#### Sample records for fractional step method

1. Lagrangian fractional step method for the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations on a periodic domain

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boergers, C.; Peskin, C.S.

1987-01-01

In the Lagrangian fractional step method introduced in this paper, the fluid velocity and pressure are defined on a collection of N fluid markers. At each time step, these markers are used to generate a Voronoi diagram, and this diagram is used to construct finite-difference operators corresponding to the divergence, gradient, and Laplacian. The splitting of the Navier--Stokes equations leads to discrete Helmholtz and Poisson problems, which we solve using a two-grid method. The nonlinear convection terms are modeled simply by the displacement of the fluid markers. We have implemented this method on a periodic domain in the plane. We describe an efficient algorithm for the numerical construction of periodic Voronoi diagrams, and we report on numerical results which indicate the the fractional step method is convergent of first order. The overall work per time step is proportional to N log N. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

2. The Fractional Step Method Applied to Simulations of Natural Convective Flows

Science.gov (United States)

Westra, Douglas G.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

This paper describes research done to apply the Fractional Step Method to finite-element simulations of natural convective flows in pure liquids, permeable media, and in a directionally solidified metal alloy casting. The Fractional Step Method has been applied commonly to high Reynold's number flow simulations, but is less common for low Reynold's number flows, such as natural convection in liquids and in permeable media. The Fractional Step Method offers increased speed and reduced memory requirements by allowing non-coupled solution of the pressure and the velocity components. The Fractional Step Method has particular benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, since other methods presently employed are not very efficient. Previously, the most suitable method for predicting flows in a directionally solidified binary alloy was the penalty method. The penalty method requires direct matrix solvers, due to the penalty term. The Fractional Step Method allows iterative solution of the finite element stiffness matrices, thereby allowing more efficient solution of the matrices. The Fractional Step Method also lends itself to parallel processing, since the velocity component stiffness matrices can be built and solved independently of each other. The finite-element simulations of a directionally solidified casting are used to predict macrosegregation in directionally solidified castings. In particular, the finite-element simulations predict the existence of 'channels' within the processing mushy zone and subsequently 'freckles' within the fully processed solid, which are known to result from macrosegregation, or what is often referred to as thermo-solutal convection. These freckles cause material property non-uniformities in directionally solidified castings; therefore many of these castings are scrapped. The phenomenon of natural convection in an alloy under-going directional solidification, or thermo-solutal convection, will be explained. The

3. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mazen Abualtayef

2010-03-01

Full Text Available A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic results were predicted. The numerically predicted amplitudes and phase angles were well consistent with the field observations.

4. Numerical analysis for the fractional diffusion and fractional Buckmaster equation by the two-step Laplace Adam-Bashforth method

Science.gov (United States)

Jain, Sonal

2018-01-01

In this paper, we aim to use the alternative numerical scheme given by Gnitchogna and Atangana for solving partial differential equations with integer and non-integer differential operators. We applied this method to fractional diffusion model and fractional Buckmaster models with non-local fading memory. The method yields a powerful numerical algorithm for fractional order derivative to implement. Also we present in detail the stability analysis of the numerical method for solving the diffusion equation. This proof shows that this method is very stable and also converges very quickly to exact solution and finally some numerical simulation is presented.

5. Two-step extraction method for lead isotope fractionation to reveal anthropogenic lead pollution.

Science.gov (United States)

Katahira, Kenshi; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Kamura, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Hideo

2018-05-28

This study developed the 2-step extraction method which eluted the Pb adsorbing on the surface of sediments in the first solution by aqua regia and extracted the Pb absorbed inside particles into the second solution by mixed acid of nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution. We applied the method to sediments in the enclosed water area and found out that the isotope ratios of Pb in the second solution represented those of natural origin. This advantage of the method makes it possible to distinguish the Pb between natural origin and anthropogenic source on the basis of the isotope ratios. The results showed that the method was useful to discuss the Pb sources and that anthropogenic Pb in the sediment samples analysed was mainly derived from China because of transboundary air pollution.

6. A GPU-accelerated semi-implicit fractional-step method for numerical solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ha, Sanghyun; Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun

2018-01-01

Utility of the computational power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is elaborated for solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are integrated using a semi-implicit fractional-step method. The Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) and the Fourier-transform-based direct solution methods used in the semi-implicit fractional-step method take advantage of multiple tridiagonal matrices whose inversion is known as the major bottleneck for acceleration on a typical multi-core machine. A novel implementation of the semi-implicit fractional-step method designed for GPU acceleration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Aspects of the programing model of Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which are critical to the bandwidth-bound nature of the present method are discussed in detail. A data layout for efficient use of CUDA libraries is proposed for acceleration of tridiagonal matrix inversion and fast Fourier transform. OpenMP is employed for concurrent collection of turbulence statistics on a CPU while the Navier-Stokes equations are computed on a GPU. Performance of the present method using CUDA is assessed by comparing the speed of solving three tridiagonal matrices using ADI with the speed of solving one heptadiagonal matrix using a conjugate gradient method. An overall speedup of 20 times is achieved using a Tesla K40 GPU in comparison with a single-core Xeon E5-2660 v3 CPU in simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate conducted on over 134 million grids. Enhanced performance of 48 times speedup is reached for the same problem using a Tesla P100 GPU.

7. A GPU-accelerated semi-implicit fractional step method for numerical solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ha, Sanghyun; Park, Junshin; You, Donghyun

2017-11-01

Utility of the computational power of modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is elaborated for solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations which are integrated using a semi-implicit fractional-step method. Due to its serial and bandwidth-bound nature, the present choice of numerical methods is considered to be a good candidate for evaluating the potential of GPUs for solving Navier-Stokes equations using non-explicit time integration. An efficient algorithm is presented for GPU acceleration of the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) and the Fourier-transform-based direct solution method used in the semi-implicit fractional-step method. OpenMP is employed for concurrent collection of turbulence statistics on a CPU while Navier-Stokes equations are computed on a GPU. Extension to multiple NVIDIA GPUs is implemented using NVLink supported by the Pascal architecture. Performance of the present method is experimented on multiple Tesla P100 GPUs compared with a single-core Xeon E5-2650 v4 CPU in simulations of boundary-layer flow over a flat plate. Supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning NRF-2016R1E1A2A01939553, NRF-2014R1A2A1A11049599, and Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy 201611101000230).

8. An unstructured finite volume solver for two phase water/vapour flows based on an elliptic oriented fractional step method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechitoua, N.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J.; Pigny, S.; Serre, G.

2003-01-01

Based on experience gained at EDF and Cea, a more general and robust 3-dimensional (3D) multiphase flow solver has been being currently developed for over three years. This solver, based on an elliptic oriented fractional step approach, is able to simulate multicomponent/multiphase flows. Discretization follows a 3D full unstructured finite volume approach, with a collocated arrangement of all variables. The non linear behaviour between pressure and volume fractions and a symmetric treatment of all fields are taken into account in the iterative procedure, within the time step. It greatly enforces the realizability of volume fractions (i.e 0 < α < 1), without artificial numerical needs. Applications to widespread test cases as static sedimentation, water hammer and phase separation are shown to assess the accuracy and the robustness of the flow solver in different flow conditions, encountered in nuclear reactors pipes. (authors)

9. A two-step leaching method designed based on chemical fraction distribution of the heavy metals for selective leaching of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb from metallurgical sludge.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Fen; Yu, Junxia; Xiong, Wanli; Xu, Yuanlai; Chi, Ru-An

2018-01-01

For selective leaching and highly effective recovery of heavy metals from a metallurgical sludge, a two-step leaching method was designed based on the distribution analysis of the chemical fractions of the loaded heavy metal. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used as a leaching agent in the first step to leach the relatively labile heavy metals and then ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to leach the residual metals according to their different fractional distribution. Using the two-step leaching method, 82.89% of Cd, 55.73% of Zn, 10.85% of Cu, and 0.25% of Pb were leached in the first step by 0.7 M HCl at a contact time of 240 min, and the leaching efficiencies for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were elevated up to 99.76, 91.41, 71.85, and 94.06%, by subsequent treatment with 0.2 M EDTA at 480 min, respectively. Furthermore, HCl leaching induced fractional redistribution, which might increase the mobility of the remaining metals and then facilitate the following metal removal by EDTA. The facilitation was further confirmed by the comparison to the one-step leaching method with single HCl or single EDTA, respectively. These results suggested that the designed two-step leaching method by HCl and EDTA could be used for selective leaching and effective recovery of heavy metals from the metallurgical sludge or heavy metal-contaminated solid media.

10. Arsenic fractionation in agricultural soil using an automated three-step sequential extraction method coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rosas-Castor, J.M. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico); Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Portugal, L.; Ferrer, L. [Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico); Cerdà, V. [Group of Analytical Chemistry, Automation and Environment, University of Balearic Islands, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hinojosa-Reyes, L., E-mail: laura.hinojosary@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 Nuevo León (Mexico)

2015-05-18

Highlights: • A fully automated flow-based modified-BCR extraction method was developed to evaluate the extractable As of soil. • The MSFIA–HG-AFS system included an UV photo-oxidation step for organic species degradation. • The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were found satisfactory. • The time analysis can be reduced up to eight times by using the proposed flow-based BCR method. • The labile As (F1 + F2) was <50% of total As in soil samples from As-contaminated-mining zones. - Abstract: A fully automated modified three-step BCR flow-through sequential extraction method was developed for the fractionation of the arsenic (As) content from agricultural soil based on a multi-syringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system coupled to hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Critical parameters that affect the performance of the automated system were optimized by exploiting a multivariate approach using a Doehlert design. The validation of the flow-based modified-BCR method was carried out by comparison with the conventional BCR method. Thus, the total As content was determined in the following three fractions: fraction 1 (F1), the acid-soluble or interchangeable fraction; fraction 2 (F2), the reducible fraction; and fraction 3 (F3), the oxidizable fraction. The limits of detection (LOD) were 4.0, 3.4, and 23.6 μg L{sup −1} for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. A wide working concentration range was obtained for the analysis of each fraction, i.e., 0.013–0.800, 0.011–0.900 and 0.079–1.400 mg L{sup −1} for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. The precision of the automated MSFIA–HG-AFS system, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was evaluated for a 200 μg L{sup −1} As standard solution, and RSD values between 5 and 8% were achieved for the three BCR fractions. The new modified three-step BCR flow-based sequential extraction method was satisfactorily applied for arsenic fractionation in real agricultural

11. Simulation of the two-fluid model on incompressible flow with Fractional Step method for both resolved and unresolved scale interfaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hou, Xiaofei; Rigola, Joaquim; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Oliva, Assensi

2015-01-01

Highlights: • Two phase flow with free surface is solved by means of two-fluid model (TFM). • Fractional Step method and finite volume technique is used to solve TFM. • Conservative Level Set method reduces interface sharpening diffusion problem. • Cases including high density ratios and high viscosities validate the models. - Abstract: In the present paper, the Fractional Step method usually used in single fluid flow is here extended and applied for the two-fluid model resolution using the finite volume discretization. The use of a projection method resolution instead of the usual pressure-correction method for multi-fluid flow, successfully avoids iteration processes. On the other hand, the main weakness of the two fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows, which is the numerical diffusion of the interface, is also solved by means of the conservative Level Set method (interface sharpening) (Strubelj et al., 2009). Moreover, the use of the algorithm proposed has allowed presenting different free-surface cases with or without Level Set implementation even under coarse meshes under a wide range of density ratios. Thus, the numerical results presented, numerically verified, experimentally validated and converged under high density ratios, shows the capability and reliability of this resolution method for both mixed and unmixed flows

12. NUMERICAL METHOD OF MIXED FINITE VOLUME-MODIFIED UPWIND FRACTIONAL STEP DIFFERENCE FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Yirang YUAN; Qing YANG; Changfeng LI; Tongjun SUN

2017-01-01

Transient behavior of three-dimensional semiconductor device with heat conduction is described by a coupled mathematical system of four quasi-linear partial differential equations with initial-boundary value conditions.The electric potential is defined by an elliptic equation and it appears in the following three equations via the electric field intensity.The electron concentration and the hole concentration are determined by convection-dominated diffusion equations and the temperature is interpreted by a heat conduction equation.A mixed finite volume element approximation,keeping physical conservation law,is used to get numerical values of the electric potential and the accuracy is improved one order.Two concentrations and the heat conduction are computed by a fractional step method combined with second-order upwind differences.This method can overcome numerical oscillation,dispersion and decreases computational complexity.Then a three-dimensional problem is solved by computing three successive one-dimensional problems where the method of speedup is used and the computational work is greatly shortened.An optimal second-order error estimate in L2 norm is derived by using prior estimate theory and other special techniques of partial differential equations.This type of mass-conservative parallel method is important and is most valuable in numerical analysis and application of semiconductor device.

13. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

2012-01-01

We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

14. The Extended Fractional Subequation Method for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

Zhao, Jianping; Tang, Bo; Kumar, Sunil; Hou, Yanren

2012-01-01

An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powe...

15. Modeling single-file diffusion with step fractional Brownian motion and a generalized fractional Langevin equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lim, S C; Teo, L P

2009-01-01

Single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion at small time and as subdiffusion at large time. These properties can be described in terms of fractional Brownian motion with variable Hurst exponent or multifractional Brownian motion. We introduce a new stochastic process called Riemann–Liouville step fractional Brownian motion which can be regarded as a special case of multifractional Brownian motion with a step function type of Hurst exponent tailored for single-file diffusion. Such a step fractional Brownian motion can be obtained as a solution of the fractional Langevin equation with zero damping. Various kinds of fractional Langevin equations and their generalizations are then considered in order to decide whether their solutions provide the correct description of the long and short time behaviors of single-file diffusion. The cases where the dissipative memory kernel is a Dirac delta function, a power-law function and a combination of these functions are studied in detail. In addition to the case where the short time behavior of single-file diffusion behaves as normal diffusion, we also consider the possibility of a process that begins as ballistic motion

16. Error Analysis of a Fractional Time-Stepping Technique for Incompressible Flows with Variable Density

KAUST Repository

2011-01-01

In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of a new fractional time-stepping technique for the solution of the variable density incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main feature of this method is that, contrary to other existing algorithms, the pressure is determined by just solving one Poisson equation per time step. First-order error estimates are proved, and stability of a formally second-order variant of the method is established. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

17. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

OpenAIRE

Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

2014-01-01

This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

18. Finite element method for time-space-fractional Schrodinger equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xiaogang Zhu

2017-07-01

Full Text Available In this article, we develop a fully discrete finite element method for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS with time- and space-fractional derivatives. The time-fractional derivative is described in Caputo's sense and the space-fractional derivative in Riesz's sense. Its stability is well derived; the convergent estimate is discussed by an orthogonal operator. We also extend the method to the two-dimensional time-space-fractional NLS and to avoid the iterative solvers at each time step, a linearized scheme is further conducted. Several numerical examples are implemented finally, which confirm the theoretical results as well as illustrate the accuracy of our methods.

19. Discrete maximal regularity of time-stepping schemes for fractional evolution equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Jin, Bangti; Li, Buyang; Zhou, Zhi

2018-01-01

In this work, we establish the maximal [Formula: see text]-regularity for several time stepping schemes for a fractional evolution model, which involves a fractional derivative of order [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], in time. These schemes include convolution quadratures generated by backward Euler method and second-order backward difference formula, the L1 scheme, explicit Euler method and a fractional variant of the Crank-Nicolson method. The main tools for the analysis include operator-valued Fourier multiplier theorem due to Weis (Math Ann 319:735-758, 2001. doi:10.1007/PL00004457) and its discrete analogue due to Blunck (Stud Math 146:157-176, 2001. doi:10.4064/sm146-2-3). These results generalize the corresponding results for parabolic problems.

20. On varitional iteration method for fractional calculus

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wu Hai-Gen

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Modification of the Das’ variational iteration method for fractional differential equations is discussed, and its main shortcoming involved in the solution process is pointed out and overcome by using fractional power series. The suggested computational procedure is simple and reliable for fractional calculus.

1. Closed-loop step response for tuning PID-fractional-order-filter controllers.

Science.gov (United States)

Amoura, Karima; Mansouri, Rachid; Bettayeb, Maâmar; Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M

2016-09-01

Analytical methods are usually applied for tuning fractional controllers. The present paper proposes an empirical method for tuning a new type of fractional controller known as PID-Fractional-Order-Filter (FOF-PID). Indeed, the setpoint overshoot method, initially introduced by Shamsuzzoha and Skogestad, has been adapted for tuning FOF-PID controller. Based on simulations for a range of first order with time delay processes, correlations have been derived to obtain PID-FOF controller parameters similar to those obtained by the Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning rule. The setpoint overshoot method requires only one closed-loop step response experiment using a proportional controller (P-controller). To highlight the potential of this method, simulation results have been compared with those obtained with the IMC method as well as other pertinent techniques. Various case studies have also been considered. The comparison has revealed that the proposed tuning method performs as good as the IMC. Moreover, it might offer a number of advantages over the IMC tuning rule. For instance, the parameters of the fractional controller are directly obtained from the setpoint closed-loop response data without the need of any model of the plant to be controlled. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

1996-07-01

Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

3. New method dynamically models hydrocarbon fractionation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kesler, M.G.; Weissbrod, J.M.; Sheth, B.V. [Kesler Engineering, East Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1995-10-01

A new method for calculating distillation column dynamics can be used to model time-dependent effects of independent disturbances for a range of hydrocarbon fractionation. It can model crude atmospheric and vacuum columns, with relatively few equilibrium stages and a large number of components, to C{sub 3} splitters, with few components and up to 300 equilibrium stages. Simulation results are useful for operations analysis, process-control applications and closed-loop control in petroleum, petrochemical and gas processing plants. The method is based on an implicit approach, where the time-dependent variations of inventory, temperatures, liquid and vapor flows and compositions are superimposed at each time step on the steady-state solution. Newton-Raphson (N-R) techniques are then used to simultaneously solve the resulting finite-difference equations of material, equilibrium and enthalpy balances that characterize distillation dynamics. The important innovation is component-aggregation and tray-aggregation to contract the equations without compromising accuracy. This contraction increases the N-R calculations stability. It also significantly increases calculational speed, which is particularly important in dynamic simulations. This method provides a sound basis for closed-loop, supervisory control of distillation--directly or via multivariable controllers--based on a rigorous, phenomenological column model.

4. Fractional Step Like Schemes for Free Surface Problems with Thermal Coupling Using the Lagrangian PFEM

Science.gov (United States)

Aubry, R.; Oñate, E.; Idelsohn, S. R.

2006-09-01

The method presented in Aubry et al. (Comput Struc 83:1459-1475, 2005) for the solution of an incompressible viscous fluid flow with heat transfer using a fully Lagrangian description of motion is extended to three dimensions (3D) with particular emphasis on mass conservation. A modified fractional step (FS) based on the pressure Schur complement (Turek 1999), and related to the class of algebraic splittings Quarteroni et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 188:505-526, 2000), is used and a new advantage of the splittings of the equations compared with the classical FS is highlighted for free surface problems. The temperature is semi-coupled with the displacement, which is the main variable in a Lagrangian description. Comparisons for various mesh Reynolds numbers are performed with the classical FS, an algebraic splitting and a monolithic solution, in order to illustrate the behaviour of the Uzawa operator and the mass conservation. As the classical fractional step is equivalent to one iteration of the Uzawa algorithm performed with a standard Laplacian as a preconditioner, it will behave well only in a Reynold mesh number domain where the preconditioner is efficient. Numerical results are provided to assess the superiority of the modified algebraic splitting to the classical FS.

5. Local Fractional Laplace Variational Iteration Method for Solving Linear Partial Differential Equations with Local Fractional Derivative

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ai-Min Yang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method was applied to solve the linear local fractional partial differential equations. The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method is coupled by the local fractional variational iteration method and Laplace transform. The nondifferentiable approximate solutions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.

6. Intelligent numerical methods applications to fractional calculus

CERN Document Server

Anastassiou, George A

2016-01-01

In this monograph the authors present Newton-type, Newton-like and other numerical methods, which involve fractional derivatives and fractional integral operators, for the first time studied in the literature. All for the purpose to solve numerically equations whose associated functions can be also non-differentiable in the ordinary sense. That is among others extending the classical Newton method theory which requires usual differentiability of function. Chapters are self-contained and can be read independently and several advanced courses can be taught out of this book. An extensive list of references is given per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, stochastics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.

7. Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation

Science.gov (United States)

Brodeur, Pierre

1999-11-09

Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

8. A matrix-free, implicit, incompressible fractional-step algorithm for fluid–structure interaction applications

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Oxtoby, Oliver F

2012-05-01

Full Text Available In this paper we detail a fast, fully-coupled, partitioned fluid–structure interaction (FSI) scheme. For the incompressible fluid, new fractional-step algorithms are proposed which make possible the fully implicit, but matrixfree, parallel solution...

9. Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ahmet Bekir

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

10. Exact Solutions of Fractional Burgers and Cahn-Hilliard Equations Using Extended Fractional Riccati Expansion Method

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Wei Li

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.

11. Integral transform method for solving time fractional systems and fractional heat equation

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Arman Aghili

2014-01-01

Full Text Available In the present paper, time fractional partial differential equation is considered, where the fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense. Laplace transform method has been applied to obtain an exact solution. The authors solved certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous time fractional heat equations using integral transform. Transform method is a powerful tool for solving fractional singular Integro - differential equations and PDEs. The result reveals that the transform method is very convenient and effective.

12. A New Fractional Projective Riccati Equation Method for Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feng Qing-Hua

2014-01-01

In this paper, a new fractional projective Riccati equation method is proposed to establish exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. This method can be seen as the fractional version of the known projective Riccati equation method. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply this method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham—Broer—Kaup (WBK) equations and the nonlinear fractional Sharma—Tasso—Olever (STO) equation, and as a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. (general)

13. Topologically induced fractional Hall steps in the integer quantum Hall regime of MoS 2

Science.gov (United States)

Firoz Islam, SK; Benjamin, Colin

2016-09-01

The quantum magnetotransport properties of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide are derived using linear response theory. In particular, the effect of topological terms on longitudinal and Hall conductivity is analyzed. The Hall conductivity exhibits fractional steps in the integer quantum Hall regime. Further complete spin and valley polarization of the longitudinal conductivitity is seen in presence of these topological terms. Finally, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations are suppressed or enhanced contingent on the sign of these topological terms.

14. Local Fractional Adomian Decomposition and Function Decomposition Methods for Laplace Equation within Local Fractional Operators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sheng-Ping Yan

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the local fractional Adomian decomposition and local fractional function decomposition methods applied to the Laplace equation. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

15. A new class of fractional step techniques for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations using direction splitting

KAUST Repository

Guermond, Jean-Luc; Minev, Peter D.

2010-01-01

A new direction-splitting-based fractional time stepping is introduced for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main originality of the method is that the pressure correction is computed by solving a sequence of one-dimensional elliptic problems in each spatial direction. The method is very simple to program in parallel, very fast, and has exactly the same stability and convergence properties as the Poisson-based pressure-correction technique, either in standard or rotational form. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

16. A new class of fractional step techniques for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations using direction splitting

KAUST Repository

Guermond, Jean-Luc

2010-05-01

A new direction-splitting-based fractional time stepping is introduced for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main originality of the method is that the pressure correction is computed by solving a sequence of one-dimensional elliptic problems in each spatial direction. The method is very simple to program in parallel, very fast, and has exactly the same stability and convergence properties as the Poisson-based pressure-correction technique, either in standard or rotational form. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

17. Exp-function method for solving fractional partial differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Bin

2013-01-01

We extend the Exp-function method to fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative based on nonlinear fractional complex transformation. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply it to the space-time fractional Fokas equation and the nonlinear fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

18. A fractional spline collocation-Galerkin method for the time-fractional diffusion equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pezza L.

2018-03-01

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to numerically solve a diffusion differential problem having time derivative of fractional order. To this end we propose a collocation-Galerkin method that uses the fractional splines as approximating functions. The main advantage is in that the derivatives of integer and fractional order of the fractional splines can be expressed in a closed form that involves just the generalized finite difference operator. This allows us to construct an accurate and efficient numerical method. Several numerical tests showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented.

19. Acoustic programming in step-split-flow lateral-transport thin fractionation.

Science.gov (United States)

Ratier, Claire; Hoyos, Mauricio

2010-02-15

We propose a new separation scheme for micrometer-sized particles combining acoustic forces and gravitational field in split-flow lateral-transport thin (SPLITT)-like fractionation channels. Acoustic forces are generated by ultrasonic standing waves set up in the channel thickness. We report on the separation of latex particles of two different sizes in a preliminary experiment using this proposed hydrodynamic acoustic sorter, HAS. Total binary separation of 5 and 10 microm diameter particles has been achieved. Numerical simulations of trajectories of particles flowing through a step-SPLITT under the conditions which combine acoustic standing waves and gravity show a very good agreement with the experiment. Calculations in order to compare separations obtained by the acoustic programming s-SPLITT fractionation and the conventional SPLITT fractionation show that the improvement in separation time is around 1 order of magnitude and could still be improved; this is the major finding of this work. This separation technique can be extended to biomimetic particles and blood cells.

20. A generalized fractional sub-equation method for fractional differential equations with variable coefficients

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tang, Bo; He, Yinnian; Wei, Leilei; Zhang, Xindong

2012-01-01

In this Letter, a generalized fractional sub-equation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space–time fractional Gardner equation with variable coefficients. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient and powerful mathematical tool for solving many other fractional differential equations in mathematical physics. -- Highlights: ► Study of fractional differential equations with variable coefficients plays a role in applied physical sciences. ► It is shown that the proposed algorithm is effective for solving fractional differential equations with variable coefficients. ► The obtained solutions may give insight into many considerable physical processes.

1. An efficient method for solving fractional Sturm-Liouville problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.

2009-01-01

The numerical approximation of the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the fractional Sturm-Liouville problems, in which the second order derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative, is considered. The present results can be implemented on the numerical solution of the fractional diffusion-wave equation. The results show the simplicity and efficiency of the numerical method.

2. M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient methods

Science.gov (United States)

1983-01-01

Preconditioned conjugate gradient methods for solving sparse symmetric and positive finite systems of linear equations are described. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when these preconditioners can be used and an analysis of their effectiveness is given. Efficient computer implementations of these methods are discussed and results on the CYBER 203 and the Finite Element Machine under construction at NASA Langley Research Center are included.

3. MIDPOINT TWO- STEPS RULE FOR THE SQUARE ROOT METHOD

African Journals Online (AJOL)

DR S.E UWAMUSI

Aberth third order method for finding zeros of a polynomial in interval ... KEY WORDS: Square root iteration, midpoint two steps Method, ...... A New set of Methods for the simultaneous determination of zeros of polynomial equation and iterative ...

4. Discrete adjoint of fractional step Navier-Stokes solver in generalized coordinates

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Mengze; Mons, Vincent; Zaki, Tamer

2017-11-01

Optimization and control in transitional and turbulent flows require evaluation of gradients of the flow state with respect to the problem parameters. Using adjoint approaches, these high-dimensional gradients can be evaluated with a similar computational cost as the forward Navier-Stokes simulations. The adjoint algorithm can be obtained by discretizing the continuous adjoint Navier-Stokes equations or by deriving the adjoint to the discretized Navier-Stokes equations directly. The latter algorithm is necessary when the forward-adjoint relations must be satisfied to machine precision. In this work, our forward model is the fractional step solution to the Navier-Stokes equations in generalized coordinates, proposed by Rosenfeld, Kwak & Vinokur. We derive the corresponding discrete adjoint equations. We also demonstrate the accuracy of the combined forward-adjoint model, and its application to unsteady wall-bounded flows. This work has been partially funded by the Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-16-1-2542).

5. Fractional laser therapy – the next step in alleviating the symptoms of skin aging (own observations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-05-01

Full Text Available Skin aging is a natural process of the skin, which accelerates in menopause and is additionally intensified by accumulating effects of repeated exposure to solar UV radiation and other external factors. Anti-aging skin treatment and constant improvement of its methods have become an important area of current research. The need to apply effective skin anti-aging methods that minimize traumatization resulted in the development of fractional laser technology delivering a laser beam to microscopic column skin zones in order to achieve skin photo-remodeling.

6. Experimental methods of effective delayed neutron fraction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yamaye, Yoshihiro

1995-01-01

The defining principle and examples of β eff measurement method: the substitutional method, Cf neutron source method, Bennett method, the coupling coefficient method and Nelson method were introduced and surveyed. Measurement errors and C/E value of the substitutional, Cf ray source and Bennett method were of the order of 3%, 5% and 3 - 6% and 0.903 - 0.965, 1.85 and 1.019 - 1.165, respectably. Evaluation of the absolute value is so hard that β eff measurement belongs to the difficult experiment. The dependence on nuclear calculation in decreasing order is the substitutional, Cf ray source, Bennett, the coupling coefficient and Nelson number method. If good substitute materials were selected, the substitutional method has possibility to determine β eff by small correction value or independent on calculation. (S.Y.)

7. Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Boundary

2015-09-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results show that this method is of high accuracy and is more convenient and efficient for solving boundary value problems involving fractional ordinary differential equations. AMS Subject Classification: 34A08 Keywords and Phrases: Chebyshev polynomials, Gauss-Lobatto points, fractional differential equation, finite difference 1. Introduction The idea of a derivative which interpolates between the familiar integer order derivatives was introduced many years ago and has gained increasing importance only in recent years due to the development of mathematical models of a certain situations in engineering, materials science, control theory, polymer modelling etc. For example see [20, 22, 25, 26]. Most fractional order differential equations describing real life situations, in general do not have exact analytical solutions. Several numerical and approximate analytical methods for ordinary differential equation Received: December 2014; Accepted: March 2015 57 Journal of Mathematical Extension Vol. 9, No. 3, (2015, 57-71 ISSN: 1735-8299 URL: http://www.ijmex.com Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems H. Azizi Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University Abstract. This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivative

8. An improved 4-step commutation method application for matrix converter

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guo, Yu; Guo, Yougui; Deng, Wenlang

2014-01-01

A novel four-step commutation method is proposed for matrix converter cell, 3 phase inputs to 1 phase output in this paper, which is obtained on the analysis of published commutation methods for matrix converter. The first and fourth step can be shorter than the second or third one. The discussed...... method here is implemented by programming in VHDL language. Finally, the novel method in this paper is verified by experiments....

9. Regularization by fractional filter methods and data smoothing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Klann, E; Ramlau, R

2008-01-01

This paper is concerned with the regularization of linear ill-posed problems by a combination of data smoothing and fractional filter methods. For the data smoothing, a wavelet shrinkage denoising is applied to the noisy data with known error level δ. For the reconstruction, an approximation to the solution of the operator equation is computed from the data estimate by fractional filter methods. These fractional methods are based on the classical Tikhonov and Landweber method, but avoid, at least partially, the well-known drawback of oversmoothing. Convergence rates as well as numerical examples are presented

10. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan

2013-06-01

The modulating functions method has been used for the identification of linear and nonlinear systems. In this paper, we generalize this method to the on-line identification of fractional order systems based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. First, a new fractional integration by parts formula involving the fractional derivative of a modulating function is given. Then, we apply this formula to a fractional order system, for which the fractional derivatives of the input and the output can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear system. Using this method, we do not need any initial values which are usually unknown and not equal to zero. Also we do not need to estimate the fractional derivatives of noisy output. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed estimators are robust against high frequency sinusoidal noises and the ones due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, the efficiency and the stability of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical simulations.

11. Influence of intra-fractional breathing movement in step-and-shoot IMRT

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schaefer, M; Muenter, M W; Thilmann, C; Sterzing, F; Haering, P; Combs, S E; Debus, J

2004-01-01

Efforts have been made to extend the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a variety of organs. One of the unanswered questions is whether breathing-induced organ motion may lead to a relevant over- or underdosage, e.g., in treatment plans for the irradiation of lung cancer. Theoretical considerations have been made concerning the different kinds of IMRT but there is still a lack of experimental data. We examined 18 points in a fraction of a clinical treatment plan of a NSCLC delivered in static IMRT with a new phantom and nine ionization chambers. Measurements were performed at a speed of 12 and 16 breathing cycles per minute. The dose differences between static points and moving target points ranged between -2.4% and +5.5% (mean: +0.2%, median: -0.1%) when moving with 12 cycles min -1 and between -3.6% and +5.0% (mean: -0.4%, median: -0.6%) when moving with 16 cycles min -1 . All differences of measurements with and without movements were below 5%, with one exception. In conclusion, our results underline that at least in static IMRT breathing effects (concerning target dose coverage) due to interplay effects between collimator leaf movement and target movement are of secondary importance and will not reduce the clinical value of IMRT in the step-and-shoot technique for irradiation of thoracic targets. (note)

12. Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

2015-01-01

This paper aims at designing a fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation with unknown parameters. A generalized modulating functions method is proposed first to estimate the unknown parameters, then to derive accurate integral formulae for the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives of the studied signal. Unlike the improper integral in the definition of the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, the integrals in the proposed formulae can be proper and be considered as a low-pass filter by choosing appropriate modulating functions. Hence, digital fractional order differentiators applicable for on-line applications are deduced using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Moreover, some error analysis are given for noise error contributions due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiators.

13. Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan

2015-02-01

This paper aims at designing a fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation with unknown parameters. A generalized modulating functions method is proposed first to estimate the unknown parameters, then to derive accurate integral formulae for the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives of the studied signal. Unlike the improper integral in the definition of the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, the integrals in the proposed formulae can be proper and be considered as a low-pass filter by choosing appropriate modulating functions. Hence, digital fractional order differentiators applicable for on-line applications are deduced using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Moreover, some error analysis are given for noise error contributions due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiators.

14. The functional variable method for solving the fractional Korteweg ...

The physical and engineering processes have been modelled by means of fractional ... very important role in various fields such as economics, chemistry, notably control the- .... In §3, the functional variable method is applied for finding exact.

15. Improved perovskite phototransistor prepared using multi-step annealing method

Science.gov (United States)

Cao, Mingxuan; Zhang, Yating; Yu, Yu; Yao, Jianquan

2018-02-01

Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites with good intrinsic physical properties have received substantial interest for solar cell and optoelectronic applications. However, perovskite film always suffers from a low carrier mobility due to its structural imperfection including sharp grain boundaries and pinholes, restricting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a straightforward strategy based on multi-step annealing process to improve the performance of perovskite photodetector. Annealing temperature and duration greatly affects the surface morphology and optoelectrical properties of perovskites which determines the device property of phototransistor. The perovskite films treated with multi-step annealing method tend to form highly uniform, well-crystallized and high surface coverage perovskite film, which exhibit stronger ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrum compare to the perovskites prepared by conventional one-step annealing process. The field-effect mobilities of perovskite photodetector treated by one-step direct annealing method shows mobility as 0.121 (0.062) cm2V-1s-1 for holes (electrons), which increases to 1.01 (0.54) cm2V-1s-1 for that treated with muti-step slow annealing method. Moreover, the perovskite phototransistors exhibit a fast photoresponse speed of 78 μs. In general, this work focuses on the influence of annealing methods on perovskite phototransistor, instead of obtains best parameters of it. These findings prove that Multi-step annealing methods is feasible to prepared high performance based photodetector.

16. Strong Stability Preserving Two-step Runge–Kutta Methods

KAUST Repository

Ketcheson, David I.; Gottlieb, Sigal; Macdonald, Colin B.

2011-01-01

We investigate the strong stability preserving (SSP) property of two-step Runge–Kutta (TSRK) methods. We prove that all SSP TSRK methods belong to a particularly simple subclass of TSRK methods, in which stages from the previous step are not used. We derive simple order conditions for this subclass. Whereas explicit SSP Runge–Kutta methods have order at most four, we prove that explicit SSP TSRK methods have order at most eight. We present explicit TSRK methods of up to eighth order that were found by numerical search. These methods have larger SSP coefficients than any known methods of the same order of accuracy and may be implemented in a form with relatively modest storage requirements. The usefulness of the TSRK methods is demonstrated through numerical examples, including integration of very high order weighted essentially non-oscillatory discretizations.

17. Strong Stability Preserving Two-step Runge–Kutta Methods

KAUST Repository

Ketcheson, David I.

2011-12-22

We investigate the strong stability preserving (SSP) property of two-step Runge–Kutta (TSRK) methods. We prove that all SSP TSRK methods belong to a particularly simple subclass of TSRK methods, in which stages from the previous step are not used. We derive simple order conditions for this subclass. Whereas explicit SSP Runge–Kutta methods have order at most four, we prove that explicit SSP TSRK methods have order at most eight. We present explicit TSRK methods of up to eighth order that were found by numerical search. These methods have larger SSP coefficients than any known methods of the same order of accuracy and may be implemented in a form with relatively modest storage requirements. The usefulness of the TSRK methods is demonstrated through numerical examples, including integration of very high order weighted essentially non-oscillatory discretizations.

18. Wavelet Methods for Solving Fractional Order Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

A. K. Gupta; S. Saha Ray

2014-01-01

Fractional calculus is a field of applied mathematics which deals with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary orders. The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance during the past decades mainly due to its application in diverse fields of science and engineering such as viscoelasticity, diffusion of biological population, signal processing, electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, electrochemistry, and many more. In this paper, we review different wavelet methods for solving both linea...

19. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis

Science.gov (United States)

Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.

2014-05-01

Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

20. Method of making stepped photographic density standards of radiographic photographs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

1987-01-01

In industrial radiography practice the need often arises for a prompt evaluation of the photographic density of an x-ray film. A method of making stepped photographic density standards for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The method is intended for industrial radiation flaw detection laboratories not having specialized sensitometric equipment

1. A finite difference method for space fractional differential equations with variable diffusivity coefficient

KAUST Repository

Mustapha, K.

2017-06-03

Anomalous diffusion is a phenomenon that cannot be modeled accurately by second-order diffusion equations, but is better described by fractional diffusion models. The nonlocal nature of the fractional diffusion operators makes substantially more difficult the mathematical analysis of these models and the establishment of suitable numerical schemes. This paper proposes and analyzes the first finite difference method for solving {\\\\em variable-coefficient} fractional differential equations, with two-sided fractional derivatives, in one-dimensional space. The proposed scheme combines first-order forward and backward Euler methods for approximating the left-sided fractional derivative when the right-sided fractional derivative is approximated by two consecutive applications of the first-order backward Euler method. Our finite difference scheme reduces to the standard second-order central difference scheme in the absence of fractional derivatives. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the proposed scheme are proved, and truncation errors of order $h$ are demonstrated, where $h$ denotes the maximum space step size. The numerical tests illustrate the global $O(h)$ accuracy of our scheme, except for nonsmooth cases which, as expected, have deteriorated convergence rates.

2. A finite difference method for space fractional differential equations with variable diffusivity coefficient

KAUST Repository

Mustapha, K.; Furati, K.; Knio, Omar; Maitre, O. Le

2017-01-01

Anomalous diffusion is a phenomenon that cannot be modeled accurately by second-order diffusion equations, but is better described by fractional diffusion models. The nonlocal nature of the fractional diffusion operators makes substantially more difficult the mathematical analysis of these models and the establishment of suitable numerical schemes. This paper proposes and analyzes the first finite difference method for solving {\\em variable-coefficient} fractional differential equations, with two-sided fractional derivatives, in one-dimensional space. The proposed scheme combines first-order forward and backward Euler methods for approximating the left-sided fractional derivative when the right-sided fractional derivative is approximated by two consecutive applications of the first-order backward Euler method. Our finite difference scheme reduces to the standard second-order central difference scheme in the absence of fractional derivatives. The existence and uniqueness of the solution for the proposed scheme are proved, and truncation errors of order $h$ are demonstrated, where $h$ denotes the maximum space step size. The numerical tests illustrate the global $O(h)$ accuracy of our scheme, except for nonsmooth cases which, as expected, have deteriorated convergence rates.

3. Considerations for the independent reaction times and step-by-step methods for radiation chemistry simulations

Science.gov (United States)

Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc

2017-10-01

Ionizing radiation interacts with the water molecules of the tissues mostly by ionizations and excitations, which result in the formation of the radiation track structure and the creation of radiolytic species such as H.,.OH, H2, H2O2, and e-aq. After their creation, these species diffuse and may chemically react with the neighboring species and with the molecules of the medium. Therefore radiation chemistry is of great importance in radiation biology. As the chemical species are not distributed homogeneously, the use of conventional models of homogeneous reactions cannot completely describe the reaction kinetics of the particles. Actually, many simulations of radiation chemistry are done using the Independent Reaction Time (IRT) method, which is a very fast technique to calculate radiochemical yields but which do not calculate the positions of the radiolytic species as a function of time. Step-by-step (SBS) methods, which are able to provide such information, have been used only sparsely because these are time-consuming in terms of calculation. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry. The SBS and IRT methods are both based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). In this paper, several sampling algorithms of the GFDE and for the IRT method are presented. We show that the IRT and SBS methods are exactly equivalent for 2-particles systems for diffusion and partially diffusion-controlled reactions between non-interacting particles. We also show that the results obtained with the SBS simulation method with periodic boundary conditions are in agreement with the predictions by classical reaction kinetics theory, which is an important step towards using this method for modelling of biochemical networks and metabolic pathways involved in oxidative stress. Finally, the first simulation results obtained with the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) are presented.

4. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arikoglu, Aytac; Ozkol, Ibrahim

2007-01-01

In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply

5. Solution of fractional differential equations by using differential transform method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arikoglu, Aytac [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Ozkol, Ibrahim [Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Maslak, TR-34469 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozkol@itu.edu.tr

2007-12-15

In this study, we implement a well known transformation technique, Differential Transform Method (DTM), to the area of fractional differential equations. Theorems that never existed before are introduced with their proofs. Also numerical examples are carried out for various types of problems, including the Bagley-Torvik, Ricatti and composite fractional oscillation equations for the application of the method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the technique introduced here is robust, accurate and easy to apply.

6. Review of experimental methods for evaluating effective delayed neutron fraction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yamane, Yoshihiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

1997-03-01

The International Effective Delayed Neutron Fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) Benchmark Experiments have been carried out at the Fast Critical Assembly of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute since 1995. Researchers from six countries, namely France, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Korea, and Japan, participate in this FCA project. Each team makes use of each experimental method, such as Frequency Method, Rossi-{alpha} Method, Nelson Number Method, Cf Neutron Source Method, and Covariance Method. In this report these experimental methods are reviewed. (author)

7. Direct nuclear magnetic resonance identification and quantification of geometric isomers of conjugated linoleic acid in milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps: Overcoming sensitivity and resolution barriers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tsiafoulis, Constantinos G.; Skarlas, Theodore; Tzamaloukas, Ouranios; Miltiadou, Despoina; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • The first NMR quantification of four geometric 18:2 CLA isomers has been achieved. • Sensitivity and resolution NMR barriers have been overcome. • Selective suppression and reduced 13 C spectral width have been utilized. • The method is applied in the milk lipid fraction without derivatization steps. • The method is selective, sensitive with very good analytical characteristics. - Abstract: We report the first successful direct and unequivocal identification and quantification of four minor geometric (9-cis, 11-trans) 18:2, (9-trans, 11-cis) 18:2, (9-cis, 11-cis) 18:2 and (9-trans, 11-trans) 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in lipid fractions of lyophilized milk samples with the combined use of 1D 1 H-NMR, 2D 1 H- 1 H TOCSY and 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC NMR. The significant sensitivity barrier has been successfully overcome under selective suppression of the major resonances, with over 10 4 greater equilibrium magnetization of the -(CH 2 ) n - 1 H spins compared to that of the 1 H spins of the conjugated bonds of the CLA isomers. The resolution barrier has been significantly increased using reduced 13 C spectral width in the 2D 1 H- 13 C HSQC experiment. The assignment was confirmed with spiking experiments with CLA standard compounds and the method does not require any derivatization steps for the lipid fraction. The proposed method is selective, sensitive and compares favorably with the GS-MS method of analysis

8. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

... and processes in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation ...

9. Comparison of the methods for discrete approximation of the fractional-order operator

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zborovjan Martin

2003-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper we will present some alternative types of discretization methods (discrete approximation for the fractional-order (FO differentiator and their application to the FO dynamical system described by the FO differential equation (FDE. With analytical solution and numerical solution by power series expansion (PSE method are compared two effective methods - the Muir expansion of the Tustin operator and continued fraction expansion method (CFE with the Tustin operator and the Al-Alaoui operator. Except detailed mathematical description presented are also simulation results. From the Bode plots of the FO differentiator and FDE and from the solution in the time domain we can see, that the CFE is a more effective method according to the PSE method, but there are some restrictions for the choice of the time step. The Muir expansion is almost unusable.

10. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik

2007-01-01

four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... of variance (20-85% of the overall variation). Only by increasing the sample size significantly can this variance be reduced. The accuracy and short-term reproducibility of the chemical characterization were good, as determined by the analysis of several relevant certified reference materials. Typically, six...... to eight different certified reference materials representing a range of concentrations levels and matrix characteristics were included. Based on the documentation provided, the methods introduced were considered satisfactory for characterization of the chemical composition of waste-material fractions...

11. Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)

2015-01-01

Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.

12. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peng, S; Sedukhin, S [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I

1998-03-01

The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

13. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

Science.gov (United States)

Peterson, Reid A.; Hill, Jr., Charles G.; Anderson, Marc A.

1996-01-01

Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

14. Aerial robot intelligent control method based on back-stepping

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Jian; Xue, Qian

2018-05-01

The aerial robot is characterized as strong nonlinearity, high coupling and parameter uncertainty, a self-adaptive back-stepping control method based on neural network is proposed in this paper. The uncertain part of the aerial robot model is compensated online by the neural network of Cerebellum Model Articulation Controller and robust control items are designed to overcome the uncertainty error of the system during online learning. At the same time, particle swarm algorithm is used to optimize and fix parameters so as to improve the dynamic performance, and control law is obtained by the recursion of back-stepping regression. Simulation results show that the designed control law has desired attitude tracking performance and good robustness in case of uncertainties and large errors in the model parameters.

15. Fractionation study in bioleached metallurgy wastes using six-step sequential extraction.

Science.gov (United States)

Krasnodebska-Ostrega, Beata; Pałdyna, Joanna; Kowalska, Joanna; Jedynak, Łukasz; Golimowski, Jerzy

2009-08-15

The stored metallurgy wastes contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterized by relatively high concentrations of heavy metals. The bioleaching process makes use of bacteria to recover elements from industrial wastes and to decrease potential risk of environmental contamination. Wastes were treated by solutions containing bacteria. In this work, the optimized six-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in iron-nickel metallurgy wastes deposited in Southern Poland (Szklary). Fractionation and total concentrations of elements in wastes before and after various bioleaching treatments were studied. Analyses of the extracts were performed by ICP-MS and FAAS. To achieve the most effective bioleaching of Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe the usage of both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria in sequence, combined with flushing of the residue after bioleaching is required. 80-100% of total metal concentrations were mobilized after the proposed treatment. Wastes treated according to this procedure could be deposited without any risk of environmental contamination and additionally the metals could be recovered for industrial purposes.

16. The effect of DNA extraction methods on observed microbial communities from fibrous and liquid rumen fractions of dairy cows

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vaidya, Jueeli D.; Bogert, van den Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M.; Smidt, Hauke

2018-01-01

DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of

17. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

18. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S.

2013-01-01

An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

19. Recursive regularization step for high-order lattice Boltzmann methods

Science.gov (United States)

Coreixas, Christophe; Wissocq, Gauthier; Puigt, Guillaume; Boussuge, Jean-François; Sagaut, Pierre

2017-09-01

A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with enhanced stability and accuracy is presented for various Hermite tensor-based lattice structures. The collision operator relies on a regularization step, which is here improved through a recursive computation of nonequilibrium Hermite polynomial coefficients. In addition to the reduced computational cost of this procedure with respect to the standard one, the recursive step allows to considerably enhance the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme by properly filtering out second- (and higher-) order nonhydrodynamic contributions in under-resolved conditions. This is first shown in the isothermal case where the simulation of the doubly periodic shear layer is performed with a Reynolds number ranging from 104 to 106, and where a thorough analysis of the case at Re=3 ×104 is conducted. In the latter, results obtained using both regularization steps are compared against the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook LBM for standard (D2Q9) and high-order (D2V17 and D2V37) lattice structures, confirming the tremendous increase of stability range of the proposed approach. Further comparisons on thermal and fully compressible flows, using the general extension of this procedure, are then conducted through the numerical simulation of Sod shock tubes with the D2V37 lattice. They confirm the stability increase induced by the recursive approach as compared with the standard one.

20. An Improved Method for Solving Multiobjective Integer Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Meriem Ait Mehdi

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We describe an improvement of Chergui and Moulaï’s method (2008 that generates the whole efficient set of a multiobjective integer linear fractional program based on the branch and cut concept. The general step of this method consists in optimizing (maximizing without loss of generality one of the fractional objective functions over a subset of the original continuous feasible set; then if necessary, a branching process is carried out until obtaining an integer feasible solution. At this stage, an efficient cut is built from the criteria’s growth directions in order to discard a part of the feasible domain containing only nonefficient solutions. Our contribution concerns firstly the optimization process where a linear program that we define later will be solved at each step rather than a fractional linear program. Secondly, local ideal and nadir points will be used as bounds to prune some branches leading to nonefficient solutions. The computational experiments show that the new method outperforms the old one in all the treated instances.

1. Local Fractional Variational Iteration and Decomposition Methods for Wave Equation on Cantor Sets within Local Fractional Operators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dumitru Baleanu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the fractional iteration and decomposition methods applied to the wave equation on Cantor set. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

2. Diffusion tensor mode in imaging of intracranial epidermoid cysts: one step ahead of fractional anisotropy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jolapara, Milan; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Saini, Jitender; Patro, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Kapilamoorthy, Tirur Raman; Bodhey, Narendra; Radhakrishnan, V.V.

2009-01-01

The signal characteristics of an epidermoid on T2-weighted imaging have been attributed to the presence of increased water content within the tumor. In this study, we explore the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor metrics (DTM) in knowing the microstructural anatomy of epidermoid cysts. DTI was performed in ten patients with epidermoid cysts. Directionally averaged mean diffusivity (D av ), exponential diffusion, and DTM-like fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusion tensor mode (mode), linear (CL), planar (CP), and spherical (CS) anisotropy were measured from the tumor as well as from the normal-looking white matter. Epidermoid cysts showed high FA. However, D av and exponential diffusion values did not show any restriction of diffusion. Diffusion tensor mode values were near -1, and CP values were high within the tumor. This suggested preferential diffusion of water molecules along a two-dimensional geometry (plane) in epidermoid cysts, which could be attributed to the parallel-layered arrangement of keratin filaments and flakes within these tumors. Thus, advanced imaging modalities like DTI with DTM can provide information regarding the microstructural anatomy of the epidermoid cysts. (orig.)

3. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

Science.gov (United States)

Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

2017-02-11

Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H 2 O (Chl/Met/H 2 O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H 2 O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step

4. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Morais, A. P. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Salgado de Oliveira University, Marechal Deodoro Street, 217 – Centro, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pino, A. V. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza, M. N. [Biomedical Engineering Program, COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Electronics Department at Polytechnic School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco H sala 217, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2016-08-15

This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

5. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.

2016-01-01

This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

6. An Adaptive Pseudospectral Method for Fractional Order Boundary Value Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-01-01

Full Text Available An adaptive pseudospectral method is presented for solving a class of multiterm fractional boundary value problems (FBVP which involve Caputo-type fractional derivatives. The multiterm FBVP is first converted into a singular Volterra integrodifferential equation (SVIDE. By dividing the interval of the problem to subintervals, the unknown function is approximated using a piecewise interpolation polynomial with unknown coefficients which is based on shifted Legendre-Gauss (ShLG collocation points. Then the problem is reduced to a system of algebraic equations, thus greatly simplifying the problem. Further, some additional conditions are considered to maintain the continuity of the approximate solution and its derivatives at the interface of subintervals. In order to convert the singular integrals of SVIDE into nonsingular ones, integration by parts is utilized. In the method developed in this paper, the accuracy can be improved either by increasing the number of subintervals or by increasing the degree of the polynomial on each subinterval. Using several examples including Bagley-Torvik equation the proposed method is shown to be efficient and accurate.

7. Evaluation of surviving fraction using nonclonogenic staining densitometry method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

1994-01-01

This study was performed to compare our nonclonogenic survival assay (densitometry assay, DM assay) with the widely used clonogenic assay. The established cell lines (HaLa, RMUG, IMR, GOTO) were grown in F 10 medium. The cells were spread in 24-well plates, irradiated with different doses, cultured for about one week and stained with crystal violet after the culture period. Taking the transparent images of the stained well on the light source with the CCD camera, the images were collected with the matrix size 64 x 64, and the integrated optical density of the entire surface of each well was determined by computer with our original program. As the number of cells in the well is reflected by its staining density, the surviving fraction was calculated as the fraction of growth in the irradiated wells relative to controls. The survival curves obtained by the densitometry method showed good correlations with those obtained by clonogenic assay. It is possible to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity with this assay, even if the cells do not form good colonies. However, this method is based on measurements in cultures which depend on the metabolism and growth kinetics of the irradiated cells. Cells should grow exponetially in the same manner in any well to obtain a result similar to that of clonogenic assay, although growth kinetics may be altered by irradiation. This, the endpoint must be strictly standardized. (author)

8. One-step method for the production of nanofluids

Science.gov (United States)

Kostic, Milivoje [Chicago, IL; Golubovic, Mihajlo [Chicago, IL; Hull, John R [Downers Grove, IL; Choi, Stephen U. S. [Napersville, IL

2010-05-18

A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a particle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such (i.e. ethylene glycol) is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. A heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (particle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material, the evaporated material absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

9. A Spiral Step-by-Step Educational Method for Cultivating Competent Embedded System Engineers to Meet Industry Demands

Science.gov (United States)

Jing,Lei; Cheng, Zixue; Wang, Junbo; Zhou, Yinghui

2011-01-01

Embedded system technologies are undergoing dramatic change. Competent embedded system engineers are becoming a scarce resource in the industry. Given this, universities should revise their specialist education to meet industry demands. In this paper, a spirally tight-coupled step-by-step educational method, based on an analysis of industry…

10. A Renormalisation Group Method. V. A Single Renormalisation Group Step

Science.gov (United States)

2015-05-01

This paper is the fifth in a series devoted to the development of a rigorous renormalisation group method applicable to lattice field theories containing boson and/or fermion fields, and comprises the core of the method. In the renormalisation group method, increasingly large scales are studied in a progressive manner, with an interaction parametrised by a field polynomial which evolves with the scale under the renormalisation group map. In our context, the progressive analysis is performed via a finite-range covariance decomposition. Perturbative calculations are used to track the flow of the coupling constants of the evolving polynomial, but on their own perturbative calculations are insufficient to control error terms and to obtain mathematically rigorous results. In this paper, we define an additional non-perturbative coordinate, which together with the flow of coupling constants defines the complete evolution of the renormalisation group map. We specify conditions under which the non-perturbative coordinate is contractive under a single renormalisation group step. Our framework is essentially combinatorial, but its implementation relies on analytic results developed earlier in the series of papers. The results of this paper are applied elsewhere to analyse the critical behaviour of the 4-dimensional continuous-time weakly self-avoiding walk and of the 4-dimensional -component model. In particular, the existence of a logarithmic correction to mean-field scaling for the susceptibility can be proved for both models, together with other facts about critical exponents and critical behaviour.

11. expansion method for solving nonlinear space–time fractional

2016-07-06

Jul 6, 2016 ... Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa, Turkey. ∗ ... of fractional calculus dates back to three hundred years ago. ... tions by fractional complex transformation [12,13].

12. Fractionation, solid-phase immobilization and chemical degradation of long pectin oligogalacturonides. Initial steps towards sequencing of oligosaccharides

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Guillaumie, Fanny; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Mutenda, K.E.

2006-01-01

This work presents the optimized separation of pectin oligomers, their analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), their subsequent immobilization to supports, and our initial steps towards solid-support assisted sequencing. The ambient...... were produced in excellent purity (> 95%). Elution of OGAs followed by direct analysis of the peak fractions by MALDI-TOF MS. Purified OGAs (DP 5-7) were chemoselectively immobilized onto aminooxy-terminated polyethylene glycol polyacrylamide (PEGA) supports. Solid-phase anchoring took place...... at the reducing end of the oligosaccharide and resulted in the formation of an oxime linkage. The very high coupling yields confirmed the general suitability of aminooxy-PEGA resins for the immobilization of OGAs of different lengths. The OGA-functionalized PEGA supports were subsequently treated with aq TFA...

13. Influence of the drying method in chitosans purification step

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fonseca, Ana C.M.; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Bettega, Antonio; Lima, Nelson B. de

2015-01-01

Currently, the study of extracellular biopolymers properties has received prominence for being easy extraction and purification. Chitosan has been an attractive proposition for applications in various fields such as engineering, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. For such applications, it is necessary purification of chitosan to obtain a product more concentrated and free of undesirable impurities. However, at this stage of the process of obtaining the biopolymer may occur morphological and physicochemical changes. This study evaluated the influence of the drying process after purification of a commercial chitosan sample and the importance of this step and its cost/benefit in applications requiring a high degree of purity. The method of drying influenced in the organoleptic properties and in the main characteristics of material. Analysis of the crystal structure by X-ray diffraction showed that the degree of crystallinity, X (%), in the purified chitosan samples was lower when compared with the unpurified sample. The degree of acetylation, DA (%), was analyzed by spectroscopy infrared with no significant changes on the three drying methods assessed, unlike the viscosimetric molecular weight, M_v, determined by capillary viscometry. (author)

14. Efficient method for time-domain simulation of the linear feedback systems containing fractional order controllers.

Science.gov (United States)

2011-04-01

One main approach for time-domain simulation of the linear output-feedback systems containing fractional-order controllers is to approximate the transfer function of the controller with an integer-order transfer function and then perform the simulation. In general, this approach suffers from two main disadvantages: first, the internal stability of the resulting feedback system is not guaranteed, and second, the amount of error caused by this approximation is not exactly known. The aim of this paper is to propose an efficient method for time-domain simulation of such systems without facing the above mentioned drawbacks. For this purpose, the fractional-order controller is approximated with an integer-order transfer function (possibly in combination with the delay term) such that the internal stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed, and then the simulation is performed. It is also shown that the resulting approximate controller can effectively be realized by using the proposed method. Some formulas for estimating and correcting the simulation error, when the feedback system under consideration is subjected to the unit step command or the unit step disturbance, are also presented. Finally, three numerical examples are studied and the results are compared with the Oustaloup continuous approximation method. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

15. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional differential equations by (G′/G)-expansion method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bekir Ahmet; Güner Özkan

2013-01-01

In this paper, we use the fractional complex transform and the (G′/G)-expansion method to study the nonlinear fractional differential equations and find the exact solutions. The fractional complex transform is proposed to convert a partial fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modified Riemann—Liouville derivative into its ordinary differential equation. It is shown that the considered transform and method are very efficient and powerful in solving wide classes of nonlinear fractional order equations

16. Study on calculation methods for the effective delayed neutron fraction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irwanto, Dwi; Obara, Toru; Chiba, Go; Nagaya, Yasunobu

2011-03-01

The effective delayed neutron fraction β eff is one of the important neutronic parameters from a view point of a reactor kinetics. Several Monte-Carlo-based methods to estimate β eff have been proposed to date. In order to quantify the accuracy of these methods, we study calculation methods for β eff by analyzing various fast neutron systems including the bare spherical systems (Godiva, Jezebel, Skidoo, Jezebel-240), the reflective spherical systems (Popsy, Topsy, Flattop-23), MASURCA-R2 and MASURCA-ZONA2, and FCA XIX-1, XIX-2 and XIX-3. These analyses are performed by using SLAROM-UF and CBG for the deterministic method and MVP-II for the Monte Carlo method. We calculate β eff with various definitions such as the fundamental value β 0 , the standard definition, Nauchi's definition and Meulekamp's definition, and compare these results with each other. Through the present study, we find the following: The largest difference among the standard definition of β eff , Nauchi's β eff and Meulekamp's β eff is approximately 10%. The fundamental value β 0 is quite larger than the others in several cases. For all the cases, Meulekamp's β eff is always higher than Nauchi's β eff . This is because Nauchi's β eff considers the average neutron multiplicity value per fission which is large in the high energy range (1MeV-10MeV), while the definition of Meulekamp's β eff does not include this parameter. Furthermore, we evaluate the multi-generation effect on β eff values and demonstrate that this effect should be considered to obtain the standard definition values of β eff . (author)

17. A Fast Implicit Finite Difference Method for Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equations with Fractional Derivative Boundary Conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taohua Liu

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Fractional advection-dispersion equations, as generalizations of classical integer-order advection-dispersion equations, are used to model the transport of passive tracers carried by fluid flow in a porous medium. In this paper, we develop an implicit finite difference method for fractional advection-dispersion equations with fractional derivative boundary conditions. First-order consistency, solvability, unconditional stability, and first-order convergence of the method are proven. Then, we present a fast iterative method for the implicit finite difference scheme, which only requires storage of O(K and computational cost of O(Klog⁡K. Traditionally, the Gaussian elimination method requires storage of O(K2 and computational cost of O(K3. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of the method are checked with a numerical example.

18. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

KAUST Repository

2016-01-01

Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order

19. Shutdown Dose Rate Analysis Using the Multi-Step CADIS Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Grove, Robert E.

2015-01-01

20. Solving point reactor kinetic equations by time step-size adaptable numerical methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liao Chaqing

2007-01-01

Based on the analysis of effects of time step-size on numerical solutions, this paper showed the necessity of step-size adaptation. Based on the relationship between error and step-size, two-step adaptation methods for solving initial value problems (IVPs) were introduced. They are Two-Step Method and Embedded Runge-Kutta Method. PRKEs were solved by implicit Euler method with step-sizes optimized by using Two-Step Method. It was observed that the control error has important influence on the step-size and the accuracy of solutions. With suitable control errors, the solutions of PRKEs computed by the above mentioned method are accurate reasonably. The accuracy and usage of MATLAB built-in ODE solvers ode23 and ode45, both of which adopt Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method, were also studied and discussed. (authors)

1. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

KAUST Repository

2016-09-08

Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order two and three) with variable step size, and prove their optimality, stability, and convergence. The choice of step size for multistep SSP methods is an interesting problem because the allowable step size depends on the SSP coefficient, which in turn depends on the chosen step sizes. The description of the methods includes an optimal step-size strategy. We prove sharp upper bounds on the allowable step size for explicit SSP linear multistep methods and show the existence of methods with arbitrarily high order of accuracy. The effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated through numerical examples.

2. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

2016-06-21

Jun 21, 2016 ... and AHMET BEKIR. Art-Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics-Computer, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey ... chemistry, biology, engineering and in numerous other applications. ... fractional calculus.

3. Multi-time-step domain coupling method with energy control

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mahjoubi, N.; Krenk, Steen

2010-01-01

the individual time step. It is demonstrated that displacement continuity between the subdomains leads to cancelation of the interface contributions to the energy balance equation, and thus stability and algorithmic damping properties of the original algorithms are retained. The various subdomains can...... by a numerical example using a refined mesh around concentrated forces. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

4. Early fractionation methods and the origins of the NSD concept

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thames, H.D. Jr.

1988-01-01

The concept of the time factor in radiotherapy originated in the controversy surrounding single-dose and fractionated treatments during the first 20 years of this century. The success of Coutard's fractionated treatments of larynx tumors was an important factor in the abandonment of single-dose treatments. There was considerable research afterwards into the influence of dose rate and overall time of treatment on the responses of normal tissues. Recovery was modeled in terms of the Schwarzschild law of photochemistry, as exemplified by the analysis of Strandqvist in log dose-log time coordinates. Different conventions were followed in defining the time for a single-dose treatment. Subsequently the concept arose that the slopes of isoeffect lines relating dose and treatment time for normal tissues and tumors were different and moreover that the effects of fraction number and overall time could be separated; these developments constituted the foundation of the Ellis NSD model. It had an important influence on clinical practice and was reasonably successful in predicting isoeffective regimens for acute effects. It failed to predict severe late effects after large dose fractions. The dissociation between acute and late effects with altered fractionation led to recognition of the importance of the ratio α/β in characterizing the fractionation sensitivity of tissues. (orig.) With 125 refs

5. Sumudu transform series expansion method for solving the local fractional Laplace equation in fractal thermal problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Guo Zheng-Hong

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this article, the Sumudu transform series expansion method is used to handle the local fractional Laplace equation arising in the steady fractal heat-transfer problem via local fractional calculus.

6. On Solution of a Fractional Diffusion Equation by Homotopy Transform Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salah, A.; Hassan, S.S.A.

2012-01-01

The homotopy analysis transform method (HATM) is applied in this work in order to find the analytical solution of fractional diffusion equations (FDE). These equations are obtained from standard diffusion equations by replacing a second-order space derivative by a fractional derivative of order α and a first order time derivative by a fractional derivative. Furthermore, some examples are given. Numerical results show that the homotopy analysis transform method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to a fractional diffusion equations.

7. Lipoprotein metabolism in familial hypercholesterolemia: Serial assessment using a one-step ultracentrifugation method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-04-01

Full Text Available Objectives: It is well known that familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common inherited disorder that can markedly elevate the level of plasma LDL cholesterol. However, little data exists regarding the clinical impact of the plasma triglyceride (TG-rich lipoprotein fraction, including VLDL and IDL, in FH. Thus, we assessed the hypothesis that the mutations in the LDL receptor modulate lipoprotein metabolism other than the LDL fraction. Design and methods: We investigated plasma lipoprotein with a one-step ultracentrifugation method for 146 controls (mean age=61.4±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=92.7±61.2 mg/dl, 213 heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=46.0±18.0 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=225.1±61.2 mg/dl, and 16 homozygous/compound heterozygous mutation-determined FH subjects (mean age=26.9±17.1 yr, mean LDL cholesterol=428.6±86.1 mg/dl. In addition, we evaluated cholesterol/TG ratio in each lipoprotein fraction separated by ultracentrifugation. Results: In addition to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, VLDL cholesterol (19.5±10.4, 25.2±19.3, 29.5±21.4 mg/dl, respectively and IDL cholesterol (8.3±3.7, 16.8±11.5, 40.0±37.3 mg/dl, respectively exhibited a tri-model distribution according to their status in LDL receptor mutation(s. Moreover, the ratios of cholesterol/TG of each lipoprotein fraction increased significantly in heterozygous FH and homozygous/compound heterozygous FH groups, compared with that of controls, suggesting that the abnormality in LDL receptor modulates the quality as well as the quantity of each lipoprotein fraction. Conclusions: Our results indicate that cholesterol in TG-rich lipoproteins, including VLDL and IDL, are significantly higher in FH subjects, revealing a tri-modal distribution according to the number of LDL receptor mutations. Keywords: LDL cholesterol, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Ultracentrifugation, Lipoprotein

8. Two step continuous method to synthesize colloidal spheroid gold nanorods.

Science.gov (United States)

Chandra, S; Doran, J; McCormack, S J

2015-12-01

This research investigated a two-step continuous process to synthesize colloidal suspension of spheroid gold nanorods. In the first step; gold precursor was reduced to seed-like particles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid. In continuous second step; silver nitrate and alkaline sodium hydroxide produced various shape and size Au nanoparticles. The shape was manipulated through weight ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate by varying silver nitrate concentration. The specific weight ratio of 1.35-1.75 grew spheroid gold nanorods of aspect ratio ∼1.85 to ∼2.2. Lower weight ratio of 0.5-1.1 formed spherical nanoparticle. The alkaline medium increased the yield of gold nanorods and reduced reaction time at room temperature. The synthesized gold nanorods retained their shape and size in ethanol. The surface plasmon resonance was red shifted by ∼5 nm due to higher refractive index of ethanol than water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9. The Technique of Changing the Drive Method of Micro Step Drive and Sensorless Drive for Hybrid Stepping Motor

Science.gov (United States)

Yoneda, Makoto; Dohmeki, Hideo

The position control system with the advantage large torque, low vibration, and high resolution can be obtained by the constant current micro step drive applied to hybrid stepping motor. However loss is large, in order not to be concerned with load torque but to control current uniformly. As the one technique of a position control system in which high efficiency is realizable, the same sensorless control as a permanent magnet motor is effective. But, it was the purpose that the control method proposed until now controls speed. Then, this paper proposed changing the drive method of micro step drive and sensorless drive. The change of the drive method was verified from the simulation and the experiment. On no load, it was checked not producing change of a large speed at the time of a change by making electrical angle and carrying out zero reset of the integrator. On load, it was checked that a large speed change arose. The proposed system could change drive method by setting up the initial value of an integrator using the estimated result, without producing speed change. With this technique, the low loss position control system, which employed the advantage of the hybrid stepping motor, has been built.

10. Homotopy decomposition method for solving one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation

Science.gov (United States)

2018-04-01

In this paper, we present the homotopy decomposition method with a modified definition of beta fractional derivative for the first time to find exact solution of one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation. In this method, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable terms. The exact solution obtained by the proposed method is compared with the exact solution obtained by using fractional variational homotopy perturbation iteration method via a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative.

11. s-Step Krylov Subspace Methods as Bottom Solvers for Geometric Multigrid

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lijewski, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Almgren, Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straalen, Brian Van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carson, Erin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Knight, Nicholas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Demmel, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2014-08-14

Geometric multigrid solvers within adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) applications often reach a point where further coarsening of the grid becomes impractical as individual sub domain sizes approach unity. At this point the most common solution is to use a bottom solver, such as BiCGStab, to reduce the residual by a fixed factor at the coarsest level. Each iteration of BiCGStab requires multiple global reductions (MPI collectives). As the number of BiCGStab iterations required for convergence grows with problem size, and the time for each collective operation increases with machine scale, bottom solves in large-scale applications can constitute a significant fraction of the overall multigrid solve time. In this paper, we implement, evaluate, and optimize a communication-avoiding s-step formulation of BiCGStab (CABiCGStab for short) as a high-performance, distributed-memory bottom solver for geometric multigrid solvers. This is the first time s-step Krylov subspace methods have been leveraged to improve multigrid bottom solver performance. We use a synthetic benchmark for detailed analysis and integrate the best implementation into BoxLib in order to evaluate the benefit of a s-step Krylov subspace method on the multigrid solves found in the applications LMC and Nyx on up to 32,768 cores on the Cray XE6 at NERSC. Overall, we see bottom solver improvements of up to 4.2x on synthetic problems and up to 2.7x in real applications. This results in as much as a 1.5x improvement in solver performance in real applications.

12. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Gibaru, O.; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

2013-01-01

can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear

13. On an Estimation Method for an Alternative Fractionally Cointegrated Model

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carlini, Federico; Łasak, Katarzyna

In this paper we consider the Fractional Vector Error Correction model proposed in Avarucci (2007), which is characterized by a richer lag structure than models proposed in Granger (1986) and Johansen (2008, 2009). We discuss the identification issues of the model of Avarucci (2007), following th...

14. Combined Effects of Numerical Method Type and Time Step on Water Stressed Actual Crop ET

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. Ghahraman

2016-02-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Actual crop evapotranspiration (Eta is important in hydrologic modeling and irrigation water management issues. Actual ET depends on an estimation of a water stress index and average soil water at crop root zone, and so depends on a chosen numerical method and adapted time step. During periods with no rainfall and/or irrigation, actual ET can be computed analytically or by using different numerical methods. Overal, there are many factors that influence actual evapotranspiration. These factors are crop potential evapotranspiration, available root zone water content, time step, crop sensitivity, and soil. In this paper different numerical methods are compared for different soil textures and different crops sensitivities. Materials and Methods: During a specific time step with no rainfall or irrigation, change in soil water content would be equal to evapotranspiration, ET. In this approach, however, deep percolation is generally ignored due to deep water table and negligible unsaturated hydraulic conductivity below rooting depth. This differential equation may be solved analytically or numerically considering different algorithms. We adapted four different numerical methods, as explicit, implicit, and modified Euler, midpoint method, and 3-rd order Heun method to approximate the differential equation. Three general soil types of sand, silt, and clay, and three different crop types of sensitive, moderate, and resistant under Nishaboor plain were used. Standard soil fraction depletion (corresponding to ETc=5 mm.d-1, pstd, below which crop faces water stress is adopted for crop sensitivity. Three values for pstd were considered in this study to cover the common crops in the area, including winter wheat and barley, cotton, alfalfa, sugar beet, saffron, among the others. Based on this parameter, three classes for crop sensitivity was considered, sensitive crops with pstd=0.2, moderate crops with pstd=0.5, and resistive crops with pstd=0

15. Homogenization versus homogenization-free method to measure muscle glycogen fractions.

Science.gov (United States)

Mojibi, N; Rasouli, M

2016-12-01

The glycogen is extracted from animal tissues with or without homogenization using cold perchloric acid. Three methods were compared for determination of glycogen in rat muscle at different physiological states. Two groups of five rats were kept at rest or 45 minutes muscular activity. The glycogen fractions were extracted and measured by using three methods. The data of homogenization method shows that total glycogen decreased following 45 min physical activity and the change occurred entirely in acid soluble glycogen (ASG), while AIG did not change significantly. Similar results were obtained by using "total-glycogen-fractionation methods". The findings of "homogenization-free method" indicate that the acid insoluble fraction (AIG) was the main portion of muscle glycogen and the majority of changes occurred in AIG fraction. The results of "homogenization method" are identical with "total glycogen fractionation", but differ with "homogenization-free" protocol. The ASG fraction is the major portion of muscle glycogen and is more metabolically active form.

16. Comparison of Model Reliabilities from Single-Step and Bivariate Blending Methods

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Taskinen, Matti; Mäntysaari, Esa; Lidauer, Martin

2013-01-01

Model based reliabilities in genetic evaluation are compared between three methods: animal model BLUP, single-step BLUP, and bivariate blending after genomic BLUP. The original bivariate blending is revised in this work to better account animal models. The study data is extracted from...... be calculated. Model reliabilities by the single-step and the bivariate blending methods were higher than by animal model due to genomic information. Compared to the single-step method, the bivariate blending method reliability estimates were, in general, lower. Computationally bivariate blending method was......, on the other hand, lighter than the single-step method....

17. Exact Solutions for Fractional Differential-Difference Equations by an Extended Riccati Sub-ODE Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feng Qinghua

2013-01-01

In this paper, an extended Riccati sub-ODE method is proposed to establish new exact solutions for fractional differential-difference equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. By a fractional complex transformation, a given fractional differential-difference equation can be turned into another differential-difference equation of integer order. The validity of the method is illustrated by applying it to solve the fractional Hybrid lattice equation and the fractional relativistic Toda lattice system. As a result, some new exact solutions including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions are established. (general)

18. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING THE MULTI-TERM TIME-FRACTIONAL WAVE-DIFFUSION EQUATION.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, F; Meerschaert, M M; McGough, R J; Zhuang, P; Liu, Q

2013-03-01

In this paper, the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], [1,2), [0,2), [0,3), [2,3) and [2,4), respectively. Some computationally effective numerical methods are proposed for simulating the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term fractional time-space models with fractional Laplacian.

19. One step geometrical calibration method for optical coherence tomography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Díaz, Jesús Díaz; Ortmaier, Tobias; Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard; Majdani, Omid

2016-01-01

We present a novel one-step calibration methodology for geometrical distortion correction for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A calibration standard especially designed for OCT is introduced, which consists of an array of inverse pyramidal structures. The use of multiple landmarks situated on four different height levels on the pyramids allow performing a 3D geometrical calibration. The calibration procedure itself is based on a parametric model of the OCT beam propagation. It is validated by experimental results and enables the reduction of systematic errors by more than one order of magnitude. In future, our results can improve OCT image reconstruction and interpretation for medical applications such as real time monitoring of surgery. (paper)

20. Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Jandrasits, Walter G.; Kikta, Thomas J.

1998-01-01

A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

1. Three-Step Predictor-Corrector of Exponential Fitting Method for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tang Chen; Zhang Fang; Yan Haiqing; Luo Tao; Chen Zhanqing

2005-01-01

We develop the three-step explicit and implicit schemes of exponential fitting methods. We use the three-step explicit exponential fitting scheme to predict an approximation, then use the three-step implicit exponential fitting scheme to correct this prediction. This combination is called the three-step predictor-corrector of exponential fitting method. The three-step predictor-corrector of exponential fitting method is applied to numerically compute the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with varying coefficients. The numerical results show that the scheme is highly accurate.

2. New methods for simulation of fractional Brownian motion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yin, Z.M.

1996-01-01

We present new algorithms for simulation of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) which comprises a set of important random functions widely used in geophysical and physical modeling, fractal image (landscape) simulating, and signal processing. The new algorithms, which are both accurate and efficient, allow us to generate not only a one-dimensional fBm process, but also two- and three-dimensional fBm fields. 23 refs., 3 figs

3. [Soil organic carbon fractionation methods and their applications in farmland ecosystem research: a review].

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Guo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Hu, Chan-juan

2011-07-01

Soil organic carbon is of heterogeneity in components. The active components are sensitive to agricultural management, while the inert components play an important role in carbon fixation. Soil organic carbon fractionation mainly includes physical, chemical, and biological fractionations. Physical fractionation is to separate the organic carbon into active and inert components based on the density, particle size, and its spatial distribution; chemical fractionation is to separate the organic carbon into various components based on the solubility, hydrolizability, and chemical reactivity of organic carbon in a variety of extracting agents. In chemical fractionation, the dissolved organic carbon is bio-available, including organic acids, phenols, and carbohydrates, and the acid-hydrolyzed organic carbon can be divided into active and inert organic carbons. Simulated enzymatic oxidation by using KMnO4 can separate organic carbon into active and non-active carbon. Biological fractionation can differentiate microbial biomass carbon and potential mineralizable carbon. Under different farmland management practices, the chemical composition and pool capacity of soil organic carbon fractions will have different variations, giving different effects on soil quality. To identify the qualitative or quantitative relationships between soil organic carbon components and carbon deposition, we should strengthen the standardization study of various fractionation methods, explore the integrated application of different fractionation methods, and sum up the most appropriate organic carbon fractionation method or the appropriate combined fractionation methods for different farmland management practices.

4. A connection between the asymptotic iteration method and the continued fractions formalism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matamala, A.R.; Gutierrez, F.A.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

2007-01-01

In this work, we show that there is a connection between the asymptotic iteration method (a method to solve second order linear ordinary differential equations) and the older method of continued fractions to solve differential equations

5. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

Science.gov (United States)

Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

2018-05-01

Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

6. Using a Three-Step Method in a Calculus Class: Extending the Worked Example

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, David

2010-01-01

This article discusses a three-step method that was used in a college calculus course. The three-step method was developed to help students understand the course material and transition to be more independent learners. In addition, the method helped students to transfer concepts from short-term to long-term memory while lowering cognitive load.…

7. Spline Collocation Method for Nonlinear Multi-Term Fractional Differential Equation

OpenAIRE

Choe, Hui-Chol; Kang, Yong-Suk

2013-01-01

We study an approximation method to solve nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations with initial conditions or boundary conditions. First, we transform the nonlinear multi-term fractional differential equations with initial conditions and boundary conditions to nonlinear fractional integral equations and consider the relations between them. We present a Spline Collocation Method and prove the existence, uniqueness and convergence of approximate solution as well as error estimatio...

8. The intelligence of dual simplex method to solve linear fractional fuzzy transportation problem.

Science.gov (United States)

Narayanamoorthy, S; Kalyani, S

2015-01-01

An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example.

9. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Narayanamoorthy

2015-01-01

Full Text Available An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example.

10. MIDPOINT TWO- STEPS RULE FOR THE SQUARE ROOT METHOD

African Journals Online (AJOL)

DR S.E UWAMUSI

Carstensen, C., and Petkovic, M.S., 1994. An Improvement of Gargantini's Simultaneous Inclusion Method for. Polynomial Roots by Scroder's Correction. Applied Numerical Mathematics No. 13, pp 453-458. Carstensen, C., 1991. Linear Construction of Comparison Matrices. Linear Algebra and its Application No 14, pp. 191 ...

11. Methods in Professional Training: Indoctrination from Step One.

Science.gov (United States)

Powell, Marjorie

A preliminary classification of methods used during first-year law courses to develop a sense of professional identification among students is presented. Professors' images of lawyers conveyed to students are described based on faculty comments. In addition, informal student interviews were conducted to determine their awareness of this…

12. Local Fractional Series Expansion Method for Solving Wave and Diffusion Equations on Cantor Sets

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ai-Min Yang

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We proposed a local fractional series expansion method to solve the wave and diffusion equations on Cantor sets. Some examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method to obtain analytical solutions to differential equations within the local fractional derivatives.

13. Solving Fokker-Planck Equations on Cantor Sets Using Local Fractional Decomposition Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shao-Hong Yan

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The local fractional decomposition method is applied to approximate the solutions for Fokker-Planck equations on Cantor sets with local fractional derivative. The obtained results give the present method that is very effective and simple for solving the differential equations on Cantor set.

14. Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation by Generalized Mittag-Leffler Function Method

Science.gov (United States)

Arafa, A. A. M.; Rida, S. Z.; Mohammadein, A. A.; Ali, H. M.

2013-06-01

In this paper, we use Mittag—Leffler function method for solving some nonlinear fractional differential equations. A new solution is constructed in power series. The fractional derivatives are described by Caputo's sense. To illustrate the reliability of the method, some examples are provided.

15. Laplace transform overcoming principle drawbacks in application of the variational iteration method to fractional heat equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wu Guo-Cheng

2012-01-01

Full Text Available This note presents a Laplace transform approach in the determination of the Lagrange multiplier when the variational iteration method is applied to time fractional heat diffusion equation. The presented approach is more straightforward and allows some simplification in application of the variational iteration method to fractional differential equations, thus improving the convergence of the successive iterations.

16. A Fast O(N log N Finite Difference Method for the One-Dimensional Space-Fractional Diffusion Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Treena Basu

2015-10-01

Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the space-fractional diffusion equation in one dimension. Since fractional differential operators are non-local, two main difficulties arise after discretization and solving using Gaussian elimination: how to handle the memory requirement of O(N2 for storing the dense or even full matrices that arise from application of numerical methods and how to manage the significant computational work count of O(N3 per time step, where N is the number of spatial grid points. In this paper, a fast iterative finite difference method is developed, which has a memory requirement of O(N and a computational cost of O(N logN per iteration. Finally, some numerical results are shown to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the new method.

17. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow.

Science.gov (United States)

Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

2014-02-01

Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

18. An Alternative Method to the Classical Partial Fraction Decomposition

Science.gov (United States)

Cherif, Chokri

2007-01-01

PreCalculus students can use the Completing the Square Method to solve quadratic equations without the need to memorize the quadratic formula since this method naturally leads them to that formula. Calculus students, when studying integration, use various standard methods to compute integrals depending on the type of function to be integrated.…

19. Exact Solutions of the Space Time Fractional Symmetric Regularized Long Wave Equation Using Different Methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Özkan Güner

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We apply the functional variable method, exp-function method, and (G′/G-expansion method to establish the exact solutions of the nonlinear fractional partial differential equation (NLFPDE in the sense of the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. The results show that these methods are very effective and powerful mathematical tools for solving nonlinear fractional equations arising in mathematical physics. As a result, these methods can also be applied to other nonlinear fractional differential equations.

20. Comparing Multi-Step IMAC and Multi-Step TiO2 Methods for Phosphopeptide Enrichment

Science.gov (United States)

Yue, Xiaoshan; Schunter, Alissa; Hummon, Amanda B.

2016-01-01

Phosphopeptide enrichment from complicated peptide mixtures is an essential step for mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic studies to reduce sample complexity and ionization suppression effects. Typical methods for enriching phosphopeptides include immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads, which have selective affinity and can interact with phosphopeptides. In this study, the IMAC enrichment method was compared with the TiO2 enrichment method, using a multi-step enrichment strategy from whole cell lysate, to evaluate their abilities to enrich for different types of phosphopeptides. The peptide-to-beads ratios were optimized for both IMAC and TiO2 beads. Both IMAC and TiO2 enrichments were performed for three rounds to enable the maximum extraction of phosphopeptides from the whole cell lysates. The phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment, unique to TiO2 enrichment, and identified with both IMAC and TiO2 enrichment were analyzed for their characteristics. Both IMAC and TiO2 enriched similar amounts of phosphopeptides with comparable enrichment efficiency. However, phosphopeptides that are unique to IMAC enrichment showed a higher percentage of multi-phosphopeptides, as well as a higher percentage of longer, basic, and hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Also, the IMAC and TiO2 procedures clearly enriched phosphopeptides with different motifs. Finally, further enriching with two rounds of TiO2 from the supernatant after IMAC enrichment, or further enriching with two rounds of IMAC from the supernatant TiO2 enrichment does not fully recover the phosphopeptides that are not identified with the corresponding multi-step enrichment. PMID:26237447

1. Comment on “Variational Iteration Method for Fractional Calculus Using He’s Polynomials”

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ji-Huan He

2012-01-01

boundary value problems. This note concludes that the method is a modified variational iteration method using He’s polynomials. A standard variational iteration algorithm for fractional differential equations is suggested.

2. Solution of Fractional Partial Differential Equations in Fluid Mechanics by Extension of Some Iterative Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. A. Hemeda

2013-01-01

Full Text Available An extension of the so-called new iterative method (NIM has been used to handle linear and nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. The main property of the method lies in its flexibility and ability to solve nonlinear equations accurately and conveniently. Therefore, a general framework of the NIM is presented for analytical treatment of fractional partial differential equations in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical illustrations that include the fractional wave equation, fractional Burgers equation, fractional KdV equation, fractional Klein-Gordon equation, and fractional Boussinesq-like equation are investigated to show the pertinent features of the technique. Comparison of the results obtained by the NIM with those obtained by both Adomian decomposition method (ADM and the variational iteration method (VIM reveals that the NIM is very effective and convenient. The basic idea described in this paper is expected to be further employed to solve other similar linear and nonlinear problems in fractional calculus.

3. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

2006-01-01

One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

4. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

2006-07-01

One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

5. Assessing SOC labile fractions through respiration test, density-size fractionation and thermal analysis - A comparison of methods

Science.gov (United States)

Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

2017-04-01

Soil organic matter (SOM) is the biggest terrestrial carbon reservoir, storing 3 to 4 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, despite its major importance for climate regulation SOM dynamics remains insufficiently understood. For instance, there is still no widely accepted method to assess SOM lability. Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes have been used for decades and are now considered as classical estimates of very labile and labile soil organic carbon (SOC), respectively. But the pertinence of these methods to characterize SOM turnover can be questioned. Moreover, they are very time-consuming and their reproducibility might be an issue. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM among which Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of SOM biogeochemical stability (Gregorich et al., 2015; Barré et al., 2016). Using a large set of samples of French forest soils representing contrasted pedoclimatic conditions, including deep samples (up to 1 m depth), we compared different techniques used for SOM lability assessment. We explored whether results from soil respiration test (10-week laboratory incubations), SOM size-density fractionation and RE6 thermal analysis were comparable and how they were correlated. A set of 222 (respiration test and RE6), 103 (SOM fractionation and RE6) and 93 (respiration test, SOM fractionation and RE6) forest soils samples were respectively analyzed and compared. The comparison of the three methods (n = 93) using a principal component analysis separated samples from the surface (0-10 cm) and deep (40-80 cm) layers, highlighting a clear effect of depth on the short-term persistence of SOC. A correlation analysis demonstrated that, for these samples, the two classical methods of labile SOC determination (respiration and SOM fractionation

6. Influence of multi-step washing using Na2EDTA, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid on metal fractionation and spectroscopy characteristics from contaminated soil.

Science.gov (United States)

Wei, Meng; Chen, Jiajun

2016-11-01

A multi-step soil washing test using a typical chelating agent (Na 2 EDTA), organic acid (oxalic acid), and inorganic weak acid (phosphoric acid) was conducted to remediate soil contaminated with heavy metals near an arsenic mining area. The aim of the test was to improve the heavy metal removal efficiency and investigate its influence on metal fractionation and the spectroscopy characteristics of contaminated soil. The results indicated that the orders of the multi-step washing were critical for the removal efficiencies of the metal fractions, bioavailability, and potential mobility due to the different dissolution levels of mineral fractions and the inter-transformation of metal fractions by XRD and FT-IR spectral analyses. The optimal soil washing options were identified as the Na 2 EDTA-phosphoric-oxalic acid (EPO) and phosphoric-oxalic acid-Na 2 EDTA (POE) sequences because of their high removal efficiencies (approximately 45 % for arsenic and 88 % for cadmium) and the minimal harmful effects that were determined by the mobility and bioavailability of the remaining heavy metals based on the metal stability (I R ) and modified redistribution index ([Formula: see text]).

7. The Analytical Solution of Some Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations by the Sumudu Transform Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hasan Bulut

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform method (STM to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs. Finally, we use the solutions to form two-dimensional (2D graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.

8. A NEW FRACTIONAL MODEL OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM, BY USING GENERALIZED DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORM METHOD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

HASHEM SABERI NAJAFI

2016-07-01

Full Text Available Generalized differential transform method (GDTM is a powerful method to solve the fractional differential equations. In this paper, a new fractional model for systems with single degree of freedom (SDOF is presented, by using the GDTM. The advantage of this method compared with some other numerical methods has been shown. The analysis of new approximations, damping and acceleration of systems are also described. Finally, by reducing damping and analysis of the errors, in one of the fractional cases, we have shown that in addition to having a suitable solution for the displacement close to the exact one, the system enjoys acceleration once crossing the equilibrium point.

9. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

2016-01-01

Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

10. A Table Lookup Method for Exact Analytical Solutions of Nonlinear Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ji Juan-Juan

2017-01-01

Full Text Available A table lookup method for solving nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs is proposed in this paper. Looking up the corresponding tables, we can quickly obtain the exact analytical solutions of fPDEs by using this method. To illustrate the validity of the method, we apply it to construct the exact analytical solutions of four nonlinear fPDEs, namely, the time fractional simplified MCH equation, the space-time fractional combined KdV-mKdV equation, the (2+1-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation, and the space-time fractional ZKBBM equation. As a result, many new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained including triangular periodic solution, hyperbolic function solution, singular solution, multiple solitary wave solution, and Jacobi elliptic function solution.

11. Khater method for nonlinear Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation of fractional order

Science.gov (United States)

Bibi, Sadaf; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed

In this work, we have implemented a direct method, known as Khater method to establish exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order. Number of solutions provided by this method is greater than other traditional methods. Exact solutions of nonlinear fractional order Sharma Tasso-Olever (STO) equation are expressed in terms of kink, travelling wave, periodic and solitary wave solutions. Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and Fractional complex transform have been used for compatibility with fractional order sense. Solutions have been graphically simulated for understanding the physical aspects and importance of the method. A comparative discussion between our established results and the results obtained by existing ones is also presented. Our results clearly reveal that the proposed method is an effective, powerful and straightforward technique to work out new solutions of various types of differential equations of non-integer order in the fields of applied sciences and engineering.

12. Doubly labeled water method: in vivo oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schoeller, D.A.; Leitch, C.A.; Brown, C.

1986-01-01

The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO 2 excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically fractionated. The degree of fractionation indicated that the former was fractionated under equilibrium control at 37 0 C, and the latter was kinetically fractionated. Sweat and urine were unfractionated. By use of isotopic balance models, the fraction of water lost via fractionating routes was estimated from the isotopic abundances of body water, local drinking water, and dietary solids. Fractionated water loss averaged 23% (SD = 10%) of water turnover, which agreed with our previous estimates based on metabolic rate, but there was a systematic difference between the results based on O 2 and hydrogen. Corrections for isotopic fractionation of water lost in breath and (nonsweat) transcutaneous loss should be made when using labeled water to measure water turnover or CO 2 production

13. A simple graphical method for deriving kinetics of repair from fractionated and protracted irradiations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scalliet, P.; Schueren, E. van der; Erfmann, R.K.L.; Landuyt, W.

1988-01-01

The authors present a method for the derivation of the time constant of repair from fractionated and protracted irradiations, using formulae based on those derived by Dale (1985) and Liversage (1969) establishing the correlation between the biological effects of low dose rate and acute fractionated irradiation. (UK)

14. Application of Local Fractional Series Expansion Method to Solve Klein-Gordon Equations on Cantor Sets

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ai-Min Yang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We use the local fractional series expansion method to solve the Klein-Gordon equations on Cantor sets within the local fractional derivatives. The analytical solutions within the nondifferential terms are discussed. The obtained results show the simplicity and efficiency of the present technique with application to the problems of the liner differential equations on Cantor sets.

15. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hossein Jafari

2016-04-01

Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

16. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jueeli D. Vaidya

2018-01-01

Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

17. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

CERN Document Server

Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

2014-01-01

This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

18. Residual power series method for fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Amit Kumar

2016-02-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a modified analytical approximate technique to obtain solution of time fractional Sharma-Tasso-Olever equation. First, we present an alternative framework of the Residual power series method (RPSM which can be used simply and effectively to handle nonlinear fractional differential equations arising in several physical phenomena. This method is basically based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. A good result is found between our solution and the given solution. It is shown that the proposed method is reliable, efficient and easy to implement on all kinds of fractional nonlinear problems arising in science and technology.

19. A Fractional Step Theta-Method for Viscoelastic Fluid Flow Using a UPG Approximation

Science.gov (United States)

2007-10-01

2δ2ω̃ + 2δ2λ ) + HΓ +Hg + δ 2HupA + δ2HupB. (5.250) Here the terms HΓ,Hg, HupA , and HupB in (5.250) are defined by 43 Hg := λ 4 ∥∥∥∥dtσ(n+1) − σ(n+ 12)t...n+θ− 12))− θd(u(n))− θ̃d(u(n−θ))∥∥∥2 , (5.251) 44 HupA = λM2d́ 4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+ 12)t ∥∥∥∥2 + λM2d́4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+ 12−θ)t ∥∥∥∥2 + λM2d́4 ∥∥∥∥−σ(n+θ− 12)t ∥∥∥∥2...the proof of the a priori error estimate we need to consider the bounds on each of the HΓ,Hg, HupA , and HupB terms in expression (5.254) using

20. Improved Full-Newton Step O(nL) Infeasible Interior-Point Method for Linear Optimization

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Gu, G.; Mansouri, H.; Zangiabadi, M.; Bai, Y.Q.; Roos, C.

2009-01-01

We present several improvements of the full-Newton step infeasible interior-point method for linear optimization introduced by Roos (SIAM J. Optim. 16(4):1110–1136, 2006). Each main step of the method consists of a feasibility step and several centering steps. We use a more natural feasibility step,

1. A modification of \\mathsf {WKB} method for fractional differential operators of Schrödinger's type

Science.gov (United States)

Sayevand, K.; Pichaghchi, K.

2017-09-01

In this paper, we were concerned with the description of the singularly perturbed differential equations within the scope of fractional calculus. However, we shall note that one of the main methods used to solve these problems is the so-called WKB method. We should mention that this was not achievable via the existing fractional derivative definitions, because they do not obey the chain rule. In order to accommodate the WKB to the scope of fractional derivative, we proposed a relatively new derivative called the local fractional derivative. By use of properties of local fractional derivative, we extend the WKB method in the scope of the fractional differential equation. By means of this extension, the WKB analysis based on the Borel resummation, for fractional differential operators of WKB type are investigated. The convergence and the Mittag-Leffler stability of the proposed approach is proven. The obtained results are in excellent agreement with the existing ones in open literature and it is shown that the present approach is very effective and accurate. Furthermore, we are mainly interested to construct the solution of fractional Schrödinger equation in the Mittag-Leffler form and how it leads naturally to this semi-classical approximation namely modified WKB.

2. Development of evaluation method of fuel failure fraction during the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor operation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sawa, Kazuhiro; Yoshimuta, Shigeharu; Tobita, Tsutomu; Sato, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

1997-05-01

The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) uses coated particles as fuel. During normal operation, short-lived noble gases are mainly released by diffusion from fuel particles with defects in their coating layers (i.e., failed particle). Since noble gases do not plate out on the inner surfaces of primary cooling system, their activities in primary coolant reflect fuel failure fraction in the core. An evaluation method was developed to predict failure fraction of coated fuel particles during normal operation of the HTTR. The method predicts core-average and hot plenum regionwise failure fractions based on the fractional releases, (R/B)s, of noble gases. The (R/B)s are calculated by fission gas concentration measurements in the primary cooling system of the HTTR. Recent fabrication data show that through-coatings failure fraction is extremely low. Then, fractional release from matrix contamination uranium, which is background for accurate evaluation of the fuel failure fraction, should be precisely predicted. This report describes an evaluation method of fuel failure fraction from measurements in the HTTR together with a fission gas release model from fuel compact containing failed particles and matrix contamination uranium. (author)

3. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows.

Science.gov (United States)

Vaidya, Jueeli D; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Edwards, Joan E; Boekhorst, Jos; van Gastelen, Sanne; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M; Smidt, Hauke

2018-01-01

DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini) differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100), 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33), 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67), or 100% MS (MS100). An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method ( p anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction ( p = 0.012), and that PBB ( p = 0.012) and FDSS ( p = 0.024) also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In summary, the comprehensive assessment of observed communities of bacteria, archaea and anaerobic fungi described here provides insight into a rational basis for selecting an optimal methodology to obtain a representative picture of the rumen microbiota.

4. Comparison of methods for the quantification of the different carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosol samples

Science.gov (United States)

Nunes, Teresa; Mirante, Fátima; Almeida, Elza; Pio, Casimiro

2010-05-01

Atmospheric carbon consists of: organic carbon (OC, including various organic compounds), elemental carbon (EC, or black carbon [BC]/soot, a non-volatile/light-absorbing carbon), and a small quantity of carbonate carbon. Thermal/optical methods (TOM) have been widely used for quantifying total carbon (TC), OC, and EC in ambient and source particulate samples. Unfortunately, the different thermal evolution protocols in use can result in a wide elemental carbon-to-total carbon variation. Temperature evolution in thermal carbon analysis is critical to the allocation of carbon fractions. Another critical point in OC and EC quantification by TOM is the interference of carbonate carbon (CC) that could be present in the particulate samples, mainly in the coarse fraction of atmospheric aerosol. One of the methods used to minimize this interference consists on the use of a sample pre-treatment with acid to eliminate CC prior to thermal analysis (Chow et al., 2001; Pio et al., 1994). In Europe, there is currently no standard procedure for determining the carbonaceous aerosol fraction, which implies that data from different laboratories at various sites are of unknown accuracy and cannot be considered comparable. In the framework of the EU-project EUSAAR, a comprehensive study has been carried out to identify the causes of differences in the EC measured using different thermal evolution protocols. From this study an optimised protocol, the EUSAAR-2 protocol, was defined (Cavali et al., 2009). During the last two decades thousands of aerosol samples have been taken over quartz filters at urban, industrial, rural and background sites, and also from plume forest fires and biomass burning in a domestic closed stove. These samples were analysed for OC and EC, by a TOM, similar to that in use in the IMPROVE network (Pio et al., 2007). More recently we reduced the number of steps in thermal evolution protocols, without significant repercussions in the OC/EC quantifications. In order

5. The improved fractional sub-equation method and its applications to the space–time fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guo, Shimin; Mei, Liquan; Li, Ying; Sun, Youfa

2012-01-01

By introducing a new general ansätz, the improved fractional sub-equation method is proposed to construct analytical solutions of nonlinear evolution equations involving Jumarie's modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. By means of this method, the space–time fractional Whitham–Broer–Kaup and generalized Hirota–Satsuma coupled KdV equations are successfully solved. The obtained results show that the proposed method is quite effective, promising and convenient for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations. -- Highlights: ► We propose a novel method for nonlinear fractional differential equations. ► Two important fractional differential equations in fluid mechanics are solved successfully. ► Some new exact solutions of the fractional differential equations are obtained. ► These solutions will advance the understanding of nonlinear physical phenomena.

6. Stable multi-domain spectral penalty methods for fractional partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Qinwu; Hesthaven, Jan S.

2014-01-01

We propose stable multi-domain spectral penalty methods suitable for solving fractional partial differential equations with fractional derivatives of any order. First, a high order discretization is proposed to approximate fractional derivatives of any order on any given grids based on orthogonal polynomials. The approximation order is analyzed and verified through numerical examples. Based on the discrete fractional derivative, we introduce stable multi-domain spectral penalty methods for solving fractional advection and diffusion equations. The equations are discretized in each sub-domain separately and the global schemes are obtained by weakly imposed boundary and interface conditions through a penalty term. Stability of the schemes are analyzed and numerical examples based on both uniform and nonuniform grids are considered to highlight the flexibility and high accuracy of the proposed schemes.

7. Detection of protein concentrations using a pH-step titration method

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kruise, J.; Kruise, J.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bergveld, Piet

1997-01-01

A stimulus-response method based on the application of a pH step is proposed for the detection of protein immobilized in a membrane on top of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). The ISFET response to a step-wise change in pH, applied at the interface between the membrane and the

8. Fractional corresponding operator in quantum mechanics and applications: A uniform fractional Schrödinger equation in form and fractional quantization methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Chaozhen; Liu, Yingming; Luo, Maokang

2014-01-01

In this paper we use Dirac function to construct a fractional operator called fractional corresponding operator, which is the general form of momentum corresponding operator. Then we give a judging theorem for this operator and with this judging theorem we prove that R–L, G–L, Caputo, Riesz fractional derivative operator and fractional derivative operator based on generalized functions, which are the most popular ones, coincide with the fractional corresponding operator. As a typical application, we use the fractional corresponding operator to construct a new fractional quantization scheme and then derive a uniform fractional Schrödinger equation in form. Additionally, we find that the five forms of fractional Schrödinger equation belong to the particular cases. As another main result of this paper, we use fractional corresponding operator to generalize fractional quantization scheme by using Lévy path integral and use it to derive the corresponding general form of fractional Schrödinger equation, which consequently proves that these two quantization schemes are equivalent. Meanwhile, relations between the theory in fractional quantum mechanics and that in classic quantum mechanics are also discussed. As a physical example, we consider a particle in an infinite potential well. We give its wave functions and energy spectrums in two ways and find that both results are the same

9. Fourier spectral methods for fractional-in-space reaction-diffusion equations

KAUST Repository

Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Kay, David; Burrage, Kevin

2014-01-01

approximation of these models is demanding and imposes a number of computational constraints. In this paper, we introduce Fourier spectral methods as an attractive and easy-to-code alternative for the integration of fractional-in-space reaction

10. Development of measurement method of void fraction distribution on subcooled flow boiling using neutron radiography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kureta, Masatoshi; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Akimoto, Hajime

1999-03-01

In relation to the development of a solid target of high intensity neutron source, plasma-facing components of fusion reactor and so forth, it is indispensable to estimate the void fraction for high-heat-load subcooled flow boiling of water. Since the existing prediction method of void fraction is based on the database for tubes, it is necessary to investigate extendibility of the existing prediction method to narrow-gap rectangular channels that is used in the high-heat-load devices. However, measurement method of void fraction in the narrow-gap rectangular channel has not been established yet because of the difficulty of measurement. The objectives of this investigation are development of a new system for bubble visualization and void fraction measurement on subcooled flow boiling in narrow-gap rectangular channels using the neutron radiography, and establishment of void fraction database by using this measurement system. This report describes the void fraction measurement method by the neutron radiography technique, and summarizes the measured void fraction data in one-side heated narrow-gap rectangular channels at subcooled boiling condition. (author)

11. Transverse phase-locking in fully frustrated Josephson junction arrays: A new type of fractional giant steps

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marconi, Veronica I.; Kolton, Alejandro B.; Dominguez, Daniel; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

2003-05-01

We study, analytically and numerically, phase locking of driven vortex lattices in fully-frustrated Josephson junction arrays at zero temperature. We consider the case when an ac current is applied perpendicular to a dc current. We observe phase locking, steps in the current-voltage characteristics, with a dependence on external ac-drive amplitude and frequency qualitatively different from the Shapiro steps, observed when the ac and dc currents are applied in parallel. Further, the critical current increases with increasing transverse ac-drive amplitude, while it decreases for longitudinal ac-drive. The critical current and the phase-locked current step width, increase quadratically with (small) amplitudes of the ac-drive. For larger amplitudes of the transverse ac-signal, we find windows where the critical current is hysteretic, and windows where phase locking is suppressed due to dynamical instabilities. We characterize the dynamical states around the phase-locking interference condition in the IV curve with voltage noise, Lyapunov exponents and Poincare sections. We find that zero temperature phase-locking behavior in large fully frustrated arrays is well described by an effective four plaquette model. (author)

12. Recurrence of random walks with long-range steps generated by fractional Laplacian matrices on regular networks and simple cubic lattices

Science.gov (United States)

Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

2017-12-01

We analyze a Markovian random walk strategy on undirected regular networks involving power matrix functions of the type L\\frac{α{2}} where L indicates a ‘simple’ Laplacian matrix. We refer to such walks as ‘fractional random walks’ with admissible interval 0walk. From these analytical results we establish a generalization of Polya’s recurrence theorem for fractional random walks on d-dimensional infinite lattices: The fractional random walk is transient for dimensions d > α (recurrent for d≤slantα ) of the lattice. As a consequence, for 0walk is transient for all lattice dimensions d=1, 2, .. and in the range 1≤slantα walk is transient only for lattice dimensions d≥slant 3 . The generalization of Polya’s recurrence theorem remains valid for the class of random walks with Lévy flight asymptotics for long-range steps. We also analyze the mean first passage probabilities, mean residence times, mean first passage times and global mean first passage times (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. For an infinite 1D lattice (infinite ring) we obtain for the transient regime 0walk is generated by the non-diagonality of the fractional Laplacian matrix with Lévy-type heavy tailed inverse power law decay for the probability of long-range moves. This non-local and asymptotic behavior of the fractional random walk introduces small-world properties with the emergence of Lévy flights on large (infinite) lattices.

13. Non-asymptotic fractional order differentiators via an algebraic parametric method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan

2012-08-01

Recently, Mboup, Join and Fliess [27], [28] introduced non-asymptotic integer order differentiators by using an algebraic parametric estimation method [7], [8]. In this paper, in order to obtain non-asymptotic fractional order differentiators we apply this algebraic parametric method to truncated expansions of fractional Taylor series based on the Jumarie\\'s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative [14]. Exact and simple formulae for these differentiators are given where a sliding integration window of a noisy signal involving Jacobi polynomials is used without complex mathematical deduction. The efficiency and the stability with respect to corrupting noises of the proposed fractional order differentiators are shown in numerical simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

14. Non-asymptotic fractional order differentiators via an algebraic parametric method

KAUST Repository

Liu, Dayan; Gibaru, O.; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

2012-01-01

Recently, Mboup, Join and Fliess [27], [28] introduced non-asymptotic integer order differentiators by using an algebraic parametric estimation method [7], [8]. In this paper, in order to obtain non-asymptotic fractional order differentiators we apply this algebraic parametric method to truncated expansions of fractional Taylor series based on the Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative [14]. Exact and simple formulae for these differentiators are given where a sliding integration window of a noisy signal involving Jacobi polynomials is used without complex mathematical deduction. The efficiency and the stability with respect to corrupting noises of the proposed fractional order differentiators are shown in numerical simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

15. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehmet Ali Akinlar

2013-01-01

Full Text Available A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as well as a more general fractional differential equation.

16. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING THE MULTI-TERM TIME-FRACTIONAL WAVE-DIFFUSION EQUATION

OpenAIRE

Liu, F.; Meerschaert, M.M.; McGough, R.J.; Zhuang, P.; Liu, Q.

2013-01-01

In this paper, the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], [1,2), [0,2), [0,3), [2,3) and [2,4), respectively. Some computationally effective numerical methods are proposed for simulating the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis. These methods and technique...

17. A Normalized Transfer Matrix Method for the Free Vibration of Stepped Beams: Comparison with Experimental and FE(3D Methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tamer Ahmed El-Sayed

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The exact solution for multistepped Timoshenko beam is derived using a set of fundamental solutions. This set of solutions is derived to normalize the solution at the origin of the coordinates. The start, end, and intermediate boundary conditions involve concentrated masses and linear and rotational elastic supports. The beam start, end, and intermediate equations are assembled using the present normalized transfer matrix (NTM. The advantage of this method is that it is quicker than the standard method because the size of the complete system coefficient matrix is 4 × 4. In addition, during the assembly of this matrix, there are no inverse matrix steps required. The validity of this method is tested by comparing the results of the current method with the literature. Then the validity of the exact stepped analysis is checked using experimental and FE(3D methods. The experimental results for stepped beams with single step and two steps, for sixteen different test samples, are in excellent agreement with those of the three-dimensional finite element FE(3D. The comparison between the NTM method and the finite element method results shows that the modal percentage deviation is increased when a beam step location coincides with a peak point in the mode shape. Meanwhile, the deviation decreases when a beam step location coincides with a straight portion in the mode shape.

18. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

Science.gov (United States)

Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

2013-01-22

An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

19. A Novel Method for Analytical Solutions of Fractional Partial Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

Mehmet Ali Akinlar; Muhammet Kurulay

2013-01-01

A new solution technique for analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) is presented. The solutions are expressed as a finite sum of a vector type functional. By employing MAPLE software, it is shown that the solutions might be extended to an arbitrary degree which makes the present method not only different from the others in the literature but also quite efficient. The method is applied to special Bagley-Torvik and Diethelm fractional differential equations as...

20. A two-step Hilbert transform method for 2D image reconstruction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Noo, Frederic; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Pack, Jed D

2004-01-01

The paper describes a new accurate two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction method consisting of two steps. In the first step, the backprojected image is formed after taking the derivative of the parallel projection data. In the second step, a Hilbert filtering is applied along certain lines in the differentiated backprojection (DBP) image. Formulae for performing the DBP step in fan-beam geometry are also presented. The advantage of this two-step Hilbert transform approach is that in certain situations, regions of interest (ROIs) can be reconstructed from truncated projection data. Simulation results are presented that illustrate very similar reconstructed image quality using the new method compared to standard filtered backprojection, and that show the capability to correctly handle truncated projections. In particular, a simulation is presented of a wide patient whose projections are truncated laterally yet for which highly accurate ROI reconstruction is obtained

1. Non-standard finite difference and Chebyshev collocation methods for solving fractional diffusion equation

Science.gov (United States)

Agarwal, P.; El-Sayed, A. A.

2018-06-01

In this paper, a new numerical technique for solving the fractional order diffusion equation is introduced. This technique basically depends on the Non-Standard finite difference method (NSFD) and Chebyshev collocation method, where the fractional derivatives are described in terms of the Caputo sense. The Chebyshev collocation method with the (NSFD) method is used to convert the problem into a system of algebraic equations. These equations solved numerically using Newton's iteration method. The applicability, reliability, and efficiency of the presented technique are demonstrated through some given numerical examples.

2. The response analysis of fractional-order stochastic system via generalized cell mapping method.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Liang; Xue, Lili; Sun, Chunyan; Yue, Xiaole; Xu, Wei

2018-01-01

This paper is concerned with the response of a fractional-order stochastic system. The short memory principle is introduced to ensure that the response of the system is a Markov process. The generalized cell mapping method is applied to display the global dynamics of the noise-free system, such as attractors, basins of attraction, basin boundary, saddle, and invariant manifolds. The stochastic generalized cell mapping method is employed to obtain the evolutionary process of probability density functions of the response. The fractional-order ϕ 6 oscillator and the fractional-order smooth and discontinuous oscillator are taken as examples to give the implementations of our strategies. Studies have shown that the evolutionary direction of the probability density function of the fractional-order stochastic system is consistent with the unstable manifold. The effectiveness of the method is confirmed using Monte Carlo results.

3. Analysis of a time fractional wave-like equation with the homotopy analysis method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Xu Hang; Cang Jie

2008-01-01

The time fractional wave-like differential equation with a variable coefficient is studied analytically. By using a simple transformation, the governing equation is reduced to two fractional ordinary differential equations. Then the homotopy analysis method is employed to derive the solutions of these equations. The accurate series solutions are obtained. Especially, when h f =h g =-1, these solutions are exactly the same as those results given by the Adomian decomposition method. The present work shows the validity and great potential of the homotopy analysis method for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations. The basic idea described in this Letter is expected to be further employed to solve other similar nonlinear problems in fractional calculus

4. some generalized two-step block hybrid numerov method for solving ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Nwokem et al.

ABSTRACT. This paper proposes a class of generalized two-step Numerov methods, a block hybrid type for the direct solution of general second order ordinary differential equations. Both the main method and additional methods were derived via interpolation and collocation procedures. The basic properties of zero ...

5. Comparison of fractionation methods for nitrogen and starch in maize and grass silages

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ali, M; de Jonge, L H; Cone, J W; van Duinkerken, G; Blok, M C; Bruinenberg, M H; Hendriks, W H

2016-01-01

In in situ nylon bag technique, many feed evaluation systems use a washing machine method (WMM) to determine the washout (W) fraction and to wash the rumen incubated nylon bags. As this method has some disadvantages, an alternate modified method (MM) was recently introduced. The aim of this study

6. The Use of Generalized Laguerre Polynomials in Spectral Methods for Solving Fractional Delay Differential Equations.

Science.gov (United States)

2013-10-01

In this paper, an efficient numerical method for solving the fractional delay differential equations (FDDEs) is considered. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The proposed method is based on the derived approximate formula of the Laguerre polynomials. The properties of Laguerre polynomials are utilized to reduce FDDEs to a linear or nonlinear system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to study the error and the convergence analysis of the proposed method. Several numerical examples are provided to confirm that the proposed method is in excellent agreement with the exact solution.

7. Nondestructive Determination of Reinforcement Volume Fractions in Particulate Composites : Ultrasonic Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jeong, Hyun Jo

1998-01-01

A nondestructive ultrasonic technique is presented for estimating the reinforcement volume fractions of particulate composites. The proposed technique employs a theoretical model which accounts for composite microstructures, together with a measurement of ultrasonic velocity to determine the reinforcement volume fractions. The approach is used for a wide range of SiC particulate reinforced Al matrix (SiC p /AI) composites. The method is considered to be reliable in determining the reinforcement volume fractions. The technique could be adopted in a production unit for the quality assessment of the metal matrix particulate composite extrusions

8. A Fully Discrete Galerkin Method for a Nonlinear Space-Fractional Diffusion Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yunying Zheng

2011-01-01

Full Text Available The spatial transport process in fractal media is generally anomalous. The space-fractional advection-diffusion equation can be used to characterize such a process. In this paper, a fully discrete scheme is given for a type of nonlinear space-fractional anomalous advection-diffusion equation. In the spatial direction, we use the finite element method, and in the temporal direction, we use the modified Crank-Nicolson approximation. Here the fractional derivative indicates the Caputo derivative. The error estimate for the fully discrete scheme is derived. And the numerical examples are also included which are in line with the theoretical analysis.

9. Numerical approximations of nonlinear fractional differential difference equations by using modified He-Laplace method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

J. Prakash

2016-03-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical algorithm based on a modified He-Laplace method (MHLM is proposed to solve space and time nonlinear fractional differential-difference equations (NFDDEs arising in physical phenomena such as wave phenomena in fluids, coupled nonlinear optical waveguides and nanotechnology fields. The modified He-Laplace method is a combined form of the fractional homotopy perturbation method and Laplace transforms method. The nonlinear terms can be easily decomposed by the use of He’s polynomials. This algorithm has been tested against time-fractional differential-difference equations such as the modified Lotka Volterra and discrete (modified KdV equations. The proposed scheme grants the solution in the form of a rapidly convergent series. Three examples have been employed to illustrate the preciseness and effectiveness of the proposed method. The achieved results expose that the MHLM is very accurate, efficient, simple and can be applied to other nonlinear FDDEs.

10. New Iterative Method for Fractional Gas Dynamics and Coupled Burger’s Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mohamed S. Al-luhaibi

2015-01-01

Full Text Available This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger’s equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations.

11. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV-KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

Science.gov (United States)

S Saha, Ray

2016-04-01

In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV-Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KdV-KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV-KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV-KZK equation.

12. New analytical exact solutions of time fractional KdV–KZK equation by Kudryashov methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saha Ray, S

2016-01-01

In this paper, new exact solutions of the time fractional KdV–Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KdV–KZK) equation are obtained by the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method respectively. For this purpose, the modified Riemann–Liouville derivative is used to convert the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation into the nonlinear ordinary differential equation. In the present analysis, the classical Kudryashov method and modified Kudryashov method are both used successively to compute the analytical solutions of the time fractional KdV–KZK equation. As a result, new exact solutions involving the symmetrical Fibonacci function, hyperbolic function and exponential function are obtained for the first time. The methods under consideration are reliable and efficient, and can be used as an alternative to establish new exact solutions of different types of fractional differential equations arising from mathematical physics. The obtained results are exhibited graphically in order to demonstrate the efficiencies and applicabilities of these proposed methods of solving the nonlinear time fractional KdV–KZK equation. (paper)

13. Stability analysis and time-step limits for a Monte Carlo Compton-scattering method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Densmore, Jeffery D.; Warsa, James S.; Lowrie, Robert B.

2010-01-01

A Monte Carlo method for simulating Compton scattering in high energy density applications has been presented that models the photon-electron collision kinematics exactly [E. Canfield, W.M. Howard, E.P. Liang, Inverse Comptonization by one-dimensional relativistic electrons, Astrophys. J. 323 (1987) 565]. However, implementing this technique typically requires an explicit evaluation of the material temperature, which can lead to unstable and oscillatory solutions. In this paper, we perform a stability analysis of this Monte Carlo method and develop two time-step limits that avoid undesirable behavior. The first time-step limit prevents instabilities, while the second, more restrictive time-step limit avoids both instabilities and nonphysical oscillations. With a set of numerical examples, we demonstrate the efficacy of these time-step limits.

14. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in pollen of Atlas cedar: first steps towards a new palaeoecological proxy for Northwest Africa

Science.gov (United States)

Bell, Benjamin; Fletcher, William; Ryan, Peter; Grant, Helen; Ilmen, Rachid

2016-04-01

Analysis of stable carbon isotopes can provide information on climate and the environmental conditions at different growth stages of the plant, both past and present. Carbon isotope discrimination in plant tissue is already well understood, and can be used as a drought stress indicator for semi-arid regions. Stable carbon isotope ratios measured directly on pollen provides the potential for the development of long-term environmental proxies (spanning thousands of years), as pollen is well preserved in the environment. Atlas Cedar (Cedrus atlantica Endl. Manetti ex Carrière), is an ideal test case to develop a pollen stable carbon isotope proxy. The tree grows across a wide altitudinal and climatic range and is extremely sensitive to moisture availability. The pollen is abundant, and easily identifiable to the species level in pollen analysis because different cedar species are geographically confined to different regions of the world. In 2015 we sampled 76 individual cedar trees across latitudinal, altitudinal and environmental gradients, highly focused on the Middle Atlas region of Morocco, with 25 additional samples from botanical gardens across Europe and the US to extend these gradients. Here, we report new stable carbon isotope data from pollen, leaf and stem wood from these samples with a view to assessing and quantifying species-specific fractionation effects associated with pollen production. The isotopic response of individual trees at local and wider geographical scales to altitude and climatic conditions is presented. This research forms part of an ongoing PhD project working to develop and calibrate a modern carbon isotope proxy in Atlas cedar pollen, which can ultimately be applied to fossil sequences and complement existing multi-proxy records (e.g. pollen analysis in lake sediments, tree-rings).

15. A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data

Science.gov (United States)

Xing, Yanyuan; Yan, Yubin

2018-03-01

Gao et al. [11] (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu [20] (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 quadratic interpolation polynomials. Based on this scheme, we introduce a time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 0 for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.

16. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Das

2013-12-01

Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

17. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanofluid by a novel one-step method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kumar, S. Ananda; Meenakshi, K. Shree; Narashimhan, B.R.V.; Srikanth, S.; Arthanareeswaran, G.

2009-01-01

This paper presents a novel one-step method for the preparation of stable, non-agglomerated copper nanofluids by reducing copper sulphate pentahydrate with sodium hypophosphite as reducing agent in ethylene glycol as base fluid by means of conventional heating. This is an in situ, one-step method which gives high yield of product with less time consumption. The characterization of the nanofluid is done by particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction topography, UV-vis analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) followed by the study of thermal conductivity of nanofluid by the transient hot wire method

18. A two-step method for developing a control rod program for boiling water reactors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsiao, M.Y.

1992-01-01

This paper reports on a two-step method that is established for the generation of a long-term control rod program for boiling water reactors (BWRs). The new method assumes a time-variant target power distribution in core depletion. In the new method, the BWR control rod programming is divided into two steps. In step 1, a sequence of optimal, exposure-dependent Haling power distribution profiles is generated, utilizing the spectral shift concept. In step 2, a set of exposure-dependent control rod patterns is developed by using the Haling profiles generated at step 1 as a target. The new method is implemented in a computer program named OCTOPUS. The optimization procedure of OCTOPUS is based on the method of approximation programming, in which the SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonics characteristics of the reactor core state. In a test in cycle length over a time-invariant, target Haling power distribution case because of a moderate application of spectral shift. No thermal limits of the core were violated. The gain in cycle length could be increased further by broadening the extent of the spetral shift

19. Q-Step methods for Newton-Jacobi operator equation | Uwasmusi ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The paper considers the Newton-Jacobi operator equation for the solution of nonlinear systems of equations. Special attention is paid to the computational part of this method with particular reference to the q-step methods. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 237-241 ...

20. A Three Step Explicit Method for Direct Solution of Third Order ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This study produces a three step discrete Linear Multistep Method for Direct solution of third order initial value problems of ordinary differential equations of the form y'''= f(x,y,y',y''). Taylor series expansion technique was adopted in the development of the method. The differential system from the basis polynomial function to ...

1. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

2011-01-01

When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

2. New Exact Solutions of Time Fractional Gardner Equation by Using New Version of F -Expansion Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin

2017-01-01

In this article, we consider analytical solutions of the time fractional derivative Gardner equation by using the new version of F-expansion method. With this proposed method multiple Jacobi elliptic functions are situated in the solution function. As a result, various exact analytical solutions consisting of single and combined Jacobi elliptic functions solutions are obtained. (paper)

3. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

2015-08-01

4. Extension of the root-locus method to a certain class of fractional-order systems.

Science.gov (United States)

Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad; Afshar, Mahdi; Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud

2009-01-01

In this paper, the well-known root-locus method is developed for the special subset of linear time-invariant systems commonly known as fractional-order systems. Transfer functions of these systems are rational functions with polynomials of rational powers of the Laplace variable s. Such systems are defined on a Riemann surface because of their multi-valued nature. A set of rules for plotting the root loci on the first Riemann sheet is presented. The important features of the classical root-locus method such as asymptotes, roots condition on the real axis and breakaway points are extended to the fractional case. It is also shown that the proposed method can assess the closed-loop stability of fractional-order systems in the presence of a varying gain in the loop. Moreover, the effect of perturbation on the root loci is discussed. Three illustrative examples are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

5. A multi-domain spectral method for time-fractional differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Feng; Xu, Qinwu; Hesthaven, Jan S.

2015-07-01

This paper proposes an approach for high-order time integration within a multi-domain setting for time-fractional differential equations. Since the kernel is singular or nearly singular, two main difficulties arise after the domain decomposition: how to properly account for the history/memory part and how to perform the integration accurately. To address these issues, we propose a novel hybrid approach for the numerical integration based on the combination of three-term-recurrence relations of Jacobi polynomials and high-order Gauss quadrature. The different approximations used in the hybrid approach are justified theoretically and through numerical examples. Based on this, we propose a new multi-domain spectral method for high-order accurate time integrations and study its stability properties by identifying the method as a generalized linear method. Numerical experiments confirm hp-convergence for both time-fractional differential equations and time-fractional partial differential equations.

6. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Petráš Ivo

2011-01-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

7. Optimal homotopy asymptotic method for solving fractional relaxation-oscillation equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper, an approximate analytical solution of linear fractional relaxation-oscillation equations in which the fractional derivatives are given in the Caputo sense, is obtained by the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM. The studied OHAM is based on minimizing the residual error. The results given by OHAM are compared with the exact solutions and the solutions obtained by generalized Taylor matrix method. The reliability and efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in three examples with the aid of the symbolic algebra program Maple.

8. Enriched reproducing kernel particle method for fractional advection-diffusion equation

Science.gov (United States)

Ying, Yuping; Lian, Yanping; Tang, Shaoqiang; Liu, Wing Kam

2018-06-01

The reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM) has been efficiently applied to problems with large deformations, high gradients and high modal density. In this paper, it is extended to solve a nonlocal problem modeled by a fractional advection-diffusion equation (FADE), which exhibits a boundary layer with low regularity. We formulate this method on a moving least-square approach. Via the enrichment of fractional-order power functions to the traditional integer-order basis for RKPM, leading terms of the solution to the FADE can be exactly reproduced, which guarantees a good approximation to the boundary layer. Numerical tests are performed to verify the proposed approach.

9. Design of quadrature mirror filter bank using Lagrange multiplier method based on fractional derivative constraints

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. Kuldeep

2015-06-01

Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.

10. Laplace transform series expansion method for solving the local fractional heat-transfer equation defined on Cantor sets

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sun Huan

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we use the Laplace transform series expansion method to find the analytical solution for the local fractional heat-transfer equation defined on Cantor sets via local fractional calculus.

11. Fourier spectral methods for fractional-in-space reaction-diffusion equations

KAUST Repository

Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso

2014-04-01

© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Fractional differential equations are becoming increasingly used as a powerful modelling approach for understanding the many aspects of nonlocality and spatial heterogeneity. However, the numerical approximation of these models is demanding and imposes a number of computational constraints. In this paper, we introduce Fourier spectral methods as an attractive and easy-to-code alternative for the integration of fractional-in-space reaction-diffusion equations described by the fractional Laplacian in bounded rectangular domains of ℝ. The main advantages of the proposed schemes is that they yield a fully diagonal representation of the fractional operator, with increased accuracy and efficiency when compared to low-order counterparts, and a completely straightforward extension to two and three spatial dimensions. Our approach is illustrated by solving several problems of practical interest, including the fractional Allen–Cahn, FitzHugh–Nagumo and Gray–Scott models, together with an analysis of the properties of these systems in terms of the fractional power of the underlying Laplacian operator.

12. Stability of one-step methods in transient nonlinear heat conduction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hughes, J.R.

1977-01-01

The purpose of the present work is to ascertain practical stability conditions for one-step methods commonly used in transient nonlinear heat conduction analyses. The class of problems considered is governed by a temporally continuous, spatially discrete system involving the capacity matrix C, conductivity matrix K, heat supply vector, temperature vector and time differenciation. In the linear case, in which K and C are constant, the stability behavior of one-step methods is well known. But in this paper the concepts of stability, appropriate to the nonlinear problem, are thoroughly discussed. They of course reduce to the usual stability criterion for the linear, constant coefficient case. However, for nonlinear problems there are differences and these ideas are of key importance in obtaining practical stability conditions. Of particular importance is a recent result which indicates that, in a sense, the trapezoidal and midpoint families are quivalent. Thus, stability results for one family may be translated into a result for the other. The main results obtained are summarized as follows. The stability behavior of the explicit Euler method in the nonlinear regime is analogous to that for linear problems. In particular, an a priori step size restriction may be determined for each time step. The precise time step restriction on implicit conditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families is shown not to be determinable a priori. Of considerable practical significance, unconditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families are identified

13. Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots

Science.gov (United States)

WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao

2017-03-01

Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.

14. Numerical simulation for fractional order stationary neutron transport equation using Haar wavelet collocation method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saha Ray, S., E-mail: santanusaharay@yahoo.com; Patra, A.

2014-10-15

Highlights: • A stationary transport equation has been solved using the technique of Haar wavelet collocation method. • This paper intends to provide the great utility of Haar wavelets to nuclear science problem. • In the present paper, two-dimensional Haar wavelets are applied. • The proposed method is mathematically very simple, easy and fast. - Abstract: In this paper the numerical solution for the fractional order stationary neutron transport equation is presented using Haar wavelet Collocation Method (HWCM). Haar wavelet collocation method is efficient and powerful in solving wide class of linear and nonlinear differential equations. This paper intends to provide an application of Haar wavelets to nuclear science problems. This paper describes the application of Haar wavelets for the numerical solution of fractional order stationary neutron transport equation in homogeneous medium with isotropic scattering. The proposed method is mathematically very simple, easy and fast. To demonstrate about the efficiency and applicability of the method, two test problems are discussed.

15. A simple three step method for selective placement of organic groups in mesoporous silica thin films

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Franceschini, Esteban A. [Gerencia Química, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Llave, Ezequiel de la; Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A., E-mail: galo.soler.illia@gmail.com [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física and INQUIMAE-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Nanosistemas, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2016-02-01

Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. The first step consists in an outer surface functionalization, followed by washing off the structuring agent (second step), leaving the inner surface of the pores free to be functionalized in the third step. This reproducible method permits to anchor a volatile silane group in the outer film surface, and a second type of silane group in the inner surface of the pores. As a concept test we modified the outer surface of a mesoporous silica film with trimethylsilane (–Si–(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) groups and the inner pore surface with propylamino (–Si–(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}–NH{sub 2}) groups. The obtained silica films were characterized by Environmental Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EEP), EDS, XPS, contact angle and electron microscopy. The selectively functionalized silica (SF) shows an amount of surface amino functions 4.3 times lower than the one-step functionalized (OSF) silica samples. The method presented here can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides as functional groups, opening up a new route toward the synthesis of multifunctional mesoporous thin films with precisely localized organic functions. - Highlights: • Selective functionalization of mesoporous silica thin films was achieved using a three step method. • A volatile silane group is anchored by evaporation on the outer film surface. • A second silane is deposited in the inner surface of the pores by post-grafting. • Contact angle, EDS and XPS measurements show different proportions of amino groups on both surfaces. • This method can be extended to a combination of silane chlorides and alkoxides functional groups.

16. A two-step method for rapid characterization of electroosmotic flows in capillary electrophoresis.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Wenjing; He, Muyi; Yuan, Tao; Xu, Wei

2017-12-01

The measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) is important in a capillary electrophoresis (CE) experiment in terms of performance optimization and stability improvement. Although several methods exist, there are demanding needs to accurately characterize ultra-low electroosmotic flow rates (EOF rates), such as in coated capillaries used in protein separations. In this work, a new method, called the two-step method, was developed to accurately and rapidly measure EOF rates in a capillary, especially for measuring the ultra-low EOF rates in coated capillaries. In this two-step method, the EOF rates were calculated by measuring the migration time difference of a neutral marker in two consecutive experiments, in which a pressure driven was introduced to accelerate the migration and the DC voltage was reversed to switch the EOF direction. Uncoated capillaries were first characterized by both this two-step method and a conventional method to confirm the validity of this new method. Then this new method was applied in the study of coated capillaries. Results show that this new method is not only fast in speed, but also better in accuracy. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

17. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

Science.gov (United States)

Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

2002-01-01

A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

18. Perturbed Strong Stability Preserving Time-Stepping Methods For Hyperbolic PDEs

KAUST Repository

2017-09-30

A plethora of physical phenomena are modelled by hyperbolic partial differential equations, for which the exact solution is usually not known. Numerical methods are employed to approximate the solution to hyperbolic problems; however, in many cases it is difficult to satisfy certain physical properties while maintaining high order of accuracy. In this thesis, we develop high-order time-stepping methods that are capable of maintaining stability constraints of the solution, when coupled with suitable spatial discretizations. Such methods are called strong stability preserving (SSP) time integrators, and we mainly focus on perturbed methods that use both upwind- and downwind-biased spatial discretizations. Firstly, we introduce a new family of third-order implicit Runge–Kuttas methods with arbitrarily large SSP coefficient. We investigate the stability and accuracy of these methods and we show that they perform well on hyperbolic problems with large CFL numbers. Moreover, we extend the analysis of SSP linear multistep methods to semi-discretized problems for which different terms on the right-hand side of the initial value problem satisfy different forward Euler (or circle) conditions. Optimal perturbed and additive monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods are studied in the context of such problems. Optimal perturbed methods attain augmented monotonicity-preserving step sizes when the different forward Euler conditions are taken into account. On the other hand, we show that optimal SSP additive methods achieve a monotonicity-preserving step-size restriction no better than that of the corresponding non-additive SSP linear multistep methods. Furthermore, we develop the first SSP linear multistep methods of order two and three with variable step size, and study their optimality. We describe an optimal step-size strategy and demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods on various one- and multi-dimensional problems. Finally, we establish necessary conditions

19. Accurate step-FMCW ultrasound ranging and comparison with pulse-echo signaling methods

Science.gov (United States)

Natarajan, Shyam; Singh, Rahul S.; Lee, Michael; Cox, Brian P.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Lee, Hua

2010-03-01

This paper presents a method setup for high-frequency ultrasound ranging based on stepped frequency-modulated continuous waves (FMCW), potentially capable of producing a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to traditional pulse-echo signaling. In current ultrasound systems, the use of higher frequencies (10-20 MHz) to enhance resolution lowers signal quality due to frequency-dependent attenuation. The proposed ultrasound signaling format, step-FMCW, is well-known in the radar community, and features lower peak power, wider dynamic range, lower noise figure and simpler electronics in comparison to pulse-echo systems. In pulse-echo ultrasound ranging, distances are calculated using the transmit times between a pulse and its subsequent echoes. In step-FMCW ultrasonic ranging, the phase and magnitude differences at stepped frequencies are used to sample the frequency domain. Thus, by taking the inverse Fourier transform, a comprehensive range profile is recovered that has increased immunity to noise over conventional ranging methods. Step-FMCW and pulse-echo waveforms were created using custom-built hardware consisting of an arbitrary waveform generator and dual-channel super heterodyne receiver, providing high SNR and in turn, accuracy in detection.

20. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

KAUST Repository

Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

2009-01-01

an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second

1. The method of quick satellite aiming with 3-Steps on the mobile satellite station

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sheng Liang

2017-02-01

Full Text Available The study analyses and concludes the technology of the satellite aiming during real-time broadcast of mobile video.We conclude a method of quick satellite aiming with 3-steps according to practical exercises and users' requirement to meet situation of facts and standardized operation,which can improve efficiency and quality of service.

2. Ion-step method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowires

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Chen, S.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

2016-01-01

This paper presents a novel stimulus-response method for surface potential sensing of silicon nanowire (Si NW) field-effect transistors. When an "ion-step" from low to high ionic strength is given as a stimulus to the gate oxide surface, an increase of double layer capacitance is therefore expected.

3. Study of the properties of the anthracene fraction by the thermogravimetric method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Belkina, T.V.; Chernyak, P.E.; Ulanovskii, M.L.

1980-01-01

With the use of the TGA method, the effect of temperature, thermal exposure time, a179975d the medium on the relation of the rates and the intensity of the processes of distillation and synthesis during thermal treatment of the anthracene fraction were determined.

4. An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Iqbal

2014-12-01

Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.

5. The Galerkin finite element method for a multi-term time-fractional diffusion equation

KAUST Repository

Jin, Bangti

2015-01-01

© 2014 The Authors. We consider the initial/boundary value problem for a diffusion equation involving multiple time-fractional derivatives on a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyze a space semidiscrete scheme based on the standard Galerkin finite element method using continuous piecewise linear functions. Nearly optimal error estimates for both cases of initial data and inhomogeneous term are derived, which cover both smooth and nonsmooth data. Further we develop a fully discrete scheme based on a finite difference discretization of the time-fractional derivatives, and discuss its stability and error estimate. Extensive numerical experiments for one- and two-dimensional problems confirm the theoretical convergence rates.

6. A method for removing sulfur bearing compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled benzine fraction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Konyukhova, T.P.; Bolotskaya, I.A.; Mikhaylova, L.A.; Sadykov, A.N.; Shitovkin, N.T.; Vlasov, V.V.

1983-01-01

In the known method for removing sulfurorganic compounds from paraffinous hydrocarbons or a directly distilled gasoline fraction through their adsorption using natural zeolite, in order to increase the degree of purification, clinoptilolite (Kp), which contains SiO2 and A12O3 in a molar ratio of 10.6 to 16.7 is used as the natural zeolite. The purification of the paraffinous hydrocarbons through clinoptilolite adsorption as compared with mordenite adsorption makes it possible to increase the degree of their purification of ethylmercaptane and dimethylsulfide. The effectiveness of clinoptilolite is also confirmed in removing mercaptanes and sulfides from directly distilled gasoline fractions.

7. Study of CdTe quantum dots grown using a two-step annealing method

Science.gov (United States)

Sharma, Kriti; Pandey, Praveen K.; Nagpal, Swati; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

2006-02-01

High size dispersion, large average radius of quantum dot and low-volume ratio has been a major hurdle in the development of quantum dot based devices. In the present paper, we have grown CdTe quantum dots in a borosilicate glass matrix using a two-step annealing method. Results of optical characterization and the theoretical model of absorption spectra have shown that quantum dots grown using two-step annealing have lower average radius, lesser size dispersion, higher volume ratio and higher decrease in bulk free energy as compared to quantum dots grown conventionally.

8. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

Science.gov (United States)

Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

2013-10-01

The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

9. Comparison of the Screening Tests for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus between "One-Step" and "Two-Step" Methods among Thai Pregnant Women.

Science.gov (United States)

Luewan, Suchaya; Bootchaingam, Phenphan; Tongsong, Theera

2018-01-01

To compare the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of GDM between those screened by the "one-step" (75 gm GTT) and "two-step" (100 gm GTT) methods. A prospective study was conducted on singleton pregnancies at low or average risk of GDM. All were screened between 24 and 28 weeks, using the one-step or two-step method based on patients' preference. The primary outcome was prevalence of GDM, and secondary outcomes included birthweight, gestational age, rates of preterm birth, small/large-for-gestational age, low Apgar scores, cesarean section, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. A total of 648 women were screened: 278 in the one-step group and 370 in the two-step group. The prevalence of GDM was significantly higher in the one-step group; 32.0% versus 10.3%. Baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in both groups were comparable. However, mean birthweight was significantly higher among pregnancies with GDM diagnosed by the two-step approach (3204 ± 555 versus 3009 ± 666 g; p =0.022). Likewise, the rate of large-for-date tended to be higher in the two-step group, but was not significant. The one-step approach is associated with very high prevalence of GDM among Thai population, without clear evidence of better outcomes. Thus, this approach may not be appropriate for screening in a busy antenatal care clinic like our setting or other centers in developing countries.

10. Method of bringing nuclear power plant to fractional electrical load conditions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iljunin, V.G.; Kuznetsoy, I.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Shmelev, A.N.

1978-01-01

A method is described of bringing a nuclear power plant to fractional electric load conditions, which power plant comprises at least two nuclear reactors, at least one nuclear reactor being a breeder and both reactors transferring heat to the turbine working substance, consisting in that the consumption of the turbine working substance is reduced in accordance with a predetermined fractional load. At the same time, the amount of heat being transferred from the nuclear reactors to the turbine working substance is reduced, for which purpose the reactors are included in autonomous cooling circuits to successively transfer heat to the turbine working substance. The breeding reactor is included in the cooling circuit with a lower coolant temperature, the temperature of the coolant at the inlet and outlet of the breeder being reduced to a level ensuring the operation of the nuclear power plant in predetermined fractional load conditions, due to which the power of the breeder is increased, and afterheat is removed

11. A new modification in the exponential rational function method for nonlinear fractional differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ahmed, Naveed; Bibi, Sadaf; Khan, Umar; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

2018-02-01

We have modified the traditional exponential rational function method (ERFM) and have used it to find the exact solutions of two different fractional partial differential equations, one is the time fractional Boussinesq equation and the other is the (2+1)-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation. In both the cases it is observed that the modified scheme provides more types of solutions than the traditional one. Moreover, a comparison of the recent solutions is made with some already existing solutions. We can confidently conclude that the modified scheme works better and provides more types of solutions with almost similar computational cost. Our generalized solutions include periodic, soliton-like, singular soliton and kink solutions. A graphical simulation of all types of solutions is provided and the correctness of the solution is verified by direct substitution. The extended version of the solutions is expected to provide more flexibility to scientists working in the relevant field to test their simulation data.

12. A simple two-step method to fabricate highly transparent ITO/polymer nanocomposite films

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiaofei; Kong, Xiangrong; Bian, Shuguang; Chen, Jianfeng

2012-01-01

Highlights: ► A simple two-step method without further surface modification step was employed. ► ITO nanoparticles were easily to be uniformly dispersed in polymer matrix. ► ITO/polymer nanocomposite film had high transparency and UV/IR blocking properties. - Abstract: Transparent functional indium tin oxide (ITO)/polymer nanocomposite films were fabricated via a simple approach with two steps. Firstly, the functional monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile nonaqueous solvothermal method using bifunctional chemical agent (N-methyl-pyrrolidone, NMP) as the reaction solvent and surface modifier. Secondly, the ITO/acrylics polyurethane (PUA) nanocomposite films were fabricated by a simple sol-solution mixing method without any further surface modification step as often employed traditionally. Flower-like ITO nanoclusters with about 45 nm in diameter were mono-dispersed in ethyl acetate and each nanocluster was assembled by nearly spherical nanoparticles with primary size of 7–9 nm in diameter. The ITO nanoclusters exhibited an excellent dispersibility in polymer matrix of PUA, remaining their original size without any further agglomeration. When the loading content of ITO nanoclusters reached to 5 wt%, the transparent functional nanocomposite film featured a high transparency more than 85% in the visible light region (at 550 nm), meanwhile cutting off near-infrared radiation about 50% at 1500 nm and blocking UV ray about 45% at 350 nm. It could be potential for transparent functional coating materials applications.

13. A Dimensionality Reduction-Based Multi-Step Clustering Method for Robust Vessel Trajectory Analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Huanhuan Li

2017-08-01

Full Text Available The Shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS is crucial for navigation safety and maritime surveillance, data mining and pattern analysis of AIS information have attracted considerable attention in terms of both basic research and practical applications. Clustering of spatio-temporal AIS trajectories can be used to identify abnormal patterns and mine customary route data for transportation safety. Thus, the capacities of navigation safety and maritime traffic monitoring could be enhanced correspondingly. However, trajectory clustering is often sensitive to undesirable outliers and is essentially more complex compared with traditional point clustering. To overcome this limitation, a multi-step trajectory clustering method is proposed in this paper for robust AIS trajectory clustering. In particular, the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW, a similarity measurement method, is introduced in the first step to measure the distances between different trajectories. The calculated distances, inversely proportional to the similarities, constitute a distance matrix in the second step. Furthermore, as a widely-used dimensional reduction method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA is exploited to decompose the obtained distance matrix. In particular, the top k principal components with above 95% accumulative contribution rate are extracted by PCA, and the number of the centers k is chosen. The k centers are found by the improved center automatically selection algorithm. In the last step, the improved center clustering algorithm with k clusters is implemented on the distance matrix to achieve the final AIS trajectory clustering results. In order to improve the accuracy of the proposed multi-step clustering algorithm, an automatic algorithm for choosing the k clusters is developed according to the similarity distance. Numerous experiments on realistic AIS trajectory datasets in the bridge area waterway and Mississippi River have been implemented to compare our

14. A Dimensionality Reduction-Based Multi-Step Clustering Method for Robust Vessel Trajectory Analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Huanhuan; Liu, Jingxian; Liu, Ryan Wen; Xiong, Naixue; Wu, Kefeng; Kim, Tai-Hoon

2017-08-04

The Shipboard Automatic Identification System (AIS) is crucial for navigation safety and maritime surveillance, data mining and pattern analysis of AIS information have attracted considerable attention in terms of both basic research and practical applications. Clustering of spatio-temporal AIS trajectories can be used to identify abnormal patterns and mine customary route data for transportation safety. Thus, the capacities of navigation safety and maritime traffic monitoring could be enhanced correspondingly. However, trajectory clustering is often sensitive to undesirable outliers and is essentially more complex compared with traditional point clustering. To overcome this limitation, a multi-step trajectory clustering method is proposed in this paper for robust AIS trajectory clustering. In particular, the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW), a similarity measurement method, is introduced in the first step to measure the distances between different trajectories. The calculated distances, inversely proportional to the similarities, constitute a distance matrix in the second step. Furthermore, as a widely-used dimensional reduction method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is exploited to decompose the obtained distance matrix. In particular, the top k principal components with above 95% accumulative contribution rate are extracted by PCA, and the number of the centers k is chosen. The k centers are found by the improved center automatically selection algorithm. In the last step, the improved center clustering algorithm with k clusters is implemented on the distance matrix to achieve the final AIS trajectory clustering results. In order to improve the accuracy of the proposed multi-step clustering algorithm, an automatic algorithm for choosing the k clusters is developed according to the similarity distance. Numerous experiments on realistic AIS trajectory datasets in the bridge area waterway and Mississippi River have been implemented to compare our proposed method with

15. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Soheila Moein

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

16. Improved Full-Newton Step O(nL) Infeasible Interior-Point Method for Linear Optimization

OpenAIRE

Gu, G.; Mansouri, H.; Zangiabadi, M.; Bai, Y.Q.; Roos, C.

2009-01-01

We present several improvements of the full-Newton step infeasible interior-point method for linear optimization introduced by Roos (SIAM J. Optim. 16(4):1110–1136, 2006). Each main step of the method consists of a feasibility step and several centering steps. We use a more natural feasibility step, which targets the ?+-center of the next pair of perturbed problems. As for the centering steps, we apply a sharper quadratic convergence result, which leads to a slightly wider neighborhood for th...

17. Three-step interferometric method with blind phase shifts by use of interframe correlation between interferograms

Science.gov (United States)

Muravsky, Leonid I.; Kmet', Arkady B.; Stasyshyn, Ihor V.; Voronyak, Taras I.; Bobitski, Yaroslav V.

2018-06-01

A new three-step interferometric method with blind phase shifts to retrieve phase maps (PMs) of smooth and low-roughness engineering surfaces is proposed. Evaluating of two unknown phase shifts is fulfilled by using the interframe correlation between interferograms. The method consists of two stages. The first stage provides recording of three interferograms of a test object and their processing including calculation of unknown phase shifts, and retrieval of a coarse PM. The second stage implements firstly separation of high-frequency and low-frequency PMs and secondly producing of a fine PM consisting of areal surface roughness and waviness PMs. Extraction of the areal surface roughness and waviness PMs is fulfilled by using a linear low-pass filter. The computer simulation and experiments fulfilled to retrieve a gauge block surface area and its areal surface roughness and waviness have confirmed the reliability of the proposed three-step method.

18. The large discretization step method for time-dependent partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Haras, Zigo; Taasan, Shlomo

1995-01-01

A new method for the acceleration of linear and nonlinear time dependent calculations is presented. It is based on the Large Discretization Step (LDS) approximation, defined in this work, which employs an extended system of low accuracy schemes to approximate a high accuracy discrete approximation to a time dependent differential operator. Error bounds on such approximations are derived. These approximations are efficiently implemented in the LDS methods for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations, presented here. In these algorithms the high and low accuracy schemes are interpreted as the same discretization of a time dependent operator on fine and coarse grids, respectively. Thus, a system of correction terms and corresponding equations are derived and solved on the coarse grid to yield the fine grid accuracy. These terms are initialized by visiting the fine grid once in many coarse grid time steps. The resulting methods are very general, simple to implement and may be used to accelerate many existing time marching schemes.

19. LiLEDDA: A Six-Step Forum-Based Netnographic Research Method for Nursing Science

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

MARTIN SALZMANN-ERIKSON

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Internet research methods in nursing science are less developed than in other sciences. We choose to present an approach to conducting nursing research on an internet-based forum. This paper presents LiLEDDA, a six-step forum-based netnographic research method for nursing science. The steps consist of: 1. Literature review and identification of the research question(s; 2. Locating the field(s online; 3. Ethical considerations; 4. Data gathering; 5. Data analysis and interpretation; and 6. Abstractions and trustworthiness. Traditional research approaches are limiting when studying non-normative and non-mainstream life-worlds and their cultures. We argue that it is timely to develop more up-to-date research methods and study designs applicable to nursing science that reflect social developments and human living conditions that tend to be increasingly online-based.

20. A Method of MPPT Control Based on Power Variable Step-size in Photovoltaic Converter System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xu Hui-xiang

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Since the disadvantage of traditional MPPT algorithms of variable step-size, proposed power tracking based on variable step-size with the advantage method of the constant-voltage and the perturb-observe (P&O[1-3]. The control strategy modify the problem of voltage fluctuation caused by perturb-observe method, at the same time, introducing the advantage of constant-voltage method and simplify the circuit topology. With the theoretical derivation, control the output power of photovoltaic modules to change the duty cycle of main switch. Achieve the maximum power stabilization output, reduce the volatility of energy loss effectively, and improve the inversion efficiency[3,4]. Given the result of experimental test based theoretical derivation and the curve of MPPT when the prototype work.

1. Evaluation of lung and chest wall mechanics during anaesthesia using the PEEP-step method.

Science.gov (United States)

Persson, P; Stenqvist, O; Lundin, S

2018-04-01

Postoperative pulmonary complications are common. Between patients there are differences in lung and chest wall mechanics. Individualised mechanical ventilation based on measurement of transpulmonary pressures would be a step forward. A previously described method evaluates lung and chest wall mechanics from a change of ΔPEEP and calculation of change in end-expiratory lung volume (ΔEELV). The aim of the present study was to validate this PEEP-step method (PSM) during general anaesthesia by comparing it with the conventional method using oesophageal pressure (PES) measurements. In 24 lung healthy subjects (BMI 18.5-32), three different sizes of PEEP steps were performed during general anaesthesia and ΔEELVs were calculated. Transpulmonary driving pressure (ΔPL) for a tidal volume equal to each ΔEELV was measured using PES measurements and compared to ΔPEEP with limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). ΔPL calculated with both methods was compared with a Bland-Altman plot. Mean differences between ΔPEEP and ΔPL were mechanical properties among the lung healthy patients stresses the need for individualised ventilator settings based on measurements of lung and chest wall mechanics. The agreement between ΔPLs measured by the two methods during general anaesthesia suggests the use of the non-invasive PSM in this patient population. NCT 02830516. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

2. Preconditioned iterative methods for space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations

Science.gov (United States)

Zhao, Zhi; Jin, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Matthew M.

2016-08-01

In this paper, we propose practical numerical methods for solving a class of initial-boundary value problems of space-time fractional advection-diffusion equations. First, we propose an implicit method based on two-sided Grünwald formulae and discuss its stability and consistency. Then, we develop the preconditioned generalized minimal residual (preconditioned GMRES) method and preconditioned conjugate gradient normal residual (preconditioned CGNR) method with easily constructed preconditioners. Importantly, because resulting systems are Toeplitz-like, fast Fourier transform can be applied to significantly reduce the computational cost. We perform numerical experiments to demonstrate the efficiency of our preconditioners, even in cases with variable coefficients.

3. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2017-05-15

In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

4. Two-step nuclear reactions: The Surrogate Method, the Trojan Horse Method and their common foundations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hussein, Mahir S.

2017-01-01

In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)

5. Error Analysis of a Finite Element Method for the Space-Fractional Parabolic Equation

KAUST Repository

Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Pasciak, Joseph; Zhou, Zhi

2014-01-01

© 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics We consider an initial boundary value problem for a one-dimensional fractional-order parabolic equation with a space fractional derivative of Riemann-Liouville type and order α ∈ (1, 2). We study a spatial semidiscrete scheme using the standard Galerkin finite element method with piecewise linear finite elements, as well as fully discrete schemes based on the backward Euler method and the Crank-Nicolson method. Error estimates in the L2(D)- and Hα/2 (D)-norm are derived for the semidiscrete scheme and in the L2(D)-norm for the fully discrete schemes. These estimates cover both smooth and nonsmooth initial data and are expressed directly in terms of the smoothness of the initial data. Extensive numerical results are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

6. Stability of one-step methods in transient nonlinear heat conduction

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hughes, J.R.

1977-01-01

The purpose of the present work is to ascertain practical stability conditions for one-step methods commonly used in transient nonlinear heat conduction analyses. In this paper the concepts of stability, appropriate to the nonlinear problem, are thoroughly discussed. They of course reduce to the usual stability critierion for the linear, constant coefficient case. However, for nonlinear problems there are differences and theses ideas are of key importance in obtaining practical stability conditions. Of particular importance is a recent result which indicates that, in a sense, the trapezoidal and midpoint families are equivalent. Thus, stability results for one family may be translated into a result for the other. The main results obtained are: The stability behaviour of the explicit Euler method in the nonlinear regime is analogous to that for linear problems. In particular, an a priori step size restriction may be determined for each time step. The precise time step restriction on implicit conditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families is shown not to be determinable a priori. Of considerable practical significance, unconditionally stable members of the trapezoidal and midpoint families are identified. All notions of stability employed are motivated and defined, and their interpretations in practical computing are indicated. (Auth.)

7. Study on evaluation method for image quality of radiograph by step plate, (2)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terada, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kazuo; Katoh, Mitsuaki.

1992-01-01

Recently, penetrameter sensitivity is used not only for the evaluation of radiographic image quality but also as a control method for examination conditions. However, it is necessary to take the parametric data for radiation quality in order to use it for the second purpose. The quantitative factor of radiation quality is determined by the absorption coefficient and the ratio of scattered radiation to transmitted radiation reaching the X-ray film. When the X-ray equipment changes in conducting the radiographic examination, these data must be measured in each case. This is a demerit in controlling examination conditions based on parametric data. As shown theoretically in the first report, the image quality value of a step plate which is defined by the density difference divided by film contrast and step plate thickness is useful to obtain the value of the radiation quality factor. This report deal with experimental investigation to measure it with the step plate. The result is showing that the value of the radiation quality factor calculated by the parametric data corresponded well with the image quality value measured by the step plate. Therefore, the convenient method to measure the value of the radiation quality factor has been established in order to control examination conditions in radiographic examination. (author)

8. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhiqiang Zhou

2016-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one.

9. New Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate fission fraction uncertainties for the reactor antineutrino experiment

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ma, X.B., E-mail: maxb@ncepu.edu.cn; Qiu, R.M.; Chen, Y.X.

2017-02-15

Uncertainties regarding fission fractions are essential in understanding antineutrino flux predictions in reactor antineutrino experiments. A new Monte Carlo-based method to evaluate the covariance coefficients between isotopes is proposed. The covariance coefficients are found to vary with reactor burnup and may change from positive to negative because of balance effects in fissioning. For example, between {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu, the covariance coefficient changes from 0.15 to −0.13. Using the equation relating fission fraction and atomic density, consistent uncertainties in the fission fraction and covariance matrix were obtained. The antineutrino flux uncertainty is 0.55%, which does not vary with reactor burnup. The new value is about 8.3% smaller. - Highlights: • The covariance coefficients between isotopes vs reactor burnup may change its sign because of two opposite effects. • The relation between fission fraction uncertainty and atomic density are first studied. • A new MC-based method of evaluating the covariance coefficients between isotopes was proposed.

10. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rahmatullah

2018-03-01

Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

11. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Martin Axelsson

Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

12. Developing Methods for Fraction Cover Estimation Toward Global Mapping of Ecosystem Composition

Science.gov (United States)

Roberts, D. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Dennison, P. E.; Green, R. O.; Kokaly, R. F.; Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.; Stavros, E. N.

2016-12-01

Terrestrial vegetation seldom covers an entire pixel due to spatial mixing at many scales. Estimating the fractional contributions of photosynthetic green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and substrate (soil, rock, etc.) to mixed spectra can significantly improve quantitative remote measurement of terrestrial ecosystems. Traditional methods for estimating fractional vegetation cover rely on vegetation indices that are sensitive to variable substrate brightness, NPV and sun-sensor geometry. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is an alternate framework that provides estimates of fractional cover. However, simple SMA, in which the same set of endmembers is used for an entire image, fails to account for natural spectral variability within a cover class. Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) is a variant of SMA that allows the number and types of pure spectra to vary on a per-pixel basis, thereby accounting for endmember variability and generating more accurate cover estimates, but at a higher computational cost. Routine generation and delivery of GV, NPV, and substrate (S) fractions using MESMA is currently in development for large, diverse datasets acquired by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). We present initial results, including our methodology for ensuring consistency and generalizability of fractional cover estimates across a wide range of regions, seasons, and biomes. We also assess uncertainty and provide a strategy for validation. GV, NPV, and S fractions are an important precursor for deriving consistent measurements of ecosystem parameters such as plant stress and mortality, functional trait assessment, disturbance susceptibility and recovery, and biomass and carbon stock assessment. Copyright 2016 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. We acknowledge support of the US Government, NASA, the Earth Science Division and Terrestrial Ecology program.

13. Influence of application methods of one-step self-etching adhesives on microtensile bond strength

OpenAIRE

Chul-Kyu Choi,; Sung-Ae Son; Jin-Hee Ha; Bock Hur; Hyeon-Cheol Kim; Yong-Hun Kwon; Jeong-Kil Park

2011-01-01

Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various application methods of one-step self-etch adhesives to microtensile resin-dentin bond strength. Materials and Methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were used. The teeth were assigned randomly to twelve groups (n = 15), according to the three different adhesive systems (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, Adper Prompt L-Pop, G-Bond) and application methods. The adhesive systems were applied on the dentin as follows: 1) T...

14. Canine distemper virus detection by different methods of One-Step RT-qPCR

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Claudia de Camargo Tozato

2016-01-01

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Three commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR were evaluated for the molecular diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus. Using the kit that showed better performance, two systems of Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR assays were tested and compared for analytical sensitivity to Canine Distemper Virus RNA detection: a One-Step RT-qPCR (system A and a One-Step RT-qPCR combined with NESTED-qPCR (system B. Limits of detection for both systems were determined using a serial dilution of Canine Distemper Virus synthetic RNA or a positive urine sample. In addition, the same urine sample was tested using samples with prior centrifugation or ultracentrifugation. Commercial kits of One-Step RT-qPCR assays detected canine distemper virus RNA in 10 (100% urine samples from symptomatic animals tested. The One-Step RT-qPCR kit that showed better results was used to evaluate the analytical sensitivity of the A and B systems. Limit of detection using synthetic RNA for the system A was 11 RNA copies µL-1 and 110 RNA copies µl-1 for first round System B. The second round of the NESTED-qPCR for System B had a limit of detection of 11 copies µl-1. Relationship between Ct values and RNA concentration was linear. The RNA extracted from the urine dilutions was detected in dilutions of 10-3 and10-2 by System A and B respectively. Urine centrifugation increased the analytical sensitivity of the test and proved to be useful for routine diagnostics. The One-Step RT-qPCR is a fast, sensitive and speciﬁc method for canine distemper routine diagnosis and research projects that require sensitive and quantitative methodology.

15. Comparison between stochastic and machine learning methods for hydrological multi-step ahead forecasting: All forecasts are wrong!

Science.gov (United States)

Papacharalampous, Georgia; Tyralis, Hristos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2017-04-01

Machine learning (ML) is considered to be a promising approach to hydrological processes forecasting. We conduct a comparison between several stochastic and ML point estimation methods by performing large-scale computational experiments based on simulations. The purpose is to provide generalized results, while the respective comparisons in the literature are usually based on case studies. The stochastic methods used include simple methods, models from the frequently used families of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA), Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) and Exponential Smoothing models. The ML methods used are Random Forests (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Neural Networks (NN). The comparison refers to the multi-step ahead forecasting properties of the methods. A total of 20 methods are used, among which 9 are the ML methods. 12 simulation experiments are performed, while each of them uses 2 000 simulated time series of 310 observations. The time series are simulated using stochastic processes from the families of ARMA and ARFIMA models. Each time series is split into a fitting (first 300 observations) and a testing set (last 10 observations). The comparative assessment of the methods is based on 18 metrics, that quantify the methods' performance according to several criteria related to the accurate forecasting of the testing set, the capturing of its variation and the correlation between the testing and forecasted values. The most important outcome of this study is that there is not a uniformly better or worse method. However, there are methods that are regularly better or worse than others with respect to specific metrics. It appears that, although a general ranking of the methods is not possible, their classification based on their similar or contrasting performance in the various metrics is possible to some extent. Another important conclusion is that more sophisticated methods do not necessarily provide better forecasts

16. Single-Camera-Based Method for Step Length Symmetry Measurement in Unconstrained Elderly Home Monitoring.

Science.gov (United States)

Cai, Xi; Han, Guang; Song, Xin; Wang, Jinkuan

2017-11-01

single-camera-based gait monitoring is unobtrusive, inexpensive, and easy-to-use to monitor daily gait of seniors in their homes. However, most studies require subjects to walk perpendicularly to camera's optical axis or along some specified routes, which limits its application in elderly home monitoring. To build unconstrained monitoring environments, we propose a method to measure step length symmetry ratio (a useful gait parameter representing gait symmetry without significant relationship with age) from unconstrained straight walking using a single camera, without strict restrictions on walking directions or routes. according to projective geometry theory, we first develop a calculation formula of step length ratio for the case of unconstrained straight-line walking. Then, to adapt to general cases, we propose to modify noncollinear footprints, and accordingly provide general procedure for step length ratio extraction from unconstrained straight walking. Our method achieves a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 1.9547% for 15 subjects' normal and abnormal side-view gaits, and also obtains satisfactory MAPEs for non-side-view gaits (2.4026% for 45°-view gaits and 3.9721% for 30°-view gaits). The performance is much better than a well-established monocular gait measurement system suitable only for side-view gaits with a MAPE of 3.5538%. Independently of walking directions, our method can accurately estimate step length ratios from unconstrained straight walking. This demonstrates our method is applicable for elders' daily gait monitoring to provide valuable information for elderly health care, such as abnormal gait recognition, fall risk assessment, etc. single-camera-based gait monitoring is unobtrusive, inexpensive, and easy-to-use to monitor daily gait of seniors in their homes. However, most studies require subjects to walk perpendicularly to camera's optical axis or along some specified routes, which limits its application in elderly home monitoring

17. Acceleration of step and linear discontinuous schemes for the method of characteristics in DRAGON5

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alain Hébert

2017-09-01

Full Text Available The applicability of the algebraic collapsing acceleration (ACA technique to the method of characteristics (MOC in cases with scattering anisotropy and/or linear sources was investigated. Previously, the ACA was proven successful in cases with isotropic scattering and uniform (step sources. A presentation is first made of the MOC implementation, available in the DRAGON5 code. Two categories of schemes are available for integrating the propagation equations: (1 the first category is based on exact integration and leads to the classical step characteristics (SC and linear discontinuous characteristics (LDC schemes and (2 the second category leads to diamond differencing schemes of various orders in space. The acceleration of these MOC schemes using a combination of the generalized minimal residual [GMRES(m] method preconditioned with the ACA technique was focused on. Numerical results are provided for a two-dimensional (2D eight-symmetry pressurized water reactor (PWR assembly mockup in the context of the DRAGON5 code.

18. Research on the range side lobe suppression method for modulated stepped frequency radar signals

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Yinkai; Shan, Tao; Feng, Yuan

2018-05-01

The magnitude of time-domain range sidelobe of modulated stepped frequency radar affects the imaging quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). In this paper, the cause of high sidelobe in modulated stepped frequency radar imaging is analyzed first in real environment. Then, the chaos particle swarm optimization (CPSO) is used to select the amplitude and phase compensation factors according to the minimum sidelobe criterion. Finally, the compensated one-dimensional range images are obtained. Experimental results show that the amplitude-phase compensation method based on CPSO algorithm can effectively reduce the sidelobe peak value of one-dimensional range images, which outperforms the common sidelobe suppression methods and avoids the coverage of weak scattering points by strong scattering points due to the high sidelobes.

19. Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy

Science.gov (United States)

Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipaşa; Coll, Richard K.

2010-02-01

This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

20. Numerical sensitivity computation for discontinuous gradient-only optimization problems using the complex-step method

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Wilke, DN

2012-07-01

Full Text Available problems that utilise remeshing (i.e. the mesh topology is allowed to change) between design updates. Here, changes in mesh topology result in abrupt changes in the discretization error of the computed response. These abrupt changes in turn manifests... in shape optimization but may be present whenever (partial) differential equations are ap- proximated numerically with non-constant discretization methods e.g. remeshing of spatial domains or automatic time stepping in temporal domains. Keywords: Complex...

1. Solution of the schrodinger equation in one dimension by simple method for a simple step potential

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ertik, H.

2005-01-01

The coefficients of the transmission and reflection for the simple-step barrier potential were calculated by a simple method. Their values were entirely different from those often encountered in the literature. Especially in the case that the total energy is equal to the barrier potential, the value of 0,20 for the reflection coefficient was obtained whereas this is zero in the literature. This may be considered as an interesting point

2. Single-step electrochemical method for producing very sharp Au scanning tunneling microscopy tips

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gingery, David; Buehlmann, Philippe

2007-01-01

A single-step electrochemical method for making sharp gold scanning tunneling microscopy tips is described. 3.0M NaCl in 1% perchloric acid is compared to several previously reported etchants. The addition of perchloric acid to sodium chloride solutions drastically shortens etching times and is shown by transmission electron microscopy to produce very sharp tips with a mean radius of curvature of 15 nm

3. Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Farm Wastes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mahoney, Lenna A.

2006-01-01

The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Hanford Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using a method that depended on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of the compositions of liquid and solid phases. The present report describes a simplified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method.

4. Fractional exclusion statistics: the method for describing interacting particle systems as ideal gases

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anghel, Dragoş-Victor

2012-01-01

I show that if the total energy of a system of interacting particles may be written as a sum of quasiparticle energies, then the system of quasiparticles can be viewed, in general, as an ideal gas with fractional exclusion statistics (FES). The general method for calculating the FES parameters is also provided. The interacting particle system cannot be described as an ideal gas of Bose and Fermi quasiparticles except in trivial situations.

5. A Modified Generalized Laguerre Spectral Method for Fractional Differential Equations on the Half Line

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. Baleanu

2013-01-01

fractional derivatives is based on modified generalized Laguerre polynomials Li(α,β(x with x∈Λ=(0,∞, α>−1, and β>0, and i is the polynomial degree. We implement and develop the modified generalized Laguerre collocation method based on the modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss points which is used as collocation nodes for solving nonlinear multiterm FDEs on the half line.

6. The Galerkin Finite Element Method for A Multi-term Time-Fractional Diffusion equation

OpenAIRE

Jin, Bangti; Lazarov, Raytcho; Liu, Yikan; Zhou, Zhi

2014-01-01

We consider the initial/boundary value problem for a diffusion equation involving multiple time-fractional derivatives on a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyze a space semidiscrete scheme based on the standard Galerkin finite element method using continuous piecewise linear functions. Nearly optimal error estimates for both cases of initial data and inhomogeneous term are derived, which cover both smooth and nonsmooth data. Further we develop a fully discrete scheme based on a finite...

7. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ahmet Bekir

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

8. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

Science.gov (United States)

Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

2017-09-01

The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

9. Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Undefined Petroleum Fractions Using Group Contributions Methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Aguilar-Cisneros Humberto

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Hydrogen solubility in heavy undefined petroleum fractions is estimated by taking as starting point a method of characterization based on functional groups [ Carreón-Calderón et al. (2012 Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51, 14188-14198 ]. Such method provides properties entering into equations of states and molecular pseudostructures formed by non-integer numbers of functional groups. Using Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE data from binary mixtures of known compounds, interaction parameters between hydrogen and the calculated functional groups were estimated. Besides, the incorporation of the hydrogen-carbon ratio of the undefined petroleum fractions into the method allows the corresponding hydrogen solubility to be properly estimated. This procedure was tested with seven undefined petroleum fractions from 27 to 6 API over wide ranges of pressure and temperature (323.15 to 623.15 K. The results seem to be in good agreement with experimental data (overall Relative Average Deviation, RAD < 15%.

10. Proposal for a Five-Step Method to Elicit Expert Judgment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Duco Veen

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.

11. Imaginary Time Step Method to Solve the Dirac Equation with Nonlocal Potential

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang Ying; Liang Haozhao; Meng Jie

2009-01-01

The imaginary time step (ITS) method is applied to solve the Dirac equation with nonlocal potentials in coordinate space. Taking the nucleus 12 C as an example, even with nonlocal potentials, the direct ITS evolution for the Dirac equation still meets the disaster of the Dirac sea. However, following the recipe in our former investigation, the disaster can be avoided by the ITS evolution for the corresponding Schroedinger-like equation without localization, which gives the convergent results exactly the same with those obtained iteratively by the shooting method with localized effective potentials.

12. An In-Pile Kinetic Method for Determining the Delayed Neutron Fraction βeff

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gilad, E.; Rivin, O.; Ettedgui, H.; Yaar, I.; Geslot, B.; Pepino, A.; Di Salvo, J.; Gruel, A.; Blaise, P.

2014-01-01

Delayed neutrons are of fundamental importance in the field of nuclear reactor dynamics and control. Although only a small fraction of the neutrons emitted by fission are not prompt, the knowledge of the delayed neutrons parameters is essential for transient analysis, such as startup or shutdown of the reactor, as well as for accidents analysis and control system design [1]. One of the main delayed neutron parameters used in the point reactor model equations is the effective delayed neutron fraction, which incorporates both delayed neutron spectral properties and core geometrical configuration [1,2]. Additional delayed neutron parameters include the fraction of fission neutrons emitted in each delayed group, and the delayed neutron precursors decay constants . Experimental efforts aimed at determining the value ofβ, which provide experimental support for the evaluation of delayed neutron parameters, are extremely valuable. This is due to the fact that unlike other fields in reactor physics, e.g. criticality safety or shielding, the availability of experimental data and benchmark problems for validating delayed neutron parameters and its implementation in different models is highly limited. Furthermore, the existing experimental data exhibit significant discrepancies between the different sets of parameter, which lead to substantial disparity in the analysis of kinetic experiments and reactor dynamic behavior]. In this work, a method for determining the effective delayed neutron fraction using in-pile reactivity oscillation and Fourier analysis is presented. The method is based on measurements of the reactor's power response to small periodic in-pile reactivity perturbations and utilizes Fourier analysis for reconstruction of the reactor zero power transfer function. Knowledge of the reactor transfer function enables the estimation of theβ value using multi-parameter nonlinear fit. The method accounts for higher harmonics, which are excited by the trapezoidal

13. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Fierrez, J.; Li, S.Z.; Ross, A.; Veldhuis, R.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Bigun, J.

2016-01-01

We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

14. The Step Method - Battling Identity Theft Using E-Retailers' Websites

Science.gov (United States)

Schulze, Marion; Shah, Mahmood H.

Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in the 21st century. This paper investigates firstly what well-known e-commerce organizations are communicating on their websites to address this issue. For this purpose we analyze secondary data (literature and websites of ten organizations). Secondly we investigate the good practice in this area and recommend practical steps. The key findings are that some organizations only publish minimum security information to comply with legal requirements. Others inform consumers on how they actively try to prevent identity theft, how consumers can protect themselves, and about supporting actions when identity theft related fraud actually happens. From these findings we developed the Support - Trust - Empowerment -Prevention (STEP) method. It is aimed at helping to prevent identity theft and dealing with consequences when it occurs. It can help organizations on gaining and keeping consumers’ trust which is so essential for e-retailers in a climate of rising fraud.

15. A Novel Motion Compensation Method for Random Stepped Frequency Radar with M-sequence

Science.gov (United States)

Liao, Zhikun; Hu, Jiemin; Lu, Dawei; Zhang, Jun

2018-01-01

The random stepped frequency radar is a new kind of synthetic wideband radar. In the research, it has been found that it possesses a thumbtack-like ambiguity function which is considered to be the ideal one. This also means that only a precise motion compensation could result in the correct high resolution range profile. In this paper, we will introduce the random stepped frequency radar coded by M-sequence firstly and briefly analyse the effect of relative motion between target and radar on the distance imaging, which is called defocusing problem. Then, a novel motion compensation method, named complementary code cancellation, will be put forward to solve this problem. Finally, the simulated experiments will demonstrate its validity and the computational analysis will show up its efficiency.

16. A parallel algorithm for the two-dimensional time fractional diffusion equation with implicit difference method.

Science.gov (United States)

Gong, Chunye; Bao, Weimin; Tang, Guojian; Jiang, Yuewen; Liu, Jie

2014-01-01

It is very time consuming to solve fractional differential equations. The computational complexity of two-dimensional fractional differential equation (2D-TFDE) with iterative implicit finite difference method is O(M(x)M(y)N(2)). In this paper, we present a parallel algorithm for 2D-TFDE and give an in-depth discussion about this algorithm. A task distribution model and data layout with virtual boundary are designed for this parallel algorithm. The experimental results show that the parallel algorithm compares well with the exact solution. The parallel algorithm on single Intel Xeon X5540 CPU runs 3.16-4.17 times faster than the serial algorithm on single CPU core. The parallel efficiency of 81 processes is up to 88.24% compared with 9 processes on a distributed memory cluster system. We do think that the parallel computing technology will become a very basic method for the computational intensive fractional applications in the near future.

17. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

P. Vaattovaara

2005-01-01

Full Text Available New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to shed light on the presence of an organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10 nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various oxidized organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

18. Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method for differential equations with local fractional derivatives

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yang, Xiao-Jun; Srivastava, H.M.; He, Ji-Huan; Baleanu, Dumitru

2013-01-01

In this Letter, we propose to use the Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method in order to investigate a family of local fractional differential operators on Cantor sets. Some testing examples are given to illustrate the capability of the proposed method for the heat-conduction equation on a Cantor set and the damped wave equation in fractal strings. It is seen to be a powerful tool to convert differential equations on Cantor sets from Cantorian-coordinate systems to Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate systems.

19. Avoid the tsunami of the Dirac sea in the imaginary time step method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhang, Ying; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie

2010-01-01

The discrete single-particle spectra in both the Fermi and Dirac sea have been calculated by the imaginary time step (ITS) method for the Schroedinger-like equation after avoiding the "tsunami" of the Dirac sea, i.e. the diving behavior of the single-particle level into the Dirac sea in the direct application of the ITS method for the Dirac equation. It is found that by the transform from the Dirac equation to the Schroedinger-like equation, the single-particle spectra, which extend from the positive to the negative infinity, can be separately obtained by the ITS evolution in either the Fermi sea or the Dirac sea. Identical results with those in the conventional shooting method have been obtained via the ITS evolution for the equivalent Schroedinger-like equation, which demonstrates the feasibility, practicality and reliability of the present algorithm and dispels the doubts on the ITS method in the relativistic system. (author)

20. A Numerical method for solving a class of fractional Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Muhammed I. Syam

2017-11-01

Full Text Available This article is devoted to both theoretical and numerical studies of eigenvalues of regular fractional $2\\alpha$-order Sturm-Liouville problem where $\\frac{1}{2}< \\alpha \\leq 1$. In this paper, we implement the reproducing kernel method RKM to approximate the eigenvalues. To find the eigenvalues, we force the approximate solution produced by the RKM satisfy the boundary condition at $x=1$. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. In addition, we prove the existence of the eigenfunctions of the proposed problem. Uniformly convergence of the approximate eigenfunctions produced by the RKM to the exact eigenfunctions is proven.

1. Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Darzi

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0fractional derivative, β is positive real number, βξα−1≥2Γα, and f is continuous on 0,1×0,∞. As an application, one example is given to illustrate the main result.

2. Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil

Science.gov (United States)

Steele, Philip H; Yu, Fei; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

2014-12-30

The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.

3. Numerical method in reproducing kernel space for an inverse source problem for the fractional diffusion equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang, Wenyan; Han, Bo; Yamamoto, Masahiro

2013-01-01

We propose a new numerical method for reproducing kernel Hilbert space to solve an inverse source problem for a two-dimensional fractional diffusion equation, where we are required to determine an x-dependent function in a source term by data at the final time. The exact solution is represented in the form of a series and the approximation solution is obtained by truncating the series. Furthermore, a technique is proposed to improve some of the existing methods. We prove that the numerical method is convergent under an a priori assumption of the regularity of solutions. The method is simple to implement. Our numerical result shows that our method is effective and that it is robust against noise in L 2 -space in reconstructing a source function. (paper)

4. Influence of application methods of one-step self-etching adhesives on microtensile bond strength

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chul-Kyu Choi,

2011-05-01

5. Spectral finite element methods for solving fractional differential equations with applications in anomalous transport

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carella, Alfredo Raul

2012-09-15

Quantifying species transport rates is a main concern in chemical and petrochemical industries. In particular, the design and operation of many large-scale industrial chemical processes is as much dependent on diffusion as it is on reaction rates. However, the existing diffusion models sometimes fail to predict experimentally observed behaviors and their accuracy is usually insufficient for process optimization purposes. Fractional diffusion models offer multiple possibilities for generalizing Flick's law in a consistent manner in order to account for history dependence and nonlocal effects. These models have not been extensively applied to the study of real systems, mainly due to their computational cost and mathematical complexity. A least squares spectral formulation was developed for solving fractional differential equations. The proposed method was proven particularly well-suited for dealing with the numerical difficulties inherent to fractional differential operators. The practical implementation was explained in detail in order to enhance reproducibility, and directions were specified for extending it to multiple dimensions and arbitrarily shaped domains. A numerical framework based on the least-squares spectral element method was developed for studying and comparing anomalous diffusion models in pellets. This simulation tool is capable of solving arbitrary integro-differential equations and can be effortlessly adapted to various problems in any number of dimensions. Simulations of the flow around a cylindrical particle were achieved by extending the functionality of the developed framework. A test case was analyzed by coupling the boundary condition yielded by the fluid model with two families of anomalous diffusion models: hyperbolic diffusion and fractional diffusion. Qualitative guidelines for determining the suitability of diffusion models can be formulated by complementing experimental data with the results obtained from this approach.(Author)

6. Maximum photovoltaic power tracking for the PV array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lin, Chia-Hung; Huang, Cong-Hui; Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jian-Liung

2011-01-01

Highlights: → The FOICM can shorten the tracking time less than traditional methods. → The proposed method can work under lower solar radiation including thin and heavy clouds. → The FOICM algorithm can achieve MPPT for radiation and temperature changes. → It is easy to implement in a single-chip microcontroller or embedded system. -- Abstract: This paper proposes maximum photovoltaic power tracking (MPPT) for the photovoltaic (PV) array using the fractional-order incremental conductance method (FOICM). Since the PV array has low conversion efficiency, and the output power of PV array depends on the operation environments, such as various solar radiation, environment temperature, and weather conditions. Maximum charging power can be increased to a battery using a MPPT algorithm. The energy conversion of the absorbed solar light and cell temperature is directly transferred to the semiconductor, but electricity conduction has anomalous diffusion phenomena in inhomogeneous material. FOICM can provide a dynamic mathematical model to describe non-linear characteristics. The fractional-order incremental change as dynamic variable is used to adjust the PV array voltage toward the maximum power point. For a small-scale PV conversion system, the proposed method is validated by simulation with different operation environments. Compared with traditional methods, experimental results demonstrate the short tracking time and the practicality in MPPT of PV array.

7. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Huajun; Ji, Haifeng; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing; Wu, Guohua

2016-01-27

Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA). Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow) are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers' works.

8. Method to account for dose fractionation in analysis of IMRT plans: Modified equivalent uniform dose

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Park, Clinton S.; Kim, Yongbok; Lee, Nancy; Bucci, Kara M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping

2005-01-01

Purpose: To propose a modified equivalent uniform dose (mEUD) to account for dose fractionation using the biologically effective dose without losing the advantages of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) and to report the calculated mEUD and gEUD in clinically used intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. Methods and Materials: The proposed mEUD replaces the dose to each voxel in the gEUD formulation by a biologically effective dose with a normalization factor. We propose to use the term mEUD D o /n o that includes the total dose (D o ) and number of fractions (n o ) and to use the term mEUD o that includes the same total dose but a standard fraction size of 2 Gy. A total of 41 IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at our institution between October 1997 and March 2002 were selected for the study. The gEUD and mEUD were calculated for the planning gross tumor volume (pGTV), planning clinical tumor volume (pCTV), parotid glands, and spinal cord. The prescription dose for these patients was 70 Gy to >95% of the pGTV and 59.4 Gy to >95% of the pCTV in 33 fractions. Results: The calculated average gEUD was 72.2 ± 2.4 Gy for the pGTV, 54.2 ± 7.1 Gy for the pCTV, 26.7 ± 4.2 Gy for the parotid glands, and 34.1 ± 6.8 Gy for the spinal cord. The calculated average mEUD D o /n o using 33 fractions was 71.7 ± 3.5 Gy for mEUD 70/33 of the pGTV, 49.9 ± 7.9 Gy for mEUD 59.5/33 of the pCTV, 27.6 ± 4.8 Gy for mEUD 26/33 of the parotid glands, and 32.7 ± 7.8 Gy for mEUD 45/33 of the spinal cord. Conclusion: The proposed mEUD, combining the gEUD with the biologically effective dose, preserves all advantages of the gEUD while reflecting the fractionation effects and linear and quadratic survival characteristics

9. On the limitations of fixed-step-size adaptive methods with response confidence.

Science.gov (United States)

Hsu, Yung-Fong; Chin, Ching-Lan

2014-05-01

The family of (non-parametric, fixed-step-size) adaptive methods, also known as 'up-down' or 'staircase' methods, has been used extensively in psychophysical studies for threshold estimation. Extensions of adaptive methods to non-binary responses have also been proposed. An example is the three-category weighted up-down (WUD) method (Kaernbach, 2001) and its four-category extension (Klein, 2001). Such an extension, however, is somewhat restricted, and in this paper we discuss its limitations. To facilitate the discussion, we characterize the extension of WUD by an algorithm that incorporates response confidence into a family of adaptive methods. This algorithm can also be applied to two other adaptive methods, namely Derman's up-down method and the biased-coin design, which are suitable for estimating any threshold quantiles. We then discuss via simulations of the above three methods the limitations of the algorithm. To illustrate, we conduct a small scale of experiment using the extended WUD under different response confidence formats to evaluate the consistency of threshold estimation. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

10. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

KAUST Repository

Pestana, Reynam C.

2009-01-01

We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

11. A multi-time-step noise reduction method for measuring velocity statistics from particle tracking velocimetry

Science.gov (United States)

Machicoane, Nathanaël; López-Caballero, Miguel; Bourgoin, Mickael; Aliseda, Alberto; Volk, Romain

2017-10-01

We present a method to improve the accuracy of velocity measurements for fluid flow or particles immersed in it, based on a multi-time-step approach that allows for cancellation of noise in the velocity measurements. Improved velocity statistics, a critical element in turbulent flow measurements, can be computed from the combination of the velocity moments computed using standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques for data sets that have been collected over different values of time intervals between images. This method produces Eulerian velocity fields and Lagrangian velocity statistics with much lower noise levels compared to standard PIV or PTV measurements, without the need of filtering and/or windowing. Particle displacement between two frames is computed for multiple different time-step values between frames in a canonical experiment of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The second order velocity structure function of the flow is computed with the new method and compared to results from traditional measurement techniques in the literature. Increased accuracy is also demonstrated by comparing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy measured from this function against previously validated measurements.

12. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

2014-01-01

for instrument-based PoC blood biomarker analysis systems. Motivated by the complexity of associating high-accuracy biosensing using silicon nanowire field effect transistors with ease of use for the PoC system user, we propose a novel one-step, multipoint calibration method for LoC-based systems. Our approach...... specifically addresses the important interfaces between a novel microfluidic unit to integrate the sensor array and a mobile-device hardware accessory. A multi-point calibration curve is obtained by generating a defined set of reference concentrations from a single input. By consecutively splitting the flow...

13. An iterative method for tri-level quadratic fractional programming problems using fuzzy goal programming approach

Science.gov (United States)

Kassa, Semu Mitiku; Tsegay, Teklay Hailay

2017-08-01

Tri-level optimization problems are optimization problems with three nested hierarchical structures, where in most cases conflicting objectives are set at each level of hierarchy. Such problems are common in management, engineering designs and in decision making situations in general, and are known to be strongly NP-hard. Existing solution methods lack universality in solving these types of problems. In this paper, we investigate a tri-level programming problem with quadratic fractional objective functions at each of the three levels. A solution algorithm has been proposed by applying fuzzy goal programming approach and by reformulating the fractional constraints to equivalent but non-fractional non-linear constraints. Based on the transformed formulation, an iterative procedure is developed that can yield a satisfactory solution to the tri-level problem. The numerical results on various illustrative examples demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is very much promising and it can also be used to solve larger-sized as well as n-level problems of similar structure.

14. Fabrication of titanium removable dental prosthesis frameworks with a 2-step investment coating method.

Science.gov (United States)

Koike, Mari; Hummel, Susan K; Ball, John D; Okabe, Toru

2012-06-01

Although pure titanium is known to have good biocompatibility, a titanium alloy with better strength is needed for fabricating clinically acceptable, partial removable dental prosthesis (RDP) frameworks. The mechanical properties of an experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy cast with a 2-step investment technique were examined for RDP framework applications. Patterns for tests for various properties and denture frameworks for a preliminary trial casting were invested with a 2-step coating method using 2 types of mold materials: a less reactive spinel compound (Al(2)O(3)·MgO) and a less expensive SiO(2)-based material. The yield and tensile strength (n=5), modulus of elasticity (n=5), elongation (n=5), and hardness (n=8) of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy were determined. The external appearance and internal porosities of the preliminary trial castings of denture frameworks (n=2) were examined with a conventional dental radiographic unit. Cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy and commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) were used as controls. The data for the mechanical properties were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). The yield strength of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy was 851 MPa and the hardness was 356 HV. These properties were comparable to those of the cast Ti-6Al-4V and were higher than those of CP Ti (PAl-5Cu frameworks was found to have been incompletely cast. The cast biocompatible experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy exhibited high strength when cast with a 2-step coating method. With a dedicated study to determine the effect of sprue design on the quality of castings, biocompatible Ti-5Al-5Cu RDP frameworks for a clinical trial can be produced. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

15. A novel two-step method for screening shade tolerant mutant plants via dwarfism

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wei Li

2016-10-01

16. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw

2014-01-01

Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... of land surface temperature and a vegetation index. Among other methodologies, this approach has been commonly used as an approximation to estimate LE, mainly over large semi-arid areas with uniform landscape features. In this study, an interpretation of the triangular space has been applied over...

17. Methods and Algorithms for Solving Inverse Problems for Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equations

KAUST Repository

Aldoghaither, Abeer

2015-11-12

Fractional calculus has been introduced as an e cient tool for modeling physical phenomena, thanks to its memory and hereditary properties. For example, fractional models have been successfully used to describe anomalous di↵usion processes such as contaminant transport in soil, oil flow in porous media, and groundwater flow. These models capture important features of particle transport such as particles with velocity variations and long-rest periods. Mathematical modeling of physical phenomena requires the identification of pa- rameters and variables from available measurements. This is referred to as an inverse problem. In this work, we are interested in studying theoretically and numerically inverse problems for space Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation (FADE), which is used to model solute transport in porous media. Identifying parameters for such an equa- tion is important to understand how chemical or biological contaminants are trans- ported throughout surface aquifer systems. For instance, an estimate of the di↵eren- tiation order in groundwater contaminant transport model can provide information about soil properties, such as the heterogeneity of the medium. Our main contribution is to propose a novel e cient algorithm based on modulat-ing functions to estimate the coe cients and the di↵erentiation order for space FADE, which can be extended to general fractional Partial Di↵erential Equation (PDE). We also show how the method can be applied to the source inverse problem. This work is divided into two parts: In part I, the proposed method is described and studied through an extensive numerical analysis. The local convergence of the proposed two-stage algorithm is proven for 1D space FADE. The properties of this method are studied along with its limitations. Then, the algorithm is generalized to the 2D FADE. In part II, we analyze direct and inverse source problems for a space FADE. The problem consists of recovering the source term using final

18. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palmquist, F T.E.

1949-09-08

A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

19. Validation of a One-Step Method for Extracting Fatty Acids from Salmon, Chicken and Beef Samples.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Zhichao; Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Taha, Ameer Y

2017-10-01

Fatty acid extraction methods are time-consuming and expensive because they involve multiple steps and copious amounts of extraction solvents. In an effort to streamline the fatty acid extraction process, this study compared the standard Folch lipid extraction method to a one-step method involving a column that selectively elutes the lipid phase. The methods were tested on raw beef, salmon, and chicken. Compared to the standard Folch method, the one-step extraction process generally yielded statistically insignificant differences in chicken and salmon fatty acid concentrations, percent composition and weight percent. Initial testing showed that beef stearic, oleic and total fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower by 9-11% with the one-step method as compared to the Folch method, but retesting on a different batch of samples showed a significant 4-8% increase in several omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid concentrations with the one-step method relative to the Folch. Overall, the findings reflect the utility of a one-step extraction method for routine and rapid monitoring of fatty acids in chicken and salmon. Inconsistencies in beef concentrations, although minor (within 11%), may be due to matrix effects. A one-step fatty acid extraction method has broad applications for rapidly and routinely monitoring fatty acids in the food supply and formulating controlled dietary interventions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

20. Development of a new rapid HPLC method for the fractionation of histones

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gurley, L.R.; Valdez, J.G.; Prentice, D.A.; Spall, W.D.

1983-01-01

To study histone functions, it is necessary to fractionate the histones into their five classes (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) and then to subfractionate these classes into variants having slightly different primary structures and into different phosphorylated and acetylated forms. With the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was hoped that laborious and time-consuming conventional methods could be replaced by a simple, rapid, high-resolving HPLC method for fractionating histones. However, problems of irreversible adsorption of the histones to HPLC column packings discouraged this development. Our laboratory has now determined that the strong adsorption of histones to HPLC columns results from two different forces: (1) polar interactions between the histones and the silanol groups of silica-based HPLC column packing, and (2) hydrophobic interactions between the histones and the bound organic phase of the column packings. By minimizing these forces, we have succeeded in developing an HPLC method suitable for histone studies

1. Numerical Analysis of an H1-Galerkin Mixed Finite Element Method for Time Fractional Telegraph Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jinfeng Wang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We discuss and analyze an H1-Galerkin mixed finite element (H1-GMFE method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an H1-GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the H1-GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in L2-norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in H1-norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of H1-GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure.

2. Accelerated solvent extraction method with one-step clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nurul Huda Mamat Ghani; Norashikin Sain; Rozita Osman; Zuraidah Abdullah Munir

2007-01-01

The application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using hexane combined with neutral silica gel and sulfuric acid/ silica gel (SA/ SG) to remove impurities prior to analysis by gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was studied. The efficiency of extraction was evaluated based on the three hydrocarbons; dodecane, tetradecane and pentadecane spiked to soil sample. The effect of ASE operating conditions (extraction temperature, extraction pressure, static time) was evaluated and the optimized condition obtained from the study was extraction temperature of 160 degree Celsius, extraction pressure of 2000 psi with 5 minutes static extraction time. The developed ASE with one-step clean-up method was applied in the extraction of hydrocarbons from spiked soil and the amount extracted was comparable to ASE extraction without clean-up step with the advantage of obtaining cleaner extract with reduced interferences. Therefore in the developed method, extraction and clean-up for hydrocarbons in soil can be achieved rapidly and efficiently with reduced solvent usage. (author)

3. Solving delay differential equations in S-ADAPT by method of steps.

Science.gov (United States)

Bauer, Robert J; Mo, Gary; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

2013-09-01

4. Novel two-step method to form silk fibroin fibrous hydrogel

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ming, Jinfa; Li, Mengmeng; Han, Yuhui; Chen, Ying; Li, Han; Zuo, Baoqi; Pan, Fukui

2016-01-01

Hydrogels prepared by silk fibroin solution have been studied. However, mimicking the nanofibrous structures of extracellular matrix for fabricating biomaterials remains a challenge. Here, a novel two-step method was applied to prepare fibrous hydrogels using regenerated silk fibroin solution containing nanofibrils in a range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. When the gelation process of silk solution occurred, it showed a top-down type gel within 30 min. After gelation, silk fibroin fibrous hydrogels exhibited nanofiber network morphology with β-sheet structure. Moreover, the compressive stress and modulus of fibrous hydrogels were 31.9 ± 2.6 and 2.8 ± 0.8 kPa, respectively, which was formed using 2.0 wt.% concentration solutions. In addition, fibrous hydrogels supported BMSCs attachment and proliferation over 12 days. This study provides important insight in the in vitro processing of silk fibroin into useful new materials. - Highlights: • SF fibrous hydrogel was prepared by a novel two-step method. • SF solution containing nanofibrils in a range of tens to hundreds of nanometers was prepared. • Gelation process was top-down type gel with several minutes. • SF fibrous hydrogels exhibited nanofiber network morphology with β-sheet structure. • Fibrous hydrogels had higher compressive stresses superior to porous hydrogels.

5. One-Step Method for Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Chitosan

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Karla M. Gregorio-Jauregui

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan in one step by the coprecipitation method in the presence of different chitosan concentrations is reported here. Obtaining of magnetic superparamagnetic nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscopy allowed to identify spheroidal nanoparticles with around 10-11 nm in average diameter. Characterization of the products by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that composite chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were obtained. Chitosan content in obtained nanocomposites was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites were tested in Pb2+ removal from a PbCl2 aqueous solution, showing a removal efficacy up to 53.6%. This work provides a simple method for chitosan-coated nanoparticles obtaining, which could be useful for heavy metal ions removal from water.

6. Characteristic analysis of laser isotope separation process by two-step photodissociation method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei

1981-01-01

A large number of laser isotope separation experiments have been performed actively in many countries. In this paper, the selective two-step photodissociation method is chosen and simultaneous nonlinear differential equations that express the separation process are solved directly by using computer. Predicted separation factors are investigated in relation to the incident pulse energy and the concentration of desired molecules. Furthermore, the concept of separative work is used to evaluate the results of separation for this method. It is shown from an example of numerical calculation that a very large separation factor can be obtained if the concentration of desired molecules is lowered and two laser pulses to be closely synchronized are not always required in operation for the photodissociation of molecules. (author)

7. A two-step method for fast and reliable EUV mask metrology

Science.gov (United States)

Helfenstein, Patrick; Mochi, Iacopo; Rajendran, Rajeev; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Ekinci, Yasin

2017-03-01

One of the major obstacles towards the implementation of extreme ultraviolet lithography for upcoming technology nodes in semiconductor industry remains the realization of a fast and reliable detection methods patterned mask defects. We are developing a reflective EUV mask-scanning lensless imaging tool (RESCAN), installed at the Swiss Light Source synchrotron at the Paul Scherrer Institut. Our system is based on a two-step defect inspection method. In the first step, a low-resolution defect map is generated by die to die comparison of the diffraction patterns from areas with programmed defects, to those from areas that are known to be defect-free on our test sample. In a later stage, a die to database comparison will be implemented in which the measured diffraction patterns will be compared to those calculated directly from the mask layout. This Scattering Scanning Contrast Microscopy technique operates purely in the Fourier domain without the need to obtain the aerial image and, given a sufficient signal to noise ratio, defects are found in a fast and reliable way, albeit with a location accuracy limited by the spot size of the incident illumination. Having thus identified rough locations for the defects, a fine scan is carried out in the vicinity of these locations. Since our source delivers coherent illumination, we can use an iterative phase-retrieval method to reconstruct the aerial image of the scanned area with - in principle - diffraction-limited resolution without the need of an objective lens. Here, we will focus on the aerial image reconstruction technique and give a few examples to illustrate the capability of the method.

8. New Technique Of Determination Of Biogenic Fraction In Liquid Fuels By The 14C Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Krajcar Bronic, I.; Baresic, J.; Horvatincic, N.; Kristof, R.; Kozar Logar, J.

2015-01-01

According to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC all (liquid) fuels have to contain at least 10 percent of bio-fuel, i.e., blend of biogenic origin, by 2020. 14C method is the most reliable method of determination of the biogenic fraction in fuels and various measurement techniques can be applied. A technique of direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel is simple and fast but has main disadvantage: different liquid colours cause different quenching and changes in the measurement efficiency. Here we have described a new technique that uses liquids of different colours to construct modern and background calibration curves, MCC and BCC, respectively, by measuring count rates and SQP values of various modern and fossil liquids. Several types of fossil fuel, pure benzine and benzene (used as 14C-free background for 14C dating) were used for BCC, and various brands of domestic oil (vegetable, sunflower, olive, pumpkin), bioethanol and benzene prepared from modern samples were used MCC construction. The procedure for the unknown sample consists of: 1) measurement of the count rate and the SQP value, 2) calculation of background and modern count rates corresponding to the measured SQP value based on the BCC and MCC curves, respectively, and 3) the ratio of net count rates of the unknown sample and the modern net count rate at the same SQP represents the fraction of the biogenic component in the liquid. All samples should be measured under the same conditions. In our case these are: UltimaGold F scintillator, the ratio sample:scintillator (10 mL:10 mL), low-potassium glass vials of 20 mL volume, spectra recorded by LSC Quantulus and evaluated in the window 124 - 570. Lowest detectable biogenic fraction is 0.5 %. The technique depends neither on the fossil matrix or the biogenic additive types. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by different evaluation technique. (author).

9. SOLA-VOF, 2-D Transient Hydrodynamic Using Fractional Volume of Fluid Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nichols, B.D.; Hirt, C.W.; Hotchkiss, R.S.

1991-01-01

1 - Description of problem or function: SOLA-VOF is a program for the solution of two-dimensional transient fluid flow with free boundaries, based on the concept of a fractional volume of fluid (VOF). Its basic mode of operation is for single fluid calculations having multiple free surfaces. However, SOLA-VOF can also be used for calculations involving two fluids separated by a sharp interface. In either case, the fluids may be treated as incompressible or as having limited compressibility. Surface tension forces with wall adhesion are permitted in both cases. Internal obstacles may be defined by blocking out any desired combination of cells in the mesh, which is composed of rectangular cells of variable size. 2 - Method of solution: The basis of the SOLA-VOF method is the fractional volume of fluid scheme for tracking free boundaries. In this technique, a function F(x,y,t) is defined whose value is unity at any point occupied by fluid and zero elsewhere. When averaged over the cells of a computational mesh, the average value of F in a cell is equal to the fractional volume of the cell occupied by fluid. In particular, a unit value of F corresponds to a cell full of fluid, whereas a zero value indicates that the cell contains no fluid. Cells with F values between zero and one contain a free surface. SOLA-VOF uses an Eulerian mesh of rectangular cells having variable sizes. The fluid equations solved are the finite difference approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The setting of array dimensions is controlled through PARAMETER statements

10. A fast linearized conservative finite element method for the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Meng; Gu, Xian-Ming; Huang, Chengming; Fei, Mingfa; Zhang, Guoyu

2018-04-01

In this paper, a fast linearized conservative finite element method is studied for solving the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations. We prove that the scheme preserves both the mass and energy, which are defined by virtue of some recursion relationships. Using the Sobolev inequalities and then employing the mathematical induction, the discrete scheme is proved to be unconditionally convergent in the sense of L2-norm and H α / 2-norm, which means that there are no any constraints on the grid ratios. Then, the prior bound of the discrete solution in L2-norm and L∞-norm are also obtained. Moreover, we propose an iterative algorithm, by which the coefficient matrix is independent of the time level, and thus it leads to Toeplitz-like linear systems that can be efficiently solved by Krylov subspace solvers with circulant preconditioners. This method can reduce the memory requirement of the proposed linearized finite element scheme from O (M2) to O (M) and the computational complexity from O (M3) to O (Mlog ⁡ M) in each iterative step, where M is the number of grid nodes. Finally, numerical results are carried out to verify the correction of the theoretical analysis, simulate the collision of two solitary waves, and show the utility of the fast numerical solution techniques.

11. Exact Solutions of the Time Fractional BBM-Burger Equation by Novel (G′/G-Expansion Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The fractional derivatives are used in the sense modified Riemann-Liouville to obtain exact solutions for BBM-Burger equation of fractional order. This equation can be converted into an ordinary differential equation by using a persistent fractional complex transform and, as a result, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions are attained. The performance of the method is reliable, useful, and gives newer general exact solutions with more free parameters than the existing methods. Numerical results coupled with the graphical representation completely reveal the trustworthiness of the method.

12. The Finite-Surface Method for incompressible flow: a step beyond staggered grid

Science.gov (United States)

Hokpunna, Arpiruk; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru

2017-11-01

We present a newly developed higher-order finite surface method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). This method defines the velocities as a surface-averaged value on the surfaces of the pressure cells. Consequently, the mass conservation on the pressure cells becomes an exact equation. The only things left to approximate is the momentum equation and the pressure at the new time step. At certain conditions, the exact mass conservation enables the explicit n-th order accurate NSE solver to be used with the pressure treatment that is two or four order less accurate without loosing the apparent convergence rate. This feature was not possible with finite volume of finite difference methods. We use Fourier analysis with a model spectrum to determine the condition and found that the range covers standard boundary layer flows. The formal convergence and the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a sixth-order finite volume method. Finally, the accuracy and performance of the method is evaluated in turbulent channel flows. This work is partially funded by a research colloaboration from IFS, Tohoku university and ASEAN+3 funding scheme from CMUIC, Chiang Mai University.

13. Two-Step Injection Method for Collecting Digital Evidence in Digital Forensics

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nana Rachmana Syambas

2015-01-01

Full Text Available In digital forensic investigations, the investigators take digital evidence from computers, laptops or other electronic goods. There are many complications when a suspect or related person does not want to cooperate or has removed digital evidence. A lot of research has been done with the goal of retrieving data from flash memory or other digital storage media from which the content has been deleted. Unfortunately, such methods cannot guarantee that all data will be recovered. Most data can only be recovered partially and sometimes not perfectly, so that some or all files cannot be opened. This paper proposes the development of a new method for the retrieval of digital evidence called the Two-Step Injection method (TSI. It focuses on the prevention of the loss of digital evidence through the deletion of data by suspects or other parties. The advantage of this method is that the system works in secret and can be combined with other digital evidence applications that already exist, so that the accuracy and completeness of the resulting digital evidence can be improved. An experiment to test the effectiveness of the method was set up. The developed TSI system worked properly and had a 100% success rate.

14. Tracking of Nuclear Cable Insulation Polymer Structural Changes using the Gel Fraction and Uptake Factor Method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Correa, Miguel; Huang, Qian; Fifield, Leonard S.

2018-04-11

Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation samples were exposed to heat and gamma radiation at a series of temperatures, dose rates, and exposure times to evaluate the effects of these variables on material degradation. The samples were tested using the solvent incubation method to collect gel fraction and uptake factor data in order to assess the crosslinking and chain scission occurring in polymer samples with aging. Consistent with previous reports, gel fraction values were observed to increase and uptake factor values to decrease with radiation and thermal exposure. The trends seen were also more prominent as exposure time increased, suggesting this to be a viable method of tracking structural changes in the XLPE-insulated cable material over extended periods. For the conditions explored, the cable insulation material evaluated did not indicate signs of anomalous aging such as inverse temperature effect in which radiation-induced aging is more severe at lower temperature. Ongoing aging under identical radiation conditions and at lower temperature will further inform conclusions regarding the importance of inverse temperature effects for this material under these conditions.

15. Review and comparison of effective delayed neutron fraction calculation methods with Monte Carlo codes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bécares, V.; Pérez-Martín, S.; Vázquez-Antolín, M.; Villamarín, D.; Martín-Fuertes, F.; González-Romero, E.M.; Merino, I.

2014-01-01

Highlights: • Review of several Monte Carlo effective delayed neutron fraction calculation methods. • These methods have been implemented with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. • They have been benchmarked against against some critical and subcritical systems. • Several nuclear data libraries have been used. - Abstract: The calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction, β eff , with Monte Carlo codes is a complex task due to the requirement of properly considering the adjoint weighting of delayed neutrons. Nevertheless, several techniques have been proposed to circumvent this difficulty and obtain accurate Monte Carlo results for β eff without the need of explicitly determining the adjoint flux. In this paper, we make a review of some of these techniques; namely we have analyzed two variants of what we call the k-eigenvalue technique and other techniques based on different interpretations of the physical meaning of the adjoint weighting. To test the validity of all these techniques we have implemented them with the MCNPX code and we have benchmarked them against a range of critical and subcritical systems for which either experimental or deterministic values of β eff are available. Furthermore, several nuclear data libraries have been used in order to assess the impact of the uncertainty in nuclear data in the calculated value of β eff

16. Basic features of boron isotope separation by SILARC method in the two-step iterative static model

Science.gov (United States)

Lyakhov, K. A.; Lee, H. J.

2013-05-01

In this paper we develop a new static model for boron isotope separation by the laser assisted retardation of condensation method (SILARC) on the basis of model proposed by Jeff Eerkens. Our model is thought to be adequate to so-called two-step iterative scheme for isotope separation. This rather simple model helps to understand combined action on boron separation by SILARC method of all important parameters and relations between them. These parameters include carrier gas, molar fraction of BCl3 molecules in carrier gas, laser pulse intensity, gas pulse duration, gas pressure and temperature in reservoir and irradiation cells, optimal irradiation cell and skimmer chamber volumes, and optimal nozzle throughput. A method for finding optimal values of these parameters based on some objective function global minimum search was suggested. It turns out that minimum of this objective function is directly related to the minimum of total energy consumed, and total setup volume. Relations between nozzle throat area, IC volume, laser intensity, number of nozzles, number of vacuum pumps, and required isotope production rate were derived. Two types of industrial scale irradiation cells are compared. The first one has one large throughput slit nozzle, while the second one has numerous small nozzles arranged in parallel arrays for better overlap with laser beam. It is shown that the last one outperforms the former one significantly. It is argued that NO2 is the best carrier gas for boron isotope separation from the point of view of energy efficiency and Ar from the point of view of setup compactness.

17. Dose Rate Experiment at JET for Benchmarking the Calculation Direct One Step Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angelone, M.; Petrizzi, L.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.; Popovichev, S.

2006-01-01

Neutrons produced by D-D and D-T plasmas induce the activation of tokamak materials and of components. The development of reliable methods to assess dose rates is a key issue for maintenance and operating nuclear machines, in normal and off-normal conditions. In the frame of the EFDA Fusion Technology work programme, a computational tool based upon MCNP Monte Carlo code has been developed to predict the dose rate after shutdown: it is called Direct One Step Method (D1S). The D1S is an innovative approach in which the decay gammas are coupled to the neutrons as in the prompt case and they are transported in one single step in the same run. Benchmarking of this new tool with experimental data taken in a complex geometry like that of a tokamak is a fundamental step to test the reliability of the D1S method. A dedicated benchmark experiment was proposed for the 2005-2006 experimental campaign of JET. Two irradiation positions have been selected for the benchmark: one inner position inside the vessel, not far from the plasma, called the 2 upper irradiation end (IE2), where neutron fluence is relatively high. The second position is just outside a vertical port in an external position (EX). Here the neutron flux is lower and the dose rate to be measured is not very far from the residual background. Passive detectors are used for in-vessel measurements: the high sensitivity Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) GR-200A (natural LiF), which ensure measurements down to environmental dose level. An active detector of Geiger-Muller (GM) type is used for out of vessel dose rate measurement. Before their use the detectors were calibrated in a secondary gamma-ray standard (Cs-137 and Co-60) facility in term of air-kerma. The background measurement was carried-out in the period July -September 2005 in the outside position EX using the GM tube and in September 2005 inside the vacuum vessel using TLD detectors located in the 2 Upper irradiation end IE2. In the present work

18. Error analysis of semidiscrete finite element methods for inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion

KAUST Repository

Jin, B.; Lazarov, R.; Pasciak, J.; Zhou, Z.

2014-01-01

© 2014 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. We consider the initial-boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, a vanishing initial data and a nonsmooth right-hand side in a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyse two semidiscrete schemes based on the standard Galerkin and lumped mass finite element methods. Almost optimal error estimates are obtained for right-hand side data f (x, t) ε L∞ (0, T; Hq(ω)), ≤1≥ 1, for both semidiscrete schemes. For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2(ω)-norm error estimate requires symmetric meshes. Finally, twodimensional numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical results.

19. Application of the method of continued fractions for electron scattering by linear molecules

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Fujimoto, M.M.; Lara, O.; Brasilia Univ., DF

1995-01-01

The method of continued fractions (MCF) of Horacek and Sasakawa is adapted for the first time to study low-energy electron scattering by linear molecules. Particularly, we have calculated the reactance K-matrices for an electron scattered by hydrogen molecule and hydrogen molecular ion as well as by a polar LiH molecule in the static-exchange level. For all the applications studied herein. the calculated physical quantities converge rapidly, even for a strongly polar molecule such as LiH, to the correct values and in most cases the convergence is monotonic. Our study suggests that the MCF could be an efficient method for studying electron-molecule scattering and also photoionization of molecules. (Author)

20. Error analysis of semidiscrete finite element methods for inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion

KAUST Repository

Jin, B.

2014-05-30

© 2014 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. We consider the initial-boundary value problem for an inhomogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, a vanishing initial data and a nonsmooth right-hand side in a bounded convex polyhedral domain. We analyse two semidiscrete schemes based on the standard Galerkin and lumped mass finite element methods. Almost optimal error estimates are obtained for right-hand side data f (x, t) ε L∞ (0, T; Hq(ω)), ≤1≥ 1, for both semidiscrete schemes. For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2(ω)-norm error estimate requires symmetric meshes. Finally, twodimensional numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical results.

1. Error Estimates for a Semidiscrete Finite Element Method for Fractional Order Parabolic Equations

KAUST Repository

Jin, Bangti

2013-01-01

We consider the initial boundary value problem for a homogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with an initial condition ν(x) and a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition in a bounded convex polygonal domain Ω. We study two semidiscrete approximation schemes, i.e., the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) and lumped mass Galerkin FEM, using piecewise linear functions. We establish almost optimal with respect to the data regularity error estimates, including the cases of smooth and nonsmooth initial data, i.e., ν ∈ H2(Ω) ∩ H0 1(Ω) and ν ∈ L2(Ω). For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2-norm error estimate is valid only under an additional assumption on the mesh, which in two dimensions is known to be satisfied for symmetric meshes. Finally, we present some numerical results that give insight into the reliability of the theoretical study. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

2. A hybrid method of prediction of the void fraction during depressurization of diabatic systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inayatullah, G.; Nicoll, W.B.; Hancox, W.T.

1977-01-01

The variation in vapour volumetric fraction during transient pressure, flow and power is of considerable importance in water-cooled nuclear power-reactor safety analysis. The commonly adopted procedure to predict the transient void is to solve the conservation equations using finite differences. This present method is intermediate between numerical and analytic, hence 'hybrid'. Space and time are divided into discrete intervals. Their size, however, is dictated by the imposed heat flux and pressure variations, and not by truncation error, stability or convergence, because within an interval, the solutions applied are analytic. The relatively simple hybrid method presented here can predict the void distribution in a variety of transient, diabatic, two-phase flows with simplicity, accuracy and speed. (Auth.)

3. Exact Solution of Space-Time Fractional Coupled EW and Coupled MEW Equations Using Modified Kudryashov Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raslan, K. R.; Ali, Khalid K.; EL-Danaf, Talaat S.

2017-01-01

In the present paper, we established a traveling wave solution by using modified Kudryashov method for the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is used to obtain the exact solutions for different types of the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations such as, the space-time fractional coupled equal width wave equation (CEWE) and the space-time fractional coupled modified equal width wave equation (CMEW), which are the important soliton equations. Both equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by the use of fractional complex transform and properties of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. We plot the exact solutions for these equations at different time levels. (paper)

4. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

Science.gov (United States)

Rahmatullah; Ellahi, Rahmat; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar

2018-03-01

We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses.

5. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

2011-01-01

Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

6. Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Wastes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mahoney, Lenna A.

2006-01-01

The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated in fiscal years 2002 and 2003 based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using the method described by Cowley et al. (2003). The present report describes a modified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method. The new method generally calculated different (usually larger) SOFs than the old. The dominant reason was the more conservative way in which the new method represents concentration variability, in that it uses the waste layer with the maximum SOF to represent the tank SOF. The old method had used a tank-average waste composition and SOF. Differences between thermodynamically modeled and BBI solubilities were the next most common reason for differences between old (modeled) and new (BBI) SOFs, particularly in the liquid phase. The solubility-related changes in SOF were roughly equally distributed between increases and decreases. Changes in the effective toxicities of TOC and lead, which resulted from changes in the compounds in which these analytes were considered to be present, were the third most common reason. These toxicity changes increased SOFs and therefore were in a conservative direction.

7. Time required for partial pressure of arterial oxygen equilibration during mechanical ventilation after a step change in fractional inspired oxygen concentration.

Science.gov (United States)

Cakar, N; Tuŏrul, M; Demirarslan, A; Nahum, A; Adams, A; Akýncý, O; Esen, F; Telci, L

2001-04-01

To determine the time required for the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to reach equilibrium after a 0.20 increment or decrement in fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) during mechanical ventilation. A multi-disciplinary ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-five adult, non-COPD patients with stable blood gas values (PaO2/FIO2 > or = 180 on the day of the study) on pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Following a baseline PaO2 (PaO2b) measurement at FIO2 = 0.35, the FIO2 was increased to 0.55 for 30 min and then decreased to 0.35 without any other change in ventilatory parameters. Sequential blood gas measurements were performed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min in both periods. The PaO2 values measured at the 30th min after a step change in FIO2 (FIO2 = 0.55, PaO2[55] and FIO2 = 0.35, PaO2[35]) were accepted as representative of the equilibrium values for PaO2. Each patient's rise and fall in PaO2 over time, PaO2(t), were fitted to the following respective exponential equations: PaO2b + (PaO2[55]-PaO2b)(1-e-kt) and PaO2[55] + (PaO2[35]-PaO2[55])(e-kt) where "t" refers to time, PaO2[55] and PaO2[35] are the final PaO2 values obtained at a new FIO2 of 0.55 and 0.35, after a 0.20 increment and decrement in FIO2, respectively. Time constant "k" was determined by a non-linear fitting curve and 90% oxygenation times were defined as the time required to reach 90% of the final equilibrated PaO2 calculated by using the non-linear fitting curves. Time constant values for the rise and fall periods were 1.01 +/- 0.71 min-1, 0.69 +/- 0.42 min-1, respectively, and 90% oxygenation times for rises and falls in PaO2 periods were 4.2 +/- 4.1 min-1 and 5.5 +/- 4.8 min-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rise and fall periods for the two parameters (p > 0.05). We conclude that in stable patients ventilated with PCV, after a step change in FIO2 of 0.20, 5-10 min will be adequate for obtaining a blood gas sample to measure a Pa

8. Distribution of photon strength in nuclei by a method of two-step cascades

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Becvar, F.; Cejnar, P.; Kopecky, J.

1990-01-01

The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade γ-ray spectra to the determination of photon strength functions at intermediate γ-ray energies (3 or 4 MeV) is discussed. An experiment based on thermal neutron capture in Nd was undertaken at the Brookhaven National Laboratory High Flux Beam Reactor to test this model. To understand the role of various uncertainties in similar experiments a series of model calculations was performed. We present an analysis of our experimental data which demonstrates the high sensitivity of the method to E1 and M1 photon strength functions. Our experimental data are in sharp contradiction to those expected from an E1 photon strength distributed according to the classical Lorentzian form with an energy invariant damping width. An alternative distribution of Kadmenskij et al., which violates Brink's Hypothesis, is strongly preferred. 13 refs., 5 figs

9. Fast Measurement of Methanol Concentration in Ionic Liquids by Potential Step Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Michael L. Hainstock

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The development of direct methanol fuel cells required the attention to the electrolyte. A good electrolyte should not only be ionic conductive but also be crossover resistant. Ionic liquids could be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells. Monitoring methanol was critical in several locations in a direct methanol fuel cell. Conductivity could be used to monitor the methanol content in ionic liquids. The conductivity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate had a linear relationship with the methanol concentration. However, the conductivity was significantly affected by the moisture or water content in the ionic liquid. On the contrary, potential step could be used in sensing methanol in ionic liquids. This method was not affected by the water content. The sampling current at a properly selected sampling time was proportional to the concentration of methanol in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The linearity still stood even when there was 2.4 M water present in the ionic liquid.

10. Bidisperse silica nanoparticles close-packed monolayer on silicon substrate by three step spin method

Science.gov (United States)

Khanna, Sakshum; Marathey, Priyanka; Utsav, Chaliawala, Harsh; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

2018-05-01

We present the studies on the structural properties of monolayer Bidisperse silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (BDS) on Silicon (Si-100) substrate using spin coating technique. The Bidisperse silica nanoparticle was synthesised by the modified sol-gel process. Nanoparticles on the substrate are generally assembled in non-close/close-packed monolayer (CPM) form. The CPM form is obtained by depositing the colloidal suspension onto the silicon substrate using complex techniques. Here we report an effective method for forming a monolayer of bidisperse silica nanoparticle by three step spin coating technique. The samples were prepared by mixing the monodisperse solutions of different particles size 40 and 100 nm diameters. The bidisperse silica nanoparticles were self-assembled on the silicon substrate forming a close-packed monolayer film. The scanning electron microscope images of bidisperse films provided in-depth film structure of the film. The maximum surface coverage obtained was around 70-80%.

11. Methods and Algorithms for Solving Inverse Problems for Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equations

KAUST Repository

Aldoghaither, Abeer

2015-01-01

Fractional calculus has been introduced as an e cient tool for modeling physical phenomena, thanks to its memory and hereditary properties. For example, fractional models have been successfully used to describe anomalous di↵usion processes

12. Sharp Penalty Term and Time Step Bounds for the Interior Penalty Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Linear Hyperbolic Problems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Geevers, Sjoerd; van der Vegt, J.J.W.

2017-01-01

We present sharp and sucient bounds for the interior penalty term and time step size to ensure stability of the symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin (SIPDG) method combined with an explicit time-stepping scheme. These conditions hold for generic meshes, including unstructured

13. An In Silico Approach for Evaluating a Fraction-Based, Risk Assessment Method for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixtures

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nina Ching Y. Wang

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Both the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP and the Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group (TPHCWG developed fraction-based approaches for assessing human health risks posed by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH mixtures in the environment. Both organizations defined TPH fractions based on their expected environmental fate and by analytical chemical methods. They derived toxicity values for selected compounds within each fraction and used these as surrogates to assess hazard or risk of exposure to the whole fractions. Membership in a TPH fraction is generally defined by the number of carbon atoms in a compound and by a compound's equivalent carbon (EC number index, which can predict its environmental fate. Here, we systematically and objectively re-evaluate the assignment of TPH to specific fractions using comparative molecular field analysis and hierarchical clustering. The approach is transparent and reproducible, reducing inherent reliance on judgment when toxicity information is limited. Our evaluation of membership in these fractions is highly consistent (̃80% on average across various fractions with the empirical approach of MADEP and TPHCWG. Furthermore, the results support the general methodology of mixture risk assessment to assess both cancer and noncancer risk values after the application of fractionation.

14. Comparison of Three Analytical Methods for Separation of Mineral and Chelated Fraction from an Adulterated Zn-EDTA Fertilizer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khan, M.S.; Qazi, M.A.; Khan, N.A.; Mian, S.M.; Ahmed, N.; Ahmed, N.

2013-01-01

Summary: Different analytical procedures are being employed in the world to quantify the chelated portion in a Zn-EDTA fertilizer. Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab is following Shahid's analytical method in this regard. This method is based on Ion-chromatography (IC) that separates the mineral zinc (Zn) from an adulterated Zn-EDTA fertilizer sample i.e. mixture of mineral and chelated Zn fractions. To find out its effectiveness and suitability, this comparative study was carried out by analyzing adulterated, non-adulterated Zn-EDTA standard and Zn-EDTA samples taken from market in thrice following three methods namely Shahid's (IC) analytical method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS) method based on the principle of precipitating the mineral Zn fraction at high pH value by using alkali solution of suitable concentration and analysis of filtrate containing only chelated fraction and Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method FM-841 respectively. Adulterated Zn-EDTA samples were prepared by mixing of known quantity of mineral Zn with chelated Zn-EDTA standard. The results showed that Shahid's analytical method and AAS method, both successfully estimated the chelated fraction. The AOAC FM-841 method was insensitive to put a ceiling on the mineral fraction hence did not furnish the reliable results. The Shahid's analytical method was selected being equallyeffective to produce reliable results both for solid and liquid Zn-EDTA samples. The AAS method was comparable in only liquid samples. (author)

15. Approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations via the enhanced Adomian decomposition method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Song Lina; Wang Weiguo

2010-01-01

In this Letter, an enhanced Adomian decomposition method which introduces the h-curve of the homotopy analysis method into the standard Adomian decomposition method is proposed. Some examples prove that this method can derive successfully approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations.

16. Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.

Science.gov (United States)

Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P

1990-03-01

Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.

17. Transformation method for the MIRD absorbed fractions as applied to various physiques

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

1978-01-01

This study concerns with the transformation method of the MIRD absorbed fraction (AF) to the AF corresponding to an individual having the dimensions different from those of the MIRD standard man. The absorbed dose of a target organ T from a source organs S, received by the administration of a radiopharmaceutical agent is expressed with the equilibrium absorbed dose constant, the cumulative activity in the S, and the specific absorbed fraction (SAF). It is dealt only with how the MIRD SAF data can be modified for estimating individual SAF values. The SAF for individuals is given for penetrating and non-penetrating radiations. In case of the penetrating radiation, the SAF is given from the corresponding MIRD SAF by using a transformation coefficient for the MIRD SAF, when the MIRD standard man is transfigured to a corresponding phantom of an individual by the scale factors selected separately for the head section, trunk section and leg section of the MIRD standard man. The obtained results were compared with the ORNL results, and showed good agreement. (Kato, T.)

18. Pyrosequencing™ : A one-step method for high resolution HLA typing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marincola Francesco M

2003-11-01

Full Text Available Abstract While the use of high-resolution molecular typing in routine matching of human leukocyte antigens (HLA is expected to improve unrelated donor selection and transplant outcome, the genetic complexity of HLA still makes the current methodology limited and laborious. Pyrosequencing™ is a gel-free, sequencing-by-synthesis method. In a Pyrosequencing reaction, nucleotide incorporation proceeds sequentially along each DNA template at a given nucleotide dispensation order (NDO that is programmed into a pyrosequencer. Here we describe the design of a NDO that generates a pyrogram unique for any given allele or combination of alleles. We present examples of unique pyrograms generated from each of two heterozygous HLA templates, which would otherwise remain cis/trans ambiguous using standard sequencing based typing (SBT method. In addition, we display representative data that demonstrate long read and linear signal generation. These features are prerequisite of high-resolution typing and automated data analysis. In conclusion Pyrosequencing is a one-step method for high resolution DNA typing.

19. Seismic data two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and hyperbolic Radon transform methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang, Hanchuang; Chen, Shengchang; Ren, Haoran; Liang, Donghui; Zhou, Huamin; She, Deping

2015-01-01

In current research of seismic data recovery problems, the sparsity-promoting method usually produces an insufficient recovery result at the locations of null traces. The HRT (hyperbolic Radon transform) method can be applied to problems of seismic data recovery with approximately hyperbolic events. Influenced by deviations of hyperbolic characteristics between real and ideal travel-time curves, some spurious events are usually introduced and the recovery effect of intermediate and far-offset traces is worse than that of near-offset traces. Sparsity-promoting recovery is primarily dependent on the sparsity of seismic data in the sparse transform domain (i.e. on the local waveform characteristics), whereas HRT recovery is severely affected by the global characteristics of the seismic events. Inspired by the above conclusion, a two-step recovery approach combining sparsity-promoting and time-invariant HRT methods is proposed, which is based on both local and global characteristics of the seismic data. Two implementation strategies are presented in detail, and the selection criteria of the relevant strategies is also discussed. Numerical examples of synthetic and real data verify that the new approach can achieve a better recovery effect by simultaneously overcoming the shortcomings of sparsity-promoting recovery and HRT recovery. (paper)

20. Convergence and Stability of the Split-Step θ-Milstein Method for Stochastic Delay Hopfield Neural Networks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qian Guo

2013-01-01

Full Text Available A new splitting method designed for the numerical solutions of stochastic delay Hopfield neural networks is introduced and analysed. Under Lipschitz and linear growth conditions, this split-step θ-Milstein method is proved to have a strong convergence of order 1 in mean-square sense, which is higher than that of existing split-step θ-method. Further, mean-square stability of the proposed method is investigated. Numerical experiments and comparisons with existing methods illustrate the computational efficiency of our method.

1. Method for the isolation of biologically active monomeric immunoglobulin A from a plasma fraction.

Science.gov (United States)

Leibl, H; Tomasits, R; Wolf, H M; Eibl, M M; Mannhalter, J W

1996-04-12

A purification method for immunoglobulin A (IgA) yielding monomeric IgA with a purity of over 97% has been developed. This procedure uses ethanol-precipitated plasma (Cohn fraction III precipitate) as the starting material and includes heparin-Sepharose adsorption, dextran sulfate and ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography, batch adsorption by an anion-exchange matrix and gel permeation. Additional protein G Sepharose treatment leads to an IgA preparation of greater than 99% purity. The isolated IgA presented with an IgA subclass distribution, equivalent to IgA in unfractionated plasma, and was biologically active, as was shown by its ability to down-modulate Haemophilus influenzae-b-induced IL-6 secretion of human monocytes.

2. Dynamic Flow-through Methods for Metal Fractionation in Environmental Solid Samples

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Petersen, Roongrat

occurring processes always take place under dynamic conditions, recent trends have been focused on the development of alternative flow-through dynamic methods aimed at mimicking environmental events more correctly than their classical extraction counterparts. In this lecture particular emphasis is paid......Accummulation of metal ions in different compartments of the biosphere and their possible mobilization under changing environmental conditions induce a pertubation of the ecosystem and may cause adverse health effects. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that the information on total content...... the ecotoxicological significance of metal ions in solid environmental samples. The background of end-over-end fractionation for releasing metal species bound to particular soil phases is initially discussed, its relevant features and limitations being thoroughly described. However, taking into account that naturally...

3. Method for determination of the mean fraction of glandular tissue in individual female breasts using mammography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jansen, J T M; Veldkamp, W J H; Thijssen, M A O; Woudenberg, S van; Zoetelief, J

2005-01-01

The nationwide breast cancer screening programme using mammography has been in full operation in the Netherlands since 1997. Quality control of the screening programme has been assigned to the National Expert and Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening. Limits are set to the mean glandular dose and the centre monitors these for all facilities engaged in the screening programme. This procedure is restricted to the determination of the entrance dose on a 5 cm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. The mean glandular dose for a compressed breast is estimated from these data. Individual breasts may deviate largely from this 5 cm PMMA breast model. Not only may the compressed breast size vary from 2 to 10 cm, but breast composition varies also. The mean glandular dose is dependent on the fraction of glandular tissue (glandularity) of the breast. To estimate the risk related to individual mammograms requires the development of a method for determination of the glandularity of individual breasts. A method has been developed to derive the glandularity using the attenuation of mammography x-rays in the breast. The method was applied to a series of mammograms at a screening unit. The results, i.e., a glandularity of 93% within the range of 0 to 1, were comparable with data in the literature. The glandularity as a function of compressed breast thickness is similar to results from other investigators using differing methods

4. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 1, Methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

1987-04-01

Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. This volume outlines various methods used to compute the PHI-values and describes how the ''best'' estimates recommended by us are chosen. These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods that Spiers and co-workers developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with the methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 41 refs., 25 figs., 23 tabs

5. An optimized regulating method for composting phosphorus fractions transformation based on biochar addition and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

Science.gov (United States)

Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Cao, Zhenyu; Cui, Hongyang; Zhu, Longji; Wei, Zimin

2016-12-01

The study was conducted to investigate the influence of biochar and/or phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) inoculants on microbial biomass, bacterial community composition and phosphorus (P) fractions during kitchen waste composting amended with rock phosphate (RP). There were distinct differences in the physic-chemical parameters, the proportion of P fractions and bacterial diversity in different treatments. The contribution of available P fractions increased during composting especially in the treatment with the addition of PSB and biochar. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial compositions were significantly influenced by P content, inoculation and biochar. Variance partitioning further showed that synergy of inoculated PSB and indigenous bacterial communities and the joint effect between biochar and bacteria explained the largest two proportion of the variation in P fractions. Therefore, the combined application of PSB and biochar to improve the inoculation effect and an optimized regulating method were suggested based on the distribution of P fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

6. Mathematical basis for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers by compartmental analysis methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charkes, N.D.

1984-01-01

Using compartmental analysis methods, a mathematical basis is given for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers. Cardiac output is shown to be the product of the blood volume and the sum of the rate constants of tracer egress from blood, modified by a factor reflecting transcapillary diffusibility, the transfer fraction. The return of tracer to the blood and distant (intracellular) events are shown to play no role in the solution. Fractional cardiac output is the ratio of the rate constant of tracer egress from blood to an organ, divided by the sum of the egress constants from blood. Predominantly extracellular ions such as sodium or bromide are best suited for this technique, although theoretically any diffusible tracer whose compartmental model can be solved may be used. It is shown that fractional cardiac output is independent of the transfer fraction, and therefore can be measured accurately by tracers which are not freely diffusible

7. A New Void Fraction Measurement Method for Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Small Channels

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Huajun Li

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Based on a laser diode, a 12 × 6 photodiode array sensor, and machine learning techniques, a new void fraction measurement method for gas-liquid two-phase flow in small channels is proposed. To overcome the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement, the flow pattern of the two-phase flow is firstly identified by Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA. Then, according to the identification result, a relevant void fraction measurement model which is developed by Support Vector Machine (SVM is selected to implement the void fraction measurement. A void fraction measurement system for the two-phase flow is developed and experiments are carried out in four different small channels. Four typical flow patterns (including bubble flow, slug flow, stratified flow and annular flow are investigated. The experimental results show that the development of the measurement system is successful. The proposed void fraction measurement method is effective and the void fraction measurement accuracy is satisfactory. Compared with the conventional laser measurement systems using standard laser sources, the developed measurement system has the advantages of low cost and simple structure. Compared with the conventional void fraction measurement methods, the proposed method overcomes the influence of flow pattern on the void fraction measurement. This work also provides a good example of using low-cost laser diode as a competent replacement of the expensive standard laser source and hence implementing the parameter measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow. The research results can be a useful reference for other researchers’ works.

8. Comparison between time-step-integration and probabilistic methods in seismic analysis of a linear structure

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schneeberger, B.; Breuleux, R.

1977-01-01

Assuming that earthquake ground motion is a stationary time function, the seismic analysis of a linear structure can be done by probailistic methods using the 'power spectral density function' (PSD), instead of applying the more traditional time-step-integration using earthquake time histories (TH). A given structure was analysed both by PSD and TH methods computing and comparing 'floor response spectra'. The analysis using TH was performed for two different TH and different frequency intervals for the 'floor-response-spectra'. The analysis using PSD first produced PSD functions of the responses of the floors and these were then converted into 'foor-response-spectra'. Plots of the resulting 'floor-response-spectra' show: (1) The agreement of TH and PSD results is quite close. (2) The curves produced by PSD are much smoother than those produced by TH and mostly form an enelope of the latter. (3) The curves produced by TH are quite jagged with the location and magnitude of the peaks depending on the choice of frequencies at which the 'floor-response-spectra' were evaluated and on the choice of TH. (Auth.)

9. Production and characterization of carbon nano colloid via one-step electrochemical method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, Doohyun; Hwang, Yujin; Cheong, Seong Ir; Lee, Jae Keun [Pusan National University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Daeseung; Moon, Seongyong [N-BARO TECH CO., LTD, Institute of SamchangTsinghua Nano Application (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun [Pusan National University, Industrial Liaison Innovation Cluster (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo H., E-mail: sookim@pusan.ac.k [Pusan National University, Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

2008-10-15

We present a one-step electrochemical method to produce water-based stable carbon nano colloid (CNC) without adding any surfactants at the room temperature. The physical, chemical, and thermal properties of CNC prepared were characterized by using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta potential meter, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, turbidity meter, viscometer, and transient hot-wire method. The average primary size of the suspended spherical-shaped nanoparticles in the CNC was found to be {approx}15 nm in diameter. The thermal conductivity of CNC compared with that of water was observed to increase up to {approx}14% with the CNC concentration of {approx}4.2 wt%. The CNC prepared in this study was considerably stable over the period of 600 h. With the assistance of FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, we confirmed the presence of carboxyl group (i.e., O-H stretching (3,458 cm{sup -1}) and C=O stretching (1,712 cm{sup -1})) formed in the outer atomic layer of carbon nanoparticles, which (i) made the carbon particles hydrophilic and (ii) prevented the aggregation among primary nanoparticles by increasing the magnitude of zeta potential over the long period.

10. Production and characterization of carbon nano colloid via one-step electrochemical method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Doohyun; Hwang, Yujin; Cheong, Seong Ir; Lee, Jae Keun; Hong, Daeseung; Moon, Seongyong; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Soo H.

2008-01-01

We present a one-step electrochemical method to produce water-based stable carbon nano colloid (CNC) without adding any surfactants at the room temperature. The physical, chemical, and thermal properties of CNC prepared were characterized by using various techniques, such as particle size analyzer, zeta potential meter, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, turbidity meter, viscometer, and transient hot-wire method. The average primary size of the suspended spherical-shaped nanoparticles in the CNC was found to be ∼15 nm in diameter. The thermal conductivity of CNC compared with that of water was observed to increase up to ∼14% with the CNC concentration of ∼4.2 wt%. The CNC prepared in this study was considerably stable over the period of 600 h. With the assistance of FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, we confirmed the presence of carboxyl group (i.e., O-H stretching (3,458 cm -1 ) and C=O stretching (1,712 cm -1 )) formed in the outer atomic layer of carbon nanoparticles, which (i) made the carbon particles hydrophilic and (ii) prevented the aggregation among primary nanoparticles by increasing the magnitude of zeta potential over the long period.

11. Chiroplasmonic magnetic gold nanocomposites produced by one-step aqueous method using κ-carrageenan.

Science.gov (United States)

Lesnichaya, Marina V; Sukhov, Boris G; Aleksandrova, Galina P; Gasilova, Ekaterina R; Vakul'skaya, Tamara I; Khutsishvili, Spartak S; Sapozhnikov, Anatoliy N; Klimenkov, Igor V; Trofimov, Boris A

2017-11-01

Novel water-soluble chiroplasmonic nanobiocomposites with directly varied gold content were synthesized by a one-step redox method in water using a biocompatible polysaccharide κ-carrageenan (industrial product from algae) as both reducing and stabilizing matrix. The influence of the reactants ratio, temperature, and pH on the reaction was studied and the optimal reaction parameters were found. The structure and the properties of composite nanomaterials were examined in solid state and aqueous solutions by using complementary physical-chemical methods X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopy of electron paramagnetic resonance, atomic absorption and optical spectroscopy, polarimetry including optical rotatory dispersion with registration of interphase-crossbred Cotton effect of a chiral polysaccharide matrix on plasmonic chromophore of gold nanoparticles, dynamic and static light scattering. The new perspective multi-purpose nanocomposites demonstrate a complex of chiroplasmonic and magnetic properties, imparted by both nanoparticles and radicals enriched chiral polysaccharide matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

12. Estimating population cause-specific mortality fractions from in-hospital mortality: validation of a new method.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Christopher J L Murray

2007-11-01

Full Text Available Cause-of-death data for many developing countries are not available. Information on deaths in hospital by cause is available in many low- and middle-income countries but is not a representative sample of deaths in the population. We propose a method to estimate population cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs using data already collected in many middle-income and some low-income developing nations, yet rarely used: in-hospital death records.For a given cause of death, a community's hospital deaths are equal to total community deaths multiplied by the proportion of deaths occurring in hospital. If we can estimate the proportion dying in hospital, we can estimate the proportion dying in the population using deaths in hospital. We propose to estimate the proportion of deaths for an age, sex, and cause group that die in hospital from the subset of the population where vital registration systems function or from another population. We evaluated our method using nearly complete vital registration (VR data from Mexico 1998-2005, which records whether a death occurred in a hospital. In this validation test, we used 45 disease categories. We validated our method in two ways: nationally and between communities. First, we investigated how the method's accuracy changes as we decrease the amount of Mexican VR used to estimate the proportion of each age, sex, and cause group dying in hospital. Decreasing VR data used for this first step from 100% to 9% produces only a 12% maximum relative error between estimated and true CSMFs. Even if Mexico collected full VR information only in its capital city with 9% of its population, our estimation method would produce an average relative error in CSMFs across the 45 causes of just over 10%. Second, we used VR data for the capital zone (Distrito Federal and Estado de Mexico and estimated CSMFs for the three lowest-development states. Our estimation method gave an average relative error of 20%, 23%, and 31% for

13. SWeRF--A method for estimating the relevant fine particle fraction in bulk materials for classification and labelling purposes.

Science.gov (United States)

Pensis, Ingeborg; Luetzenkirchen, Frank; Friede, Bernd

2014-05-01

In accordance with the European regulation for classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) as well as the criteria as set out in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS), fine fraction of crystalline silica (CS) has been classified as a specific target organ toxicity, the specific organ in this case being the lung. Generic cut-off values for products containing a fine fraction of CS trigger the need for a method for the quantification of the fine fraction of CS in bulk materials. This article describes the so-called SWeRF method, the size-weighted relevant fine fraction. The SWeRF method combines the particle size distribution of a powder with probability factors from the EN 481 standard and allows the relevant fine fraction of a material to be calculated. The SWeRF method has been validated with a number of industrial minerals. This will enable manufacturers and blenders to apply the CLP and GHS criteria for the classification of mineral products containing RCS a fine fraction of CS.

14. Validation of DRAGON side-step method for Bruce-A restart Phase-B physics tests

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shen, W.; Ngo-Trong, C.; Davis, R.S.

2004-01-01

The DRAGON side-step method, developed at AECL, has a number of advantages over the all-DRAGON method that was used before. It is now the qualified method for reactivity-device calculations. Although the side-step-method-generated incremental cross sections have been validated against those previously calculated with the all-DRAGON method, it is highly desirable to validate the side-step method against device-worth measurements in power reactors directly. In this paper, the DRAGON side-step method was validated by comparison with the device-calibration measurements made in Bruce-A NGS Unit 4 restart Phase-B commissioning in 2003. The validation exercise showed excellent results, with the DRAGON code overestimating the measured ZCR worth by ∼5%. A sensitivity study was also performed in this paper to assess the effect of various DRAGON modelling techniques on the incremental cross sections. The assessment shows that the refinement of meshes in 3-D and the use of the side-step method are two major reasons contributing to the improved agreement between the calculated ZCR worths and the measurements. Use of different DRAGON versions, DRAGON libraries, local-parameter core conditions, and weighting techniques for the homogenization of tube clusters inside the ZCR have a very small effect on the ZCR incremental thermal absorption cross section and ZCR reactivity worth. (author)

15. Abundant closed form solutions of the conformable time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito equation using (G‧ / G) -expansion method

Science.gov (United States)

Al-Shawba, Altaf Abdulkarem; Gepreel, K. A.; Abdullah, F. A.; Azmi, A.

2018-06-01

In current study, we use the (G‧ / G) -expansion method to construct the closed form solutions of the seventh order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito (TFSKI) equation based on conformable fractional derivative. As a result, trigonometric, hyperbolic and rational functions solutions with arbitrary constants are obtained. When the arbitrary constants are taken some special values, the periodic and soliton solutions are obtained from the travelling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are new and not found elsewhere. The effect of the fractional order on some of these solutions are represented graphically to illustrate the behavior of the exact solutions when the parameter take some special choose.

16. Numerical analysis for trajectory controllability of a coupled multi-order fractional delay differential system via the shifted Jacobi method

Science.gov (United States)

Priya, B. Ganesh; Muthukumar, P.

2018-02-01

This paper deals with the trajectory controllability for a class of multi-order fractional linear systems subject to a constant delay in state vector. The solution for the coupled fractional delay differential equation is established by the Mittag-Leffler function. The necessary and sufficient condition for the trajectory controllability is formulated and proved by the generalized Gronwall's inequality. The approximate trajectory for the proposed system is obtained through the shifted Jacobi operational matrix method. The numerical simulation of the approximate solution shows the theoretical results. Finally, some remarks and comments on the existing results of constrained controllability for the fractional dynamical system are also presented.

17. The estimation possibility of cleaning from radionuclides for the coast parts of drainage system by the soil fractionating method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karlin, Y.V.; Chuikov, V.Y.; Belianina, N.G.; Barinov, A.S.

1996-01-01

In this paper is considered the possibility of the cleaning from the radionuclides for the coast parts of the drainage system at the Moscow SIA open-quotes Radonclose quotes by the soil fractionating treatment. It is showed that this method cannot to be used for the cleaning of the soils near water flowing (a river, a spring or a open drainage system) because the most part of the soil size-fractions is the fine fractions and the main contaminant radionuclide ( 137 Cs) is distributed among the different soil components homogeneously

18. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

OpenAIRE

Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

2016-01-01

Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

19. A method based on the Jacobi tau approximation for solving multi-term time-space fractional partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Bhrawy, A. H.; Zaky, M. A.

2015-01-01

In this paper, we propose and analyze an efficient operational formulation of spectral tau method for multi-term time-space fractional differential equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The shifted Jacobi operational matrices of Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, left-sided and right-sided Caputo fractional derivatives are presented. By using these operational matrices, we propose a shifted Jacobi tau method for both temporal and spatial discretizations, which allows us to present an efficient spectral method for solving such problem. Furthermore, the error is estimated and the proposed method has reasonable convergence rates in spatial and temporal discretizations. In addition, some known spectral tau approximations can be derived as special cases from our algorithm if we suitably choose the corresponding special cases of Jacobi parameters θ and ϑ. Finally, in order to demonstrate its accuracy, we compare our method with those reported in the literature.

20. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin

2004-01-01

The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

1. Rotor cascade shape optimization with unsteady passing wakes using implicit dual time stepping method

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Eun Seok

2000-10-01

2. Process analysis and modeling of a single-step lutein extraction method for wet microalgae.

Science.gov (United States)

Gong, Mengyue; Wang, Yuruihan; Bassi, Amarjeet

2017-11-01

Lutein is a commercial carotenoid with potential health benefits. Microalgae are alternative sources for the lutein production in comparison to conventional approaches using marigold flowers. In this study, a process analysis of a single-step simultaneous extraction, saponification, and primary purification process for free lutein production from wet microalgae biomass was carried out. The feasibility of binary solvent mixtures for wet biomass extraction was successfully demonstrated, and the extraction kinetics of lutein from chloroplast in microalgae were first evaluated. The effects of types of organic solvent, solvent polarity, cell disruption method, and alkali and solvent usage on lutein yields were examined. A mathematical model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was applied to model the experimental data. The mass transfer coefficients were used to estimate the extraction rates. The extraction rate was found more significantly related with alkali ratio to solvent than to biomass. The best conditions for extraction efficiency were found to be pre-treatment with ultrasonication at 0.5 s working cycle per second, react 0.5 h in 0.27 L/g solvent to biomass ratio, and 1:3 ether/ethanol (v/v) with 1.25 g KOH/L. The entire process can be controlled within 1 h and yield over 8 mg/g lutein, which is more economical for scale-up.

3. One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the air-water interface using different methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Hongguo; Xiao Fei; Wang Changwei; Lee, Yong-Ill; Xue Qingbin; Chen Xiao; Qian Dongjin; Hao Jingcheng; Jiang Jianzhuang

2008-01-01

Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in a one-step process at the air-AgNO 3 aqueous solution interface under Langmuir monolayers of 5,10,15,20-tetra-4-oxy(2-stearic acid) phenyl porphyrin (TSPP) at room temperature by using different methods including UV-light irradiation, ambient light irradiation, and formaldehyde gas reduction. It was found that parallel aligned one-dimensional (1D) chains composed of discrete silver nanoparticles with the size of 3-5 nm were formed under UV-light irradiation for a short time, while large areas of uniform silver spherical nanoparticles were formed under natural daylight illumination for several days or by formaldehyde gas treatment for several hours. The average size of the spherical nanoparticles ranges from 6.88 ± 0.46 to 11.10 ± 1.47 nm, depending on the experimental conditions. The 1D chains formed under UV-light irradiation result from the templating effect of parallel aligned linear supramolecular arrays formed by TSPP at the air-water interface, and rapid nucleation and growth of the nanoparticles. The formation of the uniform silver nanoparticles under daylight illumination or by formaldehyde gas treatment, however, should be ascribed to a kinetically controlled growth process of the nanoparticles

4. Measurement of liquid turbulent structure in bubbly flow at low void fraction using ultrasonic doppler method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Murakawa, Hideki; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori

2003-01-01

Microscopic structure in bubbly flows has been a topic of interest in the study of fluid dynamics. In the present paper, the ultrasonic Doppler method was applied to the measurement of bubbly. The experiments were carried out for an air-water dispersed bubbly flow in a 20 mm x 100 mm vertical rectangular channel having a void fraction smaller than 3%. Two ultrasonic transducers were installed on the outer surface of the test section with a contact angle of 45deg off the vertical axis, one facing upward and the other facing downward. By applying statistical methods to the two directional velocity profiles. Reynolds stress profiles were calculated. Furthermore, to clarify the wake effect induced by the leading bubbles, the velocity profiles were divided into two types of data. The first one is for all of the liquid data and the other is the data which did not include the wake effect. For Re m ≥ 1,593, it was observed that the bubbles suppressed the liquid turbulence. Furthermore, comparing with the Reynolds stress profiles in bubbly flow, it was found that Reynolds stress profiles varied with the amount of bubbles present in the flow and the effect of wake causes turbulence in the liquid. (author)

5. A new four-step hierarchy method for combined assessment of groundwater quality and pollution.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhu, Henghua; Ren, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhizheng

2017-12-28

A new four-step hierarchy method was constructed and applied to evaluate the groundwater quality and pollution of the Dagujia River Basin. The assessment index system is divided into four types: field test indices, common inorganic chemical indices, inorganic toxicology indices, and trace organic indices. Background values of common inorganic chemical indices and inorganic toxicology indices were estimated with the cumulative-probability curve method, and the results showed that the background values of Mg 2+ (51.1 mg L -1 ), total hardness (TH) (509.4 mg L -1 ), and NO 3 - (182.4 mg L -1 ) are all higher than the corresponding grade III values of Quality Standard for Groundwater, indicating that they were poor indicators and therefore were not included in the groundwater quality assessment. The quality assessment results displayed that the field test indices were mainly classified as grade II, accounting for 60.87% of wells sampled. The indices of common inorganic chemical and inorganic toxicology were both mostly in the range of grade III, whereas the trace organic indices were predominantly classified as grade I. The variabilities and excess ratios of the indices were also calculated and evaluated. Spatial distributions showed that the groundwater with poor quality indices was mainly located in the northeast of the basin, which was well-connected with seawater intrusion. Additionally, the pollution assessment revealed that groundwater in well 44 was classified as "moderately polluted," wells 5 and 8 were "lightly polluted," and other wells were classified as "unpolluted."

6. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

2016-06-01

How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

7. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

W. Huang

2016-06-01

Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

8. An Investigation of Fraction Models in Early Elementary Grades: A Mixed-Methods Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Wilkerson, Trena L.; Cooper, Susan; Gupta, Dittika; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie; Baker, Betty Ruth; Sharp, Pat T.

2015-01-01

This study examines the effect varying models have on student understanding of fractions. The study addressed the question of what students know and understand about fractional concepts through the use of discrete and continuous models. A sample of 54 students in kindergarten and 3rd grade were given an interview pretest, participated in…

9. A Modified Generalized Laguerre-Gauss Collocation Method for Fractional Neutral Functional-Differential Equations on the Half-Line

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ali H. Bhrawy

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss collocation (MGLC method is applied to obtain an approximate solution of fractional neutral functional-differential equations with proportional delays on the half-line. The proposed technique is based on modified generalized Laguerre polynomials and Gauss quadrature integration of such polynomials. The main advantage of the present method is to reduce the solution of fractional neutral functional-differential equations into a system of algebraic equations. Reasonable numerical results are achieved by choosing few modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss collocation points. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the proposed method on the half-line.

10. Fractional Microneedling: A Novel Method for Enhancement of Topical Anesthesia Before Skin Aesthetic Procedures.

Science.gov (United States)

El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Abdallah, Fahd; Abdel-Raouf, Hamza; Abdelhakeem, Mohammed

2016-01-01

Skin microneedling or fractional microneedle therapy is a recent approach used for skin rejuvenation or to enhance transdermal delivery of topical medications. The authors evaluated the efficacy of skin microneedling, using an automated device, to enhance the numbing effect of topical anesthesia, used before minimally invasive aesthetic approaches. Fifteen patients, looking for treatment of atrophic acne scars, were subjected to randomized split-face study comparing automated fractional skin microneedling (0.5 mm depth) followed by application of topical anesthetic cream (Lidocaine 2.5% + Prilocaine 2.5%) on one side of face, with topical anesthesia alone on the other side, followed by full face fractional microneedling treatment for postacne scars (2.5 mm depth). The treated sides (fractional needling + topical anesthesia) had significantly lower pain scores when compared with the nontreated sides (topical anesthesia alone). The scores of pain sensation, during the whole procedure, were statistically significantly (p aesthetic procedures can be enhanced with fractional microneedling pretreatment.

11. Adaptive step-size algorithm for Fourier beam-propagation method with absorbing boundary layer of auto-determined width.

Science.gov (United States)

Learn, R; Feigenbaum, E

2016-06-01

Two algorithms that enhance the utility of the absorbing boundary layer are presented, mainly in the framework of the Fourier beam-propagation method. One is an automated boundary layer width selector that chooses a near-optimal boundary size based on the initial beam shape. The second algorithm adjusts the propagation step sizes based on the beam shape at the beginning of each step in order to reduce aliasing artifacts.

12. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei

2015-12-01

In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

13. Helping Remedial Readers Master the Reading Vocabulary through a Seven Step Method.

Science.gov (United States)

Aaron, Robert L.

1981-01-01

An outline of seven important steps for teaching vocabulary development includes components of language development, visual memory, visual-auditory perception, speeded recall, spelling, reading the word in a sentence, and word comprehension in written context. (JN)

14. Multi-step polynomial regression method to model and forecast malaria incidence.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chandrajit Chatterjee

Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most severe problems faced by the world even today. Understanding the causative factors such as age, sex, social factors, environmental variability etc. as well as underlying transmission dynamics of the disease is important for epidemiological research on malaria and its eradication. Thus, development of suitable modeling approach and methodology, based on the available data on the incidence of the disease and other related factors is of utmost importance. In this study, we developed a simple non-linear regression methodology in modeling and forecasting malaria incidence in Chennai city, India, and predicted future disease incidence with high confidence level. We considered three types of data to develop the regression methodology: a longer time series data of Slide Positivity Rates (SPR of malaria; a smaller time series data (deaths due to Plasmodium vivax of one year; and spatial data (zonal distribution of P. vivax deaths for the city along with the climatic factors, population and previous incidence of the disease. We performed variable selection by simple correlation study, identification of the initial relationship between variables through non-linear curve fitting and used multi-step methods for induction of variables in the non-linear regression analysis along with applied Gauss-Markov models, and ANOVA for testing the prediction, validity and constructing the confidence intervals. The results execute the applicability of our method for different types of data, the autoregressive nature of forecasting, and show high prediction power for both SPR and P. vivax deaths, where the one-lag SPR values plays an influential role and proves useful for better prediction. Different climatic factors are identified as playing crucial role on shaping the disease curve. Further, disease incidence at zonal level and the effect of causative factors on different zonal clusters indicate the pattern of malaria prevalence in the city

15. Error analysis and system improvements in phase-stepping methods for photoelasticity

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wenyan Ji

1997-11-01

In the past automated photoelasticity has been demonstrated to be one of the most efficient technique for determining the complete state of stress in a 3-D component. However, the measurement accuracy, which depends on many aspects of both the theoretical foundations and experimental procedures, has not been studied properly. The objective of this thesis is to reveal the intrinsic properties of the errors, provide methods for reducing them and finally improve the system accuracy. A general formulation for a polariscope with all the optical elements in an arbitrary orientation was deduced using the method of Mueller Matrices. The deduction of this formulation indicates an inherent connectivity among the optical elements and gives a knowledge of the errors. In addition, this formulation also shows a common foundation among the photoelastic techniques, consequently, these techniques share many common error sources. The phase-stepping system proposed by Patterson and Wang was used as an exemplar to analyse the errors and provide the proposed improvements. This system can be divided into four parts according to their function, namely the optical system, light source, image acquisition equipment and image analysis software. All the possible error sources were investigated separately and the methods for reducing the influence of the errors and improving the system accuracy are presented. To identify the contribution of each possible error to the final system output, a model was used to simulate the errors and analyse their consequences. Therefore the contribution to the results from different error sources can be estimated quantitatively and finally the accuracy of the systems can be improved. For a conventional polariscope, the system accuracy can be as high as 99.23% for the fringe order and the error less than 5 degrees for the isoclinic angle. The PSIOS system is limited to the low fringe orders. For a fringe order of less than 1.5, the accuracy is 94.60% for fringe

16. Nonlinear Stability and Convergence of Two-Step Runge-Kutta Methods for Volterra Delay Integro-Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Haiyan Yuan

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This paper introduces the stability and convergence of two-step Runge-Kutta methods with compound quadrature formula for solving nonlinear Volterra delay integro-differential equations. First, the definitions of (k,l-algebraically stable and asymptotically stable are introduced; then the asymptotical stability of a (k,l-algebraically stable two-step Runge-Kutta method with 0step Runge-Kutta method is algebraically stable and diagonally stable and its generalized stage order is p, then the method with compound quadrature formula is D-convergent of order at least min{p,ν}, where ν depends on the compound quadrature formula.

17. Investigation of biological material for metallic poisoning by the fractional method. Issledovaniya biologicheskogo materiala na metallicheskiya yady drobnym metodom

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Krylova, A.N.

1975-01-01

A fractional method is developed for analysis of biological material for the presence of toxic quantities of Pb, Hg, Ba, Mn, Cr, Ag, Cu, Sb, Tl, As, Bi, Cd and Zn. The method satisfies the requirements of medical forensic toxicology. (Ref. Zh.)

18. Simple One-Step Method to Synthesize Polypyrrole-Indigo Carmine-Silver Nanocomposite

OpenAIRE

Loguercio, Lara Fernandes; Demingos, Pedro; Manica, Luiza de Mattos; Griep, Jordana Borges; Santos, Marcos José Leite; Ferreira, Jacqueline

2016-01-01

A nanocomposite of indigo carmine doped polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles was obtained by a one-step electrochemical process. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The simple one-step process allowed the growth of silver nanoparticles during the polymerization of polypyrrole, resulting in films with electrochromic behavior and improved electroactivity. In addition, poly...

19. Method for making a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grishina, D A; Harteveld, C A M; Vos, W L; Woldering, L A

2015-01-01

20. Porous plasmonic nanocomposites for SERS substrates fabricated by two-step laser method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Koleva, M.E., E-mail: mihaela_ek@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, 305-0044 (Japan); Nedyalkov, N.N.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Gerlach, J.W.; Hirsch, D.; Prager, A.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Fukata, N.; Jevasuwan, W. [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, 305-0044 (Japan)

2016-04-25

This research is focused on investigation of coupled plasmonic/metal-semiconductor nanomaterials. A two-step laser-assisted method is demonstrated for formation of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) distributed into porous metal–oxide semiconductors. The mosaic Ag-ZnO target is used for laser ablation and, subsequently, laser annealing of the deposited layer is applied. The plasmon resonance properties of the nanostructures produced are confirmed by optical transmission spectroscopy. The wurtzite structure of ZnO is formed with tilted c-axis orientation and, respectively, a mixed Raman mode appears at 580 cm{sup −1}. The oxygen pressure applied during a deposition process has impact on the morphology and thickness of the porous nanostructures, but not on the size and size distribution of AgNPs. The porous nanocomposites exhibited potential for SERS applications, most pronounced for the oxygen deficient sample, grown at lower oxygen pressure. The observed considerable SERS enhancement of R6G molecules on AgNP/ZnO can be attributed to the ZnO-to-molecule charge transfer contribution, enhanced by the additional electrons from the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of AgNPs to the ZnO through the conduction band. - Highlights: • Porous AgNPs/ZnO composites are obtained by laser deposition and laser annealing. • Morphology and properties depend on growth oxygen pressure. • The emergence of mixed-symmetry Raman mode at 580 cm{sup −1} is registered. • The AgNPs/ZnO porous nanocomposites are suitable for SERS-active substrates. • The charge transfer enhanced by LSPR has a contribution to SERS effect.

1. Application of the enhanced homotopy perturbation method to solve the fractional-order Bagley-Torvik differential equation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zolfaghari, M; Ghaderi, R; Sheikhol Eslami, A; Hosseinnia, S H; Sadati, J [Intelligent System Research Group, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Babol, Noushirvani University of Technology, PO Box 47135-484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, A [Golestan University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Momani, S [Department of Mathematics, Mutah University, PO Box 7, Al-Karak (Jordan)], E-mail: h.hoseinnia@stu.nit.ac.ir, E-mail: a.ranjbar@nit.ac.ir, E-mail: shahermm@yahoo.com

2009-10-15

The enhanced homotopy perturbation method (EHPM) is applied for finding improved approximate solutions of the well-known Bagley-Torvik equation for three different cases. The main characteristic of the EHPM is using a stabilized linear part, which guarantees the stability and convergence of the overall solution. The results are finally compared with the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton numerical method, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the fractional differential transform method (FDTM) to verify the performance of the EHPM.

2. Application of the enhanced homotopy perturbation method to solve the fractional-order Bagley-Torvik differential equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zolfaghari, M; Ghaderi, R; Sheikhol Eslami, A; Hosseinnia, S H; Sadati, J; Ranjbar, A; Momani, S

2009-01-01

The enhanced homotopy perturbation method (EHPM) is applied for finding improved approximate solutions of the well-known Bagley-Torvik equation for three different cases. The main characteristic of the EHPM is using a stabilized linear part, which guarantees the stability and convergence of the overall solution. The results are finally compared with the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton numerical method, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the fractional differential transform method (FDTM) to verify the performance of the EHPM.

3. Application of the enhanced homotopy perturbation method to solve the fractional-order Bagley-Torvik differential equation

Science.gov (United States)

Zolfaghari, M.; Ghaderi, R.; Sheikhol Eslami, A.; Ranjbar, A.; Hosseinnia, S. H.; Momani, S.; Sadati, J.

2009-10-01

The enhanced homotopy perturbation method (EHPM) is applied for finding improved approximate solutions of the well-known Bagley-Torvik equation for three different cases. The main characteristic of the EHPM is using a stabilized linear part, which guarantees the stability and convergence of the overall solution. The results are finally compared with the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton numerical method, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the fractional differential transform method (FDTM) to verify the performance of the EHPM.

4. The Theory and Practice of the Six-Step Method in EFL and Its Transferability to Engineering Programmes

Science.gov (United States)

Ntombela, Berrington X. S.

2013-01-01

This paper outlines the theory of the six-step method developed by personnel in the Language and Learning department at Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman. The paper further illustrates the application of this method in teaching Project, Listening, Reading, Writing, and Speaking & Debate at Foundation level. The assumption in applying the…

5. On the comparison of perturbation-iteration algorithm and residual power series method to solve fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

Science.gov (United States)

Şenol, Mehmet; Alquran, Marwan; Kasmaei, Hamed Daei

2018-06-01

In this paper, we present analytic-approximate solution of time-fractional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. This model demonstrates the behavior of weakly nonlinear ion acoustic waves in a plasma bearing cold ions and hot isothermal electrons in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Basic definitions of fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Perturbation-iteration algorithm (PIA) and residual power series method (RPSM) are applied to solve this equation with success. The convergence analysis is also presented for both methods. Numerical results are given and then they are compared with the exact solutions. Comparison of the results reveal that both methods are competitive, powerful, reliable, simple to use and ready to apply to wide range of fractional partial differential equations.

6. nduced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four sub-fractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Sub-fractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Deepak Kumar

2012-10-01

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect and evaluation of Anti-hyperlipidemic activity guided subfraction isolated from total methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. leaves on Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Column chromatographic fractionation of butanol fraction of total methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. yields four subfractions (sub-fraction A-D. All sub-fractions tested for their anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Subfractions administered at a dose of 65 mg/kg (oral to the Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats and total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and VLDL level in the blood were checked. Results: Sub-fraction D showed significant reduction (P<0.05 among four sub-fraction in comparison with standard drug fenofibrate. Conclusions: From the above study it could be concluded that butanol sub-fraction D of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. not only have resulted in significant reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL level but also increases the HDL level at a reduced dose level.

7. Comparative study of two methods of fractionation bromelain from pineapple core extract (Ananas comosus)

Science.gov (United States)

Febriani, K.; Wahyuni, I.; Setiasih, S.; Hudiyono, S.

2017-07-01

The enzyme can be purified by fractional precipitation. This can be done by salt or organic solvent. In this research, purification of bromelain from pineapple core by fractional precipitation was done by 2 compounds, ammonium sulfate, and ethanol. Fractional precipitation by ammonium sulfate proved to be more effective as it yielded a higher specific activity. Specific activity by ethanol and ammonium sulfate is 4.6480 U/mg at 0-60 % saturation and 8.2243 U/mg at 50-80 % saturation.

8. A three operator split-step method covering a larger set of non-linear partial differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Zia, Haider

2017-06-01

This paper describes an updated exponential Fourier based split-step method that can be applied to a greater class of partial differential equations than previous methods would allow. These equations arise in physics and engineering, a notable example being the generalized derivative non-linear Schrödinger equation that arises in non-linear optics with self-steepening terms. These differential equations feature terms that were previously inaccessible to model accurately with low computational resources. The new method maintains a 3rd order error even with these additional terms and models the equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The class of non-linear differential equations that this method applies to is shown. The method is fully derived and implementation of the method in the split-step architecture is shown. This paper lays the mathematical ground work for an upcoming paper employing this method in white-light generation simulations in bulk material.

9. Limitations of a convolution method for modeling geometric uncertainties in radiation therapy: the radiobiological dose-per-fraction effect

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Song, William; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

2004-01-01

The convolution method can be used to model the effect of random geometric uncertainties into planned dose distributions used in radiation treatment planning. This is effectively done by linearly adding infinitesimally small doses, each with a particular geometric offset, over an assumed infinite number of fractions. However, this process inherently ignores the radiobiological dose-per-fraction effect since only the summed physical dose distribution is generated. The resultant potential error on predicted radiobiological outcome [quantified in this work with tumor control probability (TCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD)] has yet to be thoroughly quantified. In this work, the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of geometric displacements are compared to those of the convolution method for random geometric uncertainties of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm (standard deviation). The α/β CTV ratios of 0.8, 1.5, 3, 5, and 10 Gy are used to represent the range of radiation responses for different tumors, whereas a single α/β OAR ratio of 3 Gy is used to represent all the organs at risk (OAR). The analysis is performed on a four-field prostate treatment plan of 18 MV x rays. The fraction numbers are varied from 1-50, with isoeffective adjustments of the corresponding dose-per-fractions to maintain a constant tumor control, using the linear-quadratic cell survival model. The average differences in TCP and EUD of the target, and in NTCP and gEUD of the OAR calculated from the convolution and Monte Carlo methods reduced asymptotically as the total fraction number increased, with the differences reaching negligible levels beyond the treatment fraction number of ≥20. The convolution method generally overestimates the radiobiological indices, as compared to the Monte Carlo method, for the target volume, and underestimates those for the OAR. These effects are interconnected and attributed

10. What do results of common sequential fractionation and single-step extractions tell us about P binding with Fe and Al compounds in non-calcareous sediments?

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Jan, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

2013-01-01

Roč. 47, č. 2 (2013), s. 547-557 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1764; GA MZe(CZ) QH81012; GA MZe(CZ) QI102A265 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : sequential fractionation * ascorbate and oxalate extration * non-calcareous sediments Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 5.323, year: 2013

11. Liquidus temperature in the spinel primary phase field: A comparison between optical and crystal fraction methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riley, Brian J.; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Peterson, Jacob A.

2018-03-01

Liquidus temperature (TL) was measured for simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses covering a Hanford composition region, using an optical method and a crystal-fraction extrapolation method with X-ray diffraction data from isothermal heat treatments. The 38 glasses encompassed a one-component-at-a-time variation of a 16-component matrix. The TL values ranged from 1006°C to 1603°C. First-order polynomial models were fitted to data to obtain coefficients in terms of the effect of 1 mass% component addition on the TL: TL-increasing oxides Cr2O3 (264°C), “Others” (minor components, 163°C), oxides of noble metals (137°C), NiO (91°C), Al2O3 and Fe2O3 (~19–21°C); TL-decreasing oxides K2O (-26°C), Na2O (-41°C), and Li2O (-68°C); oxides of little effect MnO, P2O5, ZrO2, F, Bi2O3, SiO2, B2O3, and CaO (9 to -12°C). Also presented are temperatures (T1%) at which glasses contain 1 vol% of spinel as these values are considered relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The measured and estimated values are compared and contrasted and the effect of TL and T1% on glass formulation is discussed.

12. Using fractional extraction method to separate Mo from U in high concentration solution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhao Pinzhi; Cheng Guangrong; Ma Xiuhua

1996-01-01

The author presents investigation on separating Mo from U in acid high concentration lixivium with fractional extraction of secondary amine (7203) and D2EHPA and preparing qualified products of ammonium molybdate and sodium diuranate

13. Traveling wave solutions to some nonlinear fractional partial differential equations through the rational (G′/G-expansion method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tarikul Islam

2018-03-01

Full Text Available In this article, the analytical solutions to the space-time fractional foam drainage equation and the space-time fractional symmetric regularized long wave (SRLW equation are successfully examined by the recently established rational (G′/G-expansion method. The suggested equations are reduced into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the aid of the fractional complex transform. Consequently, the theories of the ordinary differential equations are implemented effectively. Three types closed form traveling wave solutions, such as hyperbolic function, trigonometric function and rational, are constructed by using the suggested method in the sense of conformable fractional derivative. The obtained solutions might be significant to analyze the depth and spacing of parallel subsurface drain and small-amplitude long wave on the surface of the water in a channel. It is observed that the performance of the rational (G′/G-expansion method is reliable and will be used to establish new general closed form solutions for any other NPDEs of fractional order.

14. Analysis of Liquid Fraction in Venturi Scrubber by E-E Method Using CFX

OpenAIRE

Majid Ali; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhongning; Wang Jianjun; Gu HaiFeng

2012-01-01

In this research, the distribution of liquid fraction in cylindrical venturi scrubber is analyzed in ANSYS CFX by Eulerian-Eulerian regime. Liquid gaps allow the aerosols to escape from the venturi scrubber. Therefore, it is vital to investigate the liquid fraction in venturi scrubber at different operating condition. The mesh model is developed in ANSYS ICEM and simulation is conducted in ANSYS CFX. k- ε turbulence model is used for simulation of two phase flow in venturi scrubber. The analy...

15. A New Method to Improve the Electrical Properties of KNN-based Ceramics: Tailoring Phase Fraction

KAUST Repository

Lv, Xiang; Wu, Jiagang; Zhu, Jianguo; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhang, Xixiang

2017-01-01

Although both the phase type and fraction of multi-phase coexistence can affect the electrical properties of (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based ceramics, effects of phase fraction on their electrical properties were few concerned. In this work, through changing the calcination temperature of CaZrO3 powders, we successfully developed the 0.96K0.5Na0.5Nb0.96Sb0.04O3-0.01CaZrO3-0.03Bi0.5Na0.5HfO3 ceramics containing a wide rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase coexistence with the variations of T (or R) phase fractions. It was found that higher T phase fraction can warrant a larger piezoelectric constant (d33) and d33 also showed a linear variation with respect to tetragonality ratio (c/a). More importantly, a number of domain patterns were observed due to high T phase fraction and large c/a ratio, greatly benefiting the piezoelectricity. In addition, the improved ferroelectric fatigue behavior and thermal stability were also shown in the ceramics containing high T phase fraction. Therefore, this work can bring a new viewpoint into the physical mechanism of KNN-based ceramics behind R-T phase coexistence.

16. A New Method to Improve the Electrical Properties of KNN-based Ceramics: Tailoring Phase Fraction

KAUST Repository

Lv, Xiang

2017-08-18

Although both the phase type and fraction of multi-phase coexistence can affect the electrical properties of (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based ceramics, effects of phase fraction on their electrical properties were few concerned. In this work, through changing the calcination temperature of CaZrO3 powders, we successfully developed the 0.96K0.5Na0.5Nb0.96Sb0.04O3-0.01CaZrO3-0.03Bi0.5Na0.5HfO3 ceramics containing a wide rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase coexistence with the variations of T (or R) phase fractions. It was found that higher T phase fraction can warrant a larger piezoelectric constant (d33) and d33 also showed a linear variation with respect to tetragonality ratio (c/a). More importantly, a number of domain patterns were observed due to high T phase fraction and large c/a ratio, greatly benefiting the piezoelectricity. In addition, the improved ferroelectric fatigue behavior and thermal stability were also shown in the ceramics containing high T phase fraction. Therefore, this work can bring a new viewpoint into the physical mechanism of KNN-based ceramics behind R-T phase coexistence.

17. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

2016-01-01

This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

18. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

KAUST Repository

Bonito, Andrea

2014-10-31

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

19. Simple One-Step Method to Synthesize Polypyrrole-Indigo Carmine-Silver Nanocomposite

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lara Fernandes Loguercio

2016-01-01

Full Text Available A nanocomposite of indigo carmine doped polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles was obtained by a one-step electrochemical process. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The simple one-step process allowed the growth of silver nanoparticles during the polymerization of polypyrrole, resulting in films with electrochromic behavior and improved electroactivity. In addition, polypyrrole chains in the nanocomposite were found to present longer conjugation length than pristine polypyrrole films.

20. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

KAUST Repository

Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Lee, Sanghyun

2014-01-01

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

1. A multi-step dealloying method to produce nanoporous gold with no volume change and minimal cracking

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sun Ye [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Balk, T. John [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, 177 F. Paul Anderson Tower, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)], E-mail: balk@engr.uky.edu

2008-05-15

We report a simple two-step dealloying method for producing bulk nanoporous gold with no volume change and no significant cracking. The galvanostatic dealloying method used here appears superior to potentiostatic methods for fabricating millimeter-scale samples. Care must be taken when imaging the nanoscale, interconnected sponge-like structure with a focused ion beam, as even brief exposure caused immediate and extensive cracking of nanoporous gold, as well as ligament coarsening at the surface00.

2. Application of radial basis functions and sinc method for solving the forced vibration of fractional viscoelastic beam

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Permoon, M. R.; Haddadpour, H. [Sharif University of Tech, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidinia, J.; Parsa, A.; Salehi, R. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2016-07-15

In this paper, the forced vibrations of the fractional viscoelastic beam with the Kelvin-Voigt fractional order constitutive relationship is studied. The equation of motion is derived from Newton's second law and the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion in to a set of linear ordinary differential equations. For solving the discretized equations, the radial basis functions and Sinc quadrature rule are used. In order to show the effectiveness and accuracy of this method, some test problem are considered, and it is shown that the obtained results are in very good agreement with exact solution. In the following, the proposed numerical solution is applied to exploring the effects of fractional parameters on the response of the beam and finally some conclusions are outlined.

3. From stochastic processes to numerical methods: A new scheme for solving reaction subdiffusion fractional partial differential equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Angstmann, C.N.; Donnelly, I.C. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, UNSW Australia, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Henry, B.I., E-mail: B.Henry@unsw.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Statistics, UNSW Australia, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Jacobs, B.A. [School of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); DST–NRF Centre of Excellence in Mathematical and Statistical Sciences (CoE-MaSS) (South Africa); Langlands, T.A.M. [Department of Mathematics and Computing, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba QLD 4350 (Australia); Nichols, J.A. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, UNSW Australia, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

2016-02-15

We have introduced a new explicit numerical method, based on a discrete stochastic process, for solving a class of fractional partial differential equations that model reaction subdiffusion. The scheme is derived from the master equations for the evolution of the probability density of a sum of discrete time random walks. We show that the diffusion limit of the master equations recovers the fractional partial differential equation of interest. This limiting procedure guarantees the consistency of the numerical scheme. The positivity of the solution and stability results are simply obtained, provided that the underlying process is well posed. We also show that the method can be applied to standard reaction–diffusion equations. This work highlights the broader applicability of using discrete stochastic processes to provide numerical schemes for partial differential equations, including fractional partial differential equations.

4. Diagnostic performance of a Lattice Boltzmann-based method for CT-based fractional flow reserve.

Science.gov (United States)

Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Tang, Anji; Ge, Yin; Cheezum, Michael K; Steigner, Michael L; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Chiappino, Dante; Della Latta, Daniele; Berti, Sergio; Chiappino, Sara; Rybicki, Frank J; Melchionna, Simone; Mitsouras, Dimitrios

2018-02-20

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) estimated from coronary computed tomography angiography (CT-FFR) offers non-invasive detection of lesion-specific ischaemia. We aimed to develop and validate a fast CT-FFR algorithm utilising the Lattice Boltzmann method for blood flow simulation (LBM CT-FFR). Sixty-four patients with clinically indicated CTA and invasive FFR measurement from three institutions were retrospectively analysed. CT-FFR was performed using an onsite tool interfacing with a commercial Lattice Boltzmann fluid dynamics cloud-based platform. Diagnostic accuracy of LBM CT-FFR ≤0.8 and percent diameter stenosis >50% by CTA to detect invasive FFR ≤0.8 were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Sixty patients successfully underwent LBM CT-FFR analysis; 29 of 73 lesions in 69 vessels had invasive FFR ≤0.8. Total time to perform LBM CT-FFR was 40±10 min. Compared to invasive FFR, LBM CT-FFR had good correlation (r=0.64), small bias (0.009) and good limits of agreement (-0.223 to 0.206). The AUC of LBM CT-FFR (AUC=0.894, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.792-0.996) was significantly higher than CTA (AUC=0.685, 95% CI: 0.576-0.794) to detect FFR ≤0.8 (p=0.0021). Per-lesion specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of LBM CT-FFR were 97.7%, 79.3%, and 90.4%, respectively. LBM CT-FFR has very good diagnostic accuracy to detect lesion-specific ischaemia (FFR ≤0.8) and can be performed in less than one hour.

5. Variable order one-step methods for initial value problems I ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

A class of variable order one-step integrators is proposed for Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). It is based on a rational interpolant. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 91-96 ...

6. The Mixing of Methods: a three-step process for improving rigour in impact evaluations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ton, G.

2012-01-01

This article describes a systematic process that is helpful in improving impact evaluation assignments, within restricted budgets and timelines. It involves three steps: a rethink of the key questions of the evaluation to develop more relevant, specific questions; a way of designing a mix of

7. A novel two-step method for screening shade tolerant mutant plants via dwarfism

Science.gov (United States)

When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance. Here, we describe a two-step procedure for isolating shade tolerant mutants of ...

8. Methods for Assessing Item, Step, and Threshold Invariance in Polytomous Items Following the Partial Credit Model

Science.gov (United States)

Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

2008-01-01

Measurement invariance in the partial credit model (PCM) can be conceptualized in several different but compatible ways. In this article the authors distinguish between three forms of measurement invariance in the PCM: step invariance, item invariance, and threshold invariance. Approaches for modeling these three forms of invariance are proposed,…

9. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Le Hong Khiem

2003-01-01

The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2γ) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation. (author)

10. Extension of the method of moments for population balances involving fractional moments and application to a typical agglomeration problem.

Science.gov (United States)

Alexiadis, Alessio; Vanni, Marco; Gardin, Pascal

2004-08-01

The method of moment (MOM) is a powerful tool for solving population balance. Nevertheless it cannot be used in every circumstance. Sometimes, in fact, it is not possible to write the governing equations in closed form. Higher moments, for instance, could appear in the evolution of the lower ones. This obstacle has often been resolved by prescribing some functional form for the particle size distribution. Another example is the occurrence of fractional moment, usually connected with the presence of fractal aggregates. For this case we propose a procedure that does not need any assumption on the form of the distribution but it is based on the "moments generating function" (that is the Laplace transform of the distribution). An important result of probability theory is that the kth derivative of the moments generating function represents the kth moment of the original distribution. This result concerns integer moments but, taking in account the Weyl fractional derivative, could be extended to fractional orders. Approximating fractional derivative makes it possible to express the fractional moments in terms of the integer ones and so to use regularly the method of moments.

11. Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography.

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

2014-04-01

Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step.

12. A New Method to Constrain Supernova Fractions Using X-ray Observations of Clusters of Galaxies

Science.gov (United States)

Bulbul, Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Loewenstein, Michael

2012-01-01

Supernova (SN) explosions enrich the intracluster medium (ICM) both by creating and dispersing metals. We introduce a method to measure the number of SNe and relative contribution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe cc) by directly fitting X-ray spectral observations. The method has been implemented as an XSPEC model called snapec. snapec utilizes a single-temperature thermal plasma code (apec) to model the spectral emission based on metal abundances calculated using the latest SN yields from SN Ia and SN cc explosion models. This approach provides a self-consistent single set of uncertainties on the total number of SN explosions and relative fraction of SN types in the ICM over the cluster lifetime by directly allowing these parameters to be determined by SN yields provided by simulations. We apply our approach to XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC), Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS), and 200 ks simulated Astro-H observations of a cooling flow cluster, A3112.We find that various sets of SN yields present in the literature produce an acceptable fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra of A3112. We infer that 30.3% plus or minus 5.4% to 37.1% plus or minus 7.1% of the total SN explosions are SNe Ia, and the total number of SN explosions required to create the observed metals is in the range of (1.06 plus or minus 0.34) x 10(exp 9), to (1.28 plus or minus 0.43) x 10(exp 9), fromsnapec fits to RGS spectra. These values may be compared to the enrichment expected based on well-established empirically measured SN rates per star formed. The proportions of SNe Ia and SNe cc inferred to have enriched the ICM in the inner 52 kiloparsecs of A3112 is consistent with these specific rates, if one applies a correction for the metals locked up in stars. At the same time, the inferred level of SN enrichment corresponds to a star-to-gas mass ratio that is several times greater than the 10% estimated globally for clusters in the A3112 mass range.

13. Clinical experience with a new stereotactic localisation method for fractionated radiotherapy of extracranial lesions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Pastyr, O.; Wenz, F.; Debus, J.; Schlegel, W.; Bahner, M.L.; Wannenmacher, M.

1996-01-01

Purpose/Objective: Effectiveness of radiotherapy in terms of local control has been shown to be linked with treatment accuracy. Conformal radiation therapy outside the brain maybe limited by relative inaccuracy of positioning and repositioning uncertainty during treatment planning, simulation and radiotherapy. It has been shown that stereotactic localisation methods provide an excellent localisation accuracy for intracranial lesions. The aim of this study was to develop a stereotactic system for the whole body and to test the feasibility in a clinical study. Materials and Method: The system includes a reversible stereotactic patient fixation, localization and positioning system which can be used during CT-imaging for simulation and for treatment. The target volume and adjacent critical structures were outlined for treatment three dimensional planning and the coordinates of the target point were calculated. The overall accuracy of target localization including soft and hardware inaccuracy was measured by a phantom. Three patients with spinal and paraspinal tumors were treated by conventionally fractionated high precision megavoltage radiotherapy with this system. The treatment time was 6 weeks in each patients. The stereotactic coordinates of anatomical landmarks as well as implanted fiducals were measured by CT-imaging, X-ray localization and electronic portal imaging at 20 different paraspinal localisations. Stereotactic CT-imaging was performed for treatment planning and once a week during treatment. Results: Standard deviation of stereotactic coordinats in the phantom was 0.5 mm in the lateral direction (x), 1.0 mm in the cranio-caudal orientation (z) and 1.2 mm in the dorso-ventral orientation. About 60 minutes are required to immobilise the patient properly for the first set-up and the subsequent daily set-up time during therapy was 10 min. In patients a total of 18 CT examination and 56 portal images have been analysed. The mean variation of the stereotactic

14. Effects of projection and background correction method upon calculation of right ventricular ejection fraction using first-pass radionuclide angiography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Caplin, J.L.; Flatman, W.D.; Dymond, D.S.

1985-01-01

There is no consensus as to the best projection or correction method for first-pass radionuclide studies of the right ventricle. We assessed the effects of two commonly used projections, 30 degrees right anterior oblique and anterior-posterior, on the calculation of right ventricular ejection fraction. In addition two background correction methods, planar background correction to account for scatter, and right atrial correction to account for right atrio-ventricular overlap were assessed. Two first-pass radionuclide angiograms were performed in 19 subjects, one in each projection, using gold-195m (half-life 30.5 seconds), and each study was analysed using the two methods of correction. Right ventricular ejection fraction was highest using the right anterior oblique projection with right atrial correction 35.6 +/- 12.5% (mean +/- SD), and lowest when using the anterior posterior projection with planar background correction 26.2 +/- 11% (p less than 0.001). The study design allowed assessment of the effects of correction method and projection independently. Correction method appeared to have relatively little effect on right ventricular ejection fraction. Using right atrial correction correlation coefficient (r) between projections was 0.92, and for planar background correction r = 0.76, both p less than 0.001. However, right ventricular ejection fraction was far more dependent upon projection. When the anterior-posterior projection was used calculated right ventricular ejection fraction was much more dependent on correction method (r = 0.65, p = not significant), than using the right anterior oblique projection (r = 0.85, p less than 0.001)

15. A stabilized Runge–Kutta–Legendre method for explicit super-time-stepping of parabolic and mixed equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Meyer, Chad D.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Aslam, Tariq D.

2014-01-01

Parabolic partial differential equations appear in several physical problems, including problems that have a dominant hyperbolic part coupled to a sub-dominant parabolic component. Explicit methods for their solution are easy to implement but have very restrictive time step constraints. Implicit solution methods can be unconditionally stable but have the disadvantage of being computationally costly or difficult to implement. Super-time-stepping methods for treating parabolic terms in mixed type partial differential equations occupy an intermediate position. In such methods each superstep takes “s” explicit Runge–Kutta-like time-steps to advance the parabolic terms by a time-step that is s 2 times larger than a single explicit time-step. The expanded stability is usually obtained by mapping the short recursion relation of the explicit Runge–Kutta scheme to the recursion relation of some well-known, stable polynomial. Prior work has built temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Chebyshev polynomials. Since their stability is based on the boundedness of the Chebyshev polynomials, these methods have been called RKC1 and RKC2. In this work we build temporally first- and second-order accurate super-time-stepping methods around the recursion relation associated with Legendre polynomials. We call these methods RKL1 and RKL2. The RKL1 method is first-order accurate in time; the RKL2 method is second-order accurate in time. We verify that the newly-designed RKL1 and RKL2 schemes have a very desirable monotonicity preserving property for one-dimensional problems – a solution that is monotone at the beginning of a time step retains that property at the end of that time step. It is shown that RKL1 and RKL2 methods are stable for all values of the diffusion coefficient up to the maximum value. We call this a convex monotonicity preserving property and show by examples that it is very useful

16. Protein fraction heterogeneity in donkey’s milk analysed by proteomic methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

G. D'Urso

2010-04-01

Full Text Available Donkey’s milk is often well tolerate by patients affected by cow’s milk protein allergy, probably thanks to its protein composition. This empiric evidence, confirmed by some clinical trials, needs to be better investigated. A preliminary survey on the protein fraction of donkey’s milk was carried out: fifty-six individual milk samples have been collected and analysed by IEF and SDS-PAGE. Five different IEF patterns have been identified, showing a marked heterogeneity both in casein and whey protein fractions. A single IEF pattern showed an apparent reduced amount of casein fraction highlighted by SDS. Three of the five IEF patterns have been further investigated by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS.

17. Development of interface between MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP (IPR-MFM) based on rigorous two step method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shaw, A.K.; Swami, H.L.; Danani, C.

2015-01-01

In this work we present the development of interface tool between MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP (MFM) based on Rigorous Two Step method for the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) calculation. The MFM links MCNP radiation transport and the FISPACT inventory code through a suitable coupling scheme. MFM coupling scheme has three steps. In first step it picks neutron spectrum and total flux from MCNP output file to use as input parameter for FISPACT. It prepares the FISPACT input files by using irradiation history, neutron flux and neutron spectrum and then execute the FISPACT input file in the second step. Third step of MFM coupling scheme extracts the decay gammas from the FISPACT output file and prepares MCNP input file for decay gamma transport followed by execution of MCNP input file and estimation of SDDR. Here detailing of MFM methodology and flow scheme has been described. The programming language PYTHON has been chosen for this development of the coupling scheme. A complete loop of MCNP-FISPACT-MCNP has been developed to handle the simplified geometrical problems. For validation of MFM interface a manual cross-check has been performed which shows good agreements. The MFM interface also has been validated with exiting MCNP-D1S method for a simple geometry with 14 MeV cylindrical neutron source. (author)

18. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits

Science.gov (United States)

Ipek, Hava; Calik, Muammer

2008-01-01

Based on students' alternative conceptions of the topics "electric circuits", "electric charge flows within an electric circuit", "how the brightness of bulbs and the resistance changes in series and parallel circuits", the current study aims to present a combination of different conceptual change methods within a four-step constructivist teaching…

19. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xin Lu

2018-03-01

Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

20. New method of plant mitochondria isolation and sub-fractionation for proteomic analyses

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hájek, Tomáš; Honys, David; Čapková, Věra

2004-01-01

Roč. 167, č. 3 (2004), s. 389-395 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LZ1K03018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : plant mitochondria isolation * sub-fractionation * protein analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2004

1. Application of the thermal step method to space charge measurements in inhomogeneous solid insulating structures: A theoretical approach

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cernomorcenco, Andrei; Notingher, Petru Jr.

2008-01-01

The thermal step method is a nondestructive technique for determining electric charge distribution across solid insulating structures. It consists in measuring and analyzing a transient capacitive current due to the redistribution of influence charges when the sample is crossed by a thermal wave. This work concerns the application of the technique to inhomogeneous insulating structures. A general equation of the thermal step current appearing in such a sample is established. It is shown that this expression is close to the one corresponding to a homogeneous sample and allows using similar techniques for calculating electric field and charge distribution

2. Convolution method and CTV-to-PTV margins for finite fractions and small systematic errors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

2007-01-01

The van Herk margin formula (VHMF) relies on the accuracy of the convolution method (CM) to determine clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins. This work (1) evaluates the accuracy of the CM and VHMF as a function of the number of fractions N and other parameters, and (2) proposes an alternative margin algorithm which ensures target coverage for a wider range of parameter values. Dose coverage was evaluated for a spherical target with uniform margin, using the same simplified dose model and CTV coverage criterion as were used in development of the VHMF. Systematic and random setup errors were assumed to be normally distributed with standard deviations Σ and σ. For clinically relevant combinations of σ, Σ and N, margins were determined by requiring that 90% of treatment course simulations have a CTV minimum dose greater than or equal to the static PTV minimum dose. Simulation results were compared with the VHMF and the alternative margin algorithm. The CM and VHMF were found to be accurate for parameter values satisfying the approximate criterion: σ[1 - γN/25] 0.2, because they failed to account for the non-negligible dose variability associated with random setup errors. These criteria are applicable when σ ∼> σ P , where σ P = 0.32 cm is the standard deviation of the normal dose penumbra. (Qualitative behaviour of the CM and VHMF will remain the same, though the criteria might vary if σ P takes values other than 0.32 cm.) When σ P , dose variability due to random setup errors becomes negligible, and the CM and VHMF are valid regardless of the values of Σ and N. When σ ∼> σ P , consistent with the above criteria, it was found that the VHMF can underestimate margins for large σ, small Σ and small N. A potential consequence of this underestimate is that the CTV minimum dose can fall below its planned value in more than the prescribed 10% of treatments. The proposed alternative margin algorithm provides better margin

3. New solitary wave solutions of the time-fractional Cahn-Allen equation via the improved (G'/G)-expansion method

Science.gov (United States)

Batool, Fiza; Akram, Ghazala

2018-05-01

An improved (G'/G)-expansion method is proposed for extracting more general solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear fractional Cahn-Allen equation. The temporal fractional derivative is taken in the sense of Jumarie's fractional derivative. The results of this article are generalized and extended version of previously reported solutions.

4. Concentration of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium in 63-μm house dust fraction as a method to predict hidden moisture damage in homes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2009-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative measurements of mould enrichment of indoor air or house dust might be suitable surrogates to evaluate present but hidden moisture damage. Our intent was to develop a house-dust monitoring method to detect hidden moisture damage excluding the influence of outdoor air, accumulated old dust, and dust swirled up from room surfaces. Methods Based on standardized measurement of mould spores in the 63-μm fraction of house dust yielded by carpets, the background concentrations were determined and compared to simultaneously obtained colony numbers and total spore numbers of the indoor air in 80 non-mouldy living areas during summer and winter periods. Additionally, sampling with a vacuum-cleaner or manual sieve was compared to sampling with a filter holder or sieving machine, and the evaluative power of an established two-step assessment model (lower and upper limits was compared to that of a one-step model (one limit in order to derive concentration limits for mould load in house dust. Results Comparison with existing evaluation procedures proved the developed method to be the most reliable means of evaluating hidden moisture damage, yielding the lowest false-positive results (specificity 98.7%. Background measurements and measurements in 14 mouldy rooms show that even by evaluating just the indicator genera in summer and winter, a relatively certain assessment of mould infestation is possible. Conclusion A one-step evaluation is finally possible for house dust. The house-dust evaluation method is based on analysis of the indicator genera Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium spp., which depend on the total fungal count. Inclusion of further moisture indicators currently appears questionable, because of outdoor air influence and the paucity of measurements.

5. Rapid one-step selection method for generating nucleic acid aptamers: development of a DNA aptamer against α-bungarotoxin.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lasse H Lauridsen

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen®, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD. Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against α-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 µM. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way of deriving an aptamer unlike the time consuming conventional SELEX-based approach. The most important application of this method is that chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries can also be used for aptamer selection as it requires only one enzymatic step. This method could equally be suitable for developing RNA aptamers.

6. Comparison on genomic predictions using GBLUP models and two single-step blending methods with different relationship matrices in the Nordic Holstein population

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gao, Hongding; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Madsen, Per

2012-01-01

Background A single-step blending approach allows genomic prediction using information of genotyped and non-genotyped animals simultaneously. However, the combined relationship matrix in a single-step method may need to be adjusted because marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices may...... not be on the same scale. The same may apply when a GBLUP model includes both genomic breeding values and residual polygenic effects. The objective of this study was to compare single-step blending methods and GBLUP methods with and without adjustment of the genomic relationship matrix for genomic prediction of 16......) a simple GBLUP method, 2) a GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 3) an adjusted GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 4) a single-step blending method, and 5) an adjusted single-step blending method. In the adjusted GBLUP and single-step methods, the genomic relationship matrix was adjusted...

7. Large-area gold nanohole arrays fabricated by one-step method for surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensing.

Science.gov (United States)

Qi, Huijie; Niu, Lihong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jian; Wang, Shujie; Yang, Jingjing; Guo, Siyi; Lawson, Tom; Shi, Bingyang; Song, Chunpeng

2018-04-01

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensors based on metallic nanohole arrays have been widely reported to detect binding interactions in biological specimens. A simple and effective method for constructing nanoscale arrays is essential for the development of SPR nanosensors. In this work, we report a one-step method to fabricate nanohole arrays by thermal nanoimprinting in the matrix of IPS (Intermediate Polymer Stamp). No additional etching process or supporting substrate is required. The preparation process is simple, time-saving and compatible for roll-to-roll process, potentially allowing mass production. Moreover, the nanohole arrays were integrated into detection platform as SPR sensors to investigate different types of biological binding interactions. The results demonstrate that our one-step method can be used to efficiently fabricate large-area and uniform nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing.

8. Methods for optimizing over the efficient and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization program

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Le, T.H.A.; Pham, D. T.; Canh, Nam Nguyen

2010-01-01

Both the efficient and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem, in general, are neither convex nor given explicitly. Optimization problems over one of these sets are thus nonconvex. We propose two methods for optimizing a real-valued function over the efficient...... and weakly efficient sets of an affine fractional vector optimization problem. The first method is a local one. By using a regularization function, we reformulate the problem into a standard smooth mathematical programming problem that allows applying available methods for smooth programming. In case...... the objective function is linear, we have investigated a global algorithm based upon a branch-and-bound procedure. The algorithm uses Lagrangian bound coupling with a simplicial bisection in the criteria space. Preliminary computational results show that the global algorithm is promising....

9. Optimization of One-Step In Situ Transesterification Method for Accurate Quantification of EPA in Nannochloropsis gaditana

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yuting Tang

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Microalgae are a valuable source of lipid feedstocks for biodiesel and valuable omega-3 fatty acids. Nannochloropsis gaditana has emerged as a promising producer of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA due to its fast growth rate and high EPA content. In the present study, the fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis gaditana was found to be naturally high in EPA and devoid of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, thereby providing an opportunity to maximize the efficacy of EPA production. Using an optimized one-step in situ transesterification method (methanol:biomass = 90 mL/g; HCl 5% by vol.; 70 °C; 1.5 h, the maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield of Nannochloropsis gaditana cultivated under rich condition was quantified as 10.04% ± 0.08% by weight with EPA-yields as high as 4.02% ± 0.17% based on dry biomass. The total FAME and EPA yields were 1.58- and 1.23-fold higher separately than that obtained using conventional two-step method (solvent system: methanol and chloroform. This one-step in situ method provides a fast and simple method to measure fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yields and could serve as a promising method to generate eicosapentaenoic acid methyl ester from microalgae.

10. Two-step method for creating a gastric tube during laparoscopic-thoracoscopic Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Yu; Li, Ji-Jia; Zu, Peng; Liu, Hong-Xu; Yu, Zhan-Wu; Ren, Yi

2017-12-07

To introduce a two-step method for creating a gastric tube during laparoscopic-thoracoscopic Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy and assess its clinical application. One hundred and twenty-two patients with middle or lower esophageal cancer who underwent laparoscopic-thoracoscopic Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy at Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute from March 2014 to March 2016 were included in this study, and divided into two groups based on the procedure used for creating a gastric tube. One group used a two-step method for creating a gastric tube, and the other group used the conventional method. The two groups were compared regarding the operating time, surgical complications, and number of stapler cartridges used. The mean operating time was significantly shorter in the two-step method group than in the conventional method group [238 (179-293) min vs 272 (189-347) min, P creating a gastric tube during laparoscopic-thoracoscopic Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy has the advantages of simple operation, minimal damage to the tubular stomach, and reduced use of stapler cartridges.

11. One-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in general dispersive media.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David

2013-09-09

The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.

12. Numerical treatment for solving two-dimensional space-fractional advection-dispersion equation using meshless method

Science.gov (United States)

Cheng, Rongjun; Sun, Fengxin; Wei, Qi; Wang, Jufeng

2018-02-01

Space-fractional advection-dispersion equation (SFADE) can describe particle transport in a variety of fields more accurately than the classical models of integer-order derivative. Because of nonlocal property of integro-differential operator of space-fractional derivative, it is very challenging to deal with fractional model, and few have been reported in the literature. In this paper, a numerical analysis of the two-dimensional SFADE is carried out by the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method. The trial functions for the SFADE are constructed by the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. By the Galerkin weak form, the energy functional is formulated. Employing the energy functional minimization procedure, the final algebraic equations system is obtained. The Riemann-Liouville operator is discretized by the Grünwald formula. With center difference method, EFG method and Grünwald formula, the fully discrete approximation schemes for SFADE are established. Comparing with exact results and available results by other well-known methods, the computed approximate solutions are presented in the format of tables and graphs. The presented results demonstrate the validity, efficiency and accuracy of the proposed techniques. Furthermore, the error is computed and the proposed method has reasonable convergence rates in spatial and temporal discretizations.

13. An explicit dissipation-preserving method for Riesz space-fractional nonlinear wave equations in multiple dimensions

Science.gov (United States)

Macías-Díaz, J. E.

2018-06-01

In this work, we investigate numerically a model governed by a multidimensional nonlinear wave equation with damping and fractional diffusion. The governing partial differential equation considers the presence of Riesz space-fractional derivatives of orders in (1, 2], and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary data are imposed on a closed and bounded spatial domain. The model under investigation possesses an energy function which is preserved in the undamped regime. In the damped case, we establish the property of energy dissipation of the model using arguments from functional analysis. Motivated by these results, we propose an explicit finite-difference discretization of our fractional model based on the use of fractional centered differences. Associated to our discrete model, we also propose discretizations of the energy quantities. We establish that the discrete energy is conserved in the undamped regime, and that it dissipates in the damped scenario. Among the most important numerical features of our scheme, we show that the method has a consistency of second order, that it is stable and that it has a quadratic order of convergence. Some one- and two-dimensional simulations are shown in this work to illustrate the fact that the technique is capable of preserving the discrete energy in the undamped regime. For the sake of convenience, we provide a Matlab implementation of our method for the one-dimensional scenario.

14. A non-invasive method for fractionated steriotactic irradiation of brain tumors with linear accelerator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hariz, M.I.; Laitinen, L.V.; Henriksson, R.; Saeterborg, N.-E.; Loefroth, P.-O.

1990-01-01

A new technique for fractionated stereotactic irradiation of intracranial lesions is described. The treatment is based on a versatile, non-invasive interface for stereotactic localization of the brain target imaged by computed tomography (CT), angiography or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and subsequent repetitive stereotactic irradiation of the target using a linear accelerator. The fractionation of the stereotactic irradiation was intended to meet the requirements of the basic principles of radiobiology. The radiophysical evaluation using phantoms, and the clinical results in a small number of patients, demonstrated a good reproducibilit between repeated positionings of the target in the isocenter of the accelerator, and a high degree of accuracy in the treatment of brain lesions. (authors). 28 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 tab

15. Novel Numerical Methods for Optimal Control Problems Involving Fractional-Order Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

2018-03-14

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 03/14/2018 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF Office Of Scientific Research (AFOSR...optimal control problems involving fractional-order differential equations Wang, Song Curtin University of Technology Kent Street, Bentley WA6102...Article history : Received 3 October 2016 Accepted 26 March 2017 Available online 29 April 2017 Keywords: Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation Financial

16. Trends in Polymer and Particle Characterization by Microfluidic Field-Flow Fractionation Methods: Science or Business?

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Janča, Josef; Sobota, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

Roč. 19, 16 May (2014), s. 296-308 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Asymmetrical flow FFF * Electrical FFF * Field-flow fractionation * Flow FFF * Microelectrical FFF * Microfluidic channels * Microthermal FFF * Miniaturization and resolution * Polymers and particles separation * Sedimentation FFF * Technical benefits of microchannels * Thermal FFF Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

17. Two-step design method for highly compact three-dimensional freeform optical system for LED surface light source.

Science.gov (United States)

Mao, Xianglong; Li, Hongtao; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi

2014-10-20

Designing an illumination system for a surface light source with a strict compactness requirement is quite challenging, especially for the general three-dimensional (3D) case. In accordance with the two key features of an expected illumination distribution, i.e., a well-controlled boundary and a precise illumination pattern, a two-step design method is proposed in this paper for highly compact 3D freeform illumination systems. In the first step, a target shape scaling strategy is combined with an iterative feedback modification algorithm to generate an optimized freeform optical system with a well-controlled boundary of the target distribution. In the second step, a set of selected radii of the system obtained in the first step are optimized to further improve the illuminating quality within the target region. The method is quite flexible and effective to design highly compact optical systems with almost no restriction on the shape of the desired target field. As examples, three highly compact freeform lenses with ratio of center height h of the lens and the maximum dimension D of the source ≤ 2.5:1 are designed for LED surface light sources to form a uniform illumination distribution on a rectangular, a cross-shaped and a complex cross pierced target plane respectively. High light control efficiency of η > 0.7 as well as low relative standard illumination deviation of RSD < 0.07 is obtained simultaneously for all the three design examples.

18. A Four-Step Block Hybrid Adams-Moulton Methods For The Solution ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper examines application of the Adam-Moulton's Method and proposes a modified self-starting continuous formula Called hybrid Adams-Moulton methods for the case k=4. It allows evaluation at both grid and off grid points to obtain the discrete schemes used in the block methods. The order, error constant and ...

19. On some properties of the block linear multi-step methods | Chollom ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The convergence, stability and order of Block linear Multistep methods have been determined in the past based on individual members of the block. In this paper, methods are proposed to examine the properties of the entire block. Some Block Linear Multistep methods have been considered, their convergence, stability and ...

20. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cobb, J.W.

1995-02-01

There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

1. Statistical Methods and Sampling Design for Estimating Step Trends in Surface-Water Quality

Science.gov (United States)

Hirsch, Robert M.

1988-01-01

This paper addresses two components of the problem of estimating the magnitude of step trends in surface water quality. The first is finding a robust estimator appropriate to the data characteristics expected in water-quality time series. The J. L. Hodges-E. L. Lehmann class of estimators is found to be robust in comparison to other nonparametric and moment-based estimators. A seasonal Hodges-Lehmann estimator is developed and shown to have desirable properties. Second, the effectiveness of various sampling strategies is examined using Monte Carlo simulation coupled with application of this estimator. The simulation is based on a large set of total phosphorus data from the Potomac River. To assure that the simulated records have realistic properties, the data are modeled in a multiplicative fashion incorporating flow, hysteresis, seasonal, and noise components. The results demonstrate the importance of balancing the length of the two sampling periods and balancing the number of data values between the two periods.

2. Fibrillar polyaniline/diatomite composite synthesized by one-step in situ polymerization method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Xingwei; Li Xiaoxuan; Wang Gengchao

2005-01-01

A fibrillar polyaniline/diatomite composite was prepared by one-step in situ polymerization of aniline in the dispersed system of diatomite, and was characterized via Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), UV-vis-NIR spectra, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as conductivity. Morphology of the composite is uniform nanofibers, which the diameters of nanofibers are about 50-80 nm. The conductivity of polyaniline/diatomite composite contained 28% polyaniline is 0.29 S cm -1 at 25 deg. C, and temperature of thermal degradation has reached 493 deg. C in air. The composite has potential commercial applications as fillers for electromagnetic shielding materials and conductive coatings

3. The measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from one-step outflow method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lee, S. H.; Hwang, J. H.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, C. R.

2003-01-01

One of the most important parts in constructing radioactive waste repository may be its safety aspect. The fundamental function of the repository is to isolate completely and forever the radioactive wastes disposed of in it. However, since either normally or abnormally nuclides are to be released from the repository with a certain causes. The hydraulic conductivity is related to transportation of nuclide in soil. However, hydraulic characteristics research in unsaturated soil is not enough at present time. A fast and easy procedure for estimating unsaturated flow parameters is presented. The estimation is based on direct measurement of the retention characteristics combined with inverse estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristics from one-step outflow experiment

4. Variable Step Integration Coupled with the Method of Characteristics Solution for Water-Hammer Analysis, A Case Study

Science.gov (United States)

Turpin, Jason B.

2004-01-01

One-dimensional water-hammer modeling involves the solution of two coupled non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). These equations result from applying the principles of conservation of mass and momentum to flow through a pipe, and usually the assumption that the speed at which pressure waves propagate through the pipe is constant. In order to solve these equations for the interested quantities (i.e. pressures and flow rates), they must first be converted to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by either approximating the spatial derivative terms with numerical techniques or using the Method of Characteristics (MOC). The MOC approach is ideal in that no numerical approximation errors are introduced in converting the original system of PDEs into an equivalent system of ODEs. Unfortunately this resulting system of ODEs is bound by a time step constraint so that when integrating the equations the solution can only be obtained at fixed time intervals. If the fluid system to be modeled also contains dynamic components (i.e. components that are best modeled by a system of ODEs), it may be necessary to take extremely small time steps during certain points of the model simulation in order to achieve stability and/or accuracy in the solution. Coupled together, the fixed time step constraint invoked by the MOC, and the occasional need for extremely small time steps in order to obtain stability and/or accuracy, can greatly increase simulation run times. As one solution to this problem, a method for combining variable step integration (VSI) algorithms with the MOC was developed for modeling water-hammer in systems with highly dynamic components. A case study is presented in which reverse flow through a dual-flapper check valve introduces a water-hammer event. The predicted pressure responses upstream of the check-valve are compared with test data.

5. Using a Two-Step Method to Measure Transgender Identity in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain

Science.gov (United States)

Reisner, Sari L.; Biello, Katie; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Novak, David S.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

Few comparative data are available internationally to examine health differences by transgender identity. A barrier to monitoring the health and well-being of transgender people is the lack of inclusion of measures to assess natal sex/gender identity status in surveys. Data were from a cross-sectional anonymous online survey of members (n > 36,000) of a sexual networking website targeting men who have sex with men in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries/ territories in Latin America/the Caribbean, Portugal, and Spain. Natal sex/gender identity status was assessed using a two-step method (Step 1: assigned birth sex, Step 2: current gender identity). Male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) participants were compared to non-transgender males in age-adjusted regression models on socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, sex work), masculine gender conformity, psychological health and well-being (lifetime suicidality, past-week depressive distress, positive self-worth, general self-rated health, gender related stressors), and sexual health (HIV-infection, past-year STIs, past-3 month unprotected anal or vaginal sex). The two-step method identified 190 transgender participants (0.54%; 158 MTF, 32 FTM). Of the 12 health-related variables, six showed significant differences between the three groups: SES, masculine gender conformity, lifetime suicidality, depressive distress, positive self-worth, and past-year genital herpes. A two-step approach is recommended for health surveillance efforts to assess natal sex/gender identity status. Cognitive testing to formally validate assigned birth sex and current gender identity survey items in Spanish and Portuguese is encouraged. PMID:25030120

6. An M-step preconditioned conjugate gradient method for parallel computation

Science.gov (United States)

1983-01-01

This paper describes a preconditioned conjugate gradient method that can be effectively implemented on both vector machines and parallel arrays to solve sparse symmetric and positive definite systems of linear equations. The implementation on the CYBER 203/205 and on the Finite Element Machine is discussed and results obtained using the method on these machines are given.

7. A simple method for estimating potential source term bypass fractions from confinement structures

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1997-01-01

Confinement structures house many of the operating processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under normal operating conditions, a confinement structure in conjunction with its associated ventilation systems prevents the release of radiological material to the environment. However, under potential accident conditions, the performance of the ventilation systems and integrity of the structure may be challenged. In order to calculate the radiological consequences associated with a potential accident (e.g. fires, explosion, spills, etc.), it is necessary to determine the fraction of the source term initially generated by the accident that escapes from the confinement structure to the environment. While it would be desirable to estimate the potential bypass fraction using sophisticated control-volume/flow path computer codes (e.g. CONTAIN, MELCOR, etc.) in order to take as much credit as possible for the mitigative effects of the confinement structure, there are many instances where using such codes is not tractable due to limits on the level-of-effort allotted to perform the analysis. Moreover, the current review environment, with its emphasis on deterministic/bounding-versus probabilistic/best-estimate-analysis discourages using analytical techniques that require the consideration of a large number of parameters. Discussed herein is a simplified control-volume/flow path approach for calculating source term bypass fraction that is amenable to solution in a spreadsheet or with a commercial mathematical solver (e.g. MathCad or Mathematica). It considers the effects of wind and fire pressure gradients on the structure, ventilation system operation, and Halon discharges. Simple models are used to characterize the engineered and non-engineered flow paths. By making judicious choices for the limited set of problem parameters, the results from this approach can be defended as bounding and conservative

8. Global bifurcations in fractional-order chaotic systems with an extended generalized cell mapping method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liu, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Mathematics and Statistics, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China); Hong, Ling, E-mail: hongling@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Jiang, Jun [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2016-08-15

Global bifurcations include sudden changes in chaotic sets due to crises. There are three types of crises defined by Grebogi et al. [Physica D 7, 181 (1983)]: boundary crisis, interior crisis, and metamorphosis. In this paper, by means of the extended generalized cell mapping (EGCM), boundary and interior crises of a fractional-order Duffing system are studied as one of the system parameters or the fractional derivative order is varied. It is found that a crisis can be generally defined as a collision between a chaotic basic set and a basic set, either periodic or chaotic, to cause a sudden discontinuous change in chaotic sets. Here chaotic sets involve three different kinds: a chaotic attractor, a chaotic saddle on a fractal basin boundary, and a chaotic saddle in the interior of a basin and disjoint from the attractor. A boundary crisis results from the collision of a periodic (or chaotic) attractor with a chaotic (or regular) saddle in the fractal (or smooth) boundary. In such a case, the attractor, together with its basin of attraction, is suddenly destroyed as the control parameter passes through a critical value, leaving behind a chaotic saddle in the place of the original attractor and saddle after the crisis. An interior crisis happens when an unstable chaotic set in the basin of attraction collides with a periodic attractor, which causes the appearance of a new chaotic attractor, while the original attractor and the unstable chaotic set are converted to the part of the chaotic attractor after the crisis. These results further demonstrate that the EGCM is a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of crises in fractional-order systems.

9. Scientific and interdisciplinary method as support for the restoration project. The balustrade steps of Villa Cerami

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Giulia Sanfilippo

2015-07-01

Full Text Available In this work an interdisciplinary study of the weathering forms of the Villa Cerami balustrade, was carried out with the aim to identify the type and causes of these and to plan conservation measures. The studied balustrade adorns and protects the steps of Villa Cerami garden, which is a suggestive example of 18th century ‘urban villa’, located in the very core of the Baroque Catania. Sadly, these stunning steps, whose magnificence and placement characterises the out-door environment of the building, at present suffer from bad degradation conditions, and the decorative details adorning the baluster are affected by irreversible damage. The causes of this ongoing degradation process are: material features, humidity, pollution and the consumption caused by the activities performed in the building. Since 1957 it has been the location of the Faculty of Law of the University of Catania. In this study, three balusters affected by the main weathering forms (biological colonization, black crust and granular disintegration recognised in the entire balustrade, were selected. The lithological type and the weathering forms were defined on the basis of an in situ investigation, using respectively the comparison of materials, to identify the calcarenites type, and the Italian norm UNI 11182 along with the Fitzner formalism, to classify the degradation forms.  A 3D survey of the selected balusters was performed with a time of flight Laser Scanner HDS300 of the Leica Geosystem with the aim to better define the volume and total surfaces of the material parts affected by erosion. The surfaces affected by black crust, were obtained by means of an image modelling technique. Data were used to calculate the damage indices through equations proposed by Fitzner and the limit at break for crushing. The potentiality of this interdisciplinary approach (architects, engineers and geologists is shown with the aim to apply it to the restoration of the entire monument

10. In situ synthesis carbonated hydroxyapatite layers on enamel slices with acidic amino acids by a novel two-step method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Xu; Li, Yi; Yang, Tao; Yan, Xiujuan; Wang, Ke

2015-01-01

In situ fabrication of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) remineralization layer on an enamel slice was completed in a novel, biomimetic two-step method. First, a CaCO 3 layer was synthesized on the surface of demineralized enamel using an acidic amino acid (aspartic acid or glutamate acid) as a soft template. Second, at the same concentration of the acidic amino acid, rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite was produced with the CaCO 3 layer as a sacrificial template and a reactant. The morphology, crystallinity and other physicochemical properties of the crystals were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), respectively. Acidic amino acid could promote the uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite with rod-like crystals via absorption of phosphate and carbonate ions from the reaction solution. Moreover, compared with hydroxyapatite crystals coated on the enamel when synthesized by a one-step method, the CaCO 3 coating that was synthesized in the first step acted as an active bridge layer and sacrificial template. It played a vital role in orienting the artificial coating layer through the template effect. The results show that the rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals grow into bundles, which are similar in size and appearance to prisms in human enamel, when using the two-step method with either aspartic acid or acidic glutamate (20.00 mmol/L). - Graphical abstract: FESEM images of enamel slices etched for 60 s and repaired by the two-step method with Glu concentration of 20.00 mmol/L. (A) The boundary (dotted line) of the repaired areas (b) and unrepaired areas (a). (Some selected areas of etched enamel slices were coated with a nail polish before the reaction, which was removed by acetone after the reaction); (B) high magnification image of Ga, (C) high magnification image of Gb. In situ fabrication of carbonated

11. In situ synthesis carbonated hydroxyapatite layers on enamel slices with acidic amino acids by a novel two-step method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wu, Xiaoguang [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhao, Xu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: lyi99@jlu.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Yang, Tao [Department of Stomatology, Children' s Hospital of Changchun, 130051 (China); Yan, Xiujuan; Wang, Ke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

2015-09-01

In situ fabrication of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) remineralization layer on an enamel slice was completed in a novel, biomimetic two-step method. First, a CaCO{sub 3} layer was synthesized on the surface of demineralized enamel using an acidic amino acid (aspartic acid or glutamate acid) as a soft template. Second, at the same concentration of the acidic amino acid, rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite was produced with the CaCO{sub 3} layer as a sacrificial template and a reactant. The morphology, crystallinity and other physicochemical properties of the crystals were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), respectively. Acidic amino acid could promote the uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite with rod-like crystals via absorption of phosphate and carbonate ions from the reaction solution. Moreover, compared with hydroxyapatite crystals coated on the enamel when synthesized by a one-step method, the CaCO{sub 3} coating that was synthesized in the first step acted as an active bridge layer and sacrificial template. It played a vital role in orienting the artificial coating layer through the template effect. The results show that the rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals grow into bundles, which are similar in size and appearance to prisms in human enamel, when using the two-step method with either aspartic acid or acidic glutamate (20.00 mmol/L). - Graphical abstract: FESEM images of enamel slices etched for 60 s and repaired by the two-step method with Glu concentration of 20.00 mmol/L. (A) The boundary (dotted line) of the repaired areas (b) and unrepaired areas (a). (Some selected areas of etched enamel slices were coated with a nail polish before the reaction, which was removed by acetone after the reaction); (B) high magnification image of Ga, (C) high magnification image of Gb. In situ fabrication of

12. On the Diffusion Coefficient of Two-step Method for LWR analysis

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lee, Deokjung; Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord S.

2015-01-01

The few-group constants including diffusion coefficients are generated from the assembly calculation results. Once the assembly calculation is done, the cross sections (XSs) are spatially homogenized, and a critical spectrum calculation is performed in order to take into account the neutron leakages of the lattice. The diffusion coefficient is also generated through the critical spectrum calculation. Three different methods of the critical spectrum calculation such as B1 method, P1 method, and fundamental mode (FM) calculation method are considered in this paper. The diffusion coefficients can also be affected by transport approximations for the transport XS calculation which is used in the assembly transport lattice calculation in order to account for the anisotropic scattering effects. The outflow transport approximation and the inflow transport approximation are investigated in this paper. The accuracy of the few group data especially the diffusion coefficients has been studied to optimize the combination of the transport correction methods and the critical spectrum calculation methods using the UNIST lattice physics code STREAM. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the FM method is shown to provide the highest accuracy in the LWR core calculations. The methodologies to calculate the diffusion coefficients have been reviewed, and the performances of them have been investigated with a LWR core problem. The combination of the inflow transport approximation and the fundamental mode critical spectrum calculation shows the smallest errors in terms of assembly power distribution

13. One-Step Direct Return Method For Mohr-Coulomb Plasticity

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars

2004-01-01

A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses.......A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses....

14. An extended step characteristic method for solving the transport equation in general geometries

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DeHart, M.D.; Pevey, R.E.; Parish, T.A.

1994-01-01

A method for applying the discrete ordinates method to solve the Boltzmann transport equation on arbitrary two-dimensional meshes has been developed. The finite difference approach normally used to approximate spatial derivatives in extrapolating angular fluxes across a cell is replaced by direct solution of the characteristic form of the transport equation for each discrete direction. Thus, computational cells are not restricted to the geometrical shape of a mesh element characteristic of a given coordinate system. However, in terms of the treatment of energy and angular dependencies, this method resembles traditional discrete ordinates techniques. By using the method developed here, a general two-dimensional space can be approximated by an irregular mesh comprised of arbitrary polygons. Results for a number of test problems have been compared with solutions obtained from traditional methods, with good agreement. Comparisons include benchmarks against analytical results for problems with simple geometry, as well as numerical results obtained from traditional discrete ordinates methods by applying the ANISN and TWOTRAN-II computer programs

15. In situ synthesis carbonated hydroxyapatite layers on enamel slices with acidic amino acids by a novel two-step method.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Xu; Li, Yi; Yang, Tao; Yan, Xiujuan; Wang, Ke

2015-09-01

In situ fabrication of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) remineralization layer on an enamel slice was completed in a novel, biomimetic two-step method. First, a CaCO3 layer was synthesized on the surface of demineralized enamel using an acidic amino acid (aspartic acid or glutamate acid) as a soft template. Second, at the same concentration of the acidic amino acid, rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite was produced with the CaCO3 layer as a sacrificial template and a reactant. The morphology, crystallinity and other physicochemical properties of the crystals were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), respectively. Acidic amino acid could promote the uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite with rod-like crystals via absorption of phosphate and carbonate ions from the reaction solution. Moreover, compared with hydroxyapatite crystals coated on the enamel when synthesized by a one-step method, the CaCO3 coating that was synthesized in the first step acted as an active bridge layer and sacrificial template. It played a vital role in orienting the artificial coating layer through the template effect. The results show that the rod-like carbonated hydroxyapatite crystals grow into bundles, which are similar in size and appearance to prisms in human enamel, when using the two-step method with either aspartic acid or acidic glutamate (20.00 mmol/L). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

16. Comparison of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frail older persons in primary care: diagnostic and prognostic accuracy.

Science.gov (United States)

Sutorius, Fleur L; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Prins, Bernard A H; van Hout, Hein P J

2016-08-03

Many instruments have been developed to identify frail older adults in primary care. A direct comparison of the accuracy and prevalence of identification methods is rare and most studies ignore the stepped selection typically employed in routine care practice. Also it is unclear whether the various methods select persons with different characteristics. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frailty in older adults and to predict adverse health outcomes. In addition, the methods were compared on their prevalence of the identified frail persons and on the characteristics of persons identified. The Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), the PRISMA-7, polypharmacy, the clinical judgment of the general practitioner (GP), the self-rated health of the older adult, the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS), the Identification Seniors At Risk Primary Care (ISAR PC), the Frailty Index (FI), the InterRAI screener and gait speed were compared to three measures: two reference standards (the clinical judgment of a multidisciplinary expert panel and Fried's frailty criteria) and 6-years mortality or long term care admission. Data were used from the Dutch Identification of Frail Elderly Study, consisting of 102 people aged 65 and over from a primary care practice in Amsterdam. Frail older adults were oversampled. The accuracy of each instrument and several stepped strategies was estimated by calculating the area under the ROC-curve. Prevalence rates of frailty ranged from 14.8 to 52.9 %. The accuracy for recommended cut off values ranged from poor (AUC = 0.556 ISAR-PC) to good (AUC = 0.865 gait speed). PRISMA-7 performed best over two reference standards, GP predicted adversities best. Stepped strategies resulted in lower prevalence rates and accuracy. Persons selected by the different instruments varied greatly in age, IADL dependency, receiving homecare and mood. We found huge differences between methods to identify frail persons in prevalence

17. Detection of Heterogeneous Small Inclusions by a Multi-Step MUSIC Method

Science.gov (United States)

Solimene, Raffaele; Dell'Aversano, Angela; Leone, Giovanni

2014-05-01

In this contribution the problem of detecting and localizing scatterers with small (in terms of wavelength) cross sections by collecting their scattered field is addressed. The problem is dealt with for a two-dimensional and scalar configuration where the background is given as a two-layered cylindrical medium. More in detail, while scattered field data are taken in the outermost layer, inclusions are embedded within the inner layer. Moreover, the case of heterogeneous inclusions (i.e., having different scattering coefficients) is addressed. As a pertinent applicative context we identify the problem of diagnose concrete pillars in order to detect and locate rebars, ducts and other small in-homogeneities that can populate the interior of the pillar. The nature of inclusions influences the scattering coefficients. For example, the field scattered by rebars is stronger than the one due to ducts. Accordingly, it is expected that the more weakly scattering inclusions can be difficult to be detected as their scattered fields tend to be overwhelmed by those of strong scatterers. In order to circumvent this problem, in this contribution a multi-step MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) detection algorithm is adopted [1]. In particular, the first stage aims at detecting rebars. Once rebars have been detected, their positions are exploited to update the Green's function and to subtract the scattered field due to their presence. The procedure is repeated until all the inclusions are detected. The analysis is conducted by numerical experiments for a multi-view/multi-static single-frequency configuration and the synthetic data are generated by a FDTD forward solver. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." [1] R. Solimene, A. Dell'Aversano and G. Leone, "MUSIC algorithms for rebar detection," J. of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 1

18. Two-step reconstruction method using global optimization and conjugate gradient for ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography.

Science.gov (United States)

Tavakoli, Behnoosh; Zhu, Quing

2013-01-01

Ultrasound-guided diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a promising method for characterizing malignant and benign lesions in the female breast. We introduce a new two-step algorithm for DOT inversion in which the optical parameters are estimated with the global optimization method, genetic algorithm. The estimation result is applied as an initial guess to the conjugate gradient (CG) optimization method to obtain the absorption and scattering distributions simultaneously. Simulations and phantom experiments have shown that the maximum absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are reconstructed with less than 10% and 25% errors, respectively. This is in contrast with the CG method alone, which generates about 20% error for the absorption coefficient and does not accurately recover the scattering distribution. A new measure of scattering contrast has been introduced to characterize benign and malignant breast lesions. The results of 16 clinical cases reconstructed with the two-step method demonstrates that, on average, the absorption coefficient and scattering contrast of malignant lesions are about 1.8 and 3.32 times higher than the benign cases, respectively.

19. A structure-preserving method for a class of nonlinear dissipative wave equations with Riesz space-fractional derivatives

Science.gov (United States)

Macías-Díaz, J. E.

2017-12-01

In this manuscript, we consider an initial-boundary-value problem governed by a (1 + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation with constant damping that generalizes many nonlinear wave equations from mathematical physics. The model considers the presence of a spatial Laplacian of fractional order which is defined in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives, as well as the inclusion of a generic continuously differentiable potential. It is known that the undamped regime has an associated positive energy functional, and we show here that it is preserved throughout time under suitable boundary conditions. To approximate the solutions of this model, we propose a finite-difference discretization based on fractional centered differences. Some discrete quantities are proposed in this work to estimate the energy functional, and we show that the numerical method is capable of conserving the discrete energy under the same boundary conditions for which the continuous model is conservative. Moreover, we establish suitable computational constraints under which the discrete energy of the system is positive. The method is consistent of second order, and is both stable and convergent. The numerical simulations shown here illustrate the most important features of our numerical methodology.

20. A simple method to calculate the influence of dose inhomogeneity and fractionation in normal tissue complication probability evaluation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Begnozzi, L.; Gentile, F.P.; Di Nallo, A.M.; Chiatti, L.; Zicari, C.; Consorti, R.; Benassi, M.

1994-01-01

Since volumetric dose distributions are available with 3-dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning they can be used in statistical evaluation of response to radiation. This report presents a method to calculate the influence of dose inhomogeneity and fractionation in normal tissue complication probability evaluation. The mathematical expression for the calculation of normal tissue complication probability has been derived combining the Lyman model with the histogram reduction method of Kutcher et al. and using the normalized total dose (NTD) instead of the total dose. The fitting of published tolerance data, in case of homogeneous or partial brain irradiation, has been considered. For the same total or partial volume homogeneous irradiation of the brain, curves of normal tissue complication probability have been calculated with fraction size of 1.5 Gy and of 3 Gy instead of 2 Gy, to show the influence of fraction size. The influence of dose distribution inhomogeneity and α/β value has also been simulated: Considering α/β=1.6 Gy or α/β=4.1 Gy for kidney clinical nephritis, the calculated curves of normal tissue complication probability are shown. Combining NTD calculations and histogram reduction techniques, normal tissue complication probability can be estimated taking into account the most relevant contributing factors, including the volume effect. (orig.) [de

1. Low energy elastic scattering of positrons by CO: An application of continued fractions and Schwinger variational iterative methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Arretche, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)], E-mail: farretche@hotmail.com; Mazon, K.T.; Michelin, S.E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Fujimoto, M.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Iga, I.; Lee, M.-T. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2008-02-15

Iterative Schwinger variational methods and the method of continued fractions, widely used for electron-molecule scattering, are applied for the first time to investigate positron-molecule interactions. Specifically, integral and differential cross sections for elastic positron scattering by CO in the (0.5-20) eV energy range are calculated and reported. In our calculation, a static plus correlation-polarization potential is used to represent the collisional dynamics. Our calculated results are in general agreement with the theoretical and experimental data available in the literature.

2. Method to make a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Grishina, Diana; Harteveld, Cornelis A.M.; Woldering, L.A.; Vos, Willem L.

2015-01-01

Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to

3. The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.

2005-01-01

In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....

4. A Ten-Step Design Method for Simulation Games in Logistics Management

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Fumarola, M.; Van Staalduinen, J.P.; Verbraeck, A.

2011-01-01

Simulation games have often been found useful as a method of inquiry to gain insight in complex system behavior and as aids for design, engineering simulation and visualization, and education. Designing simulation games are the result of creative thinking and planning, but often not the result of a

5. Stepping beyond the paradigm wars: pluralist methods for research in learning technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chris Jones

2011-02-01

Full Text Available This paper outlines a problem we have found in our own practice when we have been developing new researchers at post-graduate level. When students begin research training and practice, they are often confused between different levels of thinking when they are faced with methods, methodologies and research paradigms. We argue that this confusion arises from the way research methods are taught, embedded and embodied in educational systems. We set out new ways of thinking about levels of research in the field of learning technology. We argue for a problem driven/pragmatic approach to research and consider the range of methods that can be applied as diverse lenses to particular research problems. The problem of developing a coherent approach to research and research methods is not confined to research in learning technology because it is arguably a problem for all educational research and one that also affects an even wider range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary subject areas. For the purposes of this paper we will discuss the problem in relation to research in learning technologies and make a distinction between developmental and basic research that we think is particularly relevant in this field. The paradigms of research adopted have real consequences for the ways research problems are conceived and articulated, and the ways in which research is conducted. This has become an even more pressing concern in the challenging funding climate that researchers now face. We argue that there is not a simple 1 to 1 relationship between levels and most particularly that there usually is not a direct association of particular methods with either a philosophical outlook or paradigm of research. We conclude by recommending a pluralist approach to thinking about research problems and we illustrate this with the suggestion that we should encourage researchers to think in terms of counterpositives. If the researcher suggests one way of doing research in an

6. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

Science.gov (United States)

Carley, Holly

2011-01-01

This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

7. Review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Roth, D.J.; Swickard, S.M.; Stang, D.B.; Deguire, M.R.

1990-03-01

A review and statistical analysis of the ultrasonic velocity method for estimating the porosity fraction in polycrystalline materials is presented. Initially, a semi-empirical model is developed showing the origin of the linear relationship between ultrasonic velocity and porosity fraction. Then, from a compilation of data produced by many researchers, scatter plots of velocity versus percent porosity data are shown for Al2O3, MgO, porcelain-based ceramics, PZT, SiC, Si3N4, steel, tungsten, UO2,(U0.30Pu0.70)C, and YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Linear regression analysis produced predicted slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, level of significance, and confidence interval statistics for the data. Velocity values predicted from regression analysis for fully-dense materials are in good agreement with those calculated from elastic properties

8. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

Science.gov (United States)

Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

2015-05-01

Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

9. “Imagine if… stepping into someone’s shoes” as a research method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2018-03-01

Full Text Available This article investigates and discusses how a fictional framework can be used as a method for research within the field of drama, and how this approach makes researchers understand the situated moments that are researched. The fictional framework is part of a larger research project which focuses on drama with people living with dementia. The article combines artistic practice-based research with a sensory as well as an auto-ethnographic approach, as the practitioners’ family-relations (as mother and daughter are explored and reflected upon as integral to the method. The article contributes to knowledge production regarding fictional frame in research and reflects on its significance for work with people experiencing dementia.

10. Exploiting Superconvergence in Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Improved Time-Stepping and Visualization

Science.gov (United States)

2016-09-08

Filters for Multi-dimensional data”, International Conference on Spectral and Higher Order Methods (ICOSAHOM). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. June 27 - July...Accuracy Conserving (SIAC) filter when applied to nonuniform meshes; 2) Theoretically and numerical demonstration of the 2k+1 order accuracy of the SIAC...filter to reduce the kernel footprint; 4) Establishing the theoretical viability of the SIAC filter for nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws

11. Predicting respiratory motion signals for image-guided radiotherapy using multi-step linear methods (MULIN)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim

2008-01-01

Forecasting of respiration motion in image-guided radiotherapy requires algorithms that can accurately and efficiently predict target location. Improved methods for respiratory motion forecasting were developed and tested. MULIN, a new family of prediction algorithms based on linear expansions of the prediction error, was developed and tested. Computer-generated data with a prediction horizon of 150 ms was used for testing in simulation experiments. MULIN was compared to Least Mean Squares-based predictors (LMS; normalized LMS, nLMS; wavelet-based multiscale autoregression, wLMS) and a multi-frequency Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach. The in vivo performance of the algorithms was tested on data sets of patients who underwent radiotherapy. The new MULIN methods are highly competitive, outperforming the LMS and the EKF prediction algorithms in real-world settings and performing similarly to optimized nLMS and wLMS prediction algorithms. On simulated, periodic data the MULIN algorithms are outperformed only by the EKF approach due to its inherent advantage in predicting periodic signals. In the presence of noise, the MULIN methods significantly outperform all other algorithms. The MULIN family of algorithms is a feasible tool for the prediction of respiratory motion, performing as well as or better than conventional algorithms while requiring significantly lower computational complexity. The MULIN algorithms are of special importance wherever high-speed prediction is required. (orig.)

12. Predicting respiratory motion signals for image-guided radiotherapy using multi-step linear methods (MULIN)

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ernst, Floris; Schweikard, Achim [University of Luebeck, Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Luebeck (Germany)

2008-06-15

Forecasting of respiration motion in image-guided radiotherapy requires algorithms that can accurately and efficiently predict target location. Improved methods for respiratory motion forecasting were developed and tested. MULIN, a new family of prediction algorithms based on linear expansions of the prediction error, was developed and tested. Computer-generated data with a prediction horizon of 150 ms was used for testing in simulation experiments. MULIN was compared to Least Mean Squares-based predictors (LMS; normalized LMS, nLMS; wavelet-based multiscale autoregression, wLMS) and a multi-frequency Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) approach. The in vivo performance of the algorithms was tested on data sets of patients who underwent radiotherapy. The new MULIN methods are highly competitive, outperforming the LMS and the EKF prediction algorithms in real-world settings and performing similarly to optimized nLMS and wLMS prediction algorithms. On simulated, periodic data the MULIN algorithms are outperformed only by the EKF approach due to its inherent advantage in predicting periodic signals. In the presence of noise, the MULIN methods significantly outperform all other algorithms. The MULIN family of algorithms is a feasible tool for the prediction of respiratory motion, performing as well as or better than conventional algorithms while requiring significantly lower computational complexity. The MULIN algorithms are of special importance wherever high-speed prediction is required. (orig.)

13. A meshless method for solving two-dimensional variable-order time fractional advection-diffusion equation

Science.gov (United States)

Tayebi, A.; Shekari, Y.; Heydari, M. H.

2017-07-01

Several physical phenomena such as transformation of pollutants, energy, particles and many others can be described by the well-known convection-diffusion equation which is a combination of the diffusion and advection equations. In this paper, this equation is generalized with the concept of variable-order fractional derivatives. The generalized equation is called variable-order time fractional advection-diffusion equation (V-OTFA-DE). An accurate and robust meshless method based on the moving least squares (MLS) approximation and the finite difference scheme is proposed for its numerical solution on two-dimensional (2-D) arbitrary domains. In the time domain, the finite difference technique with a θ-weighted scheme and in the space domain, the MLS approximation are employed to obtain appropriate semi-discrete solutions. Since the newly developed method is a meshless approach, it does not require any background mesh structure to obtain semi-discrete solutions of the problem under consideration, and the numerical solutions are constructed entirely based on a set of scattered nodes. The proposed method is validated in solving three different examples including two benchmark problems and an applied problem of pollutant distribution in the atmosphere. In all such cases, the obtained results show that the proposed method is very accurate and robust. Moreover, a remarkable property so-called positive scheme for the proposed method is observed in solving concentration transport phenomena.

14. Synthesis of large CZTSe nanoparticles through a two-step hot-injection method

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Li, Zhenggang; Lek, Jun Yan

2015-01-01

Grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1x)4 (CZTSSe) thin films act as a defect that reduces the mobility of the charges. Hence one way to improve the performance of these thin film solar cells is to increase the grain size in the films. Most of the synthesis methods published so far for CZTSSe colloidal...... molecules, solvents and precursors, and by controlling the initial monomer concentration. Additionally, we show how our new synthesis route can be utilized to achieve targeted ratios of CZTS and CZTSe nanoparticles to be used for mixed-phase CZTSSe thin films....

15. A three-step calibration method for tri-axial field sensors in a 3D magnetic digital compass

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Ta; Zhou, Zhijian; Cheng, Defu

2017-01-01

In a 3D magnetic compass, it is important to calibrate the tri-axial magnetometers and accelerometers so the compass will provide accurate heading and attitude information. Previous researchers have used two methods to calibrate these two field sensors separately, i.e. the classic independent ellipsoid fitting method and the independent dot product invariant method, respectively. Both methods are easy to use, and no highly accurate, external equipment is required. However, self-calibration with ellipsoid fitting has the disadvantage that it interfuses an orthogonal matrix, and the dot product invariant method requires the use of pre-calibrated internal field sensors, which may be unavailable in many cases. In this paper, we have introduced and unified an error model of two tri-axial field sensors. Accordingly, the orthogonal matrix caused by ellipsoid fitting was mathematically proved to be the combination of two sources, the mounting misalignment and the rotation misalignment. Moreover, a new method, which we call optimal resultant vector, was proposed to further calibrate multi-sensor systems on the basis of ellipsoid fitting and dot product invariant methods, establishing a new, three-step calibration method. The superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches were demonstrated by simulations and a 3D compass experiment. (paper)

16. Fractional Absorption of Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa and Calcium Carbonate Measured by a Dual Stable-Isotope Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Steven A. Abrams

2010-07-01

Full Text Available With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa, obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI, with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3, the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0, 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24. The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4, was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test. The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml, as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for osteoporosis.

17. Effect of partitioning the nonfiber carbohydrate fraction and neutral detergent fiber method on digestibility of carbohydrates by dairy cows.

Science.gov (United States)

Tebbe, A W; Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

2017-08-01

using NDF corrected for ash and CP contamination was 0.87 (SE = 0.025), and metabolic fecal ROM was 3.76 g/100 g (SE = 0.60). Regardless of NDF method, ROM exhibited nutritional uniformity. The ROM fraction also had lower errors associated with the estimated true digestibility and its metabolic fecal fraction than did NFC. Therefore, ROM may result in more accurate estimates of available energy if integrated into models. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

18. Validation of a computational method for assessing the impact of intra-fraction motion on helical tomotherapy plans

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ngwa, Wilfred; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A; Langen, Katja M [Department of Radiation Oncology, M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, 1400 South Orange Avenue, Orlando, FL 32806 (United States); Schnarr, Eric [TomoTherapy, Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: wilfred.ngwa@orlandohealth.com

2009-11-07

In this work, a method for direct incorporation of patient motion into tomotherapy dose calculations is developed and validated. This computational method accounts for all treatment dynamics and can incorporate random as well as cyclical motion data. Hence, interplay effects between treatment dynamics and patient motion are taken into account during dose calculation. This allows for a realistic assessment of intra-fraction motion on the dose distribution. The specific approach entails modifying the position and velocity events in the tomotherapy delivery plan to accommodate any known motion. The computational method is verified through phantom and film measurements. Here, measured prostate motion and simulated respiratory motion tracks were incorporated in the dose calculation. The calculated motion-encoded dose profiles showed excellent agreement with the measurements. Gamma analysis using 3 mm and 3% tolerance criteria showed over 97% and 96% average of points passing for the prostate and breathing motion tracks, respectively. The profile and gamma analysis results validate the accuracy of this method for incorporating intra-fraction motion into the dose calculation engine for assessment of dosimetric effects on helical tomotherapy dose deliveries.

19. Fractional quantum mechanics

CERN Document Server

2018-01-01

Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...

20. Practical Method for engineering Erbium-doped fiber lasers from step-like pulse excitations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Causado-Buelvas, J D; Gomez-Cardona, N D; Torres, P

2011-01-01

A simple method, known as 'easy points', has been applied to the characterization of Erbium-doped fibers, aiming for the engineering of fiber lasers. Using low- optical-power flattop pulse excitations it has been possible to determine both the attenuation coefficients and the intrinsic saturation powers of doped single-mode fibers at 980 and 1550 nm. Laser systems have been projected for which the optimal fiber length and output power have been determined as a function of the input power. Ring and linear laser cavities have been set up, and the characteristics of the output laser have been obtained and compared with the theoretical predictions based on the 'easy points' parameters.

1. A three-step reconstruction method for fluorescence molecular tomography based on compressive sensing

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhu, Yansong; Jha, Abhinav K.; Dreyer, Jakob K.

2017-01-01

Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising tool for real time in vivo quantification of neurotransmission (NT) as we pursue in our BRAIN initiative effort. However, the acquired image data are noisy and the reconstruction problem is ill-posed. Further, while spatial sparsity of the NT...... matrix coherence. The resultant image data are input to a homotopy-based reconstruction strategy that exploits sparsity via ℓ1 regularization. The reconstructed image is then input to a maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm that retains the sparseness of the input estimate...... and improves upon the quantitation by accurate Poisson noise modeling. The proposed reconstruction method was evaluated in a three-dimensional simulated setup with fluorescent sources in a cuboidal scattering medium with optical properties simulating human brain cortex (reduced scattering coefficient: 9.2 cm-1...

2. Low Temperature Two-Steps Sintering (LTTSS) - an innovative method for consolidating porous UO2 pellets

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sanjay Kumar, D.; Ananthasivan, K.; Senapati, Abhiram; Venkata Krishnan, R.

2015-01-01

Metallic uranium and its alloys are an important fuel for fast reactors. Presently, metallic uranium is being prepared using expensive fluoro-metallothermic process. Recent reports suggest that metal oxide could be reduced to metal using a novel electrochemical de-oxidation method and this could serve as attractive alternate for expensive metallothermic process. In view of which, a research program is being pursued in our Centre to develop an optimum process parameter for the scaled up preparation of metallic uranium efficiently. One of the important process parameter is the size, nature and distribution of porosity in the urania pellet. Essentially the ceramic form of the urania should encompass interconnected porosity that would allow percolation of melts into the UO 2 . However, the matrix density of the pellet should be high to ensure that it possesses good handling strength and is electrically conducting. Hence preparation of high dense porous UO 2 pellets was required. In this study, we report the preparation of porous UO 2 pellets possessing a very high matrix density by using the citrate gel-combustion method. The 'as-prepared' powders were consolidated at various compaction pressures as such and these pellets were sintered in 8 mol %Ar+H 2 gas with a flow rate of 250 mL/min at 1073 K for 30 min followed by soaking at 1473 K for 4 h with heating rate of 5 K min -1 in a molybdenum furnace. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these pellets contained UO 2 . The morphological analysis sintered pellets was carried out by using Scanning Electron Microscope (M/s. Philips model XL 30, Netherlands). All these pellets were gold coated

3. Specific absorbed fractions of electrons and photons for Rad-HUMAN phantom using Monte Carlo method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang Wen; Hu Liqin; Cheng Mengyun; Long Pengcheng

2015-01-01

The specific absorbed fractions (SAF) for self- and cross-irradiation are effective tools for the internal dose estimation of inhalation and ingestion intakes of radionuclides. A set of SAFs of photons and electrons were calculated using the Rad-HUMAN phantom, which is a computational voxel phantom of a Chinese adult female that was created using the color photographic image of the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data set by the FDS Team. The model can represent most Chinese adult female anatomical characteristics and can be taken as an individual phantom to investigate the difference of internal dose with Caucasians. In this study, the emission of mono-energetic photons and electrons of 10 keV to 4 MeV energy were calculated using the Monte Carlo particle transport calculation code MCNP. Results were compared with the values from ICRP reference and ORNL models. The results showed that SAF from the Rad-HUMAN have similar trends but are larger than those from the other two models. The differences were due to the racial and anatomical differences in organ mass and inter-organ distance. The SAFs based on the Rad-HUMAN phantom provide an accurate and reliable data for internal radiation dose calculations for Chinese females. (authors)

4. Combinatorial Multidomain Mesoporous Chips and a Method for Fractionation, Stabilization, and Storage of Biomolecules

Science.gov (United States)

Ferrari, Mauro (Inventor); Liu, Xuewu (Inventor); Tasciotti, Ennio (Inventor); Bouamrani, Ali (Inventor); Hu, Ye (Inventor)

2014-01-01

A new fractionation device shows desirable features for exploratory screening and biomarker discovery. The constituent MSCs may be tailored for desired pore sizes and surface properties and for the sequestration and enrichment of extremely low abundant protein and peptides in desired ranges of the mass/charge spectrum. The MSCs are effective in yielding reproducible extracts from complex biological samples as small as 10 microliter in a time as short as 30 minutes. They are inexpensive to manufacture, and allow for scaled up production to attain the simultaneous processing of a large number of samples. The MSCs are multiplexed, label-free diagnostic tools with the potential of biological recognition moiety modification for enhanced specificity. The MSCs may store, protect and stabilize biological fluids, enabling the simplified and cost-effective collection and transportation of clinical samples. The MSC-based device may serve as a diagnostic tool to complement histopathology, imaging, and other conventional clinical techniques. The MSCs mediated identification of disease-specific protein signatures may help in the selection of personalized therapeutic combinations, in the real-time assessment of therapeutic efficacy and toxicity, and in the rational modulation of therapy based on the changes in the protein networks associated with the prognosis and the drug resistance of the disease.

5. Evaluation method for uncertainty of effective delayed neutron fraction βeff

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zukeran, Atsushi

1999-01-01

Uncertainty of effective delayed neutron fraction β eff is evaluated in terms of three quantities; uncertainties of the basic delayed neutron constants, energy dependence of delayed neutron yield ν d m , and the uncertainties of the fission cross sections of fuel elements. The uncertainty of β eff due to the delayed neutron yield is expressed by a linearized formula assuming that the delayed neutron yield does not depend on the incident energy, and the energy dependence is supplemented by using the detailed energy dependence proposed by D'Angelo and Filip. The third quantity, uncertainties of fission cross section, is evaluated on the basis of the generalized perturbation theory in relation to reaction rate rations such as central spectral indexes or average reaction rate ratios. Resultant uncertainty of β eff is about 4 to 5%s, in which primary factor is the delayed neutron yield, and the secondary one is the fission cross section uncertainty, especially for 238 U. The energy dependence of ν d m systematically reduces the magnitude of β eff about 1.4% to 1.7%, depending on the model of the energy vs. ν d m correlation curve. (author)

6. An analytical method for the calculation of static characteristics of linear step motors for control rod drives in nuclear reactors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khan, S.H.; Ivanov, A.A.

1995-01-01

An analytical method for calculating static characteristics of linear dc step motors (LSM) is described. These multiphase passive-armature motors are now being developed for control rod drives (CRD) in large nuclear reactors. The static characteristics of such LSM is defined by the variation of electromagnetic force with armature displacement and it determines motor performance in its standing and dynamic modes of operation. The proposed analytical technique for calculating this characteristic is based on the permeance analysis method applied to phase magnetic circuits of LSM. Reluctances of various parts of phase magnetic circuit is calculated analytically by assuming probable flux paths and by taking into account complex nature of magnetic field distribution in it. For given armature positions stator and armature iron saturations are taken into account by an efficient iterative algorithm which gives fast convergence. The method is validated by comparing theoretical results with experimental ones which shows satisfactory agreement for small stator currents and weak iron saturation

7. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

Science.gov (United States)

Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

1979-01-01

A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

8. Antenna characteristics and air-ground interface deembedding methods for stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar measurements

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

2000-01-01

The result from field-tests using a Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) and promising antenna and air-ground deembedding methods for a SF-GPR is presented. A monostatic S-band rectangular waveguide antenna was used in the field-tests. The advantages of the SF-GPR, e.g., amplitude...... and phase information in the SF-GPR signal, is used to deembed the characteristics of the antenna. We propose a new air-to-ground interface deembedding technique based on Principal Component Analysis which enables enhancement of the SF-GPR signal from buried objects, e.g., anti-personal landmines...

9. The six-spot-step test - a new method for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kreutzfeldt, Melissa; Jensen, Henrik B; Ravnborg, Mads

2017-01-01

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the Six-Spot-Step-Test (SSST) is more suitable for monitoring walking ability in patients with chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy than the Timed-25-Foot-Walking test (T25FW). METHOD: In the SSST, participants have to walk as quickly as possible across a field...... of effect size, standardized response means and relative efficiency. Both ambulation tests correlated moderately to PGIC. CONCLUSION: The SSST may be superior to the T25FW in terms of dynamic range, floor effect and responsiveness which makes the SSST a possible alternative for monitoring walking ability...

10. Cavity digital control testing system by Simulink step operation method for TESLA linear accelerator and free electron laser

Science.gov (United States)

Czarski, Tomasz; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Simrock, Stefan

2004-07-01

The cavity control system for the TESLA -- TeV-Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator project is initially introduced in this paper. The FPGA -- Field Programmable Gate Array technology has been implemented for digital controller stabilizing cavity field gradient. The cavity SIMULINK model has been applied to test the hardware controller. The step operation method has been developed for testing the FPGA device coupled to the SIMULINK model of the analog real plant. The FPGA signal processing has been verified according to the required algorithm of the reference MATLAB controller. Some experimental results have been presented for different cavity operational conditions.

11. A step forward in the study of the electroerosion by optical methods

Science.gov (United States)

Aparicio, R.; Gale, M. F. Ruiz; Hogert, E. N.; Landau, M. R.; Gaggioli, y. N. G.

2003-05-01

This work develops two theoretical models of surfaces to explain the behavior of the light scattered by samples that suffers some alteration. In a first model, it is evaluated the mean intensity scattered by the sample, analyzing the different curves obtained as function of the eroded/total surface ratio. The theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally. It can be seen that there exists a strong relation between the electroerosion level and the light scattered by the sample. A second model analyzes a surface with random changes in its roughness. A translucent surface with its roughness changing in a controlled way is studied. Then, the correlation coefficient variation as function of the roughness variation is determined by the transmission speckle correlation method. The obtained experimental values are compared with those obtained with this model. In summary, it can be shown that the first- and second-order statistics properties of the transmitted or reflected light by a sample with a variable topography can be taken account as a parameter to analyze these morphologic changes.

12. Surgiplanner: a new method for one step oral rehabilitation of severe atrophic maxilla.

Science.gov (United States)

Busato, A; Vismara, V; Grecchi, F; Grecchi, E; Lauritano, D

2017-01-01

The implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous upper jaws has always been complex for surgeons and dentists. The lack of bone in both vertical and horizontal dimension does not allow the correct insertion of dental implants. In addition, patients with edentulous upper and lower arch have a loss of vertical dimension of the face and an aged expression. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to increase the bone volume, height and thickness, such as the Le Fort I osteotomy, the bone grafts and the placement of dental implants. Planning these surgical procedures is difficult, because it is not possible to reproduce the movements of osteotomized bone segments in three planes of space. This article describes the treatment of severe atrophy maxilla with a new approach using a new instrument named "Surgiplanner". Surgiplanner is a method that, only using a computerized axial tomography (CAT), allows to obtain a totally predetermined therapeutic result from both an aesthetic and functional point of view, with surgery of severe resorbed jaws. Surgiplanner allows repositioning of segment of the skeleton of the patient's face in a predetermined and controlled way for the best implant-supported oral rehabilitation.

13. A one-step method for modelling longitudinal data with differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Yueqin; Treinen, Raymond

2018-04-06

Differential equation models are frequently used to describe non-linear trajectories of longitudinal data. This study proposes a new approach to estimate the parameters in differential equation models. Instead of estimating derivatives from the observed data first and then fitting a differential equation to the derivatives, our new approach directly fits the analytic solution of a differential equation to the observed data, and therefore simplifies the procedure and avoids bias from derivative estimations. A simulation study indicates that the analytic solutions of differential equations (ASDE) approach obtains unbiased estimates of parameters and their standard errors. Compared with other approaches that estimate derivatives first, ASDE has smaller standard error, larger statistical power and accurate Type I error. Although ASDE obtains biased estimation when the system has sudden phase change, the bias is not serious and a solution is also provided to solve the phase problem. The ASDE method is illustrated and applied to a two-week study on consumers' shopping behaviour after a sale promotion, and to a set of public data tracking participants' grammatical facial expression in sign language. R codes for ASDE, recommendations for sample size and starting values are provided. Limitations and several possible expansions of ASDE are also discussed. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

14. Analysis of errors in the measurement of unattached fractions of radon and thoron progeny in a Canadian uranium mine using wire screen methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khan, A.; Phillips, C.R.

1987-01-01

The unattached fraction of radon/thoron progeny in uranium mines is generally small and therefore difficult to measure accurately. The simple wire screen method provides a direct estimate of the unattached fraction from the screen count, or an indirect estimate from the difference between the reference and back-up filter counts. Wire screen method results are often difficult to analyse, especially when the unattached activity is small. Experimental data obtained in Canadian uranium mines are presented here, together with a detailed error analysis. The method consisting of counting the wire screen and the back-up filter is found to be the most precise method for unattached fraction determination. (author)

15. First steps towards a generic sample preparation scheme for inorganic engineered nanoparticles in a complex matrix for detection, characterization, and quantification by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering and ICP-MS

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wagner, Stephan; Legros, Samuel; Löschner, Katrin

2015-01-01

content by asymmetric flow-field flow fractionation coupled to a multi-angle light scattering detector and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Following the proposed generic procedure SiO2-ENPs were separated from a tomato soup. Two potential sample preparation methods were tested these being...... quality criteria for method development is urgently needed for standardized and systematic development of procedures for separation of ENPs from a complex matrix. The chosen analytical technique was shown to be suitable for detecting SiO2-ENPs in a complex food matrix like tomato soup and may therefore...

16. Food demand in Brazil: an application of Shonkwiler & Yen Two-Step estimation method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexandre Bragança Coelho

2010-03-01

17. Simulation of processes of water aerosol coagulation-condensation growth using a combination of methods of groups and fractions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alexander G Godizov; Alexander D Efanov; Alexander A Lukianov; Olga V Supotnitskaya

2005-01-01

Full text of publication follows: To describe the phenomena involving aerosol, the model in lumped parameters is used, which is based on the kinetic integral-differential equation for the function of particle distribution of size and content of soluble and insoluble impurities with sources and collision integrals. By the function of particle size distribution, the integral parameters of aerosol can be determined: water content (mass of condensed moisture in a unit of volume), dust content (mass of insoluble condensation nuclei in a unit of volume), calculational concentration and the mean radius of particles. In the aerosol transfer problem being considered, the thermodynamic fields are the external data obtained with a thermal-hydraulic computer code. For numerical simulation of the kinetic equation describing aerosol behavior in coagulation-condensation processes, a hybrid method is used, which combines the method of groups and the method of fractions. To solve the complete equation of aerosol transfer, the method of fractions is used. The integral equation describing aerosol coagulation is solved by means of the group method. The group method based on the representation of particle size distribution in terms of a linear combination of δ-functions with time-dependent arguments makes it possible to calculate the integral parameters of spectrum: the moments of distribution function at a small number of groups. The test calculations were performed by giving the particle spectrum as a lognormal distribution and Γ- function. The hybrid method combined with the thermal-hydraulic computer code enables one to simulate volume condensation of steam at varying thermal-hydraulic conditions. (authors)

18. Investigation of methods for physical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and ground dust fractions on radioactive contaminated areas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Artem'ev, O.I.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Gaziev, Ya.I.; Gordeev, S.K.

2005-01-01

The paper presents data about current situation and trends to develop investigation methods for physical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols and ground dust fractions that are observed on the former Semipalatinsk Test Site area and adjacent regions. It was considered one of the options for comprehensive collection of radioactive aerosols as fallout within control area of atmospheric contamination and underlying surface with aerosol products of the man-caused dusting on the former STS area to determine rates of 'dry' deposition and ground-based activity concentration contained in these products of radionuclides at different distances from place of dusting. (author)

19. Method for the calculation of volumetric fraction of retained austenite through the software for analysis of digital images

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lombardo, S.; Costa, F.H.; Hashimoto, T.M.; Pereira, M.S.; Abdalla, A.J.

2010-01-01

In order to calculate the volume fraction of the retained austenite in aeronautic multiphase steels, it was used a digital analysis software for image processing. The materials studied were steels AISI 43XX with carbon content between 30, 40 and 50%, heat treated by conventional quenching and isothermal cooling in bainitic and intercritical region, characterized by optical microscopy, etching by reagent Sodium Metabisulfite (10%) for 30 seconds, with forced drying. The results were compared with the methods of X-Ray Diffraction and Magnetic Saturation through photomicrographs, showing that with this technic it is possible to quantify the percentage of retained austenite in the martensitic matrix, in the different types of steels. (author)

20. A fast semi-discrete Kansa method to solve the two-dimensional spatiotemporal fractional diffusion equation

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, HongGuang; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yong; Pang, Guofei; Garrard, Rhiannon

2017-09-01

Fractional-order diffusion equations (FDEs) extend classical diffusion equations by quantifying anomalous diffusion frequently observed in heterogeneous media. Real-world diffusion can be multi-dimensional, requiring efficient numerical solvers that can handle long-term memory embedded in mass transport. To address this challenge, a semi-discrete Kansa method is developed to approximate the two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE, where the Kansa approach first discretizes the FDE, then the Gauss-Jacobi quadrature rule solves the corresponding matrix, and finally the Mittag-Leffler function provides an analytical solution for the resultant time-fractional ordinary differential equation. Numerical experiments are then conducted to check how the accuracy and convergence rate of the numerical solution are affected by the distribution mode and number of spatial discretization nodes. Applications further show that the numerical method can efficiently solve two-dimensional spatiotemporal FDE models with either a continuous or discrete mixing measure. Hence this study provides an efficient and fast computational method for modeling super-diffusive, sub-diffusive, and mixed diffusive processes in large, two-dimensional domains with irregular shapes.