cornelis); M.W.C.J. Schoofs (Marlette); G. Ziere; A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)


    textabstractAIMS: The Beers criteria for prescribing in elderly are well known and used for many drug utilization studies. We investigated the clinical value of the Beers criteria for benzodiazepine use, notably the association between inappropriate use and risk of fracture. METHODS: We performed a

  13. Unstable Distal Radius Fractures Treated by Volar Locking Anatomical Plates (United States)

    Jose, Anto; Deniese, Pascal Noel; Babu, Abey Thomas; Rengasamy, Kanagasabai; Najimudeen, Syed


    Introduction Fracture of the distal end of radius represents the most common fracture of the upper extremity accounting for 16-20% of all fractures. Plating is now emerging as the gold standard for management of distal radius fractures due to increased rate of complications such as malunion, subluxation/dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint or late collapse of fracture. Procedures such as closed reduction and cast immobilization, ligamentotaxis with external fixator and percutaneous pin fixation are no longer acceptable. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of unstable distal radius fractures treated with the volar locking plate. Materials and Methods We reviewed 53 patients from January 2011 to December 2015, treated for unstable distal radius fractures using a volar locking compression plate. Standard radiographic and clinical assessment after 12 months (range 12-16 months) were measured and final functional and radiological outcome were assessed using the Modified Mayo wrist scoring system and Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria respectively. Results There were 42 males and 11 females with an average age of 39.12±31.78 years (18-71 years). At the end of 12 months, 36 patients had an excellent radiological outcome and 10 patients had good radiological outcome as per Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria. Eleven patients had an excellent functional outcome and 26 patients had a good functional outcome as per modified Mayo wrist scoring system. There was one case of superficial wound infection which subsided with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusion The volar locking plate fixation helps in early mobilization of the wrist, restores anatomy, allows early return to function, prevents secondary loss of reduction and hence is an effective treatment for unstable fractures of the distal radius. PMID:28274009

  14. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K


    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  15. [Drug therapy for prevention of falls and fractures]. (United States)

    Ringe, Johann D


    The primary goal in the practical management of osteoporosis is to prevent first or subsequent fractures and thereby to avoid acute or chronic pain and progressive skeletal deformity. Therapeutic strategies should always take the complex pathogenetic mechanisms of fractures into account, especially the fact that mechanical impacts and falls play an important role in the majority of fracture events. Accordingly, recommendations to patients and the selection of drugs should aim at both, falls and fractures. In this context there is an increasing interest in the dual effects of vitamin D on bone and muscle. Controlled studies proved that adequate vitamin D supplementation is able to improve muscle strength, coordination and body sway and thereby reduce the risk of falls and fractures. Alendronate has been studied extensively by large trials of high quality and its efficacy to reduce the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures is in line with the criteria of evidence-based medicine. The innovative combination of 70 mg alendronate with 2,800 IU vitamin D in a once-weekly tablet guarantees a basic supply with this important prohormone for bone and muscle. Due to a regular combined intake an improved compliance can be anticipated which will be followed by better therapeutic results in osteoporosis patients with increased fracture risk.

  16. Percutaneous osteosynthesis of Galeazzi fracture-dislocation. (United States)

    Gadegone, Wasudeo M; Salphale, Yogesh; Magarkar, Ds


    A Galeazzi fracture is defined as a fracture of the radius associated with dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ). The conventional surgical technique of nailing does not give enough stability and open reduction, internal fixation with the plate is associated with numerous complications. The stacked nailing for the management of these injuries provides adequate stability, maintains the relationship of the DRUJ and promotes uneventful union by closed technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of simple, user-friendly, low cost elastic stacked nailing for the management of Galeazzi fracture dislocation. We treated 22 young adults with fresh Galeazzi fracture-dislocation of the forearm, from January 2004 to January 2008, by percutaneous fixation of fracture by stacked elastic nailing at our institute. There were 19 males and three females and the age group ranged from 20-56 years (average 35 years). Surgery was performed within 48 to 72 hours under the guidance of image intensifier. Medullary cavity was filled with two elastic titanium nails having unequal lengths and diameter. One nail acts as a reduction nail and the other acts as a stabilizing nail. The results were evaluated using Mikic criteria based on union, alignment, relationship of the DRUJ, and movements at the inferior radio ulnar joint, elbow and wrist. In six cases, following radiological union, nails in the radius were extracted between six to nine months after operation because of discomfort complained by the patient at site of insertion. After one year follow-up, 18 patients had excellent, four had fair results. Closed reduction and internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture by two elastic rods re-establishes the normal relationship of the fractured fragments and the DRUJ without repair of the ligaments. The stability is achieved by the flexibility and elasticity of the nails, crowding of the medullary canal and anchorage they gain in the radial diaphysis. Elastic nailing

  17. Paediatric talus fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria


    Paediatric talus fractures are rare injuries resulting from axial loading of the talus against the anterior tibia with the foot in dorsiflexion. Skeletally immature bone is less brittle, with higher elastic resistance than adult bone, thus the paediatric talus can sustain higher forces before fractures occur. However, displaced paediatric talus fractures and those associated with high-energy trauma have been associated with complications including avascular necrosis, arthrosis, delayed union, neurapraxia and the need for revision surgery. The authors present the rare case of a talar neck fracture in a skeletally immature young girl, initially missed on radiological review. However, clinical suspicion on the part of the emergency physician, repeat examination and further radiographic imaging revealed this rare paediatric injury.

  18. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  19. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone) (United States)

    ... Bahk MS, Kuhn JE, Galatz LM, Connor PM, Williams GR: Acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular injuries and cla- vicular, ... Orthopaedic Surgeons. .org Clavicle Fracture cont. Rehabilitation Specific exercises will help restore movement and strengthen your shoulder. ...

  20. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi


    BACKGROUND: In hip fracture surgery, the exact choice of implant often remains somewhat unclear for the individual surgeon, but the growing literature consensus has enabled publication of evidence-based surgical treatment pathways. The aim of this article was to review author pathways and national...... guidelines for hip fracture surgery and discuss a method for future pathway/guideline implementation and evaluation. METHODS: By a PubMed search in March 2015 six studies of surgical treatment pathways covering all types of proximal femoral fractures with publication after 1995 were identified. Also we...... searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  1. Focal osteoporosis defects play a key role in hip fracture. (United States)

    Poole, Kenneth E S; Skingle, Linda; Gee, Andrew H; Turmezei, Thomas D; Johannesdottir, Fjola; Blesic, Karen; Rose, Collette; Vindlacheruvu, Madhavi; Donell, Simon; Vaculik, Jan; Dungl, Pavel; Horak, Martin; Stepan, Jan J; Reeve, Jonathan; Treece, Graham M


    Hip fractures are mainly caused by accidental falls and trips, which magnify forces in well-defined areas of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, the same areas are at risk of rapid bone loss with ageing, since they are relatively stress-shielded during walking and sitting. Focal osteoporosis in those areas may contribute to fracture, and targeted 3D measurements might enhance hip fracture prediction. In the FEMCO case-control clinical study, Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) was applied to clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to define 3D cortical and trabecular bone defects in patients with acute hip fracture compared to controls. Direct measurements of trabecular bone volume were then made in biopsies of target regions removed at operation. The sample consisted of CT scans from 313 female and 40 male volunteers (158 with proximal femoral fracture, 145 age-matched controls and 50 fallers without hip fracture). Detailed Cortical Bone Maps (c.5580 measurement points on the unfractured hip) were created before registering each hip to an average femur shape to facilitate statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Areas where cortical and trabecular bone differed from controls were visualised in 3D for location, magnitude and statistical significance. Measures from the novel regions created by the SPM process were then tested for their ability to classify fracture versus control by comparison with traditional CT measures of areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD). In women we used the surgical classification of fracture location ('femoral neck' or 'trochanteric') to discover whether focal osteoporosis was specific to fracture type. To explore whether the focal areas were osteoporotic by histological criteria, we used micro CT to measure trabecular bone parameters in targeted biopsies taken from the femoral heads of 14 cases. Hip fracture patients had distinct patterns of focal osteoporosis that determined fracture type, and CBM measures classified fracture type better than a

  2. Fracture Behavior under Impact. (United States)


    discussed for the different loading rates ob- tai ned . 1. Introduction In static fracture mechanics crack tip stress intensity factors can easi- - ly...deviation to the left or to the right hand side of the original crack path was observed. Herrmann [151 speculated that this behavior results from stress...Materials’ Draft 2c, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, .. ,-- 1980. 15. Herrmann , G., "Dynamic Fracture of Beams in Bending

  3. Relative permeability through fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diomampo, Gracel, P.


    The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

  4. Atomistic simulations of fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Embedded atom interaction potentials are used to simulate the atomistic aspects of the fracture process. Simulations are presented for the behavior of cracks in pure metals and intermetallics, near the Griffith condition. The materials considered include Fe, Cu, Ni as well as Fe, Ni, Co, and Ti aluminides. The work focuses on the comparative study of fracture behavior in the different materials. The role of the atomic relaxation at the crack tip and of lattice trapping phenomena is analyzed.

  5. Science of Fracture. (United States)


    Fracture Set-Up .............. 163 Dr. Jan T. Lindt 4.i0 Fracture in Fully Plastic Bodies ............................... 171 Dr. Howard Kuhn iii I...Benthem’s results and results obtained by 15 Bazant and Estenssoro (12) who used a finite element method of determining critical eigenvalues. Each of...14) is made by Benthem in (10) and (11) and only che sentence quoted above made by Bazant and Estenssoro (12). This is unfortunate since constructive

  6. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K. [VTT Automation (Finland)


    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  7. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...... relevant, and not-relevant judgments, and that most criteria can have either a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants were content, followed by criteria characterizing the full text document. These findings may have...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  8. Fracture prediction in hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets based on a modified ductile fracture criterion (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Song, H. W.; Zhang, S. H.; Cheng, M.


    The demand for weight reduction in modern vehicle construction has resulted in an increase in the application of hydroforming processes for the manufacture of automotive lightweight components. This trend led to the research of evaluation on formability of the sheet or tube hydroforming to be noted, particularly the prediction of fracture. In this study, a new proposed approach based on damage theory for fracture prediction considering the deformation history was introduced. And the modified ductile fracture criterion was applied to predict the failure for hydraulic bulging of AISI 304 austenitic steel sheets. The material parameters in terms of the function of strain rate in the failure criterion were determined from the equivalent fracture strains corresponding tensile tests under different stress conditions. Then, in the finite element simulation the effect of strain rates and their distribution as well during practical sheet metal forming process was considered. The hydraulic bulging tests were carried out to identify the fracture behavior predicted from FE analysis. A comparison between the prediction and experimental results showed that the proposed approach with a modified ductile fracture criteria can give better fracture predictions than traditional ways.

  9. Subduction of fracture zones (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William


    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  10. Prevention of hip fractures. (United States)

    Meunier, P J


    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah


    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  12. [Subtrochanteric femoral fractures]. (United States)

    Ulmar, B; Simon, S; Eschler, A; Mittlmeier, T


    Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are proximal femoral fractures which are located between the trochanter minor and an area of 3 cm below the minor trochanter on the femoral shaft. About 10-15% of all proximal femoral fractures correspond to this fracture site. Elderly or geriatric patients are generally affected and the injury is often the result of a fall in the home, while high-energy trauma is the cause in a small group of generally younger patients. Clinical evaluation of the affected extremity shows disability of axial weight-bearing and pain during compression and rotation of the hip joint. Basic diagnostics include conventional x-rays of the injured femur in the anterior-posterior and lateral planes. These subtrochanteric femoral fractures are almost always treated surgically due to the inherent high degree of instability. The main goals of surgical intervention are to achieve anatomic fracture reduction and primary full weight-bearing stability of the corresponding leg. Intramedullary interlocking nails are used for primary treatment, while extramedullary implants are often used in revision surgery. Early mobilization and intensive respiratory exercises are necessary to prevent early postoperative complications.

  13. Fracture toughness of graphene. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lulu; Fan, Feifei; Zeng, Zhi; Peng, Cheng; Loya, Phillip E; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Yongji; Zhang, Jiangnan; Zhang, Xingxiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Zhu, Ting; Lou, Jun


    Perfect graphene is believed to be the strongest material. However, the useful strength of large-area graphene with engineering relevance is usually determined by its fracture toughness, rather than the intrinsic strength that governs a uniform breaking of atomic bonds in perfect graphene. To date, the fracture toughness of graphene has not been measured. Here we report an in situ tensile testing of suspended graphene using a nanomechanical device in a scanning electron microscope. During tensile loading, the pre-cracked graphene sample fractures in a brittle manner with sharp edges, at a breaking stress substantially lower than the intrinsic strength of graphene. Our combined experiment and modelling verify the applicability of the classic Griffith theory of brittle fracture to graphene. The fracture toughness of graphene is measured as the critical stress intensity factor of and the equivalent critical strain energy release rate of 15.9 J m(-2). Our work quantifies the essential fracture properties of graphene and provides mechanistic insights into the mechanical failure of graphene.

  14. Importance of greenstick lamina fractures in low lumbar burst fractures (United States)

    Ersozlu, S.; Aydinli, U.


    Lumbar burst fractures (L3–L5) represent a small percentage of all spinal fractures. The treatment of fractures involving the lumbar spine has been controversial. Lamina fractures may be complete or of the greenstick type. Dural tears and nerve root entrapment may accompany these lamina fractures. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of dural tear in patients who had lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures and the importance of these lamina fractures when choosing the optimum treatment. Twenty-six patients with 28 lumbar burst fractures were treated from 1995 through 2002. The average follow-up was 60 months (range 32–110 months). The male to female ratio was 21:5 and the mean age was 37 years (17–64). Dural tear was detected in seven (25%) out of 28 burst fractures. The functional outcome of the entire study group was assessed using the Smiley-Webster Scale. Good to excellent results were obtained in 24 (92%) of 26 patients. Lumbar burst fractures with greenstick lamina fractures occur mostly in the L2–L4 area. In the surgical treatment, any reduction manoeuvre will close the fracture and crush the entrapped neural elements. Therefore, it may be better to explore the greenstick lamina fracture whether there is any neural entrapment or not, before any reduction manoeuvre is attempted. PMID:16501977

  15. CT of pelvic fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchi, Marco E-mail:; Rollandi, Gian Andrea


    Although magnetic resonance imaging has become the dominant modality for cross-sectional musculo-skeletal imaging, the widespread availability, speed, and versatility of computed tomography (CT) continue to make it a mainstay of emergency room (ER) diagnostic imaging. Pelvic ring and acetabular fractures occur as the result of significant trauma secondary to either a motor vehicle accident or a high-velocity fall. These injuries are correlated with significant morbidity and mortality, both from the complications of pelvic ring fractures and from commonly associated injuries. The most commonly used classification of pelvic and acetabular fractures has been based on conventional radiographs that are, in the majority of cases, sufficient to determine the type of injury. However, because of the complexity of pelvic and acetabular fractures, precise pathological anatomy is not easily demonstrated by routine radiographs and in many cases details of fractures are not visible. Moreover, the insufficient co-operation of the patient or the difficulty of maintaining special positions can be overcome by using computed tomography. Spiral computed tomography provides information regarding the extent of the fractures and is complementary to radiography for ascertaining the spatial arrangement of fracture fragments. Spiral computed tomography is an effective tool for understanding complex fracture patterns, particularly when combined with multi-planar reconstruction two-dimensional (MPR 2D) reformatted images or three-dimensional images (3D) images. Including these techniques of reconstruction in routine pelvic imaging protocols can change management in a significant number of cases. Subtle fractures, particularly those oriented in the axial plane, are better seen on MPR images or 3D volume-rendered images. Complex injuries can be better demonstrated with 3D volume-rendered images, and complicated spatial information about the relative positions of fracture fragments can be easily

  16. Inappropriate benzodiazepine use in older adults and the risk of fracture



    textabstractAIMS: The Beers criteria for prescribing in elderly are well known and used for many drug utilization studies. We investigated the clinical value of the Beers criteria for benzodiazepine use, notably the association between inappropriate use and risk of fracture. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study in 7983 elderly. The proportion of 'inappropriate' benzodiazepine use according to the Beers criteria was compa...

  17. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.


    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  18. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL


    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  19. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss


    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  20. Experience in the management of patients with nasal fractures. Experiencia en el manejo de los pacientes con fracturas nasales.



    Background: Nasal fracture is the most frequent facial trauma; its immediate treatment help avoiding further complications. Objective: to characterize the patients with nasal fracture who meet the criteria for treatment. Method: An observational, descriptive study was developed, including all patients (114) of 15 years or more with nasal fracture received at the Emergency Maxilo-Facial Surgical Department i...

  1. CT classification of acetabular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B.; Porcellini, B.; Robotti, G.


    The contribution of computed tomography (CT) in classifying acetabular fractures was analysed retrospectively in 33 cases. CT and plain radiography classification agreed in 27 cases (82%). CT revealed more extensive fractures in 6 patients (thereof 5 patients with associated fractures). In 10 patients (thereof 9 patients with associated fractures) CT showed intraarticular fragments; radiographically intraarticular fragments were seen only in 2 patients and suspected in 4. CT is of considerable aid in defining the fracture pattern. It should be used mainly in patients with radiographically difficult interpretable associated fractures in order to assess preoperatively the weight-bearing part of the acetabulum, the degree of displacement and the presence of intraarticular fragments.

  2. Atomistic Simulations of Nanotube Fracture

    CERN Document Server

    Belytschko, T; Schatz, G; Ruoff, R S


    The fracture of carbon nanotubes is studied by atomistic simulations. The fracture behavior is found to be almost independent of the separation energy and to depend primarily on the inflection point in the interatomic potential. The rangle of fracture strians compares well with experimental results, but predicted range of fracture stresses is marketly higher than observed. Various plausible small-scale defects do not suffice to bring the failure stresses into agreement with available experimental results. As in the experiments, the fracture of carbon nanotubes is predicted to be brittle. The results show moderate dependence of fracture strength on chirality.

  3. [Humeral shaft fractures]. (United States)

    Schittko, A


    Since Lorenz Böhler postulated in his 1964 summary with the title "Against the operative treatment of fresh humeral shaft fractures" that the operative treatment is the exception in the therapy of humeral fractures times have changed. In the last years a conservative treatment of a humeral fracture is the exception and only used after straight indications. The operative therapy nowadays is the gold standard because of the development of new intramedullar and rotation stable implants in addition to the classical osteosynthesis with the plate. But even the external fixator for primary stabilisation in polytrauma patients or as rescue procedure after complications should be in repertory of every orthopedic surgeon. Attention should be put on the avoidance of primary and the correct treatment of secondary nerval lesions, esp. of the radial nerve. Here we are tending to the operative revision of the nerve in indistinct cases. In the treatment of the seldom humeral shaft fracture of the child conservative treatment is to prefer; in complications a resolute shift to a final operative stabilisation of the fracture is necessary.

  4. The cytologic criteria of malignancy. (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter


    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  5. [BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS]. (United States)

    Matsueda, Kei


    Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria.

  6. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.


    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  7. Radiographic Measurement of Displacement in Acetabular Fractures: A Systematic Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Dodd, Andrew; Osterhoff, Georg; Guy, Pierre; Lefaivre, Kelly A


    To report methods of measurement of radiographic displacement and radiographic outcomes in acetabular fractures described in the literature. A systematic review of the English literature was performed using EMBASE and Medline in August 2014. Inclusion criteria were studies of operatively treated acetabular fractures in adults with acute (fractures managed >6 weeks from injury, acute total hip arthroplasty, periprosthetic fractures, time frame of radiographic outcomes not stated, missing radiographic outcome data, and non-English language articles. Basic information collected included journal, author, year published, number of fractures, and fracture types. Specific data collected included radiographic outcome data, method of measuring radiographic displacement, and methods of interpreting or categorizing radiographic outcomes. The number of reproducible radiographic measurement techniques (2/64) and previously described radiographic interpretation methods (4) were recorded. One radiographic reduction grading criterion (Matta) was used nearly universally in articles that used previously described criteria. Overall, 70% of articles using this criteria documented anatomic reductions. The current standard of measuring radiographic displacement in publications dealing with acetabulum fractures almost universally lacks basic description, making further scientific rigor, such as testing reproducibility, impossible. Further work is necessary to standardize radiographic measurement techniques, test their reproducibility, and qualify their validity or determine which measurements are important to clinical outcomes. Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Transstyloid, transscaphoid, transcapitate fracture: a variant of scaphocapitate fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, Neil G


    Transstyloid, transscaphoid, transcapitate fractures are uncommon. We report the case of a 28-year-old man who sustained this fracture following direct trauma. The patient was successfully treated by open reduction internal fixation of the scaphoid and proximal capitate fragment, with a good clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up. This pattern is a new variant of scaphocapitate fracture as involves a fracture of the radial styloid as well.

  9. Evolution of Deformability and Transport Properties of Fractured Rocks Under the Action of Stress and Chemistry (United States)

    Elsworth, Derek; Taron, Josh; Faoro, Igor; Lee, Dae-Sung; Liu, Jishan; Niemeijer, Andre; Yasuhara, Hideaki


    Fluids in the shallow crust exert important controls on a wide spectrum of natural and engineered phenomena. The complex interaction of stress and particularly that of chemistry exhibit important feedbacks which influence the evolution of the mechanical and transport properties of rocks. These feedbacks in turn relate crucially to the subsurface recovery of hydrocarbons from the full spectrum of conventional through unconventional reservoirs, to the recovery of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal geothermal resources, to the secure and enduring sequestration of energy by-products, and to the earthquake cycle, for example. We report on enigmatic interactions between stress and chemistry in mediating the evolution of permeability and strength in natural and engineered systems pushed far-from equilibrium. These include the roles of excess pore fluid pressures in driving transient changes in permeability and as well as the influence of changes in chemical potential in systems driven far-from-equilibrium. These effects are shown to result in significant changes in permeability that may vary on timescales of minutes to years as feedbacks switch from mechanically-driven to chemically-driven and as the length-scale of the prototype grows. These interactions are explored through coupled modeling including feedbacks in stress and chemistry as relevant to high-carbon through low-carbon energy systems. Examples are selected to illustrate the significance of these interactions in controlling the response of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs, fracture treatments and radioactive waste disposal.

  10. Vertebral Geometry Parameters Can Predict Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tofighi


    Conclusion: Vertebral fractures are common fractures in postmenopausal women. There was a correlation between verte¬bral height and fractures. Vertebral geometric parameters especially height T score can be used for fracture screening.

  11. Galeazzi fractures and dislocations. (United States)

    Giannoulis, Filippos S; Sotereanos, Dean G


    In 1934, fractures of the middle and distal third of the radius associated with instability of the distal radial ulnar joint (DRUJ) were described by Galeazzi. This type of lesion is characterized by its unstable nature and the need for open reduction and internal fixation to achieve a satisfactory functional outcome. A high index of suspicion should be maintained by the surgeon, and a thorough examination for instability of the DRUJ must be conducted. The marked instability of this fracture-dislocation complex is further enhanced by the disruption of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, either with or without ulna styloid fracture. Treatment in adults is surgical, and both bone and soft tissue injuries should be addressed.

  12. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Boning [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Herbold, Eric B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homel, Michael A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regueiro, Richard A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)


    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  13. Subtrochanteric stress fractures in patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy: an emerging problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Colin G


    The emergence of a new variant of subtrochanteric stress fractures of the femur, affecting patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy, has only recently been described. This fracture is often preceded by pain and distinctive radiographic changes (lateral cortical thickening), and associated with a characteristic fracture pattern (transverse fracture line and medial cortical spike). A retrospective review (2007-2009) was carried out for patients who were taking oral bisphosphonates and who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after a low velocity injury. Eleven fractures were found in 10 patients matching the inclusion criteria outlined. All were females, and taking bisphosphonates for a mean of 43 years. Five of the 10 patients mentioned prodromal symptoms, for an average of 9.4 months before the fracture. Although all fractures were deemed low velocity, 5 of 11 were even atraumatic. Two patients had previously sustained contralateral subtrochanteric fractures. Plain radiographs of two patients showed lateral cortical thickening on the contralateral unfractured femur; the bisphosphonate therapy was stopped and close surveillance was started. Patients taking oral bisphosphonates may be at risk of a new variant of stress fracture of the proximal femur. Awareness of the symptoms is the key to ensure that appropriate investigations are undertaken.

  14. Subtrochanteric stress fractures in patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy: an emerging problem. (United States)

    Murphy, Colin G; O'Flanagan, Shay; Keogh, Peter; Kenny, Patrick


    The emergence of a new variant of subtrochanteric stress fractures of the femur, affecting patients on oral bisphosphonate therapy, has only recently been described. This fracture is often preceded by pain and distinctive radiographic changes (lateral cortical thickening), and associated with a characteristic fracture pattern (transverse fracture line and medial cortical spike). A retrospective review (2007-2009) was carried out for patients who were taking oral bisphosphonates and who sustained a subtrochanteric fracture after a low velocity injury. Eleven fractures were found in 10 patients matching the inclusion criteria outlined. All were females, and taking bisphosphonates for a mean of 43 years. Five of the 10 patients mentioned prodromal symptoms, for an average of 9.4 months before the fracture. Although all fractures were deemed low velocity, 5 of 11 were even atraumatic. Two patients had previously sustained contralateral subtrochanteric fractures. Plain radiographs of two patients showed lateral cortical thickening on the contralateral unfractured femur; the bisphosphonate therapy was stopped and close surveillance was started. Patients taking oral bisphosphonates may be at risk of a new variant of stress fracture of the proximal femur. Awareness of the symptoms is the key to ensure that appropriate investigations are undertaken.

  15. Complications of mandibular fractures. (United States)

    Zweig, Barry E


    Before any definitive treatment of mandibular fractures, the patient needs to be evaluated for more potentially life-threatening injuries. Complications can and do occur with treatment of mandibular fractures and can occur during any of the phases of treatment. The development of an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is vital in achieving optimal success and decreasing complications. Knowledge of the anatomy and the principles of bone healing is also an important factor in preventing complications. To limit long-term untoward effects, complications should be recognized early and the appropriate treatment should be started before a minor complication becomes a complex one that is more difficult to manage.

  16. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas


    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  17. [Supracondylar fractures in children]. (United States)

    Petrov, N; Gucev, S; Kirkov, Lj; Dajljevik, S; Ruso, B


    In the Department of Pediatric surgery, during the last ten years, 190 patients with supracondylar fractures (second and third degree, according to Bauman's classification) have been treated. The operation was performed in only 5% of all hospitalized cases. There were only one patient with neurological and vascular complications in the early stage, but without any complications in the late stage. The presented cases showed a high percentage of flexion type of fractures. The conservative treatment by a reposition has given the most satisfactory results.

  18. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) (United States)

    .org Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) Page ( 1 ) The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The ... the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area of the radius near ...

  19. Colles wrist fracture – aftercare (United States)

    ... . Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff MP, Hatch RL, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  20. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement (United States)

    ... osteolysis. Symptoms The most common symptoms of periprosthetic hip fracture include: • Pain around the hip or thigh • Swelling ... o en very painful, someone with a periprosthetic hip fracture will most likely go directly to the emergency ...

  1. New criteria to identify spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Krishna, M.


    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest....

  2. Performance of Complicated Grief Criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E; Boelen, Paul A


    To the Editor: We read with interest the article by Cozza et al. on the accuracy of DSM-5 persistent complex bereavement disorder criteria (1). The study suggests that complicated grief criteria are more sensitive in detecting cases with grief-related symptoms than persistent complex bereavement dis

  3. Markovianity criteria for quantum evolution (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej


    We characterize a class of Markovian dynamics using the concept of a divisible dynamical map. Moreover, we provide a family of criteria which can distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. These Markovianity criteria are based on a simple observation that Markovian dynamics implies monotonic behaviour of several well-known quantities such as distinguishability of states, fidelity, relative entropy and genuine entanglement measures.

  4. Markovianity criteria for quantum evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Chruściński, Dariusz


    We characterize a class of Markovian dynamics using the concept of divisible dynamical map. Moreover we provide a family of criteria which can distinguish Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. These Markovianity criteria are based on a simple observation that Markovian dynamics implies monotonic behavior of several well known quantities like distinguishability of states, fidelity, relative entropy and genuine entanglement measures.

  5. New Criteria to Identify Spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jensen; M Krishna


    In this paper we give some new criteria for identifying the components of a probability measure, in its Lebesgue decomposition. This enables us to give new criteria to identify spectral types of self-adjoint operators on Hilbert spaces, especially those of interest.

  6. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  7. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara


    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  8. MHD-ETF design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retallick, F.D.


    This document establishes criteria to be utilized for the design of a pilot-scale (150 to 300 MW thermal) open cycle, coal-fired MHD/steam plant. Criteria for this Engineering Test Facility (ETF) are presented relative to plant siting, plant engineering and operations, MHD-ETF testing, costing and scheduling.

  9. Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension (United States)

    Ural, Alattin


    The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…

  10. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis


    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...


    Cohen, Marcio; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim; Brandão, Bruno Lobo; Motta Filho, Geraldo Rocha


    Describe the results of proximal humeral fractures surgically treated with the Philos locking plate system. Method: Between March 2003 and October 2004 we prospectively reviewed 24 of 26 patients with proximal humerus fractures treated with a Philos plate. The mean follow-up time was 12 months and the mean age of patients was 57 years. Six patients had four-part proximal humerus fractures, 11 patients had three-part proximal humerus fractures, and nine patients had two-part proximal humerus fractures. Clinical evaluation was performed using the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: The mean UCLA score was 30 points (17-34). All fractures showed union. Three patients showed fracture union at varus position. The mean UCLA score for these patients was 27 points. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis with Philos plate provides a stable fixation method with good functional outcome. PMID:26998460

  12. [Treatment of children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture with advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology]. (United States)

    Tan, Jia-chang; Yang, You-meng; Xu, Hong-yu; Luo, Yu; Wang, Hui


    To explore curative effects of advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology in treating children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture. Form March 2009 to December 2010, 16 children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture were treated with advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology. There were 12 males and 4 females ranging in age from 7 to 15 years old with a mean of 9.8 years old. According to fracture classification, 9 cases were stable fractures (traverse or short oblique type) and 7 cases were unstable fractures (comminuted or long oblique type). Radiographs and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Fracture healing were evaluated according to Flynn criteria. All children were followed up from 11 to 32 months with an average of 21 months. No incision infecton,bone nonunion and breakage of screw occurred. The fracture healing time was from 8 to 16 weeks with an average of 10.1 weeks. According to Flynn criteria, 14 cases got excellent results, 1 moderate and 1 poor. Advanced elastic intramedullary nail technology for the treatment of children with femoral subtrochanteric fracture is a safe and effective fixation, which is good for early mobilization, shorter the duration of hospital stays and reduce complications.

  13. The Difference between Growth Factor Expression after Single and Multiple Fractures: Preliminary Results in Human Fracture Healing (United States)

    Binder, Harald; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Gregori, Markus; Höchtl-Lee, Leonard; Thomas, Anita; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M.; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz


    Objectives. Circulating levels of VEGF-A (Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A), TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1), and M-CSF (Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor) were found to be predictors of bone healing and therefore prognostic criteria of delayed bone healing or nonunion. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential rise of these markers in patients with multiple fractures of long bones compared to patients with single fractured long bone. Methods. 92 patients were included in the study and finally after excluding all female patients 45 male patients were left for final analysis and divided into the single or multiple fracture group. TGF-β1, M-CSF, and VEGF-A serum levels were analysed over a time period of two weeks. Results. MCSF serum concentrations were higher in the group with multiple fractures as also TGF-β1 serum concentrations were at one and two weeks after trauma. No statistically significant difference was observed in the VEGF-A serum concentrations of both groups at either measurement point. Conclusion. We did observe a correlation between the quantity of the M-CSF and TGF-β1 expressions in serum and the number of fractured bones; surprisingly there was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels between patients with single and multiple fractures of long bones. PMID:26246654

  14. Microcracks and Overpressure- Induced Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed M. Al - QAHTANI


    The microfractures and natural fractures studies have a great significance in the hydrocarbon accumulation exploration and can be a good supporter for wide geophysical study on the major structures. This paper is a brief review on microcracks and overpressure- induced fracture. It is to discuss different views on the mechanism of fractures in the subsurface of the earth.

  15. A potential-of-mean-force approach for fracture mechanics of heterogeneous materials using the lattice element method (United States)

    Laubie, Hadrien; Radjaï, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef


    Fracture of heterogeneous materials has emerged as a critical issue in many engineering applications, ranging from subsurface energy to biomedical applications, and requires a rational framework that allows linking local fracture processes with global fracture descriptors such as the energy release rate, fracture energy and fracture toughness. This is achieved here by means of a local and a global potential-of-mean-force (PMF) inspired Lattice Element Method (LEM) approach. In the local approach, fracture-strength criteria derived from the effective interaction potentials between mass points are shown to exhibit a scaling commensurable with the energy dissipation of fracture processes. In the global PMF-approach, fracture is considered as a sequence of equilibrium states associated with minimum potential energy states analogous to Griffith's approach. It is found that this global approach has much in common with a Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) approach, in which mass points are randomly removed following a maximum dissipation criterion until the energy release rate reaches the fracture energy. The duality of the two approaches is illustrated through the application of the PMF-inspired LEM for fracture propagation in a homogeneous linear elastic solid using different means of evaluating the energy release rate. Finally, by application of the method to a textbook example of fracture propagation in a heterogeneous material, it is shown that the proposed PMF-inspired LEM approach captures some well-known toughening mechanisms related to fracture energy contrast, elasticity contrast and crack deflection in the considered two-phase layered composite material.

  16. Mechanical transport in two-dimensional networks of fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.K.


    The objectives of this research are to evaluate directional mechanical transport parameters for anisotropic fracture systems, and to determine if fracture systems behave like equivalent porous media. The tracer experiments used to measure directional tortuosity, longitudinal geometric dispersivity, and hydraulic effective porosity are conducted with a uniform flow field and measurements are made from the fluid flowing within a test section where linear length of travel is constant. Since fluid flow and mechanical transport are coupled processes, the directional variations of specific discharge and hydraulic effective porosity are measured in regions with constant hydraulic gradients to evaluate porous medium equivalence for the two processes, respectively. If the fracture region behaves like an equivalent porous medium, the system has the following stable properties: (1) specific discharge is uniform in any direction and can be predicted from a permeability tensor; and (2) hydraulic effective porosity is directionally stable. Fracture systems with two parallel sets of continuous fractures satisfy criterion 1. However, in these systems hydraulic effective porosity is directionally dependent, and thus, criterion 2 is violated. Thus, for some fracture systems, fluid flow can be predicted using porous media assumptions, but it may not be possible to predict transport using porous media assumptions. Two discontinuous fracture systems were studied which satisfied both criteria. Hydraulic effective porosity for both systems has a value between rock effective porosity and total porosity. A length-density analysis (LDS) of Canadian fracture data shows that porous media equivalence for fluid flow and transport is likely when systems have narrow aperture distributions. 54 references, 90 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuderman, J F


    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  18. Fracture design modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichlow, H.B.; Crichlow, H.B. (ed.)


    A design tool is discussed whereby the various components that enter the design process of a hydraulic fracturing job are combined to provide a realistic appraisal of a stimulation job in the field. An interactive computer model is used to solve the problem numerically to obtain the effects of various parameters on the overall behavior of the system.

  19. Forearm Fractures in Children (United States)

    ... secure them in place. Your doctor may recommend surgery if: Casts support and protect broken bones while they heal. Reproduced from Pring M, Chambers H: Pediatric forearm fractures. Orthopaedic Knowledge Online Journal 2007; 5(5). Accessed October 2014. • The bone ...

  20. Fracture Toughness Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Beltrán Z


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fracture toughness ( , or also known as critical stress intensity Factor, according to conditions of Lineal Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM. The characterization of the mechanical properties in tensile and fracture toughness of structural steel pipes API-5L used in hydrocarbons transportation was performed. For fracture toughness, the material was tested through fatigue crack propagation on standardized compact specimen (CT according to ASTM E-399 norm. A thickness (B equal to and a crack size (a equal to 0.5w were used. With the porpoise of establishing the adequate conditions at the crack tip, the specimens were subjected to fatigue pre-cracking by application of repeated cycles of load in tensile-tensile and constant load amplitude with a load ratio of R = 0.1. The experimental Compliance method was used based on data obtained from load vs. Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD. The results show a Stress Intensity factor of 35.88 MPa√m for a 25 mm crack size specimen. The device used for testing is a MTS-810 machine with capacity of 100KN and 6 kHz sampling rate, which meets the conditions of the ASTM E-399 standard. The cracking susceptibility of steel is influenced by the size, morphology and distribution of non-metallic inclusions, thermochemical interaction with the environment and microstructure.

  1. Neglected hangman fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Srivastava


    Full Text Available Acute management of hangman fracture is well described; however the surgical management of neglected hangman fracture has not been described in literature. We report the surgical management of an untreated hangman′s fracture. A 30-year-old male had fallen from a tree 12 weeks back. Patient presented with cervical myelopathy and restricted neck movements. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT scan revealed fracture of pars interarticularis of axis with Grade III C2-C3 spondylolisthesis with localized kyphosis of 33°. Gentle reduction under general anesthesia (GA failed to improve the alignment. Patient was operated in three stages in a single setting. In Stage I, release of contracted anterior structures and C2-C3 discectomy was done in supine position followed by C2-C3 posterior fixation and fusion in Stage II. C2-C3 interbody bone grafting and anterior plating completed the third stage. C2-C3 interbody fusion was seen at 5 months and a CT scan at 18 months postoperative confirmed fusion and maintenance of alignment. The satisfactory outcome in our patient leads us to believe that anterior-posterior-anterior is the appropriate surgical approach for treatment of such patients.

  2. Injection through fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, R.A.


    Tracer tests are conducted in geothermal reservoirs as an aid in forecasting thermal breakthrough of reinjection water. To interpret tracer tests, mathematical models have been developed based on the various transport mechanisms in these highly fractured reservoirs. These tracer flow models have been applied to interpret field tests. The resulting matches between the model and field data were excellent and the model parameters were used to estimate reservoir properties. However, model fitting is an indirect process and the model's ability to estimate reservoir properties cannot be judged solely on the quality of the match between field data and model predictions. The model's accuracy in determining reservoir characteristics must be independently verified in a closely controlled environment. In this study, the closely controlled laboratory environment was chosen to test the validity and accuracy of tracer flow models developed specifically for flow in fractured rocks. The laboratory tracer tests were performed by flowing potassium iodide (KI) through artificially fractured core samples. The tracer test results were then analyzed with several models to determine which best fit the measured data. A Matrix Diffusion model was found to provide the best match of the tracer experiments. The core properties, as estimated by the Matrix Diffusion model parameters generated from the indirect matching process, were then determined. These calculated core parameters were compared to the measured core properties and were found to be in agreement. This verifies the use of the Matrix Diffusion flow model in estimating fracture widths from tracer tests.

  3. Fracture Mechanics of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, Jens Peder

    Chapter 1 Chapter l contains the introduction to this thesis. The scope of the thesis is partly to investigate different numerical and analytical models based on fracture mechanical ideas, which are able to predict size effects, and partly to perform an experimental investigation on high-strength......Chapter 1 Chapter l contains the introduction to this thesis. The scope of the thesis is partly to investigate different numerical and analytical models based on fracture mechanical ideas, which are able to predict size effects, and partly to perform an experimental investigation on high......-strength concrete. Chapter 2 A description of the factors which influence the strength and cracking of concrete and high strength concrete is made. Then basic linear fracture mechanics is outlined followed by a description and evaluation of the models used to describe concrete fracture in tension. The chapter ends...... with a description of the different types of size effects. Three examples which discuss the two terms 'size effect' and 'brittleness' and the importance of a stiff test rig. Finally some brittleness numbers are defined. Chapter 3 In chapter 3 the most well-known numerical methods which use the fictitious crack...

  4. Suspension criteria for dual energy X ray absorptiometry. (United States)

    McLean, I D


    The use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) units primarily for the assessment of fracture risk and in the diagnosis of osteoporosis is ubiquitous in Europe and ever-expanding in its implementation worldwide. DXA is known for its reported low radiation dose and precision in the determination of bone mineral density. However, the use of simple suspension criteria, as proposed in the new EC report RP-162, will identify units that are unfit for useful and safe diagnosis. Such suspension levels, however, are not a substitute for regular maintenance, quality control testing and optimisation of clinical outcomes.

  5. Correlation of hip fracture with other fracture types: Toward a rational composite hip fracture endpoint. (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W; Adler, Robert A


    With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between 1999 and 2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regard to the timing of the events. 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, the rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, pfractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider the use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đivo Ban


    Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports

  7. Does joint architecture influence the nature of intra-articular fractures? (United States)

    Steer, R A; Smith, S D; Lang, A; Hohmann, E; Tetsworth, K D


    The architecture of joints has potentially the greatest influence on the nature of intra-articular fractures. We analysed a large number of intra-articular fractures with two aims: (1) to determine if the pattern of injuries observed supports our conjecture that the local skeletal architecture is an important factor and (2) to investigate whether associated dislocations further affect the fracture pattern. A retrospective study of intra-articular fractures over a 3.5-year period; 1003 joints met inclusion criteria and were analysed. Three independent investigators determined if fractures affected the convex dome, the concave socket, or if both joint surfaces were involved. Further review determined if a joint dislocation occurred with the initial injury. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way frequency table, and the χ(2) test was used to compare the frequencies of concave and convex surface fractures. The odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to establish the association between the frequencies of concave and convex surface fractures, as well as between dislocation and either fracture surface involvement. Of the 1003 fractures analysed, 956 (95.3%) involved only the concavity of the joint; in 21 fractures (2.1%) both joint surfaces were involved; and in 26 fractures (2.6%) only the convexity was involved (χ(2)=1654.9, df=2, parchitecture of joints clearly plays a highly significant role in determining the nature of intra-articular fractures. Intra-articular fractures involving the convexity are much more likely to be associated with a concurrent joint dislocation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-scale peridynamic modeling of dynamic fracture in concrete (United States)

    Lammi, Christopher J.; Zhou, Min


    Peridynamics simulations of the dynamic deformation and failure of high-performance concrete are performed at the meso-scale. A pressure-dependent, peridynamic plasticity model and failure criteria are used to capture pressure-sensitive granular flow and fracture. The meso-scale framework explicitly resolves reinforcing phases, pores, and intrinsic flaws. A novel scaling approach is formulated to inform the engineering-scale plasticity model parameters with meso-scale simulation results. The effects of composition, porosity, and fracture energy at the meso-scale on the engineering-scale impact resistance are assessed. The fracture process zone at the meso-scale is found to propagate along adjacent pores and reinforcing phases under tensile and shear loading conditions. The simulations show that tensile strength decreases and dissipation increases as the porosity in the concrete increases. The framework and modeling approach allow the delineation of trends that can be used to design more impact-resistant materials.

  9. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford


    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  10. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures. (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour


    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and such fractures. This study is based on 2 databases that have continuously recorded data of patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures between 2001 and 2010. On the whole, 447 patients (334 males, 113 females) with pure blow-out orbital wall fractures were included. The most frequently involved orbital site was the floor (359 fractures), followed by medial wall (41 fractures) and lateral wall (5 fractures). At presentation, 227 patients (50.7%) had evidence of diplopia. In particular, in most patients, a diplopia in all directions was referred (78 patients). Statistically significant associations were found between diplopia on eye elevation and orbital floor fractures (P diplopia and medial wall fractures (P diplopia on eye elevation and horizontal diplopia at presentation could be useful clinical indicators orbital floor and medial wall fractures, respectively.

  11. Equivalence of physically based statistical fracture theories for reliability analysis of ceramics in multiaxial loading (United States)

    Chao, Luen-Yuan; Shetty, Dinesh K.


    The present comparison of the Batdorf (1974) flaw density and orientation distribution approach with Evans' (1978) elemental strength approach, with a view to identities in fracture criteria and distribution functions, notes that despite their fundamental differences in multiaxial loading fracture probabilities, the two approaches yield identical predictions. Lamon's (1988) assertion to the contrary, in light of different theoretical predictions by the two methods for the case of alumina disks loaded in flexure, is demonstrated to be in error.

  12. Scaphoid fractures in the athlete. (United States)

    Winston, Mark J; Weiland, Andrew J


    Scaphoid fractures are a common wrist injury, especially in athletes. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for a scaphoid fracture in any patient complaining of radial-sided wrist pain after a fall on an outstretched hand. Advanced imaging, including CT and MRI scans, may be useful in diagnosis and classification of fracture patterns. Treatment varies based on the fracture location, stability of the fracture, and predictability of the fracture to heal. Treatment involves either non-operative management with a thumb spica cast or brace, or operative fixation with a headless compression screw, k-wires, or scaphoid-specific plates. Return to play is dependent on many variables, including sport, fracture union, and ability to play with cast.

  13. Collagen turnover after tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerring, S; Krogsgaard, M; Wilbek, H


    Collagen turnover after tibial fractures was examined in 16 patients with fracture of the tibial diaphysis and in 8 patients with fracture in the tibial condyle area by measuring sequential changes in serological markers of turnover of types I and III collagen for up to 26 weeks after fracture...... collagen. A group comparison showed characteristic sequential changes in the turnover of types I and III collagen in fractures of the tibial diaphysis and tibial condyles. The turnover of type III collagen reached a maximum after 2 weeks in both groups. The synthesis of type I collagen reached a maximum...... after 2 weeks in the diaphyseal fractures and after 6 weeks in the condylar fractures. The degradation of type I collagen increased after 4 days and reached a maximum at 2 weeks in both groups. The interindividual variation was wide. On a group basis, the turnover of types I and III collagen had...

  14. Periprosthetic fractures evaluation and treatment. (United States)

    Masri, Bassam A; Meek, R M Dominic; Duncan, Clive P


    Periprosthetic fracture is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) that can be difficult to treat, and can be potentially fraught with complications. The incidence of such fractures is increasing, especially after the use of cementless revision arthroplasty. The prevention of these fractures is achieved by understanding the risk factors involved. If the risks are not understood, the best outcome is achieved when the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the principles of treatment of these fractures and has access to various fixation and prosthetic devices, and allograft bone when necessary. Acetabular fractures are rare and relatively little has been reported on their treatment. Periprosthetic femoral fracture treatment is based on the site of fracture, implant stability, and bone stock. The Vancouver classification offers a reproducible description of these factors with the subsequently easy formation of a treatment plan.

  15. [The Helkimo index for assessing treatment results after mandibular fractures]. (United States)

    Härtel, J; Hellmuth, M; Hellmuth, K O


    Based on the Helkimo index we assessed the success of conservative and conservative-surgical forms of treatment for mandibular fractures in a total of 166 patients. The control group consisted of 50 probands. The Helkimo dysfunction index, which is based on various criteria, showed dysfunction in 81.9% of the patients with only slight functional impairment in 57.2% of these cases. 18.1% of the patients were clinically symptom-free. A comparison with the probands revealed no major differences in dysfunction between the two groups. Significant differences were observed only in the case of 2 isolated criteria (maximum mandibular protrusion, muscle pain). Severe dysfunction, however, was more common in the fracture patients. Based on the Helkimo occlusion index disorder were noted in 91.7% of the patients, while severe occlusion disorder were observed particularly in patients with combined mandibular body and condyle fractures (40.0%). In the control group a more favorable occlusion index was found to be due mainly to the greater number of present and/or occluding teeth. The Helkimo index, particularly the dysfunctionindex, is a very useful instrument for assessing the success of treatment measures in mandibular fracture cases. It should be more commonly used to improve the possibilites of objective comparisons between patients from different hospitals.

  16. Vertebral Compression Fracture (VCF) After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Analysis of Predictive Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Marcelo V.R. [Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Al-Omair, Ameen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Masucci, Giuseppina Laura; Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Korol, Renee [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Howard, Peter [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lochray, Fiona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Costa, Leodante B. da [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Division of Neurosurgery and Spinal Program, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are increasingly observed after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of VCF after spine SBRT and identify clinical and dosimetric factors predictive for VCF. The analysis incorporated the recently described Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) criteria. Methods and Materials: The primary endpoint of this study was the development of a de novo VCF (ie, new endplate fracture or collapse deformity) or fracture progression based on an existing fracture at the site of treatment after SBRT. We retrospectively scored 167 spinal segments in 90 patients treated with spine SBRT according to each of the 6 SINS criteria. We also evaluated the presence of paraspinal extension, prior radiation, various dosimetric parameters including dose per fraction ({>=}20 Gy vs <20 Gy), age, and histology. Results: The median follow-up was 7.4 months. We identified 19 fractures (11%): 12 de novo fractures (63%) and 7 cases of fracture progression (37%). The mean time to fracture after SBRT was 3.3 months (range, 0.5-21.6 months). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.3%. Multivariate analysis confirmed that alignment (P=.0003), lytic lesions (P=.007), lung (P=.03) and hepatocellular (P<.0001) primary histologies, and dose per fraction of 20 Gy or greater (P=.004) were significant predictors of VCF. Conclusions: The presence of kyphotic/scoliotic deformity and the presence of lytic tumor were the only predictive factors of VCF based on the original 6 SINS criteria. We also report that patients with lung and hepatocellular tumors and treatment with SBRT of 20 Gy or greater in a single fraction are at a higher risk of VCF.

  17. Floorball game skills (evaluation criteria)


    Chlumský, Marek


    Title: Playing skills in floorball (evaluation criteria). Target: To create a list of playing skills which an ideal player should demonstrate. Find and verify the evaluation criteria of these skills and inspire trainers to develop these skills in the best way. Methods: Informal interviews, individually structured interviews, analysis and verification of data, pilot testing. Results: Defined playing skills in floorball, developed scale of values of floorball playing skills, creation of exercis...

  18. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W.; Silverstein, Brian L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)


    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems (United States)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat


    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  20. Flexion type supracondylar humerus fractures: 12 year experience of a pediatric orthopedics clinic. (United States)

    Turgut, Ali; Kalenderer, Önder; Bozoğlan, Muhammet; Bacaksız, Tayfun; Ağuş, Haluk


    This study aims to review flexion type supracondylar humerus fractures in children and treatment options. Forty-seven patients (26 males, 21 females; mean age 8.6±3.2 years; range 4 to 15 years) who admitted to and were hospitalized in a pediatric orthopedics clinic between January 2002 and January 2014 due to flexion type supracondylar humerus fracture were included in this retrospective study. Fractures were classified according to Wilkins modification of Gartland system. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) were administered in all patients with type 2 and 3 fractures. An overhead traction or open reduction was applied when closed reduction could not be achieved with three manipulations. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. The results were graded according to Flynn criteria. Four patients with type 1 fracture were treated conservatively. Of the remaining patients, we were able to perform CRPP successfully in 36 (83.7%). While six patients (14%) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, one patient (2.1%) was treated with overhead traction. The results were excellent or good in 44 patients (93.7%). Compared with extension type fractures, these fractures are seen in older children and are rarer. One should be prepared to perform open reduction especially for type 3 fractures. In our study, results of patients with type 3 fractures treated with CRPP were superior.

  1. Role of Russell - Taylor delta reconstruction nail in the management of complex proximal femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj D


    Full Text Available Background: Complex proximal femoral fractures are challenging problem. Methods: Forty-one patients had Russell- Taylor Delta reconstruction nailing done during the period from March 1992 to December 1996. 38 patients could be followed both clinically and radiologically either up to the fracture union or death. Clinical outcome was assessed by Kyle′s criteria. Out of 13 patients with high-energy comminuted fractures, 12 were rated excellent or good. There was one death due to poly trauma. Results: Out of six elderly subtrochanteric fractures, 4 had excellent or good results. There was one poor result and one death. Out of 11 elderly interochanteric fractures with subtrochanteric extension, 8 had excellent or good results. There was 1 fair, 1 poor result and 1 death. In the elderly groups, the poor results were due to poor pre- existing medical conditions of the patients. In all the seven cases of pathological lesions, excellent or good results were achieved either till fracture union or death because of their malignant pathology. Conclusion: Russell- Taylor Delta reconstruction nail is a very useful device in high-energy comminuted proximal femoral fractures, in elderly low energy proximal femoral fractures and also in pathological lesions. The implant provides bio-mechanically stable fixation. The relatively high complication rate in elderly patients is because of their poor medical condition. In cases of pathological lesions, it is always preferable to fix the bone at the stage of impending fracture.

  2. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Ling [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rivadeneira, Fernando [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-79, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zillikens, M.C. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Albert [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Uitterlinden, Andre G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-75B, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  3. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  4. Consistency between emergency department and orthopedic physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of distal fibular Salter Harris I fractures. (United States)

    Zomorrodi, Arezoo; Bennett, Jonathan Eric; Attia, Magdy William; Loiselle, John; Rogers, Kenneth John; Kruse, Richard


    The objective was to determine diagnostic and management differences between emergency physicians (EPs) and orthopedic physicians (OPs) for patients with distal fibular physis pain without radiographic fracture. Records from patients with emergency department ankle radiographs between January 2006 and March 2008 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included trauma, fibular physis pain, normal radiographs, and orthopedic follow-up. Of 1343 patients, 247 met criteria. Emergency physician diagnoses included Salter Harris (SH) I fracture 198 (80%), sprain 5 (2%), other fracture 24 (10%), or other injury 20 (8%). Orthopedic physician diagnoses included SH I fracture 136 (55%), sprain 48 (19%), other fracture 56 (23%), or other injury 7 (3%). Emergency physicians were more likely to diagnose SH I fracture (P = 0.01). Thirty-six patients diagnosed with SH I fracture by EPs were diagnosed by OPs with different fractures, whereas 40 had sprains and 5 had other injuries. A total of 173 (70%) patients were diagnosed with fractures by both EPs and OPs. On the basis of orthopedists diagnosis, EPs did not diagnose 19 (8%) fractures (P = 0.8). EP treatment included splint 157 (64%), boot 82 (33%), air cast 3 (1%), or cast 5 (2%). Orthopedic physician's treatment included splint 2 (1%), boot 46 (19%), air cast 11 (4%), cast 167 (67%), or none 21 (9%). Although EPs diagnosed SH I fracture more frequently than OPs, few fractures were missed. Most patients required ongoing immobilization by OPs regardless of final diagnosis. Suspected SH I fractures should be immobilized and referred for orthopedic evaluation. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  5. Fracture of sandwiched composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Weh-Huei.


    Fracture of a pair of collinear cracks in various materials, such as an isotropic strip, an orthotropic strip, a bonded isotropic adhesive layer, and sandwiched orthotropic layers, is investigated. The crack surfaces are subjected to an arbitrary opening pressure p(x). The problems are formulated in terms of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind by making use the techniques of Fourier transform and finite Hilbert transform. In case of uniform opening pressure p(x)={sigma}, exact expressions for the stress intensity factors and the shape of deformed crack are obtained. Numerical calculations are carried out to study the effects of various boundary geometries and material properties on the fracture of the chosen materials.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  7. Fracture of brittle solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lawn, Brian


    This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the at...

  8. Tibial shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter

    IV also showed a significant worse outcome in 3 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared to a reference population at 12-months follow-up. Moreover, this study showed that increasing difference in muscle strength for knee extension between legs was associated with a decreasing QOL. The results of this thesis...... suggested that regaining pre injured QOL and muscle strength following a tibial shaft fracture takes considerable time....

  9. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  10. Haemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Fractures (United States)


    through the pubic symphysis, and posteriorlywith the sacrum forming the sacroiliac (SI) joints (Fig. 1). The SI joints are the strongest in the body...Gardner MJ, Kendoff D, Ostermeier S, et al. Sacroiliac joint compression using an anterior pelvic compressor: a mechanical study in synthetic bone. J...commonly identified at arteriography.35 Posterior fracture along the SI joints may cause disruption of a main iliac trunk, but is rare, occurring less

  11. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Magaziner, Jay S


    BACKGROUND: Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were...... assigned to receive placebo. The infusions were first administered within 90 days after surgical repair of a hip fracture. All patients (mean age, 74.5 years) received supplemental vitamin D and calcium. The median follow-up was 1.9 years. The primary end point was a new clinical fracture. RESULTS......: The rates of any new clinical fracture were 8.6% in the zoledronic acid group and 13.9% in the placebo group, a 35% risk reduction with zoledronic acid (P=0.001); the respective rates of a new clinical vertebral fracture were 1.7% and 3.8% (P=0.02), and the respective rates of new nonvertebral fractures...

  12. Double segmental tibial fractures - an unusual fracture pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A case of a 50-year-old pedestrian who was hit by a bike and suffered fractures of both bones of his right leg was presented. Complete clinical and radiographic assessment showed double segmental fractures of the tibia and multisegmental fractures of the fibula. Review of the literature revealed that this fracture pattern was unique and only a single case was reported so far. Moreover, we discussed the possible mechanisms which can lead to such an injury. We also discussed the management of segmental tibial fracture and the difficulties encountered with them. This case was managed by modern osteosynthesis tech- nique with a pleasing outcome. Key words: Fracture, bone; Tibia; Fibula; Nails

  13. Opportunistic Identification of Vertebral Fractures. (United States)

    Adams, Judith E


    Vertebral fractures are powerful predictors of future fracture, so, their identification is important to ensure that patients are commenced on appropriate bone protective or bone-enhancing therapy. Risk factors (e.g., low bone mineral density and increasing age) and symptoms (back pain, loss of height) may herald the presence of vertebral fractures, which are usually confirmed by performing spinal radiographs or, increasingly, using vertebral fracture assessment with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanners. However, a large number (30% or more) of vertebral fractures are asymptomatic and do not come to clinical attention. There is, therefore, scope for opportunistic (fortuitous) identification of vertebral fractures from various imaging modalities (radiographs, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radionuclide scans) performed for other clinical indications and which include the spine in the field of view, with midline sagittal reformatted images from computed tomography having the greatest potential for such opportunistic detection. Numerous studies confirm this potential for identification but consistently find underreporting of vertebral fractures. So, a valuable opportunity to improve the management of patients at increased risk of future fracture is being squandered. Educational training programs for all clinicians and constant reiteration, stressing the importance of the accurate and clear reporting of vertebral fractures ("you only see what you look for"), can improve the situation, and automated computer-aided diagnostic tools also show promise to solve the problem of this underreporting of vertebral fractures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne


    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  15. Fractures of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Martus Marcon


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2 and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7, according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification, which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

  16. Fractures of the cervical spine (United States)

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  17. Diagnosis of occult scaphoid fracture with high-spatial-resolution sonography: a prospective blind study. (United States)

    Fusetti, C; Poletti, P A; Pradel, P H; Garavaglia, G; Platon, A; Della Santa, D R; Bianchi, S


    Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of high-spatial-resolution sonography (HSR-S) in occult scaphoid fractures. HSR-S was performed in 24 patients with clinically suspected fracture and normal radiographs. Three levels of clinical suspicion were considered (high, intermediate, and low). Three levels of sonographic suspicion were defined on the basis of cortical interruption, radiocarpal effusion, and scapho-trapezium-trapezoid effusion. Three positive criteria were interpreted as being highly indicative of fracture. Data from sonograms were compared with computed tomography (CT) scans. CT scanning demonstrated a fracture of the scaphoid in five patients. The global sensitivity of HSR-S for detection of occult scaphoid fracture was 100% and the specificity 79%. All patients with demonstrated occult fracture had a high sonography index of suspicion. A high sonography index of suspicion was correlated with 100% sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. HSR-S is a reliable, available, and cost-effective method in early diagnosis of occult fractures of the scaphoid. The presence of three defined criteria is required to assess the diagnosis.

  18. The use of MRI and CT in Imaging Occult Hip Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadă B.


    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hip fractures is particularly important due to the high dependence on the integrity of this structure for people to function in their daily lives. Left unrecognized, patients face increasing morbidity and mortality as time from the original injury lengthens. A delay of just 2 days in surgical treatment for an acute hip fracture doubles mortality. In addition, an unrecognized non-displaced fracture may displace, requiring surgery of much higher risk. This may be part of the reason that the most frequent lawsuit against Emergency Physicians is for missed orthopedic injury. We reviewed the use of MRI and CT for occult hip fractures (OHF detection at a major urban trauma unit. Our study is a retrospective review. Inclusion criteria: all patients presenting to the Emergency Clinical Hospital of Constanta with a suspected, posttraumatic, occult hip fracture, over a 5 years period were included. All patients had negative initial radiographs and underwent further imaging with either CT or MRI. A total of 185 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. 72 occult hip fractures were detected with both imaging modalities. Although MRI certainly enables greater image detail, in our experience both modalities are able to provide satisfactory fracture characterization. The choice of imaging should be determined by availability and indication. MRI provides superior imaging of soft tissue but is less sensitive for degenerative changes in presence of bone edema.

  19. Social Advertising Quality: Assessment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kalmykov


    Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the definitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are offered; the quality factors with three groups by level of effect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising

  20. Outcome of Gartland type II and type III supracondylar fractures treated by Blount′s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gheldere Antoine


    Full Text Available Background : According to some orthopedic surgeons, almost all supracondylar humerus fractures should be treated operatively by reduction and pinning. While according to others, closed reduction and immobolization should be used for Gartland type II and some type III fractures. However, the limit of this technique remains unclear. We present 74 patients with displaced extension-type supracondylar fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization with a collar sling fixed to a cast around the wrist. The purpose of the study is to give a more precise limitation of this technique. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data acquisition of 74 patients with a Gartland type II or type III fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization (Blount′s technique between January 2004 and December 2007 was done. The mean age was 6.3 years (range, 2-11. The mean time of follow-up was 6.5 months (range, 3-25. All open injuries and complex elbow fracture dislocations or T-condylar fractures were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated with standardized anteroposterior and true lateral x-rays of the elbow, and Flynn criteria were used for functional assessment. Results : Gartland type II fractures had 94% good or excellent final results. Gartland type III fractures had 73% good or excellent final result. The Gartland type III outcome depended on the displacement. The fractures remained stable in 88% for the posterior displacement, and 58% for the posteromedial displacement. These displacements were mild. However, for the posterolaterally displaced fractures, only 36% were stable; 36% had a mild displacement and 27% had a major displacement. Conclusion : Pure posterior displacement is more stable than posteromedial displacement which is more stable than posterolaterally displaced fractures. This study suggests that Gartland type II and pure posterior or posteromedial displaced Gartland type III fractures can be treated by closed

  1. New propant schedule in hydralic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Fan, C.


    A new proppant schedule is suggested to obtain maximum propping surface area and maximum fracture conductivity near the borehole. The small and middle size sands are suspended in the fracturing fluids under fracturing condition to prop the total fracture surface area created by fracturing. The coarse sands pumped into fracture later deposit in the fracture at the dynamic width near the borehole during fracturing and reach the equilibrium height in the time interval of pumping coarse sands. Thus, fracture conductivity near the borehole is increased. Computer calculation of the sand program, the corresponding fluid program and pumping rates are presented also.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi


    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  3. Pediatric elbow fractures: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, J. (Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Rosenberg, Z.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Kawelblum, M. (Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States)); Montes, L. (Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)); Bergman, A.G. (Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ., School of Medicine, CA (United States)); Strongwater, A. (Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY (United States))


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in eight patients under the age of 8 years who suffered elbow fractures, to assess possible fracture extension into the distal nonossified epiphysis of the humerus in seven cases and to determine the displacement and location of the radial head in one case. MRI allowed accurate depiction of the fracture line when it extended into the cartilaginous epiphysis. In four cases, MRI findings were confirmed at surgery. In five cases, surgery was obviated because no articular extension of the fracture was seen on MRI (4 cases) or because no displacement was noted (1 case). In one patient, the plain film diagnosis of a Salter type II fracture was changed to Salter type IV on the basis of the MRI findings. It is concluded that MRI might play a role in the preoperative evaluation of pediatric patients presenting with elbow trauma when extension of the fracture cannot be determined with routine radiographic studies. (orig.)

  4. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing. (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H


    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  5. [Patella fractures in knee arthroplasty]. (United States)

    Roth, A; Ghanem, M; Fakler, J


    Periprosthetic patella fractures occur both with and without retropatellar joint replacement. A non-operative treatment yields satisfactory results with low morbidity. It can be applied in minimally displaced fractures that have an intact retropatellar component and an intact extensor mechanism, combined with an initial immobilization. The surgical treatment is associated with relatively poor results and with high complication rates. There was only minor improvement of functional results, no matter which surgical technique was used. Surgical intervention is still required in fractures with a loosening of the patellar component, considerable dislocations of fragments, and damage to or rupture of the extensor mechanism. In particular, type II fractures require repair of the extensor mechanism and the fracture or patellectomy. Type III fractures require a revision or resection of the patella, a patelloplasty or total patellectomy. In addition, early or late reconstruction using allograft to restore the extensor mechanism can be taken in consideration.

  6. [Distal humerus fractures in children]. (United States)

    Schneidmueller, D; Boettger, M; Laurer, H; Gutsfeld, P; Bühren, V


    Fractures of the distal humerus belong to the most common injuries of the upper arm in childhood. Most frequently occurring is the supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus. In these cases and in the second most common epicondylar fractures, the metaphysis is affected and these fractures are therefore extra-articular. They have to be distinguished from articular fractures regarding therapy and prognosis. The growth potential of the distal epiphysis is very limited as is the possibility of spontaneous correction so that major dislocations should not be left uncorrected. Unstable and especially dislocated articular fractures must be anatomically reconstructed employing various osteosynthetic techniques, mostly combined with immobilization. Insufficient reconstruction, growth disturbance and non-union can result in axial deformities, such as cubitus valgus and varus, restriction of motion, pain and nerve palsy.

  7. Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum. (United States)

    Helfet, David L; Ali, Arif


    Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum after total hip arthroplasty are uncommon, but are increasing in number and severity. These fractures may occur intraoperatively, during the perioperative period, or many years after the total hip arthroplasty. Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum vary in severity and may involve stress fractures of the pubis or medial wall, significant bone loss secondary to osteolysis and subsequent loss of column integrity, or complete pelvic discontinuity. Treatment differs depending on the complexity of the fracture and the stability of the acetabular prosthesis. Surgical treatment for an unstable acetabulum should stabilize the bony columns of the acetabulum, provide bone grafting of defects, and should maintain adequate bone stock for replacement of a stable acetabular implant. Strict adherence to the principles of fracture surgery is required to achieve bony union of the acetabular columns and provide a stable environment for reimplantation of an acetabular component.

  8. [Evaluation of condylar fractures treatment]. (United States)

    Andrade Filho, Eduardo Fausto de; Martins, Dulce Maria Fonseca Soares; Sabino Neto, Miguel; Toledo J nior Cd, Carlos de Souza; Pereira, Max Domingues; Ferreira, Lydia Massako


    We analysed 40 patients with mandibular condylar process fractures, treated through the closed (intermaxilary fixation or conservatively) or open methods (wire internal fixation,titanium miniplates, bone reduction or articular exploration), from January 1993 to January 1999. We evaluated these patients clinically with pre-determined criteria through the temporomandibular articulation touching (ATM), by observing the mandibular symmetry, dental oclusion, deviation to the mouth opening and maximum interincisal opening, besides the questionnaire about the complaints at ATM, disfunction of the mastication system and satisfaction of the treatment. We found an index of good clinical results of, at least, 70% (in the maximum interincisal opening) in the patients submitted to IMF. In the conservative method, we found an index of, at least, 42.9% and in the patients submitted to wire open reduction, at least, 28.6% (in the ATM touching exam) without significant difference in the clinical exams; the pain index at ATM in the closed method was 3.7% and in the open one was 15.4%; mastication disfunction was 22.2% in the closed method and 15.4% in the open one; we only found 7.1% dissatisfied patients in the closed method. There was no significant difference in the method results. The closed method - with IMF and conservative - and the open reduction - with ORIF - brought good clinical results in an evaluation up to 6 months. We could also conclude that there is no difference in the complaint results after the open or closed treatment according to the patients' opinion.

  9. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.


    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  10. CT examinations of healing fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutz, V.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.


    The CT appearances of healing fractures were studied following tibial osteotomy in a dog. Traditional radiological investigations and CT were carried out until healing was complete; CT showed callus on the ninth day, whereas radiographs only showed it after 19 days. After 32 days, callus filled nearly the entire medullary cavity. Similar observations were made in several human situations. CT demonstrates interposed material in the fracture very clearly, even if there is marked callus formation within the fracture.

  11. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications (United States)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.


    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  12. Fracture Phenomena in Amorphous Selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, Asger; Dahle, Birgit


    the velocities of ultrasonic longitudinal and shear waves were measured to 1820 m/sec and 930 m/sec, respectively. Based on these results the two line systems in the transition zone can be interpreted as ``Wallner lines'' with sources within the zone. ©1966 The American Institute of Physics......Fracture surfaces of amorphous selenium broken in flexure at room temperature have been studied. The fracture velocity was found to vary in different regions of the fracture surface. Peculiar features were observed in a transition zone between fast and slower fracture. In this zone cleavage steps...

  13. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. (United States)

    Carlson, DuWayne A


    To present a case series of patients with posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures treated by direct fracture exposure and fixation through dual incisions. Retrospective clinical study. Level 1 trauma centers. Eight patients were identified that had posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. Two patients had depressed posterolateral tibial plateau fractures with contained defects and did not have direct fracture exposure. One patient died of medical problems leaving 5 patients who underwent direct fracture exposure, reduction, and fixation. Posteromedial followed by posterolateral open reduction and internal fixation of posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures. At 6 to 24 months follow-up (mean 13 months), all patients returned to near full activities, each with aching after prolonged standing (8-hour shift). Range of motion averaged 2 degrees to 121 degrees of flexion. Three of 5 returned to manual labor jobs; the others were not employed at the time of injury. Posterior bicondylar tibial plateau fractures have a high association with lateral meniscal pathology and can be associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Reduction of the posterior plateau condyles is easiest with the knee in full extension. Flexion contractures can be a problem, and patients should be encouraged to regain/maintain knee extension. The dual-incision approach to these challenging fractures can result in good to excellent knee function for these patients.

  14. Postpartal sacral fracture without osteoporosis. (United States)

    Rousière, M; Kahan, A; Job-Deslandre, C


    Stress fractures of the sacrum during pregnancy or the postpartum seem uncommon. We report a new case of nontrauma-related postpartal sacral fracture. Only four similar cases have been reported to date. The patient was 36 years of age and her fracture was diagnosed four weeks after her first delivery. Vitamin D levels were low, but there was no osteomalacia. Other standard laboratory tests were normal, as were absorptiometry measurements at the lumbar spine and femur. Rheumatologists should consider sacral fracture in pregnant or nursing patients with buttock pain. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic investigation of choice.

  15. Classification of subtrochanteric femoral fractures. (United States)

    Loizou, C L; McNamara, I; Ahmed, K; Pryor, G A; Parker, M J


    A review of the literature identified 15 different classification methods for subtrochanteric femoral fractures. Only eight of those classifications defined the area of bone, which constituted a subtrochanteric fracture. The actual length of femur defined as the subtrochanteric zone varied from 3 cm up to the level of the femoral isthmus. There was no agreement between the different classifications regarding the proximal and distal border or for those fractures, which traverse anatomical boundaries. In the various classifications, fractures were subdivided into 2-15 subgroups. The majority of the identified studies were unable to find the classifications useful in either determining treatment or predicting the outcome after treatment. We subdivided subtrochanteric fractures into three types based on the degree of fracture comminution. We examined the inter- and intra-observer agreement of our recommended classification. One orthopaedic consultant, one specialist hip fracture surgeon, two trainee registrar orthopaedic surgeons and one specialty trainee in orthopaedics, on two different occasions, 8 weeks apart, independently classified the radiographs of 20 patients with a subtrochanteric fracture. The mean kappa value for inter- and intra-observer variation was 0.71 and 0.79, respectively, with both showing substantial agreement and, therefore, this simpler classification is recommended. Based on the review of previous classification methods, we also recommend that the subtrochanteric zone be defined as the one in which the fracture line crossing the femur is predominantly within the area of bone extending 5 cm below the lower border of the lesser trochanter.

  16. Managing periprosthetic femoral stem fractures. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron G


    Periprosthetic fractures can be difficult to manage. The classification system developed in Vancouver is simple and useful in determining appropriate treatment. It takes into account the site of the fracture, the stability of the implant, and the surrounding bone stock, which are the important elements of the fracture and hip that determines treatment. Understanding this classification system should allow the practitioner to choose the appropriate treatment. In addition to fracture management skills, understanding how to perform a host of hip revision technique may also be required.

  17. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia


    Dang, David


    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  18. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia. (United States)

    Dang, David


    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  19. Fracture network growth for prediction of fracture characteristics and connectivity in tight reservoir rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Cox, S.F.


    Fracturing experiments on very low-porosity dolomite rocks shows a difference in growth of fracture networks by stress-driven fracturing and fluid-driven fracturing. Stress-driven fracture growth, in the absence of fluid pressure, initially forms fractures randomly throughout the rocks followed by g

  20. Fracture Rates and Fracture Sites in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;


    , with a peak during the toddler and adolescent years (incidence rate [IR] 233.9 per 1000 person years), fewer fractures during adulthood (IR 84.5 per 1000 person years), and increased fracture rates in older women (IR 111.9 per 1000 person years). This is the largest register-based nationwide study...... years. In comparison, 709 persons in the reference population experienced a total of 1018 fractures during follow-up. Both male and female patients with OI had an increased fracture rate throughout their life. The fracture rate ratio for participants aged 0 to 19 years was 10.7, for participants aged 20...... to 54 years 17.2, and for participants aged 55 years and over 4.1 when compared to the reference population. The highest fracture rate was seen in males with OI aged 0 to 19 years (257 fractures per 1000 person-years). The fractures appear to follow the same pattern as in the general population...

  1. Modelling of Specimen Fracture (United States)


    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  2. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.


    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films.

  3. Profiles, Criteria and the GCSE. (United States)

    Fairbrother, R. W.


    Several changes in assessment of students in Great Britain are being considered, including establishing a common system of examining at 16-plus and moving toward specifying criteria for the award of grades. Issues related to these trends (including the demise of the General Certificate of Secondary Education--GCSE) are examined. (JN)

  4. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  5. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  6. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.


    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  7. Central venous catheter "pinch-off" and fracture: a review of two under-recognized complications. (United States)

    Nace, C S; Ingle, R J


    Although uncommon, "pinch-off syndrome" and catheter fracture are reported complications of central venous catheters (CVCs). Pinch-off syndrome is characterized by intermittent catheter malfunction in conjunction with radiologic evidence of catheter compression. Warning signs of pinch-off syndrome include difficulty with-drawing blood samples and resistance to infusion of IV fluids. CVC fracture is characterized by migration of the distal catheter fragment through the heart and, often, into the pulmonary artery; it may be accompanied by the sudden onset of chest pain, palpitations, and arrhythmias. Twenty-seven cases of CVC fracture were reviewed, including 22 cases reported in the literature as well as an analysis of 5 cases that occurred at the authors' institution. Among the 22 cases reported in the literature, the average length of time between catheter insertion and fracture was 6.7 months. In 82% of these cases, the fracture occurred at the clavicle/first rib junction, where mechanical friction against the catheter has been well established as the mechanism for most fractures. In 9 of these 22 cases, evidence of catheter compression was noted on chest x-ray prior to fracture. This paper discusses assessment criteria for pinch-off syndrome and catheter fracture, as well as nursing implications regarding the prevention and early detection of these potentially serious complications.

  8. SUPERPOSE-An excel visual basic program for fracture modeling based on the stress superposition method (United States)

    Ismail Ozkaya, Sait


    An Excel Visual Basic program, SUPERPOSE, is presented to predict the distribution, relative size and strike of tensile and shear fractures on anticlinal structures. The program is based on the concept of stress superposition; addition of curvature-related local tensile stress and regional far-field stress. The method accurately predicts fractures on many Middle East Oil Fields that were formed under a strike slip regime as duplexes, flower structures or inverted structures. The program operates on the Excel platform. The program reads the parameters and structural grid data from an Excel template and writes the results to the same template. The program has two routines to import structural grid data in the Eclipse and Zmap formats. The platform of SUPERPOSE is a single layer structural grid of a given cell size (e.g. 50×50 m). In the final output, a single tensile or two conjugate shear fractures are placed in each cell if fracturing criteria are satisfied; otherwise the cell is left blank. Strike of the representative fracture(s) is calculated and exact, but the length is an index of fracture porosity (fracture density×length×aperture) within that cell.

  9. Rationale for finding and exploiting fractured reservoirs, based on the MWX/SHCT-Piceance basin experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.


    The deliverability of a reservoir depends primarily on its permeability, which, in many reservoirs, is controlled by a combination of natural fractures and the in situ stresses. Therefore it is important to be able to predict which parts of a basin are most likely to contain naturally fractured strata, what the characteristics of those fractures might be, and what the most likely in situ stresses are at a given location. This paper presents a set of geologic criteria that can be superimposed onto factors, such as levels of maturation and porosity development, in order to predict whether fractures are present once the likelihood of petroleum presence and reservoir development have been determined. Stress causes fracturing, but stresses are not permanent. A natural-fracture permeability pathway opened by one system of stresses may be held open by those stresses, or narrowed or even closed by changes of the stress to an oblique or normal orientation. The origin of stresses and stress anisotropies in a basin, the potential for stress to create natural fractures, and the causes of stress reorientation are examined in this paper. The appendices to this paper present specific techniques for exploiting and characterizing natural fractures, for measuring the present-day in situ stresses, and for reconstructing a computerized stress history for a basin.

  10. Zoledronic acid and clinical fractures and mortality after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Kenneth W; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S; Magaziner, Jay S


    BACKGROUND: Mortality is increased after a hip fracture, and strategies that improve outcomes are needed. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 1065 patients were assigned to receive yearly intravenous zoledronic acid (at a dose of 5 mg), and 1062 patients were...... assigned to receive placebo. The infusions were first administered within 90 days after surgical repair of a hip fracture. All patients (mean age, 74.5 years) received supplemental vitamin D and calcium. The median follow-up was 1.9 years. The primary end point was a new clinical fracture. RESULTS...... in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: An annual infusion of zoledronic acid within 90 days after repair of a low-trauma hip fracture was associated with a reduction in the rate of new clinical fractures and with improved survival. ( number, NCT00046254 [].)....

  11. [Establishment of Schatzker classification digital models of tibial plateau fractures and its application on virtual surgery]. (United States)

    Liu, Yong-gang; Zuo, Li-xin; Pei, Guo-xian; Dai, Ke; Sang, Jing-wei


    To explore the establishment of Schatzker classification digital model of tibial plateau fractures and its application in virtual surgery. Proximal tibial of one healthy male volunteer was examined with 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT). The data were processed by software Mimics 10.01 and a model of proximal tibia was reconstructed. According to the Schatzker classification criteria of tibial plateau fractures, each type of fracture model was simulated.Screen-captures of fracture model were saved from different directions.Each type of fracture model was exported as video mode.Fracture model was imported into FreeForm modeling system.With a force feedback device, a surgeon could conduct virtual fracture operation simulation.Utilizing the GHOST of FreeForm modeling system, the software of virtual cutting, fracture reduction and fixation was developed.With a force feedback device PHANTOM, a surgeon could manipulate virtual surgical instruments and fracture classification model and simulate surgical actions such as assembly of surgical instruments, drilling, implantation of screw, reduction of fracture, bone grafting and fracture fixation, etc. The digital fracture model was intuitive, three-dimensional and realistic and it had excellent visual effect.Fracture could be observed and charted from optional direction and angle.Fracture model could rotate 360 ° in the corresponding video mode. The virtual surgical environment had a strong sense of reality, immersion and telepresence as well as good interaction and force feedback function in the FreeForm modeling system. The user could make the corresponding decisions about surgical method and choice of internal fixation according to the specific type of tibial plateau fracture as well as repeated operational practice in virtual surgery system. The digital fracture model of Schatzker classification is intuitive, three-dimensional, realistic and dynamic. The virtual surgery systems of Schatzker classifications make

  12. [Clinical features in the diagnosis and treatment of ankle fracture with Wagsaffe fragment]. (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyu; Xin, Jingyi; Liang, Jun


    To explore the methods in the diagnosis and treatment of ankle fracture with Wagsaffe fragment. Among 1 201 patients, there were 18 cases of concurrent Wagstaffe fractures at our hospital between January 2009 to January 2012. There were 11 males and 7 females with an average of 37.4 (17-54) years. The causes of injuries were fall (n = 10), sports-related injury (n = 4), traffic injury (n = 3) and high-altitude fall (n = 1). All of them had lateral malleolar fracture. Other injuries included internal malleolar fracture (n = 16), posterior malleolar fracture (n = 8) and disruption of medial deltoid ligament (n = 3). According to the Lauge-Hansen system, all fractures were of supination-external rotation type. The fractures of fibula and Wagstaffe were explored through an anterolateral approach. The lateral malleolar fracture was fixed with plate While Wagstaffe fragment secured with lag screw or thread. Disrupted anterior tibiofibular ligament was restored. Other treatments included open reduction and internal fixation of medial and posterior malleolus, repair of medial deltoid ligament and screw fixation of disrupted tibiofibular syndesmosis. Ankle function was evaluated by the Baird-Jackson criteria. Wagstaffe fracture occurred at a rate of 1.5% in ankle fractures. Wagstaffe fracture was found in 4.4% of ankle fracture of supination-external rotation type. Seventeen patients were followed up over an average follow-up period of 16.8 (12-25) months. All radiographs showed union of all fractures and normal mortise. Baird-Jackson ankle functional score was from 81 to 99. In all 17 patients, 9 were rated as excellent, 5 as good and 3 as fair. The excellent and good rate was 87.4%. At the latest follow-up, 14 patients resumed their preinjury activities. As an easily misdiagnosed condition, Wagstaffe fracture is associated with ankle diastase and prone to occur in ankle fracture of supination-external rotation type. Accurate reduction and stable fixation facilitate the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Supracondylar fracture of humerus is the commonest injury around elbow in children. Management of displaced Supracondylar fracture of humerus is one of the most challenging one to prevent complications. It needs accurate anatomical reduction and internal fixation . Our prospective study has evaluated that surgical fixation in type III supracondylar fractures of humerus in children (gartland classifi cation gives more stable fixation, better anatomical reduction with minimal complication. MATERIALS & METHODS : In our series, 28 cases of supracondylar fractures of humerus treated by various methods [including conservative & operative methods] and followed up for a mean of 6 months with radiological & clinical evaluation. RESULTS : The results of study of 28 patients was evaluated according to Flynn’s criteria, out of which 22 patients had TYPE III fracture . 18 patients ( 82% with type III fractures undergone surgical fixation with k wires, 12 patients (67% had excellent results, 5 patients (28% good results & 1 patient (5% had poor result. 4 patients (18% with type III treated conservatively, 1 patient ( 25% had good results, 2 patients (50% fair & 1 patient (25% had poor result. 4 patients had type II fracture, 3 patients (75% treated conservatively had excellent results,1 patient (25% treated surgically had good result. 2 patients with TYPE I fracture treated conservatively had excellent results . CONCLUSIONS : Surgical fixation in type III supracondylar fractures of humerus in children gives more stable fixation, excellent functional and cosmetic results . The results of Conservative treatment in type III supracondylar fractures are poor. The results of Conservative treatment type I & type II supracondylar fractures are good.

  14. Outcome of non-operative management of femoral shaft fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyoola A


    Full Text Available Background: Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in childhood. There is paucity of information on their presentation and outcome of the available treatment methods in the African population. This study evaluated the outcome of non-operative methods of treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of the database of children aged 14 years and below with femoral shaft fractures treated non-operatively over a 10-year period. Results: A total of 134 patients with 138 fractures met the study criteria. This consisted of 71 boys (mean age = 6.1 years ± SD and 63 girls (mean age = 6.5 years ± SD. Pedestrian vehicular accident was the most common cause of femoral shaft fractures in the study population. The midshaft was the most common site of fractures. There were associated injuries to other parts of the body (especially head injury in 34.3% of the patients. The commonest mode of treatment was skin traction only (87.7%. The mean time to fracture union was 4.9 weeks ± SD (range = 3-15 weeks. The mean length of hospitalisation was 6.7 weeks ± SD (range = 5 days-11 weeks. There was a fairly strong positive correlation between the length of hospitalisation and the presence of associated injuries, especially head injury, upper limb fractures and bilaterality of the fractures. The mean total cost of treatment was #7685 (Naira or $51.2 (range = $14.2-$190. At the last follow up, 97.8% of the fractures united without significant angulation or shortening. Conclusion: The outcome of non-operative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our setting is comparable to the results of other workers. Methods of treatment that shorten the length of hospitalisation without unduly increasing cost should be encouraged.

  15. Fracture Detection and Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.


    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  16. Fracture detection and mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.


    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  17. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.


    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and su

  18. Cough-induced rib fractures. (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu


    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Bilateral acetabular fracture without trauma


    De Rosa, M. A.; G. Maccauro; D’Arienzo, M.


     In the absence of trauma fracture of the acetabulum is an extremely rare injury. We describe a 70 year old man who spontaneously developed fractures in both acetabulae due to bony insufficiency. It was successfully treated by bilateral total hip replacement.

  20. Epidemiological study on talus fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hideyo Sakaki


    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the characteristics of patients with talus fractures and the injuries that they present.Methods:Retrospective analysis on patients hospitalized in the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, between 2006 and 2011, with talus fractures. Patient profile parameters, risk factors, fracture characteristics, treatment data and acute complications were analyzed.Results:Analysis on 23 cases showed that men were more affected than women, with a ratio of 4.8:1. The most frequent trauma mechanism was traffic accidents, followed by falls from a height. The most frequent type of fracture was at the neck of the talus, with 17 cases. Among the 23 cases, seven had peritalar dislocation at the time of presentation, four had exposed fractures and 11 presented other associated fractures. The mean length of time between the trauma and the definitive treatment was six days, while the mean length of hospital stay was 11 days. Three patients presented acute postoperative complications.Conclusion:Talus fractures occurred most commonly in the region of the talar neck and most frequently in young males who suffered high-energy trauma. In almost half of the cases, there were other associated fractures. The length of hospital stay was 11 days.

  1. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole


    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...

  2. Global Trends in Maxillofacial Fractures


    Lee, Kai


    Background The etiology, demographics, fracture site in facial injury patients have been reported worldwide. However, few studies have attempted to identify changes in maxillofacial fractures over time periods and between countries. The statistics are vastly different due to variations in social, environmental, and cultural factors.

  3. Excess mortality following hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R;


    Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlig...

  4. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.


    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  5. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E


    Full Text Available effects. Examples of the use of fracture mechanics providing an alternative to these conventional design parameters are given in the paper. The paper shows that although much further development is required before fracture mechanics can be relied upon...

  6. Hydraulic fracturing with chlorine dioxide cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.A.; Newlove, J.C.; Horton, R.L.


    This patent describes a method for fracturing a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore. It comprises: injecting a fracturing fluid into the formation to form a vertical fracture therein, the fracturing fluid being gelled with a polymer selected from guar, guar derivatives, acrylamide, acrylamide derivatives, cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and mixtures thereof and crosslinked with an organometallic crosslinking compound and having temperature stability above about 175{degrees} F.; packing the fracture with particulate propping agent; backflowing fluids from the formation through the propped fracture to remove a portion of the polymer; injecting at matrix rates sufficient aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide down the wellbore and into the propped fracture to penetrate at least 60 feet of the propped fracture length and contact polymer in the fracturing fluid and polymer residue in the propped fracture and on the fracture walls, the amount of the chlorine dioxide in the aqueous medium being sufficient to degrade polymer in the fracturing fluid and polymer residue; permitting the chlorine dioxide to remain in contact with the polymer in the fracturing fluid and with the polymer residue on the fracture walls and in the fracture for sufficient time to degrade the polymer thereby reducing the fracturing fluid viscosity and dissolving portions of the polymer residue; and flowing formation fluid from the formation through the propped fracture and into the wellbore to remove substantial portions of the polymer and degraded polymer from the fracture.

  7. Isolated Transverse Sacrum Fracture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Kavalci


    Full Text Available Sacral fracture commonly results from high-energy trauma. Most insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are seen in women after the age of 70. Fractures of the sacrum are rare and generally combined with a concomitant pelvic fracture. Transverse sacral fractures are even less frequent which constitute only 3–5% of all sacral fractures. This type of fractures provide a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of isolated transverse fracture of sacrum in a young man sustained low-energy trauma. The patient presented to our emergency department after several hours of injury, and diagnosed by clinical features and roentgenogram findings.

  8. A new mixed-mode fracture criterion for large scale lattice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sachau


    Full Text Available Reasonable fracture criteria are crucial for the modeling of dynamic failure in computational spring lattice models. For experiments on the micro and on the meso scale exist successful criteria, which are based on the stress that a spring experiences. In this paper we test the applicability of these failure criteria to large scale models, where gravity plays an important role in addition to the externally applied deformation. The resulting brittle structures do not resemble the outcome predicted by fracture mechanics and geological observations. For this reason we derive an elliptical fracture criterion, which is based on the strain energy stored in a spring. Simulations using the new criterion result in realistic structures. It is another great advantage of this fracture model, that it can be combined with classic geological material parameters: the tensile strength σ0 and the shear cohesion τ0. While we tested the fracture model only for large scale structures, there is strong reason to believe that the model is equally applicable to lattice simulations on the micro and the meso scale.

  9. Distal clavicle fractures in children☆ (United States)

    Labronici, Pedro José; da Silva, Ricardo Rodrigues; Franco, Marcos Vinícius Viana; Labronici, Gustavo José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Franco, José Sergio


    Objective To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. Methods Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years) were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. Results All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. Conclusion The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments. PMID:26962489

  10. Pathogenesis of osteoporotic hip fractures. (United States)

    McClung, Michael R


    Osteoporosis is characterized late in the course of the disease by an increased risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. It occurs in both sexes, affecting approximately 8 million women and 2 million men aged > or = 50 years (1). While low bone density is a predictor of fractures, it is not the only determinant of fracture risk. Other factors include advanced age, altered bone quality, a personal or family history of falls, frailty, poor eyesight, debilitating diseases, and high bone turnover. A diet with sufficient calcium and vitamin D is important to minimize bone loss and, along with regular exercise, to maintain muscle strength. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce the risk of hip fracture. For elderly patients, the use of hip protectors may be used as a treatment of last resort. Regardless of the age of the patient, individual patient risk factors must be considered to target appropriate treatment and prevent fracture.

  11. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig


    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate....... The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  12. Distal clavicle fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Labronici


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. METHODS: Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. RESULTS: All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. CONCLUSION: The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments.

  13. Physical chemistry of glass fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalske, T.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Since silica glass is a brittle material, its susceptibility to fracture often limits its use in technological applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fracture resistance of silica glass is decreased greatly by the presence of chemically reactive species such as water. By studying the effect of controlled amounts of reactive gases on the fracture rate in silica glass, the authors have developed chemical kinetics based models to describe the molecular level processes that lead to stress corrosion fracture of glass. A key aspect of our chemical kinetics based model is the measurement of the stress dependence for the hydrolysis of siloxane bonds. The authors derive the stress dependence for hydrolysis from reaction rate studies that are conducted on strained cyclosiloxane model compounds. The chemical kinetic parameter derived from model compounds is used to successfully predict the fracture behavior of bulk silica glass and the mechanical fatigue of high-strength silica glass fibers in various reactive chemical environments.

  14. Numerical Analysis on the Formation of Fracture Network during the Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale with Pre-Existing Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He


    Full Text Available In this paper, configurations of pre-existing fractures in cubic rock blocks were investigated and reconstructed for the modeling of experimental hydraulic fracturing. The fluid-rock coupling process of hydraulic fracturing was simulated based on the displacement discontinuities method. The numerical model was validated against the related laboratory experiments. The stimulated fracture configurations under different conditions can be clearly shown using the validated numerical model. First, a dominated fracture along the maximum principle stress direction is always formed when the stress difference is large enough. Second, there are less reopened pre-existing fractures, more newly formed fractures and less shear fractures with the increase of the cohesion value of pre-existing fractures. Third, the length of the stimulated shear fracture decreases rapidly with the increase of the friction coefficient, while the length of the tensile fracture has no correlation to the fiction coefficient. Finally, the increase of the fluid injection rate is favorable to the formation of a fracture network. The unfavorable effects of the large stress difference and the large cohesion of pre-existing fractures can be partly suppressed by an increase of the injection rate in the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The results of this paper are useful for understanding fracture propagation behaviors during the hydraulic fracturing of shale reservoirs with pre-existing fractures.

  15. Treatment of irradiation effects in structural design criteria for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Fusion Power Program; Smith, P. [San Diego Joint Work Site, CA (United States). ITER Joint Central Team


    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of structural design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. These effects call into question the basis of the design rules in existing structural design criteria which assume that only code-approved materials with high toughness, ductility and strain hardening capability will be used. The present paper reviews the basis of new rules that address these issues in Draft 5 of the interim ITER structural design criteria (ISDC) which was released recently for trial use by the ITER designers.

  16. Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Terrence Lee [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.

  17. Titanium elastic nailing in pediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Roop


    Full Text Available Background: The need for operative fixation of pediatric femoral fractures is increasingly being recognised in the present decade. The conventional traction and casting method for management of pediatric femoral fractures is giving way for the operative stabilisation of the fracture. Methods : Thirty five pediatric patients in age group 6-14 years with diaphyseal femoral fractures were stabilised with two titanium nails. Patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for two years. The final results were evaluated using the criteria of Flynn et al. Technical problems and complications associated with the procedure were also analysed. Results : Overall results observed were excellent in 25, satisfactory in 8 and poor in 2 patients. Hospital time averaged 12.30 days in the series. All the fractures healed with an average time to union of 9.6 (6-14.4 weeks. Return to school was early with an average of 7.8 weeks. The soft tissue discomfort near the knee produced by the nails ends was the most common problem encountered. Shortening was observed in three cases and restriction of knee flexion in 5 patients. There was no delayed union, infection or refractures. Per operative technical problems included failure of closed reduction in 2 cases and cork screwing of nails in one case. Conclusion : We believe that with proper operative technique and aftercare TENs may prove to be an ideal implant for pediatric femoral fracture fixation. The most of the complication associated with the procedure are infact features of inexact technique and can be eliminated by strictly adhering to the basic principles and technical aspects.

  18. Complex multilevel lumbar spine fractures with transverse sacral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Chaudhary


    Full Text Available We report an unusual and complex case of spinal trauma in a 17-year-old boy who presented with a transverse sacral fracture associated with multiple-level lumbar fractures, paraparesis, and bladder involvement. A two-stage surgery was performed. The lumbar spine fractures were treated with posterior instrumented correction of displacements, followed by anterior instrumentation and fusion. The sacral fracture was left untreated. At 5-year followup, the patient had complete neurological recovery except for the right L5 root function. The long-segment lumbar fusion and the untreated displaced sacral fracture contributed to spinal imbalance, due to which the patient is now able to stand only in a crouched posture. Determining the optimal treatment for the case is presented due to the relative rarity of transverse sacral fracture and paucity of evidence-based treatment approaches. In patients with associated lumbar spine fractures that require extension of instrumentation to the upper lumbar spine, it is critical to restore sacropelvic alignment to achieve spinal balance. Adequate reduction of sacropelvic anatomy can be achieved with iliac screw fixation.

  19. Model of mechanical representation of the formation of natural fractures inside a petroleum reservoir; Modele de representation mecanique de la formation des fractures naturelles d'un reservoir petrolier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, D.


    The optimisation of the oil production requires a better characterisation of naturally fractured reservoirs. We consider and analyse two spatial distributions. One with systematic joints is arranged in an homogeneous way; joint spacing is linked to individual bedding thickness with propagation frequently interrupted by stratigraphic interfaces (single layer jointing). The second, so-called fracture swarms, consists in fractures clustering, where stratigraphic interfaces seem to play a minor role. The analysis is based on the singularity theory and matched asymptotic expansions method with a fine scale for local perturbations and a global one for general trends. We examine the conditions of fracture propagation that are determined herein using simultaneously two fracture criteria an energy and a stress condition. We consider two modes of loading. Usually, the joint (crack opening mode) and fracture swarm growths are explained by a first order phenomenon involving effective traction orthogonal to fracture plane. Although commonly used, this hypothesis seems unrealistic in many circumstances and may conflict with geological observations. Then, we try to describe fracture growth as a second order phenomena resulting from crack parallel compression. As far as propagation across layer interfaces is concerned, the effect of loading and geometry has been summarised in maps of fracture mechanisms, describing areas of 'step-over', 'straight through propagation' and 'crack arrest'. Fracture criteria, relative size of heterogeneities, contrast of mechanical properties between bed and layer are parameters of the problem. For fracture swarms, we present a discussion bringing out what is reasonable as a loading to justify their morphology. In particular, horizontal effective tension is unable to explain neighbouring joints. Simultaneous propagation of parallel near cracks is explained by finite width cracks growing under the influence of vertical

  20. Fracture behavior of short circumferentially surface-cracked pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Mohan, R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    This topical report summarizes the work performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Comniission`s (NRC) research program entitled ``Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds`` that specifically focuses on pipes with short, circumferential surface cracks. The following details are provided in this report: (i) material property deteminations, (ii) pipe fracture experiments, (iii) development, modification and validation of fracture analysis methods, and (iv) impact of this work on the ASME Section XI Flaw Evaluation Procedures. The material properties developed and used in the analysis of the experiments are included in this report and have been implemented into the NRC`s PIFRAC database. Six full-scale pipe experiments were conducted during this program. The analyses methods reported here fall into three categories (i) limit-load approaches, (ii) design criteria, and (iii) elastic-plastic fracture methods. These methods were evaluated by comparing the analytical predictions with experimental data. The results, using 44 pipe experiments from this and other programs, showed that the SC.TNP1 and DPZP analyses were the most accurate in predicting maximum load. New Z-factors were developed using these methods. These are being considered for updating the ASME Section XI criteria.

  1. Prediction models of prevalent radiographic vertebral fractures among older men. (United States)

    Schousboe, John T; Rosen, Harold R; Vokes, Tamara J; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M; Orwoll, Eric S; Kado, Deborah M; Ensrud, Kristine E


    No studies have compared how well different prediction models discriminate older men who have a radiographic prevalent vertebral fracture (PVFx) from those who do not. We used area under receiver operating characteristic curves and a net reclassification index to compare how well regression-derived prediction models and nonregression prediction tools identify PVFx among men age ≥65 yr with femoral neck T-score of -1.0 or less enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. The area under receiver operating characteristic for a model with age, bone mineral density, and historical height loss (HHL) was 0.682 compared with 0.692 for a complex model with age, bone mineral density, HHL, prior non-spine fracture, body mass index, back pain, grip strength, smoking, and glucocorticoid use (p values for difference in 5 bootstrapped samples 0.14-0.92). This complex model, using a cutpoint prevalence of 5%, correctly reclassified only a net 5.7% (p = 0.13) of men as having or not having a PVFx compared with a simple criteria list (age ≥ 80 yr, HHL >4 cm, or glucocorticoid use). In conclusion, simple criteria identify older men with PVFx and regression-based models. Future research to identify additional risk factors that more accurately identify older men with PVFx is needed.

  2. Application of nonlocal criteria for destruction in problems with a nonuniform stress field (United States)

    Chevrychkina, A. A.; Gruzdkov, A. A.; Petrov, Yu. V.


    The dependence of the critical load on the degree of nonuniformity of the stress field is considered on the example of polymethylmethacrylate beams and plates with a round hole or a sharp notch. It is proposed to use nonlocal criteria for brittle fracture to describe the behavior of a nonuniformly stressed material. Among the criteria considered, the structural criterion is the most universal, because, in this case, the distance parameter d is least dependent on the test configuration. The distance parameters in problems with a regular concentrator are of the same order of magnitude, as in problems with a singular stress concentrator. A further modification of the criterion that takes into account the properties of the fracture process will probably make it possible to obtain a unique value for the length parameter for any degree of nonuniformity of the stress field.

  3. Normality Criteria of Meromorphic Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiong; Yuan Wen-jun; Chen Wei; Tian Hong-gen


    In this paper, we consider normality criteria for a family of meromorphic functions concerning shared values. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions defined in a domain D, m, n, k and d be four positive integers satisfying m≥n+2 and d≥ k+1m−n−1 , and a(̸=0), b be two finite constants. Suppose that every f ∈F has all its zeros and poles of multiplicity at least k and d, respectively. If (fn)(k)−afm and (gn)(k)−agm share the value b for every pair of functions (f, g) of F, then F is normal in D. Our results improve the related theorems of Schwick (Schwick W. Normality criteria for families of meromorphic function. J. Anal. Math., 1989, 52:241–289), Li and Gu (Li Y T, Gu Y X. On normal families of meromorphic functions. J. Math. Anal. Appl., 2009, 354: 421–425).

  4. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

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    Gultekin Gulbahar


    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  5. Adolescent Volar Barton Fracture with Open Physis treated with Volar Plating using Buttressing Principle

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    Shah H


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the outcome of Salter- Harris type III distal radius fracture fixed using the principle of buttressing and avoiding screw insertion through the physis. Materials and Method: Eight school going children in the age group of 11-16 years with volar Barton fractures were treated with a volar plate using the buttress principle without inserting screws in the distal fragment. Patients were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Clinical evaluation was done using the Green O’Brien criteria and radiological evaluation using the Sarmiento criteria. Results: The average union time was two months. All the patients had good to excellent functional outcome with full extension and flexion. Conclusion: Buttress plating of volar Barton fractures in the adolescent age group is an excellent technique to achieve satisfactory outcome without violation of the physis.

  6. Sustainability Criteria for Contingency Bases (United States)


    Figure 29. Recreation facilities, gym , PX, and social gathering spots co-located. ERDC/CERL TR-14-20 38 Improve site accessibility, safety, and...hydrology, vegetation, human health and well-being and materials selection in order to improve and regenerate the ecosystem. SITES has areas as close as possible to common use areas (DFAC, gym , ballfields ). Read criteria and apply if possible. IMPROVE SITE ACCESSIBILITY

  7. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

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    FANG Guo-jun


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as 揹estructive injury?indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term 揹estructive fractures?after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: a1 type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type, open joint-involved destructive fracture; c1 type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructive fracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures. Key words: Fracture, bone; Classification; Therapeutics

  8. Repository operational criteria comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses


    The objective of the ``Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies`` (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations considering the interfaces among the components of the regulations and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The ROC task addresses regulatory criteria and uncertainties related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. Those parts of 10 CFR Part 60 that require routine guidance or minor changes to the rule were addressed in Hageman and Chowdhury, 1992. The ROC task shows a possible need for further regulatory clarity, by major changes to the rule, related to the design bases and siting of a geologic repository operations area and radiological emergency planning in order to assure defense-in-depth. The analyses, presented in this report, resulted in the development and refinement of regulatory concepts and their supporting rationale for recommendations for potential major changes to 10 CFR Pan 0 regulations.

  9. Mechanisms of intergranular fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    The authors present a study of the atomistic mechanisms of crack propagation along grain boundaries in metals and alloys. The failure behavior showing cleavage crack growth and/or crack-tip dislocation emission is demonstrated using atomistic simulations for an embedded-atom model. The simulations follow the quasi-equilibrium growth of a crack as the stress intensity applied increases. Dislocations emitted from crack tips normally blunt the crack and inhibit cleavage, inducing ductile behavior. When the emitted dislocations stay near the crack tip (sessile dislocations), they do blunt the crack but brittle cleavage can occur after the emission of a sufficient number of dislocations. The fracture process occurs as a combination of dislocation emission/micro-cleavage portions that are controlled by the local atomistic structure of the grain boundary. The grain boundary is shown to be a region where dislocation emission is easier, a mechanism that competes with the lower cohesive strength of the boundary region.

  10. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

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    Nazmi Bilir


    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  11. [Management of weight-bearing area fracture of acetabulum]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-tong; Wang, Pan-feng; Zhang, Chun-cai


    Acetabulum, as the important factor for weight bearing of the upper body, has its unique anatomic features and complicated physiological function. The integrity and stability of the lunata articular surface in the dome region of acetabulum, is the important base to bear the physiological function of acetabulum. The fracture related to this part will cause relation change of contact area and stress between head of femur and acetabulum. Furthermore, the deep anatomical position of the dome region, the complicated surrounding anatomical relation, and the irregular bony structure will also increase the difficulty of surgical treatment. Especially for some complicated comminuted or compressed fracture, even with good explosions, it is hard to get satisfied anatomical reduction. Consequently,forward traumatic arthritis has greater probability of occurrence. Therefore, the clinical research on the fracture in the dome region of acetabulum was getting more and more attention worldly. This paper intended to review the relation of fracture classifications and anatomic features, physiological function,diagnostic criteria,and also its clinical treating countermeasure.

  12. Bone biology in the elderly: clinical importance for fracture treatment

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    Rolvien Tim


    Full Text Available Age-related bone impairment often leads to fragility fractures in the elderly. Although excellent surgical care is widely provided, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying bone disorder are often not kept in mind. The interplay of the three major bone cells – osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes – is normally well regulated via the secretion of messengers to control bone remodeling. Possible imbalances that might occur in the elderly are partly due to age, genetic risk factors, and adverse lifestyle factors but importantly also due to imbalances in calcium homeostasis (mostly due to vitamin D deficiency or hypochlorhydria, which have to be eliminated. Therefore, the cooperation between the trauma surgeon and the osteologist is of major importance to diagnose and treat the respective patients at risk. We propose that any patient suffering from fragility fractures is rigorously screened for osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. This includes bone density measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory tests for calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, and bone turnover markers, as well as additional diagnostic modalities if needed. Thereby, most risk factors, including vitamin D deficiency, can be identified and treated while patients who meet the criteria for a specific therapy (i.e. antiresorptive and osteoanabolic receive such. If local health systems succeed to manage this process of secondary fracture prevention, morbidity and mortality of fragility fractures will decline to a minimum level.

  13. The incidence of secondary vertebral fracture of vertebral augmentation techniques versus conservative treatment for painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Song, Dawei; Meng, Bin; Gan, Minfeng; Niu, Junjie; Li, Shiyan; Chen, Hao; Yuan, Chenxi; Yang, Huilin


    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) are minimally invasive and effective vertebral augmentation techniques for managing osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Recent meta-analyses have compared the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques or conservative treatment; however, the inclusions were not thorough and rigorous enough, and the effects of each technique on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures remain unclear. To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies with more rigorous inclusion criteria on the effects of vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for OVCF on the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SpringerLink, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for relevant original articles comparing the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment for patients with OVCFs. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) were identified. The methodological qualities of the studies were evaluated, relevant data were extracted and recorded, and an appropriate meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 articles were included. The pooled results from included studies showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of secondary vertebral fractures between patients treated with vertebral augmentation techniques and conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis comparing different study designs, durations of symptoms, follow-up times, races of patients, and techniques were conducted, and no significant differences in the incidence of secondary fractures were identified (P > 0.05). No obvious publication bias was detected by either Begg's test (P = 0.360 > 0.05) or Egger's test (P = 0.373 > 0.05). Despite current thinking in the

  14. Early history of scapular fractures. (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B


    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  15. Spontaneous bilateral fracture of patella. (United States)

    Moretti, Biagio; Speciale, Domenico; Garofalo, Raffaele; Moretti, Lorenzo; Patella, Silvio; Patella, Vittorio


    Bilateral patellae fractures represent a rare entity, accounting for approximately 2.9% of all lesions interesting in this anatomical district. In most cases found in the published work, they are described as stress fractures or as complications of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although many pathogenetic mechanisms have been supposed, none have been proved for certain. Insufficiency fractures of the patellae are rare events and no data has been published on their incidence. We present a case of bilateral fracture of the patellae due to an indirect trauma occurring in an 85-year-old patient affected by Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis and diffuse degenerative osteoarthritis. X-ray of the knees (anteroposterior and lateral) and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation confirmed the fractures. The patient was treated conservatively. She had a good result, returning to her previous autonomous ambulation. This case is unusual because there was no direct trauma to the knees because of bilaterality, but confirmed previous observations about insufficiency fractures of patellae in the presence of comorbidity. Insufficiency fractures of patellae can be an insidious condition in elderly people. Prepatellar pain, a common symptom in the relapse phase of degenerative arthritis of the knee, should not be underestimated, particularly in patients with diseases influencing metabolism of bone and with an elevated risk of fall. A periodical clinical and instrumental follow up should be done in these patient. Moreover, we underline the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. [Fractures of the humerus head]. (United States)

    Jaeger, M; Izadpanah, K; Maier, D; Reising, K; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P


    Fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly seen especially in the elderly population. High-energy trauma in young people can be distinguished from low-energy trauma in the elderly resulting from falls of a low height which are typically characterized by osteoporosis. A precise analysis of fractures is essential for a good understanding of the fracture and an individual therapy for which the LEGO-Codman classification provided by Hertel is recommended. Nonsurgical therapy is commonly performed and widely accepted not only for simple fractures. For osteosynthesis angular stable implants became the gold standard but are frequently associated with a high rate of complications some of which can be lowered by an improved surgical technique. Even today varus dislocated fractures are challenging, especially in combination with destruction of the medial column. In those cases where stable osteosynthesis can no longer be achieved arthroplasty is indicated. The clinical results of anatomic fracture arthroplasty are strongly related with correct ingrowth of the tuberosities. Reverse fracture arthroplasty may be considered but indications should be interpreted with caution and preferably used in patients older than 75 years.

  17. Scapular fractures and concomitant injuries

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    Akaraborworn Osaree


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: The association of scapular fractures with other life-threatening injuries including blunt thoracic aortic injury is widely recognized. Few studies have investigated this presumed association. In this study, we investigated the incidence of significant associated injuries with scapular fracture and their outcomes. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2009 in a level I trauma center in Thailand. All blunt trauma patients were identified. Patients’ demographics, injury mechanism, associated injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS, and survival outcomes were recorded. The manage-ment of associated injuries with scapular fracture was reviewed, and the risk factors for mortality were identified. Results: Among the 7 345 trauma patients admitted, scapular fractures occurred in 84 cases (1.1%. The mean age was (37.98±15.21 years. Motorcycle crash was the most fre-quent mechanism of injury, occurring in 51 cases (60.7%. Seventy-four patients (88.1% suffering from scapular frac-tures had associated injuries: 5 (6.0% had significant chest injuries, but none of them had blunt thoracic aortic injury. Two patients (2.4% with scapular fractures died. Factors determining the likelihood of mortality were: (1 ISS>25 (LR=8.5, P<0.05; (2 significant associated chest injury (AIS>3, LR=5.3, P<0.05 and (3 significant associated ab-dominal injury (AIS>3, LR=5.3, P<0.05. Conclusion: A blunt scapular fracture may not accom-pany a blunt thoracic aortic injury but it is strongly related to other injuries like chest injury, extremity injury, head injury, etc. If a scapular fracture is found with a high ISS score, high chest or abdomen AIS score, the patient would have a high risk of mortality. Key words: Aortic rupture; Shoulder fractures; Mul-tiple trauma; Mortality

  18. Possible factors for ankle fractures

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    Tabaković Dejan


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Classification of ankle fractures is commonly used for selecting an appropriate treatment and prognosing an outcome of definite management. One of the most used classifications is the Danis-Weber classification. To the best of our knowledge, in the available literature, there are no parameters affecting specific types of ankle fractures according to the Danis-Weber classification. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of the following parameters: age, body weight, body mass index (BMI, height, osteoporosis, osteopenia and physical exercises with specific types of ankle fractures using the Danis-Weber classification. Methods. A total of 85 patients grouped by the Danis-Weber classification fracture types were analyzed and the significance of certain parameters for specific types of ankle fractures was established. Results. The proportion of females was significantly higher (p < 0.001 with a significantly higher age (59.9 years, SD ± 14.2 in relation to males (45.1 years, SD ± 12.8 (p < 0.0001. Type A fracture was most frequent in the younger patients (34.2 years, SD ± 8.6, and those with increased physical exercises (p = 0.020. In type B fracture, the risk factor was osteoporosis (p = 0.0180, while in type C fracture, body weight (p = 0.017 and osteoporosis (p = 0.004 were significant parameters. Conclusion. Statistical analysis using the Danis-Weber classification reveals that there are certain parameters suggesting significant risk factors for specific types of ankle fractures.

  19. Fracture mechanics in fiber reinforced composite materials, taking as examples B/A1 and CRFP (United States)

    Peters, P. W. M.


    The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics and other fracture criteria was investigated with laminates of boron fiber reinforced aluminum (R/A1) and of carbon fiber reinforced epoxide (CFRP). Cracks are assessed by fracture strength Kc or Kmax (critical or maximum value of the stress intensity factor). The Whitney and Nuismer point stress criterion and average stress criterion often show that Kmax of fiber composite materials increases with increasing crack length; however, for R/A1 and CFRP the curve showing fracture strength as a function of crack length is only applicable in a small domain. For R/A1, the reason is clearly the extension of the plastic zone (or the damage zone n the case of CFRP) which cannot be described with a stress intensity factor.

  20. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

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    Ramji Lal Sahu


    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  1. Operative strategy of acetabular fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; TANG Pei-fu; HUANG Peng


    Anatomic structure of acetabular fractures are complex and operative exposure and fixation are extremely difficult.For those obviously displaced acetabular fractures, close reduction is doomed to cause deformative healing. Open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) not only results in anatomic reduction, but also brings complications. No matter which method will be adopted, traumatic arthritis or avascular necrosis of femoral head might occur. In order to treat acetabular fractures more effectively, orthopedic surgeons should be required to fully master the acetabular anatomy, biomechanics, classification and the necessary knowledge for complication prevention.

  2. Insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Ryul; Huh, Seung Jae [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Insufficiency fracture occurs when normal or physiological stress applied to weakened bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Recently, many studies reported the development of IF after radiation therapy (RT) in gynecological cancer, prostate cancer, anal cancer and rectal cancer. The RT-induced insufficiency fracture is a common complication during the follow-up using modern imaging studies. The clinical suspicion and knowledge the characteristic imaging patterns of insufficiency fracture is essential to differentiate it from metastatic bone lesions, because it sometimes cause severe pain, and it may be confused with bone metastasis.

  3. Treatment of Unstable Ankle Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniel Truffín Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Patients with unstable ankle fractures frequently attend the emergency rooms. It is estimated that there are 122 ankle fractures per 100 000 people a year. Surgical treatment of those that are unstable is inevitable since they can not be corrected in a conservative way. Several surgical procedures for repair of such lesions have been described and all of them constitute important tools for the orthopedic surgeon. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to discuss the current management of unstable ankle fractures based on the analysis of the published literature and the experiences in the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital of Cienfuegos.

  4. Sternal fractures and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-achraf Khoriati


    Full Text Available Sternal fractures are predominantly associated with deceleration injuries and blunt anterior chest trauma. Sternal trauma must be carefully evaluated by monitoring of vital parameters and it is of paramount importance that concomitant injuries are excluded. Nevertheless, routine admission of patients with isolated sternal fractures for observation is still common in today′s practice, which is often unnecessary. This article aims to describe the prognosis, the recommended assessment and management of patients with sternal fractures, to help clinicians make an evidence-based judgment regarding the need for hospitalization.

  5. [Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in Medellin (Colombia)]. (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Duque-Serna, Francisco Levi; Restrepo-Molina, Lucas; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana


    To characterize maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents in patients attending the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellin-Colombia) from 1998 to 2010. A descriptive study (n =1609) was carried out with information from the medical records of patients meeting the inclusion criteria established by the general objective of the study. The variables consisted of sex, age, year, type and number of fractures, and type of vehicle. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and the frequency of fractures due to traffic accidents was calculated according to year and sex. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated to establish associations among age, type of vehicle, and the presence of two or more fractures with stratification by sex. The frequency of maxillofacial fractures due to traffic accidents increased in 2007 (men: n=198, women: n=35) and decreased from 2008 to 2010 in both sexes. Fractures were more frequent in persons aged <35 years (80%) and in men (82%). The highest frequency of fractures was observed in motorists. Male users of motorcycles (aOR=1.41; confidence interval 95% [95%CI]: 1.02- 1.94) and bicycles (aOR=1.61; 95%CI: 1.01- 2.56) were more likely to report two or more fractures compared with pedestrians, after adjustment for other variables. Most maxillofacial fractures occurred in men and in motorists. Future studies should analyze other determinants affecting the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures. Strategies should be designed to improve the use of protective elements and drivers' knowledge and practices. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of Plaster Molding for Distal Radius Fractures Is Improved Through Focused Tuition of Junior Surgeons. (United States)

    Ramoutar, Darryl N; Silk, Robert; Rodrigues, Jeremy N; Hatton, Mark


    Successful nonoperative management of distal radius fractures requires an adequately reduced fracture held in a well-molded cast. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a targeted teaching session to the same group of junior doctors led to objective improvement in fracture reduction and plaster molding and hence a decrease in the redisplacement of these fractures. Retrospective review. Level I academic trauma center. A retrospective review of all dorsally angulated distal radius fractures treated in plaster that presented to our plaster room over a 4-week period (group 1, n = 52). This was followed by the intervention and a subsequent 4-week prospective review (group 2, n = 36). Radiographs were reviewed before manipulation, after manipulation, and at follow-up by a single senior orthopaedic trainee using predetermined criteria. A targeted teaching session on fracture reduction and cast molding to the same group of junior doctors involved in managing all these cases. Adequate fracture reduction, plaster molding, redisplacement, and further intervention before and after the targeted intervention. In group 1, 85% had adequate fracture reduction but only 36% showed adequate molding. This was improved in group 2%-94% adequate reduction and 65% adequate molding (P = 0.022). The rate of redisplacement was improved from 65% to 44% in group 2. In both groups, the rate of redisplacement was around 20% for adequately reduced and molded fractures, compared with around 90% for adequately reduced but inadequately molded cases (P < 0.001). The rate of further intervention improved from 27% to 8% (P = 0.052). We recommend that specific teaching focusing on fracture reduction and molding techniques is included in orthopaedic juniors' induction teaching or as a separate session. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Wave generation by fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials with internal rotations (United States)

    Esin, Maxim; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Xu, Yuan


    Crack or fracture initiation and propagation in geomaterials are sources of waves and is important in both stability and fracture (e.g. hydraulic fracture) monitoring. Many geomaterials consist of particles or other constituents capable of rotating with respect to each other, either due to the absence of the binder phase (fragmented materials) or due to extensive damage of the cement between the constituents inflicted by previous loading. In investigating the wave generated in fracturing it is important to distinguish between the cases when the fracture is instantaneously initiated to its full length or propagates from a smaller initial crack. We show by direct physical experiments and discrete element modelling of 2D arrangements of unbonded disks that under compressive load fractures are initiated instantaneously as a result of the material instability and localisation. Such fractures generate waves as a single impulse impact. When the fractures propagate, they produce a sequence of impulses associated with the propagation steps. This manifests itself as acoustic (microseismic) emission whose temporal pattern contains the information of the fracture geometry, such as fractal dimension of the fracture. The description of this process requires formulating criteria of crack growth capable of taking into account the internal rotations. We developed an analytical solution based on the Cosserat continuum where each point of body has three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. When the Cosserat characteristic lengths are comparable with the grain sizes, the simplified equations of small-scale Cosserat continuum can be used. We established that the order of singularity of the main asymptotic term for moment stress is higher than the order of singularity for conventional stress. Therefore, the mutual rotation of particles and related bending and/or twisting of the bonds between the particles represent an unconventional mechanism of crack propagation.

  8. Short- and long-term results following standing fracture repair in 34 horses. (United States)

    Payne, R J; Compston, P C


    Standing fracture repair in the horse is a recently described surgical procedure and currently there are few follow-up data. This case series contains 2 novel aspects in the standing horse: repair of incomplete sagittal fractures of the proximal phalanx and medial condylar repair from a lateral aspect. To describe outcome in a case series of horses that had lower limb fractures repaired under standing sedation at Rossdales Equine Hospital. Case records for all horses that had a fracture surgically repaired, by one surgeon at Rossdales Equine Hospital, under standing sedation and local anaesthesia up until June 2011, were retrieved. Hospital records, owner/trainer telephone questionnaire and the Racing Post website were used to evaluate follow-up. Thirty-four horses satisfied the inclusion criteria. Fracture sites included the proximal phalanx (incomplete sagittal fracture, n = 14); the third metacarpal bone (lateral condyle, n = 12, and medial condyle, n = 7); and the third metatarsal bone (lateral condyle, n = 1). One horse required euthanasia due to caecal rupture 10 days post operatively. Twenty horses (66.7% of those with available follow-up) have returned to racing. Where available, mean time from operation to return to racing was 226 days (range 143-433 days). Standing fracture repair produced similar results to fracture repair under general anaesthesia in terms of both the number of horses that returned to racing and the time between surgery and race. Repair of lower limb fracture in the horse under standing sedation is a procedure that has the potential for tangible benefits, including avoidance of the inherent risks of general anaesthesia. The preliminary findings in this series of horses are encouraging and informative when discussing options available prior to fracture repair. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth


    Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling....... The scaling properties of the predicted thickness average fracture surfaces are calculated and the results are discussed in light of experimental observations....

  10. Atypical fractures on long term bisphosphonates therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussein, W


    Bisphosphonates reduce fractures risk in patients with osteoporosis. A new pattern of fractures is now being noted in patients on prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. We report a case of an atypical femoral fracture with preceding pain and highlight the characteristics of these fractures.

  11. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains. (United States)

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B


    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Routine functional assessment for hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tonny J; Lauritsen, Jens M


    Background and purpose - Pre-fracture functional level has been shown to be a consistent predictor of rehabilitation outcomes in older hip fracture patients. We validated 4 overall pre-fracture functional level assessment instruments in patients aged 65 or more, used the prediction of outcome at 4...... months post-fracture, and assessed cutoff values for decision making in treatment and rehabilitation. Patients and methods - 165 consecutive patients with acute primary hip fracture were prospectively included in the study. Pre-fracture Barthel-20, Barthel-100, cumulated ambulation score, and new...... investigation of usage for guidance of clinical and rehabilitation decisions concerning hip fracture patients is warranted....

  13. Transverse posterior element fractures associated with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, M.S.


    Six examples of a previously undescribed class of transverse vertebral element fractures are presented. These fractures differ from Chance and Smith fractures and their variants in the following respects: (1) the etiology is torsion and not flexion; (2) there is neither distraction of posterior ring fragments nor posterior ligament tears; (3) in contrast to Chance and Smith fractures, extension of the fracture into the vertebral body is absent or minimal; (4) the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra is avulsed at its base with a vertical fracture, not split horizontally. These fractures occur in cervical, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae in normal or compromised areas of the spine.

  14. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.


    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  15. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with cervical spine fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzanah Ismail


    Full Text Available Aim: It is not uncommon for vertebral artery injury to occur when there are fractures through the transverse foraminae of the first to the sixth vertebral bodies. Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA in patients with cervical spine fractures.Method: A retrospective review of patients who had undergone CTA of the vertebral arteries was undertaken. Reports were reviewed to determine which patients met the inclusion criteria of having had both cervical spine fractures and CTA of the vertebral arteries. Images of patients who met the inclusion criteria were analysed by a radiologist.Results: The prevalence of vertebral artery injury was 33%. Four out of the 11 patients who had vertebral artery injury, had post-traumatic spasm of the artery, with associated thrombosis or occlusion of the vessel. In terms of blunt carotid vertebral injury (BCVI grading, most of the patients sustained grade IV injuries. Four patients who had vertebral artery injury had fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae, i.e. C1 to C3. Fifteen transverse process fractures were associated with vertebral artery injury. No vertebral artery injury was detected in patients who had facet joint subluxations.Conclusion: Patients with transverse process fractures of the cervical spine and upper cervical vertebral body fractures should undergo CTA to exclude vertebral artery injury.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett


    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  17. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven


    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained...... incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6-24 months and subsequently received an annual infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or placebo after low-trauma hip-fracture repair. In total, 2,127 men...... and women were included. Of the qualifying hip fractures, 5.2% were subtrochanteric, 54.8% femoral neck, 33.0% intertrochanteric, and 7.1% other (generally complex fractures of mixed type). Significant baseline (pre-hip fracture) differences were seen between index hip-fracture types, with the percentage...

  18. Preservation of active range of motion after acute elbow trauma predicts absence of elbow fracture. (United States)

    Darracq, Michael A; Vinson, David R; Panacek, Edward A


    Previous studies indicate that an inability to fully extend the elbow after elbow trauma is indicative of fracture. We hypothesized that maintenance of active range of motion (ROM) of the elbow in flexion, extension, pronation, and supination after elbow trauma is very specific for the absence of fracture or effusion, and limitation of ROM is sensitive for fracture or effusion. This was a prospective observational study with convenience sampling of a carefully selected patient population. This would allow certain types of patients to be excluded from the study. Patients with elbow injury receiving radiographs and meeting enrollment criteria were enrolled between June 2006 and March 2007 at 4 emergency departments in the local region. Demographics, active ROM, and presence of point tenderness at the olecranon, epicondyles, and radial head were recorded by enrolling clinicians. All enrolled patients received standard elbow radiographs. Radiographs were reviewed by blinded radiologists for the presence of fracture and effusion. Sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of examination findings were calculated. One hundred thirteen patients were enrolled. Limitation of active ROM was 100% (95% CI, 0.93-1.00) sensitive for fracture or effusion. Preservation of active ROM was 97% (95% CI, 0.89-1.00) specific for the absence of fracture. Point tenderness was also highly sensitive but not specific. Individuals with preservation of active ROM after acute elbow trauma have a very low risk of associated fracture and may not require radiographic studies.

  19. Fracture risk assessment in Latin America: is Frax an adaptable instrument for the region? (United States)

    Morales-Torres, Jorge; Clark, Patricia; Delezé-Hinojosa, Margarita; Cons-Molina, Fidencio; Messina, Osvaldo Daniel; Hernández, Jaime; Jaller-Raad, Juan José; Quevedo-Solidoro, Héctor; Radominski, Sebastiao Cezar


    Osteoporosis is a generalized disease of bone that increases fracture risk. Multiple factors influence this risk, besides low bone mass. To decrease osteoporotic fractures, those patients who require preventive management should be readily identified. This paper aims to review current information on the use of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in Latin America. Bone mineral density measurement is currently the method of reference for evaluating the fracture risk and opting for treatment; but, it misses a notable proportion of individuals who have clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures. FRAX was designed to predict the 10-year absolute risk of sustaining a major osteoporotic fracture or a hip fracture. Although data is available for several countries, from Latin America, only Argentina appears in the current version of the tool. Its present use in other Latin American countries is possible with some adaptations based in similarities of epidemiological information of each country with some of the existing databases. The cutoff value beyond which treatment should be initiated needs to be determined, based not only on clinical criteria, but also on economic considerations.

  20. Arthroscopically assisted treatment for Schatzker type I-V tibial plateau fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xiao-jun; YANG Liu; GUO Lin; CHEN Guang-xing; DAI Gang


    Objective: To report the clinical outcome of arthroscopically assisted treatment for tibial plateau fractures.Methods: A total of 39 patients with tibial plateau fractures were treated by arthroscopic fixation from February 2002 to December 2005,including 11 patients with bony avulsion of the anterior cruciate ligament and 19 with meniscal injury.There were 4 cases of type I fracture,12 type II,9 type III,12 type IV and 2 type V according to Schatzker criteria.Firstly,the combined injuries were treated.Then the plateau fractures with the displacement over 3 mm or more were reduced and fixed.Finally,the internal fixation was observed by X-ray equipment.Postoperative management was early motion and delayed weight bearing.Results: All the fractures healed in 3 or 4 months.All patients were followed up for 1 to 5 years after operation.No case had severe complications,such as poor wound healing,infection,osteofascial compartment syndrome and osteoarthritis.According to the Rasmussen scoring system,36 cases obtained excellent or good results and the other 3 cases had moderate clinical results.The average score was 26 ± 3.Conclusions: As an adjuvant treatment of intraarticular fractures such as tibial plateau fracture,arthroscopy has many advantages.It can treat associated intraarticular soft tissue components,visualize the chondral surface reduction,lavage the hematoma and smaller loose fragments,decrease soft tissue dissection,reduce the risk of scarring and promote rapid recovery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A high-quality manufacturing system should be capable to meet the company goals. Moreover, it is essential for any organization that its manufacturing system should be aligned with company’s strategy. There is always a potential for improvement in components of manufacturing systems but it is also essential to identify theparticular areas of the components that need improvement. In this paper, we have discussed the most appropriate criterion for good manufacturing systems with the help of a survey that indentified the importance of seven different criteria according to the experts experience and we ranked them accordingly.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  3. Three Dimensional Forming Simulation of the Shielded Slot Plate for the MCFC Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Lee, S. R.; Chang, I. G.; Lee, T. W.


    The shielded slot plate, which has a sheared corrugated trapezoidal pattern, is a component of the metallic bipolar plate for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). In order to increase the efficiency of the fuel cell, the unit cell of the shielded slot plate should have a relatively large upper area. Additionally, defects from the forming process should be minimized. In order to simulate the slitting process, whereby sheared corrugated patterns are formed, ductile fracture criteria based on the histories of stress and strain are employed. The user material subroutine VUMAT is employed for implementation of the material and ductile fracture criteria in the commercial FEM software ABAQUS. The variables of the ductile fracture criteria were determined by comparing the simulation results and the experimental results of the tension test and the shearing test. Parametric studies were conducted to determine the critical value of the ductile fracture criterion. Employing these ductile fracture criteria, the three dimensional forming process of the shielded slot plate was numerically simulated. The effects of the slitting process in the forming process of the shielded slot plate were analyzed through a FEM simulation and experimental studies. Finally, experiments involving microscopic and macroscopic observations were conducted to verify the numerical simulations of the 3-step forming process.

  4. Compression fractures of the back (United States)

    Taking steps to prevent and treat osteoporosis is the most effective way to prevent compression or insufficiency fractures. Getting regular load-bearing exercise (such as walking) can help you avoid bone loss.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, Vaclav; DUHAJ, P; CSACH, K; MISKUF, J; BENGUS, VZ

    On the basis of measuring the mechanical properties and observing the fracture surface of an amorphous bilayer ribbon some partial conclusions on the mechanical quality of the bimetal boundary were drawn.

  6. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille


    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...... randomly selected 5000 women living in the region of Southern Denmark aged 40-90 years to receive a mailed questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX. The predicted 10-year probability of hip fractures was calculated for each woman returning a complete questionnaire using...... the Swedish version of FRAX. The observed 10-year hip fracture risk was also calculated for each woman using age-specific hip fracture rates from the National Hospital Discharge Register and National survival tables. RESULTS: A total of 4194 (84%) women responded to the questionnaire and 3636 (73%) gave...

  7. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed (United States)

    ... injuries. Telltale signs of a fracture include bruising, blisters, significant swelling or bone protruding through the skin. ... for stability. She also advises buying from small shoe stores that have certified orthotists who work with ...

  8. Principles of Hand Fracture Management (United States)

    Haughton, DN; Jordan, D; Malahias, M; Hindocha, S; Khan, W


    The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities. A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management. PMID:22423303

  9. The treatment of subtrochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Čedomir S.


    Full Text Available Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur have a special place because of a significant number of complications following treatment. Powerful loading forces asymmetrically acting to this bone segment, as well as poor vascularization interfere with bone union. There are basically two current approaches in the fixation of subtrochanteric fractures; the first involves a plate with a compression screw and another one is intramedullary (IM nail, with two options: centromedullary (standard interlocking femoral nail and cephalomedullary femoral nail with two modifications, reconstructive and trochanteric. All IM nails may be used by open technique or closed minimal invasive method. IM nailing is favoured in view of a shorter operative time, shorter hospitalisation and complications. Indirect fracture reduction and knowledge of biology of bone fracture may result in full success without any bone graft.

  10. Fractura bronquial BRONCHIAL FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El traumatismo torácico es una entidad patológica emergente, relacionada con accidentes automovilísticos. La lesión más frecuente es la fractura costal. Dependiendo de su gravedad, éste puede provocar tórax volante, contusión cardíaca, lesiones vasculares u otras alteraciones. La ruptura bronquial se observa ocasionalmente en traumatismos torácicos cerrados, y por lo general tiene lugar en el tronco principal del árbol tráqueo-bronquial. Su diagnóstico y manejo inicial representan un problema mayor. Los signos clásicos son la persistencia de neumotórax y flujo masivo de aire a través del drenaje torácico; sin embargo también hay casos que no son típicos. Es difícil determinar el momento correcto para iniciar la ventilación mecánica con presión positiva, la que puede aumentar gravemente el flujo de aire a través de la ruptura bronquial y acentuar el neumotórax a tensión. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 25 años con un traumatismo torácico cerrado, causado por un accidente de automóvil, en quien la broncoscopía demostró una fractura del bronquio lobar medio. Comprobamos en este paciente, que la fibrobroncoscopía es el procedimiento más útil tanto en el diagnóstico, como en el tratamiento inicial y en el seguimiento post operatorio de su fractura bronquiaThoracic trauma is an emerging pathology related to the increase of motor vehicle accidents. Rib fracture is the most frequent injury; depending on the severity of the event it may be associated with flail chest, cardiac contusion, vascular lesions and other injuries. Bronchial rupture is occasionally seen in blunt trauma and it occurs mostly in the main stem of the tracheobronchial tree. It represents a great task in diagnosis and initial management. Persistent pneumothorax and massive airflow by the thoracic drain are the classic signs, however other cases are not so typical. The right moment to begin positive pressure ventilation is challenging, because in

  11. Experimental fracture healing: evaluation using radionuclide bone imaging: concise communication. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate; rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, L.W.; Fogel, S.R.; Goodman, M.A.; Hanley, E.N. Jr.; Kappakas, G.S.; Rutkowski, R.; Levine, G.


    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed in a rabbit model to observe the course of fracture healing and to establish criteria for distinguishing nonunion and delayed healing from normal healing. Sequential gamma-camera images (with pinhole collimator) were collected and subjected to computer analysis. Five groups were established: (a) control--immobilization; (b) control--immobilization plus periosteal stripping; (c) simple fracture--osteotomy; (d) delayed union--osteotomy plus periosteal stripping; and (e) nonunion--osteotomy, periosteal stripping and polymethyl methacrylate interposed between fracture fragments. Histographic representation of absolute count rates along rabbit tibias followed a predictable pattern in the simple-fracture and delayed-union groups. They differed only in the time of appearance of phases. The non-union group demonstrated no recognizable sequential pattern. In this experimental model, serial bone scanning the quantitative data analysis has shown potential for indicating the course of healing in fractures and for serving as a guide to treatment.

  12. New C2 synchondrosal fracture classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, Jerome A.; Ruess, Lynne [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Daulton, Robert S. [Department of Radiology, Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Excessive cervical flexion-extension accompanying mild to severe impact injuries can lead to C2 synchondrosal fractures in young children. To characterize and classify C2 synchondrosal fracture patterns. We retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records of children who were treated for cervical spine fractures at our institution between 1995 and 2014. We reviewed all fractures involving the five central C2 synchondroses with regard to patient demographics, mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, associated fractures and other injuries, treatment plans and outcome. Fourteen children had fractures involving the central C2 synchondroses. There were nine boys and five girls, all younger than 6 years. We found four distinct fracture patterns. Eleven complete fractures were further divided into four subtypes (a, b, c and d) based on degree of anterior displacement of the odontoid segment and presence of distraction. Nine of these 11 children had fractures through both odontoneural synchondroses and the odontocentral synchondrosis; one had fractures involving both neurocentral synchondroses and the odontoneural synchondrosis; one had fractures through bilateral odontoneural and bilateral neurocentral synchondroses. Three children had incomplete fractures, defined as a fracture through a single odontoneural synchondrosis with or without partial extension into either the odontocentral or the adjacent neurocentral synchondroses. All complete fractures were displaced or angulated. Four had associated spinal cord injury, including two contusions (subtype c fractures) and two fatal transections (subtype d fractures). Most children were treated with primary halo stabilization. Subtype c fractures required surgical fixation. We describe four patterns of central C2 synchondrosal fractures, including two unique patterns that have not been reported. We propose a classification system to distinguish these fractures and aid in treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. Mode I fracture toughness of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, R.B.


    This investigation was undertaken to determine the fracture toughness and tensile strength of coal and to correlate these with the grindability of the coals in order to understand the fracture mechanics behaviour of coal. Results showed statistical relationships for the dependence of fracture toughness on the tensile strength of coal and between the fracture toughness and the Hardgrove Grindability Index. Softer coals have a lower fracture toughness value as coal is a brittle material. 16 references.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Subtrochanteric fractures of the femur remain one of the most challenging fractures facing orthopaedic surgeons. Most of the fractures in the elderly results from trivial fall from standing or walking, while in the younger age group it is mainly due to road traffic accidents. Closed management of these subtrochanteric fractures thus poses difficulties in obtaining and maintaining a reduction, making operative management the preferred treatment. Hence, this study is intended to determine the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation of subtrochanteric fractures with the proximal femoral nail and the complications involved in the management of subtrochanteric fractures. METHODOLOGY This is a prospective study of 90 cases of Subtrochanteric fracture admitted to Tagore Medical College and Hospitals between October 2013 and Jan 2016 treated with the proximal femoral nail. Cases were taken according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, i.e. fresh Subtrochanteric fracture in adults. Pathologic fractures, multiple fractures, fractures in children, old neglected fractures were excluded from the study. RESULTS In our study of 90 cases, there were 75 male and 15 female patients with age ranging from 17 years to 75 years with most patients in between 21-40 years; 67% of the cases admitted were road traffic accidents, 23% due to fall from height and 10% due to trivial fall with right side being more common side affected. Russell and Taylor type IA fracture accounted for 40% of cases. Mean duration of hospital stay was 12 days and mean time of full weight bearing was 14 weeks in our patients. Out of 90 cases, 9 cases were lost in follow-up and 3 cases died. Good-to-excellent results were seen in 80% of cases in our study. CONCLUSION From our study, we conclude that PFN is a reliable implant for subtrochanteric fractures leading to high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Intramedullary fixation has biological and

  15. [Scaphoid fracture in motocross riders]. (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Krämer, R; Redeker, J; Spies, M; Vogt, P M


    Motocross racing is a demanding motorcycling discipline with significant physiological and psychological demands. Upper extremity injuries are frequently encountered. Interestingly, motocross riders present with a significantly stronger left arm, even if the left hand is not dominant. This difference is attributed to the use of the clutch lever with the left hand, which is more frequent in motocross than in Enduro or desert rally. The wrist has been reported to be involved especially among motocross racers in contrast to road racing. Besides wrist fractures, scaphoid fractures have been previously without a detailed analysis of the injury mechanism. We report on three patients suffering scaphoid fractures caused by extreme hyperextension of the wrist during landing after a motocross jump. Two patients presented late three months following the initial trauma (both Herbert type C fractures), while one motocross athlete with a B 2-type scaphoid fracture was admitted to wrist surgery within a week. The B 2-type fracture was treated with open reduction and Herbert-screw fixation, while the C-type fractures were treated by Herbert-screw fixation in addition to a cortico-cancellous bone graft. Within ten weeks after the surgery the patients were back in sport at their given preoperative level. Hyperextension rather than wrist flexion appears as the predominant mechanism of wrist injuries in motocross riders. A more axial impact on the wrist is more likely to produce a radial fracture during the landing phase. Preventive strategies are internal muscular wrist stabilisation using eccentric training and external stabilisation by rigid gloves allowing only limited hyperextension.

  16. Fracturing fluid characterization facility (FFCF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.D.; Roegiers, J.C.; Fagan, J.


    The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility project has as its main focus the design, fabrication, and construction of a high pressure simulator (HPS) and a low pressure simulator (LPS) to be used to experimentally investigate the rheological properties and transport characteristics of proppant laden fracturing fluids. A discussion of each apparatus is provided as well as the auxiliary equipment, and data acquisition and control systems associated with the simulators.

  17. Intergranular fracture in nanocrystalline metals (United States)

    Farkas, D.; van Swygenhoven, H.; Derlet, P. M.


    Crack propagation studies in nanocrystalline Ni samples with mean grain sizes ranging from 5 to 12 nm are reported using atomistic simulations. For all grain sizes pure intergranular fracture is observed. Intergranular fracture is shown to proceed by the coalescence of microvoids formed at the grain boundaries ahead of the crack. The energy released during propagation is higher than the Griffith value, indicating an additional grain-boundary accommodation mechanism.

  18. Infection in periprosthetic hip fractures. (United States)

    Cabral, Rui


    Fracture around the acetabulum and femur in total hip arthroplasty is a possible complication, sometimes with difficult surgical solution, namely when a sepsis is present. Periprosthetic hip fractures were classified according to a modified Vancouver classification. We treated 112 patients (67 men and 45 women) with periprosthetic hip fractures: 105 femoral fractures (94%) and seven acetabular fractures (6%). Mean follow-up was 10.6 years. For Type A (seven cases - 7%), B1 (10 cases - 10%) or C (13 cases - 12%) fractures around well fixed femoral stems we only fixed the fractures. For Type B2 (17 cases - 16%), B3 (46 cases - 44%) and D (12 cases - 11%, with associated fractures, not contemplated in the Vancouver classification) we used an uncemented long femoral stem, fixation with metallic cables and cancellous bone allografts to fill the femoral bone loss. We observed a deep infection in three patients (2.7%), three early hip dislocations treated by closed reductions, two cases with asymptomatic trochanteric non-union and one femoral refracture. In the three infection cases we performed two-stage revision with cementless hip prosthesis, using an antibiotic-loaded cement hip spacer (three to eight months), a six weeks period of parenteral antibiotics and we performed articular aspiration before revision surgery. Until now, we did not observe any re-infection. It is very important to make an early diagnosis, isolate micro-organisms and ensure their antibiotic susceptibility. The surgery solution depends on the well fixed implants and periprosthetic osteolysis and articular instability.

  19. Comparison of tissue oxygenation and compartment pressure following tibia fracture. (United States)

    Hansen, Erik N; Manzano, Givenchy; Kandemir, Utku; Mok, James M


    We investigated the ability of direct continuous measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation (PmO(2)) to detect acute ischaemia in the leg in patients at risk for acute extremity compartment syndrome. Following tibia fracture treated by intramedullary nailing, we compared the proportions of PmO(2) and compartment pressure (CP) measurements that met the warning criteria for compartment syndrome. Participants included 10 patients sustaining acute isolated closed tibia shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing. A tissue oxygenation probe and a CP probe were percutaneously placed into the anterior compartment of the leg. PmO(2) and CP in the anterior compartment were measured in the injured leg for 48 h postoperatively. Measurements meeting the warning criteria were defined as PmO(2) 30 mmHg and perfusion pressure ΔP PmO(2) showed a CP > 30 mmHg in 50.39% of CP measurements in all patients and a PmO(2) PmO(2) measurements in two patients (P = 0.005). Comparison of ΔP and PmO(2) showed a ΔP PmO(2) PmO(2) measurements in one patient (P = 0.01). In the absence of compartment syndrome, pressure measurements following tibia fracture treated with intramedullary nailing often met the warning criteria, whereas PmO(2) did not, suggesting that measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation may represent a potential method for the identification of acute compartment syndrome that deserves continued investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-jun; QU Zhi-guo; LIU Zhuo; CHEN Yuan


    Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as "destructive injury" indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term "destructive fractures" after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: al type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type,open joint-involved destructive fracture; cl type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructivefracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures.

  1. Maisonneuve-hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture. (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Tran, Wesley H; Lorich, Dean G


    Maisonneuve fractures are rare ankle injuries, accounting for up to 7% of all ankle fractures. They consist of a proximal third fibula fracture, syndesmotic disruption, and medial ankle injury (either a deltoid ligament disruption or a medial malleolus fracture), and are often successfully managed with nonoperative treatment of the proximal fibula fracture and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the medial ankle injury and syndesmotic disruption. The hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture comprises approximately 7% of all ankle fractures and features dual posterior tibial lip fractures featuring a posterolateral fragment and a posteromedial fragment. Good functional results have been reported in the literature after ORIF of both the posterolateral and posteromedial fragments of this variant fracture that is not described by the Lauge-Hansen classification. In this report, the authors present the unique case of an isolated ankle fracture demonstrating characteristics of both a Maisonneuve fracture and a hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture. They also highlight the diagnostic imaging characteristics, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and preoperative radiograph findings, surgical treatment, and postoperative clinical outcome for this patient with a Maisonneuve-hyperplantarflexion variant ankle fracture. To the authors' knowledge, this unique fracture pattern has not been reported previously in the literature. The authors conclude that although good results were seen postoperatively in this case, the importance of ORIF of both the posteromedial and posterolateral fragments of variant fractures cannot be overstated. They also found MRI to be a particularly helpful adjunct in formulating the correct diagnosis and treatment plan.

  2. Bilateral Monteggia fracture in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Dejan


    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1814 Giovanni Monteggia first described two cases of fractures of the proximal third of ulna with dislocation of the radial head. These fractures are more common in children than in adults, and mutual Monteggia fracture is a rare complication. This study presents a treatment course of a patient with bilateral Monteggia fracture. Case report. A 55- year-old patient was injured by falling in the yard. Radiography showed bilateral Monteggia fracture type II (by the Badon classification. Operative treatment of fracture was done by a compression plate on the right side and by the zuggurtung technique on the left one. Closed repositioning of the radial head was done on both sides. The patient was wearing a plaster splint for the upper arm for 21 days. After removing the fixation, the function of the elbow was determined by the Broberg Morrey score (BM which was on the right side 45.5 and on the left side 47.5. After the proper physical therapy, four months after the surgery, BM score was 100 on the right side, and 93 on the left one. Conclusion. Surgical treatment and early rehabilitation is the key for the return of good function of both elbows.

  3. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório


    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  4. Meshless Animation of Fracturing Solids (United States)

    Pauly, Mark; Keiser, Richard; Adams, Bart; Dutré, Philip; Gross, Markus; Guibas, Leonidas J.


    We present a new meshless animation framework for elastic and plastic materials that fracture. Central to our method is a highly dynamic surface and volume sampling method that supports arbitrary crack initiation, propagation, and termination, while avoiding many of the stability problems of traditional mesh-based techniques. We explicitly model advancing crack fronts and associated fracture surfaces embedded in the simulation volume. When cutting through the material, crack fronts directly affect the coupling between simulation nodes, requiring a dynamic adaptation of the nodal shape functions. We show how local visibility tests and dynamic caching lead to an efficient implementation of these effects based on point collocation. Complex fracture patterns of interacting and branching cracks are handled using a small set of topological operations for splitting, merging, and terminating crack fronts. This allows continuous propagation of cracks with highly detailed fracture surfaces, independent of the spatial resolution of the simulation nodes, and provides effective mechanisms for controlling fracture paths. We demonstrate our method for a wide range of materials, from stiff elastic to highly plastic objects that exhibit brittle and/or ductile fracture. PMID:21165160

  5. Fracture behaviour of polycrystalline tungsten (United States)

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Rupp, Daniel; Aktaa, Jarir


    Fracture behaviour of round blank polycrystalline tungsten was studied by means of three point bending Fracture-Mechanical (FM) tests at temperatures between RT and 1000 °C and under high vacuum. To study the influence of the anisotropic microstructure on the fracture toughness (FT) and ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) the specimens were extracted in three different, i.e. longitudinal, radial and circumferential orientations. The FM tests yielded distinctive fracture behaviour for each specimen orientation. The crack propagation was predominantly intergranular for longitudinal orientation up to 600 °C, whereas transgranular cleavage was observed at low test temperatures for radial and circumferentially oriented specimens. At intermediate test temperatures the change of the fracture mode took place for radial and circumferential orientations. Above 800 °C all three specimen types showed large ductile deformation without noticeable crack advancement. For longitudinal specimens the influence of the loading rate on the FT and DBT was studied in the loading rate range between 0.06 and 18 MPa m1/2/s. Though an increase of the FT was observed for the lowest loading rate, no resolvable dependence of the DBT on the loading rate was found partly due to loss of FT validity. A Master Curve approach is proposed to describe FT vs. test temperature data on polycrystalline tungsten. Fracture safe design space was identified by analysis compiled FT data.

  6. Separability criteria for genuine multiparticle entanglement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guehne, O.; Seevinck, M.P.


    We present a method to derive separability criteria for different classes of multiparticle entanglement, especially genuine multiparticle entanglement. The resulting criteria are necessary and sufficient for certain families of states. This, for example, completely solves the problem of classifying

  7. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Evaluation (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán C.


    Objectives: to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. Study Design: retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Results: the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion’s site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. Conclusions: diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease. Key words:Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, criteria, diagnose, early. PMID:24608210

  8. The use of geological data from pilot holes for predicting FPI (full perimeter intersection) fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joutsen, A.


    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analyzed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting fractures (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). The purpose for this study was to evaluate the possibility of recognizing FPIs from drill cores by their geological properties. The study was carried out by correlating FPIs mapped from the ONKALO tunnel to the pilot holes logging data with a view of finding out which fracture in the pilot hole corresponds to the FPI in the tunnel. It was also estimated what kind of geological properties does FPIs commonly have in the tunnel and how does these properties differ from the FPI correlated pilot hole fractures. The data sources for this study are the pilot holes from ONK-PH8 to ONK-PH14 and the systematic geological mapping data. The FPIs used in this study usually follow the general trends of the fracturing in the Olkiluoto bedrock. The fracture surface profiles are principally undulating and a striation can be often seen on the fracture surfaces. The FPIs are frequently moderately to intensely altered with diverse filling mineralogy and thick fracture fillings in comparison to the regular fractures. The FPI correlated pilot hole fractures have slightly different properties in comparison to the FPIs. These fractures have wider range of different fracture surface profiles and are slightly less altered than the FPIs. Filling mineralogy follows the trends of the FPIs but filling thicknesses are thinner. These differences probably occur because of the variable uncertainties related to the correlation and to the fact that the

  9. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.


    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided.

  10. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postuma, R.B.; Berg, D; Stern, M.; Poewe, W.; Olanow, C.W.; Oertel, W.; Obeso, J.; Marek, K.; Litvan, I.; Lang, A.E.; Halliday, G.; Goetz, C.G.; Gasser, T.; Dubois, B.; Chan, P.; Bloem, B.R.; Adler, C.H.; Deuschl, G.


    This document presents the Movement Disorder Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD). The Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research but also may be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark for these criteria is expert clinical di

  11. 10 CFR 905.36 - Marketing criteria. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing criteria. 905.36 Section 905.36 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.36 Marketing criteria. Western shall retain applicable provisions of existing marketing criteria for projects...

  12. 7 CFR 1570.20 - Criteria. (United States)


    ... AGRICULTURE EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Sunflowerseed Oil Assistance Program and Cottonseed Oil Assistance Program Criteria § 1570.20 Criteria. The criteria considered by FAS in reviewing proposals for SOAP and COAP..., expanding, or maintaining markets for U.S. sunflowerseed and/or cottonseed oil; (b) The subsidy...

  13. 7 CFR 1494.1101 - Criteria. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria. 1494.1101 Section 1494.1101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Dairy Export Incentive Program Criteria § 1494.1101 Criteria. The...

  14. Criteria for obtaining and interpreting breast thermagrams. (United States)

    Lapayowker, M S; Barash, I; Byrne, R; Change, J; Dodd, G; Farrell, C; Haberman, J D; Isard, H J; Threatt, B


    The thermal and graphic criteria which should be used to evaluate breast thermograms are outlined. Thermograms are then categorized as normal, suspicious, or abnormal on the basis of the criteria outlined. It is hoped that these criteria can be used widely to standardize breast thermographic evaluation.

  15. Expandable self-locking nail in the management of closed diaphyseal fractures of femur and tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Sudhir


    Full Text Available Background : Intramedullary fixation is the treatment of choice for closed diaphyseal fractures of femur and tibia. The axial and rotational stability of conventional interlocking nails depends primarily on locking screws. This method uses increased operating time and increased radiation exposure. An intramedullary implant that can minimize these disadvantages is obviously better. Expandable intramedullary nail does not rely on interlocking screws and achieves axial and rotational stability on hydraulic expansion of the nail. We analyzed 32 simple fractures of shaft of femur and tibia treated by self-locking expandable nail. Materials and Methods: Intramedullary fixation was done by using self-locking, expandable nail in 32 patients of closed diaphyseal fractures of tibia (n = 10 and femur (n = 22. The various modes of injury were road traffic accidents (n = 21, fall from height (n = 8, simple fall (n = 2, and pathological fracture (n = 1. Among femoral diaphyseal fractures 16 were males and six females, average age being 33 yrs (range, 18- 62 yrs. Seventeen patients had AO type A (A1 (n = 3, A2 (n = 4, A3 (n = 10 and 5 patients had AO type B (B1 (n = 2, B2 (n = 2, B3 (n = 1 fractures. Eight patients having tibial diaphyseal fractures were males and two were females; average age was 29.2 (range, 18- 55 yrs. Seven were AO type A (A1 (n = 2, A2 (n = 3, A3 (n = 2 and three were AO type B (B1 (n = 1, B2 (n = 1, and B3 (n = 1. We performed closed (n = 27 or open reduction (n = 5 and internal fixation with expandable nail to stabilize these fractures. The total radiation exposure during surgery was less as no locking screws were required. Early mobilisation and weight-bearing was started depending on fracture personality and evidences of healing. Absence of localised tenderness and pain on walking was considered clinical criteria for union, radiographic criteria of union being continuity in at least in three cortices in both AP and lateral views

  16. Optimal scaling in ductile fracture (United States)

    Fokoua Djodom, Landry

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. We also put forth a physical argument that identifies the intrinsic length and suggests a linear growth of the nonlocal energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, i.e., it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity

  17. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol


    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  18. [Bone fracture and the healing mechanisms. Fragility fracture and bone quality]. (United States)

    Mawatari, Taro; Iwamoto, Yukihide


    Fracture occurs in bone having less than normal elastic resistance without any violence. Numerous terms have been used to classify various types of fractures from low trauma events; "fragility fracture", "stress fracture", "insufficiency fracture", "fatigue fracture", "pathologic fracture", etc. The definitions of these terms and clinical characteristics of these fractures are discussed. Also state-of-the-art bone quality assessments; Finite element analysis of clinical CT scans, assessments of the Microdamage, and the Cross-links of Collagen are introduced in this review.

  19. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramji Lal Sahu; Rajni Ranjan; Ajay Lal


    Background:Fracture shaft humerus is a major cause of morbidity in patients with upper extremity injuries.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of interlocking nail in humeral shaft fractures.Methods:This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery in SMS and R Sharda University from January 2010 to November 2013.Seventy-eight patients were recruited from emergency and out-patient department having a close fracture of humerus shaft.All patients were operated under general anesthesia and closed reamed interlocking nailing was done.All patients were followed for 9 months.Results:Out of 78 patients,69 patients underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days.Complications found in four patients who had nonunion,and five patients had delayed union,which was treated with bone grafting.All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically for fracture healing,joint movements and implant failure.The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients.Complete subjective,functional,and clinical recovery had occurred in almost 100% of the patients.Conclusions:The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications,reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  20. Treatment options for unstable trochanteric fractures: Screw or helical proximal femoral nail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeetendra Bajpai; Rajesh Maheshwari; Akansha Bajpai; Sumit Saini


    Purpose: To compare treatment outcome of screw proximal femoral nail (PFN) system with that of a helical PFN.Methods: The study included 77 patients with closed unstable intertrochanteric fracture classified as AO 31A2 & 31A3, between June 2008 to August 2011.Inclusion criteria were: all mature skeletons above 50 years of age;closed unstable trochanteric fracture classified as AO 31A2 & A3.Exclusion criteria were: immature skeleton, pathological fracture of any cause other than osteoporosis, inability to walk independently prior to injury.Patients were randomized to 2 treatment groups based on admission sequence.Forty patients were treated with screw PFN and thirty seven were treated with helical PFN.Results: Both groups were similar in respect of time of surgery, blood loss and functional assessment and duration of hospitalization.In screw PFN group 2 patients had superficial wound infection, 1 patient had persistent hip pain and 1 patient had shortening >1 cm but <2 cm, while in helical PFN group 1 patient had superficial wound infection.Conclusion: Both screw and helical PFN are very effective implants in osteoporotic and unstable trochanteric fractures even in Indian patients where the bones are narrow and neck diameter is small.It is an implant of choice for osteoporotic and unstable trochanteric fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mitra


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current literatures recommend operative method (closed reduction and pinning for type II supracondylar fractures of humerus. But some surgeons still prefer conservative method for type II supracondylar fractures of humerus. We pr esent results of 14 cases of type II supracondylar fractures treated with CR and AE POP immobilization . The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of conservative treatment in management of type II supracondylar fracture of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen children treated by conservative methods (CR & AE POP between January 2013 and December 2014 is included in this study. The mean age group is 6.8 years (3 years - 11 years. The patient follow up is done for a minimum of 10 - 12 weeks. Treatment outcome is based on final clinical and radiological assessments and grading of results was done using Flynn’s criteria. RESULTS: Gartland type II fracture gives 82% excellent results and 28 % good results as per Flynn’s criteria. Of the 14 patien ts only two cases required re manipulation. Surgical intervention was not needed for any of the patients. No patients in this study developed compartment syndrome / cubitus varus deformity. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory results can be obtained with conservative treatment (closed reduction and above elbow POP if proper selection of the patient and careful clinical and radiological follow up is done


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures are very common and increasing in incidence, especially in older age group. There are various methods of treatment available each one has its own merits and demerits. Our technique involves closed reduction, percutaneous K-wire fixation, and POP immobilzation of the unstable distal radius fracture for 4-6 weeks. This study aims to examine the functional outcome of percutaneous pinning of these unstable distal radius fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of 48 patients aged between 35years to 74years, with unstable distal radius fracture. Patients were treated by closed reduction, percutaneous pinning using two to three k-wires. The wires are cut and bent to the outside. A posterior below elbow POP slab was applied for 4-6 weeks. All the patients were fallowed up at regular intervals of 3weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks. The functional evaluation was done at 24 weeks follow-up. We used Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstrom criteria and Gartland & Warley’s criteria for evaluation of results. RESULTS: Excellent to good results were seen in 91.66% of cases, fair results in 8.34%. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous pinning is a simple, functionally effective, safe method to maintain the fracture reduction and prevent stiffness of wrist and hand.

  3. Association between cervical spine and skull-base fractures and blunt cerebrovascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Karen; Nguyen, Thanh; Norbash, Alex; Mian, Asim [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Mahoney, Eric; Burke, Peter [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Libby, Brandon; Calner, Paul [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)


    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality and can lead to neurological deficits. The established criteria for patients undergoing CT angiography (CTA) for BCVI are broad, and can expose patients to radiation unnecessarily. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of BCVI in patients on CTA and determine presentations associated with the highest rates of BCVI. With IRB approval, patients were selected for CTA screening for BCVI according to a predefined set of criteria at our hospital between 2007 and 2010. Patients were identified from our institution's trauma database. CTAs were retrospectively reviewed for BCVI including vasospasm and dissection. Electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation and hospital course. Of 432 patients, vasospasm (n = 10) and/or dissection (n = 36) were found in 46 patients (10.6 %). BCVI was associated with cervical spine and/or skull-base fracture in 40/46 patients (87 %, P < 0.0001). Significant correlations were seen between dissection and fracture in 31/36 patients (86.2 %, p < 0.0001) and between BCVI and both neurological deficits and fractures (27/44, P < 0.0001). BCVI was significantly associated with cervical and/or skullbase fractures and neurological deficits with coexistent fractures. Patients with these injuries should be prioritized for rapid CTA evaluation for BCVI. (orig.)

  4. Fractal modeling of natural fracture networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferer, M.; Dean, B.; Mick, C.


    West Virginia University will implement procedures for a fractal analysis of fractures in reservoirs. This procedure will be applied to fracture networks in outcrops and to fractures intersecting horizontal boreholes. The parameters resulting from this analysis will be used to generate synthetic fracture networks with the same fractal characteristics as the real networks. Recovery from naturally fractured, tight-gas reservoirs is controlled by the fracture network. Reliable characterization of the actual fracture network in the reservoir is severely limited. The location and orientation of fractures intersecting the borehole can be determined, but the length of these fractures cannot be unambiguously determined. Because of the lack of detailed information about the actual fracture network, modeling methods must represent the porosity and permeability associated with the fracture network, as accurately as possible with very little a priori information. In the sections following, the authors will (1) present fractal analysis of the MWX site, using the box-counting procedure; (2) review evidence testing the fractal nature of fracture distributions and discuss the advantages of using the fractal analysis over a stochastic analysis; and (3) present an efficient algorithm for producing a self-similar fracture networks which mimic the real MWX outcrop fracture network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open tibia diaphysis fractures are complex injuries a ssociated with a high incidence of soft tissue complications and union. Management of it varies with soft tissue and its outcome requires an aggressive approach towards patient along with revision surgery, so study was conducted to assess the outcome of cl osed proximal tibia fracture management. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to assess the outcome of compound fractures of tibia managed by interlocking Intra - medullary nailing or External Fixator, to evaluate the incidence of complications and ne ed for secondary procedures in these open fractures and to assess various factors/variables that may affect the outcome of such fractures when treated by these implants. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective type , MATERIALS AND METHODS : 50 consecutive closed tibial pl ateau fractures were included in this study. All fractures were classified according to Gustilo Anderson classification.There were 42 men and 8 women The study was conducted between June 2009 and October 2011 at the Department of Orthopaedics, New Civil hospital, Surat after the Ethical committee approval. The final outcome was assessed using the Modified Ketenjian’s Criteria. The results were analysed using different parameters; male vs. female, age distribution, mode of trauma, functional outcomes and c omplications etc. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The average age was 35.6 years with the fracture being more common in the 2 nd to 5th decades. 90 % sustained fracture due to road traffic accident. The most common location of fracture was middle 3rd shaft of tibia (50% and most common type was Open Grade 2 (52% fracture according to Gustilo - Anderson classification. Patients treated by Interlocking nailing(n=33 group had high (90.9% chances of union at final follow up, while only 70.58% of patients had union tre ated by external fixator group(n=17. Functional evaluation were assessed by modified Ketenjian’s criteria, with

  6. Screw elastic intramedullary nail for the management of adult forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasudeo Gadegone


    Full Text Available Background: The failure of the conventional nailing of both forearm bones or isolated fractures of radius and ulna pose a potential problem of nail migration and rotational instability, despite the best reduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of screw elastic intramedullary nail for the treatment of adult diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones, which effectively addresses the problems associated with the conventional nailing systems for the forearm fractures. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six adults with forearm fractures (radius and ulna or isolated fracture of the single bone were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty males and 26 females with the mean age of 38 years (range, 18-70 years underwent closed reduction and screw intramedullary nail fixation. Ten patients required limited open reduction. The fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA system. The average followup was 12 months (range, 6 to 18 months. Results: The mean surgical time was 45 minutes (35 to 65 minutes. The meantime to union was 14 weeks (10-21 weeks. The results were graded as excellent in 50, good in 18 patients, and acceptable in eight patients, using the criteria of Grace and Eversman. We had superficial infection in three cases, one case of delayed infection, painful bursa in two cases, delayed union in two cases, malunion with dislocation of the DRUJ in two cases, injury to the extensor tendon of the thumb in one case, and one case of incomplete radioulnar synostosis. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation of forearm fractures by screw intramedullary nails reestablishes the near normal relationship of the fractured fragments. Screw intramedullary nail effectively controls both rotatory forces and the migration of the nail. It produces excellent clinical results in isolated fractures of either bones, as well as both bones of the forearm in adults.


    Kubicek, Lyndsay; Vanderhart, Daniel; Wirth, Kimberly; An, Qi; Chang, Myron; Farese, James; Bova, Francis; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Kow, Kelvin; Bacon, Nicholas J; Milner, Rowan


    The objective of this observational, descriptive, retrospective study was to report CT characteristics associated with fractures following stereotactic radiosurgery in canine patients with appendicular osteosarcoma. Medical records (1999 and 2012) of dogs that had a diagnosis of appendicular osteosarcoma and undergone stereotactic radiosurgery were reviewed. Dogs were included in the study if they had undergone stereotactic radiosurgery for an aggressive bone lesion with follow-up information regarding fracture status, toxicity, and date and cause of death. Computed tomography details, staging, chemotherapy, toxicity, fracture status and survival data were recorded. Overall median survival time (MST) and fracture rates of treated dogs were calculated. CT characteristics were evaluated for association with time to fracture. Forty-six dogs met inclusion criteria. The median overall survival time was 9.7 months (95% CI: 6.9-14.3 months). The fracture-free rates at 3, 6, and 9 months were 73%, 44%, and 38% (95% CI: 60-86%, 29-60%, and 22-54%), respectively. The region of bone affected was significantly associated with time to fracture. The median time to fracture was 4.2 months in dogs with subchondral bone involvement and 16.3 months in dogs without subchondral bone involvement (P-value = 0.027, log-rank test). Acute and late skin effects were present in 58% and 16% of patients, respectively. Findings demonstrated a need for improved patient selection for this procedure, which can be aided by CT-based prognostic factors to predict the likelihood of fracture. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Quality of life after hip fracture in the elderly: A systematic literature review. (United States)

    Peeters, Charles M M; Visser, Eva; Van de Ree, Cornelis L P; Gosens, Taco; Den Oudsten, Brenda L; De Vries, Jolanda


    With an increasing ageing population, hip fractures have become a major public health issue in the elderly. It is important to examine the health status (HS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the elderly faced with the epidemic of hip fractures. To provide an overview of reported HS and HRQOL in elderly patients with a hip fracture. A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Google Scholar in July 2014. Studies which reported the HS or HRQOL based on standardised questionnaires in patients older than 65 years with a hip fracture were considered eligible for inclusion. After inspecting the 2725 potentially eligible studies, 49 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All included studies were randomised controlled trials or prospective cohort studies. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate. Patients' functioning on the physical, social, and emotional domains were affected after a hip fracture. The HS and HRQOL of the majority of patients recovered in the first 6 months after fracture. However, their HS did not return to prefracture level. Mental state, prefracture functioning on physical and psychosocial domains, comorbidity, female gender, nutritional status, postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, and complications were factors associated with HS or HRQOL. Treatment with total hip arthroplasty or hemi-arthroplasty provided better HS than treatment with internal fixation with displaced femoral neck fractures. Supportive psychotherapy in "low-functioning" patients, (home) rehabilitation programmes and nutritional supplementation appeared to have beneficial effects on HS. Optimizing nutrition intake, (home) rehabilitation programmes, and the possibility for psychological counselling in patients with difficulties in the psychosocial dimensions would be recommended after hip fracture surgery. Besides HS questionnaires like EQ-5D and SF-36, adequate

  9. The association between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been reports both supporting and refuting an inverse relationship between hip fracture and hip osteoarthritis (OA. We explore this relationship using a case-control study design. Methods Exclusion criteria were previous hip fracture (same side or contralateral side, age younger than 60 years, foreign nationality, pathological fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and cases were radiographic examinations were not found in the archives. We studied all subjects with hip fracture that remained after the exclusion process that were treated at Akureyri University Hospital, Iceland 1990-2008, n = 562 (74% women. Hip fracture cases were compared with a cohort of subjects with colon radiographs, n = 803 (54% women to determine expected population prevalence of hip OA. Presence of radiographic hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph, or Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or higher. Possible causes of secondary osteoporosis were identified by review of medical records. Results The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR for subjects with hip fracture having radiographic hip OA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.12-0.74 for men and 0.33 (95% CI 0.19-0.58 for women, compared to controls. The probability for subjects with hip fracture and hip OA having a secondary cause of osteoporosis was three times higher than for subjects with hip fracture without hip OA. Conclusion The results of our study support an inverse relationship between hip fractures and hip OA.


    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  11. Growth Kinematics of Opening-Mode Fractures (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.; Alzayer, Y.; Laubach, S.; Fall, A.


    Fracture aperture is a primary control on flow in fractured reservoirs of low matrix permeability including unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and most geothermal systems. Guided by principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture aperture is generally assumed to be a linear function of fracture length and elastic material properties. Natural opening-mode fractures with significant preserved aperture are observed in core and outcrop indicative of fracture opening strain accommodated by permanent solution-precipitation creep. Fracture opening may thus be decoupled from length growth if the material effectively weakens after initial elastic fracture growth by either non-elastic deformation processes or changes in elastic properties. To investigate the kinematics of fracture length and aperture growth, we reconstructed the opening history of three opening-mode fractures that are bridged by crack-seal quartz cement in Travis Peak Sandstone of the SFOT-1 well, East Texas. Similar crack-seal cement bridges had been interpreted to form by repeated incremental fracture opening and subsequent precipitation of quartz cement. We imaged crack-seal cement textures for bridges sampled at varying distance from the tips using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence, and determined the number and thickness of crack-seal cement increments as a function of position along the fracture length and height. Observed trends in increment number and thickness are consistent with an initial stage of fast fracture propagation relative to aperture growth, followed by a stage of slow propagation and pronounced aperture growth. Consistent with fluid inclusion observations indicative of fracture opening and propagation occurring over 30-40 m.y., we interpret the second phase of pronounced aperture growth to result from fracture opening strain accommodated by solution-precipitation creep and concurrent slow, possibly subcritical, fracture propagation. Similar deformation

  12. Impact of structural design criteria on first wall surface heat flux limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    The irradiation environment experienced by the in-vessel components of fusion reactors presents structural design challenges not envisioned in the development of existing structural design criteria such as the ASME Code or RCC-MR. From the standpoint of design criteria, the most significant issues stem from the irradiation-induced changes in material properties, specifically the reduction of ductility, strain hardening capability, and fracture toughness with neutron irradiation. Recently, Draft 7 of the ITER structural design criteria (ISDC), which provide new rules for guarding against such problems, was released for trial use by the ITER designers. The new rules, which were derived from a simple model based on the concept of elastic follow up factor, provide primary and secondary stress limits as functions of uniform elongation and ductility. The implication of these rules on the allowable surface heat flux on typical first walls made of type 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloys are discussed.

  13. Monteggia fracture dislocation equivalents - analysis of eighteen cases treated by open reduction and internal fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajay Pal


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Monteggia fracture dislocation equivalent, though already described by Bado, is still an unclassified entity. We aimed to retrospectively analyze 18 cases of Monteggia variants and discuss the injury mechanisms, management, and outcome along with a review of the literature. Methods: A retrospective record of Monteggia fracture dislocation (2003-2008 was reviewed from medical record department of our institute. Classic Monteggia fracture dislocation, children below 12 years or adults over 50 years, as well as open grade II & III cases were excluded from this study. Monteggia variant inclusion criteria included fracture of the proximal ulna together with a fracture of the radial head or neck and skeletal maturity. Totally 26 patients were identified with Monteggia variants and 18 were available for follow-up, including 11 males and 7 females with the mean age of 35 years. The ulna fracture was treated by compression plating along with tension band wiring. Radial head/neck was reconstructed in 12 patients while excised in 6 patients. Results: Follow-up ranged from 1-4 years, mean 2.6 years. Patients were assessed clinicoradiologically. Mayo Elbow Performance Score was employed to assess the outcomes. At final follow-up, the results were excellent in 10 patients, good in 4, fair in 2 and poor in 2. Mean range of motion of the elbow was 20°, 116°, 50° and 55° for extension, flexion, pronation and supination, respectively. Two patients had complications in the form of heterotopic ossification and stiffness of the elbow. One nonunion ulna, primarily treated by tension band wiring, was managed by refixation with locking reconstruction plate and bone grafting. Bone grafting was only required in this patient for nonunion. Another patient had implants removed on his request. The results in our series closely correlated with extent of intraarticular damage, coronoid fracture and comminuted fractures. Conclusions: Monteggia

  14. Semi-automated fracture classification procedure based on geophysical drillhole logging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E.; Heinonen, S.; Ravimo, I. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)


    Posiva Oy is responsible for preparation of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto. The knowledge about existing network of fractures is important for the safety and feasibility of the final repository. The bedrock properties essential for safety case are analysed in investigations of Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC). One subtask in RSC is avoidance of large (long) fractures adjacent to disposal holes. The long fractures have been defined in tunnel mapping to indicate tunnel cross-cutting features (TCF) or full perimeter intersections (FPI). This work has assessed possibilities to detect and classify the significant fractures from the geophysical data of a pilot drillhole, drilled on the centre line of the tunnel. The data from the pilot drillholes ONK-PH08-PH14 and ONK-PH16-PH17 were used. Anomaly value and corresponding local background value was picked from logging profile at the fracture location. Picking used method specific windows. Also average and standard deviation was picked, and a gradient was computed. Standard deviation was used as threshold value in selection, and gradient in rejection of anomalies caused by other reasons than a fracture. Anomaly values have been normalised within each method at range 0 - 100 % and the contributions of several logging methods was added together. The applicability of different methods and their combinations in detection and classification was analysed. The match between anomalies and tunnel mapped long fractures (TCF) projected to core intersection, have been examined in the analysis. Considering the fractures reported from core, some of these produce geophysical anomalies, and many others will not. A part of the logging methods gives a weak response for majority of fractures, but may be prominent for few fractures (like in density). The results based on electrical conductivity and full waveform sonic data match the examined TCF fractures fairly well. The sum of anomalies is describing the significant

  15. Rare stress fracture: longitudinal fracture of the femur. (United States)

    Pérez González, M; Velázquez Fragua, P; López Miralles, E; Abad Moretón, M M


    42-year-old man with pain in the posterolateral region of the right knee that began while he was running. Initially, it was diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) as a possible aggressive process (osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma) but with computed tomography it was noted a cortical hypodense linear longitudinal image with a continuous, homogeneous and solid periosteal reaction without clear soft tissue mass that in this patient suggest a longitudinal distal femoral fatigue stress fracture. This type of fracture at this location is very rare. Stress fractures are entities that can be confused with an agressive process. MR iscurrently the most sensitive and specific imaging method for its diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: evaluation. (United States)

    García-Chías, Begoña; Casado-De La Cruz, Laura; Esparza-Gómez, Germán-Carlos; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío


    to evaluate the ability of the diagnostic criteria proposed by Cerero et al in 2010 to perform an early diagnose in patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. retrospective study with patients diagnosed with leukoplakia at Oral Medicine Service at Oral Medicine and Surgery Department at Dentistry Faculty at Universidad Complutense of Madrid. the criteria were applied in 116 patients, turning positive in 40 cases. Out of these, 24 (60%) had been previously diagnosed with PVL. Most frequent criteria were major criteria A and E, concerning lesion's site and histopathology, and minor criteria b and c, concerning sex and smoking habit. diagnostic criteria developed by Cerero et al can be a useful tool for an early diagnose of PVL, as in 60% of the cases, the criteria would have allowed to make an early diagnose of the disease.

  17. Diagnostic criteria for autoimmune chronic pancreatitis revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu-Pyo Kim; Myung-Hwan Kim; Jong Cheol Kim; Sang Soo Lee; Dong Wan Seo; Sung Koo Lee


    Autoimmune chronic pancreatitis (AIP) is increasingly being recognized worldwidely, as knowledge of this entity builds up. Above all, AIP is a very attractive disease to clinicians in terms of its dramatic response to the oral steroid therapy in contrast to ordinary chronic pancreatitis. Although many characteristic findings of AIP have been described, definite diagnostic criteria have not been fully established. In the year 2002, the Japan Pancreas Society published the diagnostic criteria of AIP and many clinicians around the world use these criteria for the diagnosis of AIP. The diagnostic criteria proposed by the Japan Pancreas Society, however, are not completely satisfactory and some groups use their own criteria in reporting AIP. This review discusses several potential limitations of current diagnostic criteria for this increasingly recognized condition. The manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening a consensus to develop improved diagnostic criteria.

  18. Fracture and Medium Modeling, by Analizing Hidraulic Fracturing Induced Microseismicity (United States)

    Gomez Alba, S.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.


    Hydraulic fracturing is an essential technology for most unconventional hydrocarbon resources and many conventional ones as well. The primary limitation on the improvement and optimization of the fracturing process is the minimal access to observe the behavior of the fracture in the subsurface. Without direct observational evidence, hypothetical mechanisms must be assumed and then tested for their validity with indirect information such as wellbore measurements, indirect production and pressure behavior. One of the most important sources of information today is the relation made between micro seismic source mechanisms and fracture behavior. Hydraulic fractures induce some level of micro seismicity when the stress conditions in the Earth are altered by changes in stress during the operations. The result is the sudden movement between rock elements and the radiation of both compressional and shear energy in a seismic range that can be detected and recorded with sensitive receivers. The objective of this work is to provide reasonable information when applying inversion methods in order to estimate the vertical and horizontal spatial heterogeneities in medium and energy radiation distribution of microseisms while fracking operations. The method consist in record microseisms at a previous lineal array of stations (triaxial accelerometers) which are located close to the source coordinates and cover the area of study. The analysis clarify some ideas about what information can be gained from the micro seismic source data and according to the obtained results, what kind of comparisons and associations might be done to evaluate the fracking performance operation. Non uniformities in medium such as faults would be revealed by interpreted scattering coefficients. Fracture properties like distance, velocity and orientation would be also determined by analyzing energy radiation.

  19. MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Berg, Daniela; Stern, Matthew; Poewe, Werner; Olanow, C Warren; Oertel, Wolfgang; Obeso, José; Marek, Kenneth; Litvan, Irene; Lang, Anthony E; Halliday, Glenda; Goetz, Christopher G; Gasser, Thomas; Dubois, Bruno; Chan, Piu; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Adler, Charles H; Deuschl, Günther


    This document presents the Movement Disorder Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD). The Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria are intended for use in clinical research but also may be used to guide clinical diagnosis. The benchmark for these criteria is expert clinical diagnosis; the criteria aim to systematize the diagnostic process, to make it reproducible across centers and applicable by clinicians with less expertise in PD diagnosis. Although motor abnormalities remain central, increasing recognition has been given to nonmotor manifestations; these are incorporated into both the current criteria and particularly into separate criteria for prodromal PD. Similar to previous criteria, the Movement Disorder Society PD Criteria retain motor parkinsonism as the core feature of the disease, defined as bradykinesia plus rest tremor or rigidity. Explicit instructions for defining these cardinal features are included. After documentation of parkinsonism, determination of PD as the cause of parkinsonism relies on three categories of diagnostic features: absolute exclusion criteria (which rule out PD), red flags (which must be counterbalanced by additional supportive criteria to allow diagnosis of PD), and supportive criteria (positive features that increase confidence of the PD diagnosis). Two levels of certainty are delineated: clinically established PD (maximizing specificity at the expense of reduced sensitivity) and probable PD (which balances sensitivity and specificity). The Movement Disorder Society criteria retain elements proven valuable in previous criteria and omit aspects that are no longer justified, thereby encapsulating diagnosis according to current knowledge. As understanding of PD expands, the Movement Disorder Society criteria will need continuous revision to accommodate these advances. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huaxin


    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  1. Treatment of Middle Third Humeral Shaft Fractures with Anteromedial Plate Osteosynthesis through an Anterolateral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar BS


    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of humeral shaft fractures has been a subject of debate for many decades. Even though a large majority of humeral shaft fractures can be treated by non operative methods, few conditions like open fractures, polytrauma, ipsilateral humeral shaft and forearm fractures require surgical intervention. The goal of treatment of humeral shaft fractures is to establish union with an acceptable humeral alignment and to restore the patient to pre-injury level of function. The objective was to assess the incidence of radial nerve palsy, non-union and mean time required for in anteromedial plate osteosynthesis with anterolateral approach and also to measure the functional outcome of this procedure. Method: A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, PESIMSR, Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, from August 2012 to August 2015 with a total of 54 patients who were operated with anteromedial plate osteosynthesis were included in the study. RodriguezMerchan criteria was used to grade the functional outcome. Results: Of the 54 patients, 28 (58.85% were in the age group of 30-40 years. The most common fracture pattern identified was A3 type (48.14%.The mean (+ SD duration of surgery for anteromedial humeral plating was 53 ± 5.00 minutes. The time taken for the fracture to unite was less than 16 weeks in the majority or 50 patients (92.59%. Four (7.40% patients had delayed union. There was no incidence of iatrogenic radial nerve palsy. Rodriguez – Merchan criteria showed that 37(68.51% of the patients had good and 12 (22.22% had excellent functional outcome.

  2. An Experimental and Analytical Program to Develop Crack Tip Fracture Criteria (United States)


    initial grating spacing). This interference pattern can be thought of as a virtual reference grating, and the fringes seen using the moire...interferometer can be thought of as due to moire patterns between the current grating at spacing w and at an angle of -y to the virtual reference grating. The...for a multiplying factor of 2 in the fringe spacing 6*. This factor can be thought of as due to the spacing of the virtual reference grating formed by

  3. Ballistic Criteria for Propellant Grain Fracture in the GAU-8/A 30 MM gun (United States)


    weights were varied to obtain approximately the same peak pressures in the gun firings. The role of ullage or free space between the propellant bed and...Nitrocellulose NO - Nitroglycerine TAGN - Triaminoguanidine Nitrate IfHX - Sym-Petramethylene Tetranitramine MC - Methyleentralite 0-54 - Rohm and Haas

  4. High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture. (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk


    The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrete modeling of hydraulic fracturing processes in a complex pre-existing fracture network (United States)

    Kim, K.; Rutqvist, J.; Nakagawa, S.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.


    Hydraulic fracturing and stimulation of fracture networks are widely used by the energy industry (e.g., shale gas extraction, enhanced geothermal systems) to increase permeability of geological formations. Numerous analytical and numerical models have been developed to help understand and predict the behavior of hydraulically induced fractures. However, many existing models assume simple fracturing scenarios with highly idealized fracture geometries (e.g., propagation of a single fracture with assumed shapes in a homogeneous medium). Modeling hydraulic fracture propagation in the presence of natural fractures and homogeneities can be very challenging because of the complex interactions between fluid, rock matrix, and rock interfaces, as well as the interactions between propagating fractures and pre-existing natural fractures. In this study, the TOUGH-RBSN code for coupled hydro-mechanical modeling is utilized to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation and its interaction with pre-existing fracture networks. The simulation tool combines TOUGH2, a simulator of subsurface multiphase flow and mass transport based on the finite volume approach, with the implementation of a lattice modeling approach for geomechanical and fracture-damage behavior, named Rigid-Body-Spring Network (RBSN). The discrete fracture network (DFN) approach is facilitated in the Voronoi discretization via a fully automated modeling procedure. The numerical program is verified through a simple simulation for single fracture propagation, in which the resulting fracture geometry is compared to an analytical solution for given fracture length and aperture. Subsequently, predictive simulations are conducted for planned laboratory experiments using rock-analogue (soda-lime glass) samples containing a designed, pre-existing fracture network. The results of a preliminary simulation demonstrate selective fracturing and fluid infiltration along the pre-existing fractures, with additional fracturing in part


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahaya R


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Distal femur fractures account for about 7% of all femur fractures. These fractures can lead to knee stiffness and have the tendency to collapse into varus. The management of distal femur fractures has seen a paradigm shift from nonoperative measures to biological fixation and evolution of modern implants like Locking Compression Plate has been used in current times. With the use of Locking Compression Plate double plating can be avoided. In our study, we have evaluated the short-term Functional Outcome of patients who underwent open reduction internal fixation with Locking Compression Plate using Sander’s criteria. Ours is both prospective and retrospective study of 20 patients with distal femur fractures treated operatively from April 2013 to October 2015. Our surgical modality of treatment is open reduction and internal fixation with locking compression plate using standard lateral approach. We have used AO classification to classify the distal femur fractures. With the results of our study, we have come to a conclusion that locking compression plate is a best option for both intra-articular and extra-articular distal femur fractures. It avoids the use of dual plating of distal femur which requires extensive soft tissue stripping in both sides, resulting in reduced blood supply, potential non-union and implant failure. Locking Compression Plate also helps in anatomical reduction of comminuted intra-articular fractures and it could also be used effectively in osteoporotic bone.

  7. Salter-Harris I and II fractures of the distal tibia: does mechanism of injury relate to premature physeal closure? (United States)

    Rohmiller, Michael T; Gaynor, Tracey P; Pawelek, Jeff; Mubarak, Scott J


    The distal tibial physis is the second most commonly injured physis in long bones. Recent reports demonstrate a high rate of premature physeal closure (PPC) in Salter-Harris (SH) type I or II fractures of the distal tibia. At our institution, 137 distal tibial SH type I or II fractures were treated from 1994 to 2002. Reviews were performed on all patients and 91 fractures met inclusion criteria. Patients were categorized according to treatment. We report a PPC rate of 39.6% in SH type I or II fractures of the distal tibial physis. We found a difference in PPC based on injury mechanism. The rate of PPC in patients with a supination-external-rotation-type injury was 35%, whereas patients with pronation-abduction-type injuries developed PPC in 54% of cases. Type of treatment may prevent PPC in some fractures. The most important determinant of PPC is the fracture displacement following reduction. PPC is a common problem following SH type I or II fractures of the distal tibia. Operative treatment may decrease the frequency of PPC in some fractures. Regardless of treatment method, we recommend anatomic reduction to decrease the risk of PPC.

  8. A region-growing approach for automatic outcrop fracture extraction from a three-dimensional point cloud (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zou, Lejun; Shen, Xiaohua; Ren, Yupeng; Qin, Yi


    Conventional manual surveys of rock mass fractures usually require large amounts of time and labor; yet, they provide a relatively small set of data that cannot be considered representative of the study region. Terrestrial laser scanners are increasingly used for fracture surveys because they can efficiently acquire large area, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) point clouds from outcrops. However, extracting fractures and other planar surfaces from 3D outcrop point clouds is still a challenging task. No method has been reported that can be used to automatically extract the full extent of every individual fracture from a 3D outcrop point cloud. In this study, we propose a method using a region-growing approach to address this problem; the method also estimates the orientation of each fracture. In this method, criteria based on the local surface normal and curvature of the point cloud are used to initiate and control the growth of the fracture region. In tests using outcrop point cloud data, the proposed method identified and extracted the full extent of individual fractures with high accuracy. Compared with manually acquired field survey data, our method obtained better-quality fracture data, thereby demonstrating the high potential utility of the proposed method.

  9. Plain film analysis of acetabular fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Han, Sang Suk; Yoon, Eu Giene; Cha, Seong Sook; Eun, Tchoong Kie; Chung, Duck Hwan [Inje Medical College Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Acetabular fracture can result in severe limitation of the motion of the hip joint, which supports total weight of human body. Because of different methods of surgical approach according to fracture type, precise interpretation of X-ray films of acetabular fracture is required. We reviewed 38 cases of simple X-ray films showing acetabular fracture. The results were as follows: 1. Almost 60% of the cases-were in their 2nd and 3rd decades. 2. Twenty cases were male, and 18 cases were female. 3. The most common cause of the injury was traffic accident (33 cases, 86.8%), followed by fall down (4 cases, 10.5%), and slip down (1 case, 2.7%). 4. Elementary fractures were 21 cases (55.3%), and associated fractures were 17 cases (44.7%). 5. Among elementary fractures, posterior wall fractures were 9 cases (23.7%), followed by anterior column fractures (8 cases, 21.1%), anterior wall fractures (4 cases, 10.5%). 6. Among associated fractures, T-shaped fractures were 8 cases (21.1%), followed by both column fractures (6 cases, 15.8%), anterior and hemitransverse fractures (3 cases, 7.8%). 7. Other pelvic bone fractures associated with the acetabular fracture were as follows: fractures of contralateral pubic rami (6 cases, 15.8%) contralateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%) and ipsilateral iliac bone (1 case, 2.6%). 8. Injuries of other organs adjacent to the acetabulum were as follows: rupture of the bladder (3 cases, 7.9%), urethra (2 cases, 5.3%) and uterus (1 cases, 2.6%)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović


    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. [Fractures of the elbow joint]. (United States)

    Nowak, T E; Dietz, S O; Burkhart, K J; Müller, L P; Rommens, P M


    Fractures around the elbow joint comprise fractures of the distal humerus, the radial head, the olecranon and the coronoid process. Combined lesions are particularly demanding for the surgeon. Accurate knowledge of the anatomy and of the biomechanics is an essential requirement for a specific diagnosis and therapy. A stable and painless movable elbow joint is essential for most of the activities of daily living. Risk factors for the development of posttraumatic elbow joint arthrosis are non-anatomically reconstructed joint surfaces, axial malalignment of the joint axis and untreated concomitant injuries. Modern angular stable and anatomically preshaped implants facilitate a biomechanically adequate osteosynthesis and avoid or decrease functional impairment. In consideration of an increasing number of osteoporotic elbow joint fractures, endoprosthetic replacement has gained significance.

  12. Fracture mechanics of PGX graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, F.H.; Vollman, R.E.; Cull, A.D.


    Fracture mechanics tests were performed on grade PGX graphite. A compact tension specimen configuration which yields consistent values of the opening mode critical stress intensity factor K/sub IC/, was designed. For the calculation of the fracture toughness and crack growth rate the concept of the effective crack length is used. It corresponds to the crack length of a machined notched specimen with the same compliance. Fracture toughness testing was performed in two environments, air and helium, both at room temperature. The critical stress intensity factor, K/sub IC/, is calculated based on the maximum load and the effective crack length. The fatigue crack growth test was performed in air only. A break-in period was observed for the machined notch to develop into a naturally occurring crack path. Half of the fatigue life was spent in this period.

  13. MR imaging of scaphoid fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Louise; Radev, Dimitar; Eriksen, Rie Østbjerg


    Objective: Traumatic injuries of os scaphoideum are serious, and might lead to two main grades of consequences (i.e. osteoarthrosis or avascular necrosis), if a fracture remains undiagnosed. Bone bruise may be the only pathological sign of pain which can last for week or month. Articles describe......). Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifty-one patients with relevant trauma and positive clinical test for scaphoid bone fractures, exceeding no more than 14 days, underwent MRI examinations. A fast STIR and T2 FAT SAT fast spin echo sequence (FSE) were obtained using a comparable parameter setting (scan...... of scaphoid fractures Results: There were no significant difference between the bone bruise areas (P=0.45, P=0.44 and P=0.83) or CNR (P=0.31, P=0.38 and P=0.17). However, image contrast showed significant difference in favour of T2 FAT SAT in all three readers’ reports (P

  14. Admission Criteria for MBA Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Dakduk


    Full Text Available This paper reports a review of studies on admission criteria for MBA programs. The method consisted in a literary review based on a systematic search in international databases (Emerald, ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest Education Journals, ProQuest European Business, ProQuest Science Journal, ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Psychology Journals, ProQuest Social Science Journals and Business Source Complete of studies published from January 1990 to December 2013, which explore the academic performance of students or graduates of MBA programs. A quantitative review was performed. Results show that most researchers studied relations between GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test and UGPA (Undergraduate Grade Point Average as predictors of GGPA (Graduate Grade Point Average. On the other hand, work experience and personal traits (such as personality, motivation, learning strategies, self-efficacy beliefs and achievement expectations and their relation with GGPA had been less studied, and results are not consistent enough to consider them valid predictors of student performance at this time.

  15. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease. (United States)

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem


    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  16. Bioethics and conflicting ethical criteria. (United States)

    George, Michael


    Some of the major problematic issues in contemporary ethical discourse are highlighted in the field of bioethics. The need to incorporate new understandings and foundational shifts in essential criteria because of technological advances in the areas of medicine and human sciences increasingly challenges traditional and accepted notions of ethics. As the possibilities of technical progress increase, more and more pressure is put on traditional understandings of the human person, identity, and value. In the face of ethical relativism and emotivism, which are already widespread in social and political discourse, the immediacy of bioethics as a response to technology and its impact on human lives reinforces the need for ethics to become interdisciplinary, while attempting to provide some coherence to both the questions and the responses that contemporary life generates. In this paper, the author intends to sketch the outlines of some of these problems, and suggest one approach which might allow a certain methodical intelligibility to emerge which takes into account shifts in consciousness and the dependence on historically grounded perspective.

  17. Selection criteria for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Faculty of General Dental Practitioners (UK) has a declared commitment to 'improving the standards of patient care'. By the provision of standards and guidelines it aims to help the profession to achieve this goal. Standards and guidelines are simply tools a dentist may use to improve treatment planning and care outcomes. The Self-Assessment Manual and Standards, SAMS, first published in 1991, is now well known to the profession and has become a frequently quoted source in clinical audit and quality assurance initiatives. Since its publication the scientific methodology of systematic reviews of the literature has progressed dramatically and this book is based on these developments. Evidence-based care is well established in medicine and dentistry and these selection criteria and guidelines follow these established protocols by basing advice on the available scientific evidence wherever possible. This book's purpose is a practical one, it is not intended to be limiting or restrictive but to be useful in the decision-making process. This is the first in a series of standards documents from the FGDP(UK) which are based on reviews of the scientific literature and employ the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) methodology for guideline production. They are not constraints but an aid to effective treatment planning and patient care.

  18. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh


    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  19. The contribution of high-resolution multiplanar reformats of the skull base to the detection of skull-base fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Flis, C. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London (United Kingdom)


    AIM: To investigate the contribution of routine review of submillimetric multiplanar reformats to the diagnosis of skull-base fractures. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed of 407 cases referred over a 6-month period for CT of the skull following cranial trauma. The reformatted 5-mm axial sections and subsequently the high-resolution multiplanar reformats (HRMPRs) were viewed on an ADW 4.1 workstation using bone windows and algorithm. All skull-base fractures and related features, recorded by the consensus of two radiologists, were classified as anatomically significant or non-significant on the basis of eight criteria. The clinical features of skull-base injury and any subsequent treatment were noted in all cases of skull-base fracture. RESULTS: HRMPRs detected 80 separate skull-base fractures in 36/407 cases. Of these 80 fractures, 57 were visible on 5-mm axial sections. In 8 of the 36 cases, the significant anatomical features were only evident on review of the HRMPRs. In 6 of the 36 cases, none of the skull-base fractures was visible on 5-mm sections, but these individuals had only minor associated clinical features and no therapeutic requirements. Review of HRMPRs could have been confined to patients with skull-base fractures, abnormal intracranial and extracranial air collections or opacified mastoid air cells revealed by 5-mm axial sections. This policy would have led to the detection of 79/80 (99%) of skull-base fractures and all significant anatomical features. CONCLUSION: The 5-mm axial sections demonstrated 71% of skull-base fractures and 78% of skull-base fractures with significant anatomical features, using HRMPRs as a gold standard. There were no significant clinical sequelae at short-term follow-up of those fractures only evident on HRMPRs.

  20. External skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in for the repair of tibiotarsal fractures in raptors: 37 cases (1995-2011). (United States)

    Bueno, Irene; Redig, Patrick T; Rendahl, Aaron K


    To evaluate the outcome of the application of an external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in (TIF) to tibiotarsal fractures in raptors. Retrospective case series. Thirty-four raptors with 37 tibiotarsal fractures. Medical records and radiographs for raptors with tibiotarsal fractures that were treated at The Raptor Center at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2011 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were generated and univariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether age, sex, body weight, location and nature of the fracture, and type of surgical reduction were significantly associated with whether the fracture healed following surgical reduction and TIF application. 31 of 37 (84%) tibiotarsal fractures successfully healed following surgical reduction and TIF application. The mean healing time was 38 days (range, 15 to 70 days). None of the variables assessed were significantly associated with whether the tibiotarsal fracture healed. Twenty of the 34 (59%) raptors were eventually rehabilitated and released. Results indicated that most tibiotarsal fractures were successfully managed by surgical reduction and stabilization with a TIF. However, other comorbidities (eg, systemic infections and visual deficits) negatively affected the rehabilitation of raptors and sometimes resulted in euthanasia despite the fact that the tibiotarsal fracture had healed, and those comorbidities, along with the variables evaluated (eg, age, sex, and nature of the fracture), should be used as triage criteria and prognostic indicators.

  1. FDI World Dental Federation: clinical criteria for the evaluation of direct and indirect restorations-update and clinical examples. (United States)

    Hickel, Reinhard; Peschke, Arnd; Tyas, Martin; Mjör, Ivar; Bayne, Stephen; Peters, Mathilde; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Randall, Ross; Vanherle, Guido; Heintze, Siegward D


    In 2007, new clinical criteria were approved by the FDI World Dental Federation and simultaneously published in three dental journals. The criteria were categorized into three groups: esthetic parameters (four criteria), functional parameters (six criteria) and biological parameters (six criteria). Each criterion can be expressed with five scores, three for acceptable and two for non-acceptable (one for reparable and one for replacement). The criteria have been used in several clinical studies since 2007, and the resulting experience in their application has led to a requirement to modify some of the criteria and scores. The two major alterations involve staining and approximal contacts. As staining of the margins and the surface has different causes, both phenomena do not appear simultaneously. Thus, staining has been differentiated into marginal staining and surface staining. The approximal contact now appears under the name "approximal anatomic form" as the approximal contour is a specific, often non-esthetic issue that cannot be integrated into the criterion "esthetic anatomical form". In 2008, a web-based training and calibration tool called e-calib ( ) was made available. Clinical investigators and other research workers can train and calibrate themselves interactively by assessing clinical cases of posterior restorations which are presented as high-quality pictures. Currently, about 300 clinical cases are included in the database which is regularly updated. Training for eight of the 16 clinical criteria is available in the program: "Surface lustre"; "Staining (surface, margins)"; "Color match and translucency"; Esthetic anatomical form"; "Fracture of material and retention"; "Marginal adaptation"; "Recurrence of caries, erosion, abfraction"; and "Tooth integrity (enamel cracks, tooth fractures)". Typical clinical cases are presented for each of these eight criteria and their corresponding five scores.

  2. FDI World Dental Federation - clinical criteria for the evaluation of direct and indirect restorations. Update and clinical examples. (United States)

    Hickel, Reinhard; Peschke, Arnd; Tyas, Martin; Mjör, Ivar; Bayne, Stephen; Peters, Mathilde; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Randall, Ross; Vanherle, Guido; Heintze, Siegward D


    In 2007, new clinical criteria were approved by the FDI World Dental Federation and simultaneously published in three dental journals. The criteria were categorized into three groups: esthetic parameters (four criteria), functional parameters (six criteria), and biological parameters (six criteria). Each criterion can be expressed with five scores, three for acceptable and two for non-acceptable (one for reparable and one for replacement). The criteria have been used in several clinical studies since 2007, and the resulting experience in their application has led to a requirement to modify some of the criteria and scores. The two major alterations involve staining and approximal contacts. As staining of the margins and the surface have different causes, both phenomena do not appear simultaneously. Thus, staining has been differentiated into marginal staining and surface staining. The approximal contact now appears under the name "approximal anatomic form" as the approximal contour is a specific, often non-esthetic issue that cannot be integrated into the criterion "esthetic anatomical form". In 2008, a web-based training and calibration tool called e-calib ( was made available. Clinical investigators and other research workers can train and calibrate themselves interactively by assessing clinical cases of posterior restorations, which are presented as high quality pictures. Currently, about 300 clinical cases are included in the database which is regularly updated. Training for 8 of the 16 clinical criteria is available in the program: "Surface luster"; "Staining (surface, margins)"; "Color match and translucency"; "Esthetic anatomical form"; "Fracture of material and retention"; "Marginal adaptation"; "Recurrence of caries, erosion, abfraction"; and "Tooth integrity (enamel cracks, tooth fractures)". Typical clinical cases are presented for each of these eight criteria and their corresponding five scores.

  3. [Lesions of the distal radio-ulnar joint associated with isolated fractures of the radial shaft]. (United States)

    Hattoma, N; Rafai, M; Zahar, A; Largab, A; Trafeh, M


    The authors have performed a retrospective study of 49 Galeazzi fractures treated between 1990 and 1998. This lesion is considered rare because it is often misdiagnosed as an isolated fracture of the radius. The mean age of the patients was 31 years. There was a male predominance with a sex ratio of 4/1. Road traffic accidents were the main etiology (45%). Galeazzi fracture type III in Mansat's classification represented 53%, followed by type II (33%), type I (8%) and equivalents of Galeazzi fracture (6%). The treatment was surgical in all cases. The radial fracture was internally fixed with a plate. Reduction of the distal radio-ulnar instability, achieved by manipulation, was maintained with radio-ulnar pin fixation in 53% and with plaster cast immobilization 45%. The results, evaluated according to Mikic's criteria were excellent in 87%. The prognosis of Galeazzi's fracture depends mainly on the initial treatment of the lesions of the distal radio-ulnar joint, which require for their diagnosis a meticulous clinical evaluation and a good radiological analysis.

  4. Automatic retrieval of bone fracture knowledge using natural language processing. (United States)

    Do, Bao H; Wu, Andrew S; Maley, Joan; Biswal, Sandip


    Natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract data from unstructured text into formal computer representations are valuable for creating robust, scalable methods to mine data in medical documents and radiology reports. As voice recognition (VR) becomes more prevalent in radiology practice, there is opportunity for implementing NLP in real time for decision-support applications such as context-aware information retrieval. For example, as the radiologist dictates a report, an NLP algorithm can extract concepts from the text and retrieve relevant classification or diagnosis criteria or calculate disease probability. NLP can work in parallel with VR to potentially facilitate evidence-based reporting (for example, automatically retrieving the Bosniak classification when the radiologist describes a kidney cyst). For these reasons, we developed and validated an NLP system which extracts fracture and anatomy concepts from unstructured text and retrieves relevant bone fracture knowledge. We implement our NLP in an HTML5 web application to demonstrate a proof-of-concept feedback NLP system which retrieves bone fracture knowledge in real time.

  5. SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks (United States)

    Ji, Xing


    The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.

  6. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.


    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  7. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  8. Trapezoid fracture caused by assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshikare V


    Full Text Available In this report we describe an open fracture of trapezoid and break in anterior cortex of capitate due to assault in a young adult male. Direct impact force of a sharp object to the first web space caused the above fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation of the trapezoid was carried out using Kirschner wires. Cut extensor tendons, extensor retaniculum, capsule, adductor pollicis muscle, first dorsal interosseous muscle, soft tissue and overlying skin were sutured primarily. Three months after the operation the patient has made a complete recovery. There is no similar case reported in the literature.

  9. Arthrofibrosis After Periarticular Fracture Fixation. (United States)

    McAlister, Ian; Sems, Stephen Andrew


    Arthrofibrosis after periarticular fractures can create clinically significant impairments in both the upper and lower extremities. The shoulder, elbow, and knee are particularly susceptible to the condition. Many risk factors for the development of arthrofibrosis cannot be controlled by the patient or surgeon. Early postoperative motion should be promoted whenever possible. Manipulations under anesthesia are effective for a period of time in certain fracture patterns, and open or arthroscopic surgical debridements should be reserved for the patient for whom nonoperative modalities fail and who has a clinically significant deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Iatrogenic evolutive skull fracture (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Villarejo, F; Pascual Castroviejo, I; Dabdoub, C; Bordes, M; Jover, P


    A case of growing skull fracture secondary to a maxilofacial operation is reported. Frequency, clinical symptoms, phisiopathology and treatment of growing skull fractures are reviewed and the rarity of the iatrogenic mechanism is stressed.

  11. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai


    IMPORTANCE: Associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures are unclear and clinical trials are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with hip, nonspine, spine, or any fractures. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: The databases of MEDLI...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yang Dai


    Objective To review imaging use in the diagnosis ofthoracolumbar burst fractures and to determine the diagnostic value of different imaging methods.Methods One hundred and fourteen patients with 120 thoracolumbar burst fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were available in all cases; CT scans and MRI were obtained in 96 and 74 cases, respectively.Results A total of 27 burst fractures were misdiagnosed as other types of fractures on radiographs alone, and accounted for 22.5% of all fractures. The results indicated that plain radiographs often fail to delineate the pathological features of thoracolumbar burst fractures, leading to delay in diagnosis.Conclusion In regard to thoracolumbar injury diagnosis, burst fractures should be differentiated from compression fractures. CT should be routinely indicated and MRI examination, when necessary, may be simultaneously considered.

  13. Surgical treatment for complicated acetabular fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning An; Yang Yanmin


    Objective: To sum up the surgical approaches and clinical outcome of complicated acetabular fractures. Methods: 17 patients with complicated acetabular fractures (including 4 cases of transverse with posterior wall fractures, 7 cases of posterior column and wall fractures, 4 cases of anterior and posterior columns fractures, 1 cases of T-type fracture and 1 cases of anterior column with posterior hemitransverse fractures) underwent open reduction and internal fixation with screws and plates by Kocher-Langenbeck (8 cases), ilio-inguinal (2 cases), extended iliofemoral (4 cases) or ilio-inguinal combined with K-L approaches (3 cases). Results: 12 patients with anatomical reduction, 4 patients with satisfactory reduction and 1 patient with non-satisfactory reduction. 15 out of 17 cases were followed up for 6 months to 5 years, and the excellent and good rate was 70.5%. Conclusion: Surgical treatment for complicated acetabular fractures can get a satisfactory reduction and a good clinical outcome.

  14. Topological impact of constrained fracture growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Mongstad Hope


    Full Text Available The topology of two discrete fracture network models is compared to investigate the impact of constrained fracture growth. In the Poissonian discrete fracture network model the fractures are assigned length, position and orientation independent of all other fractures, while in the mechanical discrete fracture network model the fractures grow and the growth can be limited by the presence of other fractures. The topology is found to be impacted by both the choice of model, as well as the choice of rules for the mechanical model. A significant difference is the degree mixing. In two dimensions the Poissonian model results in assortative networks, while the mechanical model results in disassortative networks. In three dimensions both models produce disassortative networks, but the disassortative mixing is strongest for the mechanical model.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 11, 2001 ... confirmed mandibular fractures seen in children who were treated at the Department of Oral ... fractures were due to sport injuries. Other causes were .... young children and to prevent temporomandibular joint ankylosis as a ...

  16. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes) (United States)

    ... rest is the only treatment needed to promote healing of a stress or traumatic fracture of a metatarsal bone. Avoid the offending activity. Because stress fractures result from repetitive stress, it ...

  17. Deep gold mine fracture zone behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL


    Full Text Available The investigation of the behaviour of the fracture zone surrounding deep level gold mine stopes is detailed in three main sections of this report. Section 2 outlines the ongoing study of fundamental fracture process and their numerical...

  18. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  19. Fracture Rates and Fracture Sites in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary, clinically heterogeneous, connective tissue disorder. The population prevalence of OI in Denmark is 10.6 in 100,000. A hallmark of the disease is frequent fractures that are often precipitated by minimal trauma. The aim of the current study...

  20. Characterisation of hydraulically-active fractures in a fractured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 7, 2015 ... maximum depth of the tunnel is 90–100 m from the peak of a mountain located above the .... g is the gravity acceleration l is the length of the test ..... process and is a hydraulically-active fracture conducting ground- water flow.