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Sample records for fractional hall effect

  1. Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)

  2. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  3. Gauge invariance and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that gauge invariance arguments imply the possibility of fractional quantized Hall effect; the Hall conductance is accurately quantized to a rational value. The ground state of a system showing the fractional quantized Hall effect must be degenerate; the non-degenerate ground state can only produce the integral quantized Hall effect. 12 references

  4. The fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormer, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), is the manifestation of a new, highly correlated, many-particle ground state that forms in a two-dimensional electron system at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. It is an example of the new physics that has grown out of the tremendous recent advances in semiconductor material science, which has provided us with high-quality, lower-dimensional carrier systems. The novel electronic state exposes itself in transport experiments through quantization of the Hall resistance to an exact rational fraction of h/e, and concomitantly vanishing longitudinal resistivity. Its relevant energy scale is only a few degrees kelvin. The quantization is a consequence of the spontaneous formation of an energy gap separating the condensed ground state from its rather elusive quasiparticle excitations. The theoretical understanding of the novel quantum liquids which underlie the FQHE has predominantly emerged from an ingenious many-particle wave function strongly supported by numerous few-particle simulations. Theory has now constructed a complex model for ideal two-dimensional electron systems in the presence of high magnetic fields and makes definitive, often fascinating predictions. Experiments have successively uncovered odd-denominator fractional states reaching presently to 7/13. The application of new experimental tools to the FQHE, such as optics, microwaves, and phonon techniques promises the direct observation of such parameters as the gap energy and possibly even some of the more elusive quantities in the future. While theory and experiment in the FQHE appear to be converging, there remains considerable room for challenging surprises. This paper provides a concise overview of the FQHE. It focuses on the experimental aspects and states, but does not expand on the theoretical advances. 70 refs., 11 figs

  5. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest that the origin of the odd denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which governs quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics does not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  6. Theory of fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1984-09-01

    A theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is constructed by introducing 3-particle interactions breaking the symmetry for ν=1/3 according to a degeneracy theorem proved here. An order parameter is introduced and a gap in the single particle spectrum is found. The critical temperature, critical filling number and critical behaviour are determined as well as the Ginzburg-Landau equation coefficients. A first principle calculation of the Hall current is given. 3, 5, 7 electron tunneling and Josephson interference effects are predicted. (author)

  7. Theory of fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-08-01

    A theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is constructed based on magnetic flux fractionization, which lead to instability of the system against selfcompression. A theorem is proved stating that arbitrary potentials fail to lift a specific degeneracy of the Landau level. For the case of 1/3 fractional filling a model 3-particles interaction is constructed breaking the symmetry. The rigid 3-particles wave function plays the role of order parameter. In a BCS type of theory the gap in the single particles spectrum is produced by the 3-particles interaction. The mean field critical behaviour and critical parameters are determined as well as the Ginsburg-Landau equation coefficients. The Hall conductivity is calculated from the first principles and its temperature dependence is found. The simultaneous tunnelling of 3,5,7 etc. electrons and quantum interference effects are predicted. (author)

  8. Fractional quantization and the quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.; Calixto, M.; Aldaya, V.

    1998-01-01

    Quantization with constrains is considered in a group-theoretical framework, providing a precise characterization of the set of good operators, i.e., those preserving the constrained Hilbert space, in terms of the representation of the subgroup of constraints. This machinery is applied to the quantization of the torus as symplectic manifold, obtaining that fractional quantum numbers are permitted, provided that we allow for vector valued representations. The good operators turn out to be the Wilson loops and, for certain representations of the subgroup of constraints, the modular transformations. These results are applied to the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, where interesting implications are derived

  9. Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-09-01

    Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.

  10. The fractional quantum Hall effect goes organic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smet, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    Physicists have been fascinated by the behaviour of two-dimensional electron gases for the past two decades. All of these experiments were performed on inorganic semiconductor devices, most of them based on gallium arsenide. Indeed, until recently it was thought that the subtle effects that arise due to electron-electron interactions in these devices required levels of purity that could not be achieved in other material systems. However, Hendrik Schoen, Christian Kloc and Bertram Batlogg of Bell Laboratories in the US have now observed the fractional quantum Hall effect - the most dramatic signature of electron-electron interactions - in two organic semiconductors. (U.K.)

  11. Destruction of the fractional quantum Hall effect by disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, R.B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs

  12. Quantum Computing With Quasiparticles of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Averin, Dmitri

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this project was the theoretical study of quantum computation based on controlled transfer of individual quasiparticles in systems of quantum antidots in the regime of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE...

  13. A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, Matthew [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meyer, René [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Taliotis, Anastasios [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel andThe International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-01-08

    Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ{sub 0}(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an SL(2,ℤ)-invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the SL(2,ℤ) action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.

  14. A holographic model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Matthew; Meyer, René; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data for fractional quantum Hall systems can to a large extent be explained by assuming the existence of a Γ0(2) modular symmetry group commuting with the renormalization group flow and hence mapping different phases of two-dimensional electron gases into each other. Based on this insight, we construct a phenomenological holographic model which captures many features of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Using an -invariant Einstein-Maxwell-axio-dilaton theory capturing the important modular transformation properties of quantum Hall physics, we find dyonic diatonic black hole solutions which are gapped and have a Hall conductivity equal to the filling fraction, as expected for quantum Hall states. We also provide several technical results on the general behavior of the gauge field fluctuations around these dyonic dilatonic black hole solutions: we specify a sufficient criterion for IR normalizability of the fluctuations, demonstrate the preservation of the gap under the action, and prove that the singularity of the fluctuation problem in the presence of a magnetic field is an accessory singularity. We finish with a preliminary investigation of the possible IR scaling solutions of our model and some speculations on how they could be important for the observed universality of quantum Hall transitions.

  15. Field theory of anyons and the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viefers, S.F.

    1997-11-01

    The thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of anyons, i.e. particles with fractional statistics moving in two space dimensions, and the quantum Hall effect. The latter constitutes the only known experimental realization of anyons in that the quasiparticle excitations in the fractional quantum Hall system are believed to obey fractional statistics. First, the properties of ideal quantum gases in two dimensions and in particular the equation of state of the free anyons gas are discussed. Then, a field theory formulation of anyons in a strong magnetic field is presented and later extended to a system with several species of anyons. The relation of this model to fractional exclusion statistics, i.e. intermediate statistics introduced by a generalization of the Pauli principle, and to the low-energy excitations at the edge of the quantum Hall system is discussed. Finally, the Chern-Simons-Landau-Ginzburg theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is studied, mainly focusing on edge effects; both the ground state and the low-energy edge excitations are examined in the simple one-component model and in an extended model which includes spin effects

  16. Matrix effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelli, Andrea; Rodriguez, Ivan D

    2009-01-01

    The present understanding of nonperturbative ground states in the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on effective theories of the Jain 'composite fermion' excitations. We review the approach based on matrix variables, i.e. D0 branes, originally introduced by Susskind and Polychronakos. We show that the Maxwell-Chern-Simons matrix gauge theory provides a matrix generalization of the quantum Hall effect, where the composite-fermion construction naturally follows from gauge invariance. The matrix ground states obtained by suitable projections of higher Landau levels are found to be in one-to-one correspondence with the Laughlin and Jain hierarchical states. The matrix theory possesses a physical limit for commuting matrices that could be reachable while staying in the same phase.

  17. Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Kirill I; Ghahari, Fereshte; Shulman, Michael D; Stormer, Horst L; Kim, Philip

    2009-11-12

    When electrons are confined in two dimensions and subject to strong magnetic fields, the Coulomb interactions between them can become very strong, leading to the formation of correlated states of matter, such as the fractional quantum Hall liquid. In this strong quantum regime, electrons and magnetic flux quanta bind to form complex composite quasiparticles with fractional electronic charge; these are manifest in transport measurements of the Hall conductivity as rational fractions of the elementary conductance quantum. The experimental discovery of an anomalous integer quantum Hall effect in graphene has enabled the study of a correlated two-dimensional electronic system, in which the interacting electrons behave like massless chiral fermions. However, owing to the prevailing disorder, graphene has so far exhibited only weak signatures of correlated electron phenomena, despite intense experimental and theoretical efforts. Here we report the observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene. In addition, we show that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. These newly discovered quantum states offer the opportunity to study correlated Dirac fermions in graphene in the presence of large magnetic fields.

  18. Unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Janusz; Jacak, Lucjan

    2016-01-01

    The commensurability condition is applied to determine the hierarchy of fractional fillings of Landau levels in monolayer and in bilayer graphene. The filling rates for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in graphene are found in the first three Landau levels in one-to-one agreement with the experimental data. The presence of even denominator filling fractions in the hierarchy for FQHE in bilayer graphene is explained. Experimentally observed hierarchy of FQHE in the first and second Landau levels in monolayer graphene and in the zeroth Landau level in bilayer graphene is beyond the conventional composite fermion interpretation but fits to the presented nonlocal topology commensurability condition. PMID:27877866

  19. Quasiparticle Aggregation in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1984-10-10

    Quasiparticles in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect behave qualitatively like electrons confined to the lowest landau level, and can do everything electrons can do, including condense into second generation Fractional Quantum Hall ground states. I review in this paper the reasoning leading to variational wavefunctions for ground state and quasiparticles in the 1/3 effect. I then show how two-quasiparticle eigenstates are uniquely determined from symmetry, and how this leads in a natural way to variational wavefunctions for composite states which have the correct densities (2/5, 2/7, ...). I show in the process that the boson, anyon and fermion representations for the quasiparticles used by Haldane, Halperin, and me are all equivalent. I demonstrate a simple way to derive Halperin`s multiple-valued quasiparticle wavefunction from the correct single-valued electron wavefunction. (auth)

  20. Vortices in superconducting films: Statistics and fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziarmaga, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a derivation of the Berry phase picked up during exchange of parallel vortices. This derivation is based on the Bogolubov endash de Gennes formalism. The origin of the Magnus force is also critically reanalyzed. The Magnus force can be interpreted as an interaction with the effective magnetic field. The effective magnetic field may be even of the order 10 6 T/A. We discuss a possibility of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in vortex systems. As the real magnetic field is varied to drive changes in vortex density, the vortex density will prefer to stay at some quantized values. The mere existence of the FQHE does not depend on vortex quantum statistics, although the pattern of the plateaux does. We also discuss how the density of anyonic vortices can lower the effective strengh of the Magnus force, what might be observable in measurements of Hall resistivity. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Spin-singlet hierarchy in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ino, Kazusumi

    1999-01-01

    We show that the so-called permanent quantum Hall states are formed by the integer quantum Hall effects on the Haldane-Rezayi quantum Hall state. Novel conformal field theory description along with this picture is deduced. The odd denominator plateaux observed around $\

  2. Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.

  3. Mechanism of plateau formation in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruus, H.; Hansen, O.P.; Hansen, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    Laughlin's fractionally charged quasi-holes and quasi-electrons are assumed to be pinned, and to be subject to a force j vectorxΦ 0 vector from the transport current. A force balance argument then explains the existence of Hall plateaus. (orig.)

  4. Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.C.; Hansson, T.H.; Kivelson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, we derive a field-theory model for the fractional quantum hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, we construct a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density and the Hall conductance is quantized at filling factors ν = (2k-1)/sup -1/ with k an arbitrary integer. At these fractions the ground state is incompressible, and the quasiparticles and quasiholes have fractional charge and obey fractional statistics. Finally, we show that the collective density fluctuations are massive

  5. Hořava-Lifshitz gravity and effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaolun [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Wu, Shao-Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai University,Shanghai 200444 (China); Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    We show that Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Hořava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geometric properties of quantum Hall states, including the Wen-Zee shift, Hall viscosity, angular momentum density and their relations. We identify the shift function in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity theory as minus of guiding center velocity and conjugate to guiding center momentum. This enables us to distinguish guiding center angular momentum density from the internal one, which is the sum of Landau orbit spin and intrinsic (topological) spin of the composite particles. Our effective action shows that Hall viscosity is minus half of the internal angular momentum density and proportional to Wen-Zee shift, and Hall bulk viscosity is half of the guiding center angular momentum density.

  6. The enigma of the ν=2+3/8 fractional quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutasoit, Jimmy; nrc762, nrc762; Mukherjee, Sutirtha

    2017-01-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=2+3/8, which has been definitively observed, is one of the last fractions for which no viable explanation has so far been demonstrated. Our detailed study suggests that it belongs to a new class of exotic states described by the Bonderson-Slingerland wave...

  7. Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2015-01-09

    We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.

  8. Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Batista, C.L. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dingping Li [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1996-07-01

    We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory, are physically equivalent. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. On the conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge states of the fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Chen Yixin; Su Zhaobin.

    1993-09-01

    The conductance sum rule for the hierarchical edge channel currents of a Fractional Quantum Hall Effect state is derived analytically within the Haldane-Halperin hierarchy scheme. We provide also an intuitive interpretation for the hierarchical drift velocities of the edge excitations. (author). 12 refs

  10. The role of localization within the vortex picture of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruus, H.; Hansen, O.P.; Hansen, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    Plateau formation in the fractional quantum Hall effect is shown to arise because, by pinning of vortices in the incompressible electron liquid, the canonical filling factor can be stationarily maintained in the interconnected region between the vortices. The crucial role of localization is demonstrated by considering the idealized limit where pinning centres are absent. (orig.)

  11. Fragility of the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialko, O; Brand, J; Zülicke, U

    2014-01-01

    We consider the effect of contact interaction in a prototypical quantum spin Hall system of pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. A strong effective magnetic field with opposite directions for the two spin states restricts two-dimensional particle motion to the lowest Landau level. While interaction between same-spin particles leads to incompressible correlated states at fractional filling factors as known from the fractional quantum Hall effect, these states are destabilized by interactions between opposite spin particles. Exact results for two particles with opposite spin reveal a quasi-continuous spectrum of extended states with a large density of states at low energy. This has implications for the prospects of realizing the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in electronic or ultra-cold atom systems. Numerical diagonalization is used to extend the two-particle results to many bosonic particles and trapped systems. The interplay between an external trapping potential and spin-dependent interactions is shown to open up new possibilities for engineering exotic correlated many-particle states with ultra-cold atoms. (paper)

  12. Particle-hole symmetry for composite fermions: An emergent symmetry in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Jain, Jainendra

    2017-01-01

    The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of {\\em electrons} is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. This article investigates an emergent symmetry...... in the fractional quantum Hall effect, namely the PH symmetry of {\\em composite fermions}, which relates states at composite fermion filling factors $\

  13. Distribution of electron density and magnetocapacitance in the regime of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikus, F. G.; Efros, A. L.

    1993-06-01

    A two-dimensional electron liquid (TDEL), subjected to a smooth random potential, is studied in the regime of the fractional quantum Hall effect. An analytical theory of the nonlinear screening is presented for the case when the fractional gap is much less than the magnitude of the unscreened random potential. In this ``narrow-gap approximation'' (NGA), we calculate the electron density distribution function, the fraction of the TDEL which is in the incompressible state, and the thermodynamic density of states. The magnetocapacitance is calculated to compare with the recent experiments. The NGA is found to be not accurate enough to describe the data. The results for larger fractional gaps are obtained by computer modeling. To fit the recent experimental data we have also taken into account the anyon-anyon interaction in the vicinity of a fractional singularity.

  14. Chern-Simons gauge theories for the fractional-quantum-Hall-effect hierarchy and anyon superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Iwazaki, A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that Chern-Simons gauge theories describe both the fractional-quantum-Hall-effect (FQHE) hierarchy and anyon superconductivity, simply by field-theoretically extracting the effects of vortex excitations. Vortices correspond to Laughlin's quasiparticles or bound states of anyons. Both of these phenomena are explained by the condensations of these vortices. We clarify why the anyon systems become incompressible (FQHE) or compressible (anyon superconductivity) depending on the statistics. It is to be emphasized that we can derive an effective Lagrangian describing fully the FQHE hierarchy from a basic Chern-Simons gauge theory

  15. Physics Nobel Prize Goes to Tsui, Stormer and Laughlin for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Bertram

    1998-01-01

    This year's Nobel Prize in Physics is shared by Robert Laughlin (Stanford), Horst Stormer (Columbia University and Bell Laboratories) and Daniel Tsui (Princeton), for their roles in the discovery and explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. In 1982, when Stormer and Tsui were experimenters at Bell Labs, they and their colleague Arthur Gossard discovered this totally unexpected quantum effect in the transport properties of two‐dimensional electron gases at low temperature in strong magnetic fields.’ (See PHYSICS TODAY, July 1983, page 19.)

  16. Physics Nobel Prize Goes to Tsui, Stormer and Laughlin for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzschild, Bertram

    1998-12-15

    This year's Nobel Prize in Physics is shared by Robert Laughlin (Stanford), Horst Stormer (Columbia University and Bell Laboratories) and Daniel Tsui (Princeton), for their roles in the discovery and explanation of the fractional quantum Hall effect. In 1982, when Stormer and Tsui were experimenters at Bell Labs, they and their colleague Arthur Gossard discovered this totally unexpected quantum effect in the transport properties of two‐dimensional electron gases at low temperature in strong magnetic fields.’ (See PHYSICS TODAY, July 1983, page 19.)

  17. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Evert Jan

    1999-05-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction between ensemble disorder as in the normal Hall effect versus ensemble order in the plateau states. Since the order of the latter permits a view of the plateau states as a macro- or meso-scopic single system, the period integral description applies, yielding a straightforward unified description of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects.

  18. Robust integer and fractional helical modes in the quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Banitt, Daniel; Heiblum, Moty; Umansky, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Electronic systems harboring one-dimensional helical modes, where spin and momentum are locked, have lately become an important field of their own. When coupled to a conventional superconductor, such systems are expected to manifest topological superconductivity; a unique phase hosting exotic Majorana zero modes. Even more interesting are fractional helical modes, yet to be observed, which open the route for realizing generalized parafermions. Possessing non-Abelian exchange statistics, these quasiparticles may serve as building blocks in topological quantum computing. Here, we present a new approach to form protected one-dimensional helical edge modes in the quantum Hall regime. The novel platform is based on a carefully designed double-quantum-well structure in a GaAs-based system hosting two electronic sub-bands; each tuned to the quantum Hall effect regime. By electrostatic gating of different areas of the structure, counter-propagating integer, as well as fractional, edge modes with opposite spins are formed. We demonstrate that, due to spin protection, these helical modes remain ballistic over large distances. In addition to the formation of helical modes, this platform can serve as a rich playground for artificial induction of compounded fractional edge modes, and for construction of edge-mode-based interferometers.

  19. Numerical studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect in systems with tunable interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papić, Z; Bhatt, R N; Abanin, D A; Barias, Y

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs-based semiconductor devices has lead to new advances in condensed matter physics, in particular the possibility for exotic, topological phases of matter that possess fractional, and even non-Abelian, statistics of quasiparticles. One of the main limitations of the experimental systems based on GaAs has been the lack of tunability of the effective interactions between two-dimensional electrons, which made it difficult to stabilize some of the more fragile states, or induce phase transitions in a controlled manner. Here we review the recent studies that have explored the effects of tunability of the interactions offered by alternative two-dimensional systems, characterized by non-trivial Berry phases and including graphene, bilayer graphene and topological insulators. The tunability in these systems is achieved via external fields that change the mass gap, or by screening via dielectric plate in the vicinity of the device. Our study points to a number of different ways to manipulate the effective interactions, and engineer phase transitions between quantum Hall liquids and compressible states in a controlled manner.

  20. Quantum simulation of conductivity plateaux and fractional quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberán, Nuria; García-March, Miguel Angel; Taron, Josep; Dagnino, Daniel; Trombettoni, Andrea; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the role of impurities in the fractional quantum Hall effect using a highly controllable system of ultracold atoms. We investigate the mechanism responsible for the formation of plateaux in the resistivity/conductivity as a function of the applied magnetic field in the lowest Landau level regime. To this aim, we consider an impurity immersed in a small cloud of an ultracold quantum Bose gas subjected to an artificial magnetic field. We consider scenarios corresponding to experimentally realistic systems with gauge fields induced by rotation of the trapping parabolic potential. Systems of this kind are adequate to simulate quantum Hall effects in ultracold atom setups. We use exact diagonalization for few atoms and to emulate transport equations, we analyze the time evolution of the system under a periodic perturbation. We provide a theoretical proposal to detect the up-to-now elusive presence of strongly correlated states related to fractional filling factors in the context of ultracold atoms. We analyze the conditions under which these strongly correlated states are associated with the presence of the resistivity/conductivity plateaux. Our main result is the presence of a plateau in a region, where the transfer between localized and non-localized particles takes place, as a necessary condition to maintain a constant value of the resistivity/conductivity as the magnetic field increases. (paper)

  1. Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in n = 0 Landau Band of Graphene with Chern Number Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Koji; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2018-06-01

    Fully taking into account the honeycomb lattice structure, fractional quantum Hall states of graphene are considered by a pseudopotential projected into the n = 0 Landau band. By using chirality as an internal degree of freedom, the Chern number matrices are defined and evaluated numerically. Quantum phase transition induced by changing a range of the interaction is demonstrated that is associated with chirality ferromagnetism. The chirality-unpolarized ground state is consistent with the Halperin 331 state of the bilayer quantum Hall system.

  2. Structure of edge-state inner products in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, R.; Bondesan, R.; Simon, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the inner products of edge state wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically for the Laughlin and Moore-Read states. We use an effective description for these inner products given by a large-N expansion ansatz proposed in a recent work by J. Dubail, N. Read, and E. Rezayi [Phys. Rev. B 86, 245310 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.245310]. As noted by these authors, the terms in this ansatz can be constrained using symmetry, a procedure we perform to high orders. We then check this conjecture by calculating the overlaps exactly for small system sizes and compare the numerics with our high-order expansion. We find the effective description to be very accurate.

  3. The quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Transport phenomena in two dimensional semiconductors have revealed unusual properties. In this thesis these systems are considered and discussed. The theories explain the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE). The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first and the second chapters lay down the theory of the IQHE, the third and fourth consider the theory of the FQHE. Chapter five deals with the statistics of particles in two dimension. (author). Refs

  4. The Quasi-Electron Shell Structure of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, Wick; Haxton, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) formulated on a sphere resembles the nuclear shell model, with the desired translationally invariant states having total angular momentum zero. This property was exploited by Ginocchio and Haxton (GH) to derive a new set of scalar operators and a first-Landau-level representation of the full set of hierarchy states (fillings 1/3, 2/5, 3/7, etc.), with overlaps identical to those of Jain, who used unphysical higher Landau levels excitations followed by numerical projection. We demonstrate that the GH operators produce an appealing description of the FQHE as shells filled by non-interacting quasi-electrons, or composite fermions. These are explicitly constructed, and their planar forms are also found. The evolution of the shells and their quasi-electrons is quite unusual. The connections with electron correlations and Laughlin's variational arguments are described. We discuss how ``new states'' found experimentally at fillings such as 4/11 and 5/13 fit into this scheme. Work support in part by the US DOE Offices of Nuclear Physics and Basic Energy Sciences.

  5. Integer, fractional, and anomalous quantum Hall effects explained with Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian

    2017-02-22

    The Hall effects, especially the integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effects, have been addressed using Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via the azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems.

  6. Edge modes in the fractional quantum Hall effect without extra edge fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G. L. S.; Dias, S. A.

    2011-05-01

    We show that the Chern-Simons-Landau-Ginsburg theory that describes the quantum Hall effect on a bounded sample is anomaly free and thus does not require the addition of extra chiral fermions on the boundary to restore local gauge invariance.

  7. Effective field theory and tunneling currents in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, Samuel; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    We review the construction of a low-energy effective field theory and its state space for “abelian” quantum Hall fluids. The scaling limit of the incompressible fluid is described by a Chern–Simons theory in 2+1 dimensions on a manifold with boundary. In such a field theory, gauge invariance implies the presence of anomalous chiral modes localized on the edge of the sample. We assume a simple boundary structure, i.e., the absence of a reconstructed edge. For the bulk, we consider a multiply connected planar geometry. We study tunneling processes between two boundary components of the fluid and calculate the tunneling current to lowest order in perturbation theory as a function of dc bias voltage. Particular attention is paid to the special cases when the edge modes propagate at the same speed, and when they exhibit two significantly distinct propagation speeds. We distinguish between two “geometries” of interference contours corresponding to the (electronic) Fabry–Perot and Mach–Zehnder interferometers, respectively. We find that the interference term in the current is absent when exactly one hole in the fluid corresponding to one of the two edge components involved in the tunneling processes lies inside the interference contour (i.e., in the case of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer). We analyze the dependence of the tunneling current on the state of the quantum Hall fluid and on the external magnetic flux through the sample. - Highlights: ► We review and extend on the field theoretic construction of the FQHE. ► We calculate tunneling currents between different edge components of a sample. ► We find an absence of interference terms in the currents for some sample geometries. ► No observable Aharonov–Bohm effect is found as the magnetic field is varied. ► Deformation of the edge leads to observable Aharonov–Bohm effect in the currents.

  8. Q-balls of quasi-particles in a (2,0)-theory model of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganor, O.J.; Hong, Y.P.; Moore, N.; Sun, H.Y.; Tan, H.S.; Torres-Chicon, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A(1) (2, 0)-theory formulated on (S-1 x R-2)/Z(k), where the generator of Z(k) acts as a combination of translation on S-1 and rotation by 2 pi/k on R-2. At low energy the

  9. Fractional quantum Hall effect: Construction of the Hartree-Fock state by using translational covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, R.; I.N.F.N., Trento

    1994-01-01

    The formalism introduced in a previous paper is used for discussing the Coulomb interaction of many electrons moving in two space-dimensions in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The matrix element of the coulomb interaction is evaluated in the new basis, whose states are invariant under discrete translations. This paper is devoted to the case of low filling factor, thus the authors limit themselves to the lowest Landau level and to spins all oriented along the magnetic field. For the case of filling factor ν f = 1/u they give an Ansatz on the state of many electrons which provides a good approximated solution of the Hartree-Fock equation. For general filling factor ν f = u'/u a trial state is given which converges very rapidly to a solution of the self-consistent equation. They generalize the Hartree-Fock equation by considering some correlation: all quantum states are allowed for the u' electrons with the same translation quantum numbers. Numerical results are given for the mean energy and the energy bands, for some values of the filling factor (ν f = 1/2, 1/3, 2/3, 1/4, 3/4, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5). The results agree numerically with the Charge Density Wave approach. The boundary conditions are shown to be very important: only large systems (degeneracy of Landau level over 200) are not affected by the boundaries. Therefore results obtained on small scale systems are somewhat unreliable. The relevance of the results for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is briefly discussed

  10. Quantum hall effect. A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Novel concepts and phenomena are emerging recently in the physics of quantum Hall effect. This article gives an overview, which starts from the fractional quantum Hall system viewed as an extremely strongly correlated system, and move on to present various phenomena involving internal degrees of freedom (spin and layer), non-equilibrium and optical properties, and finally the spinoff to anomalous Hall effect and the rotating Bose-Einstein condensate. (author)

  11. Probing bulk physics in the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect using the Corbino geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benjamin; Bennaceur, Keyan; Bilodeau, Simon; Gaucher, Samuel; Lilly, Michael; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Reulet, Bertrand; Gervais, Guillaume

    We present two- and four-point Corbino geometry transport measurements in the second Landau level in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. By avoiding edge transport, we are able to directly probe the physics of the bulk quasiparticles in fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states including 5/2. Our highest-quality sample shows stripe and bubble phases in high Landau levels, and most importantly well-resolved FQH minima in the second Landau level. We report Arrhenius-type fits to the activated conductance, and find that σ0 agrees well with theory and existing Hall geometry data in the first Landau level, but not in the second Landau level. We will discuss the advantages the Corbino geometry could bring to various experiments designed to detect the non-Abelian entropy at 5/2, and our progress towards realizing those schemes. The results of these experiments could complement interferometry and other edge-based measurements by providing direct evidence for non-Abelian behaviour of the bulk quasiparticles. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  12. Spectral sum rules and magneto-roton as emergent graviton in fractional quantum Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, Siavash; Nguyen, Dung X.; Son, Dam T. [Enrico Fermi Institute, James Franck Institute and Department of Physics,University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2016-01-05

    We consider gapped fractional quantum Hall states on the lowest Landau level when the Coulomb energy is much smaller than the cyclotron energy. We introduce two spectral densities, ρ{sub T}(ω) and ρ̄{sub T}(ω), which are proportional to the probabilities of absorption of circularly polarized gravitons by the quantum Hall system. We prove three sum rules relating these spectral densities with the shift S, the q{sup 4} coefficient of the static structure factor S{sub 4}, and the high-frequency shear modulus of the ground state μ{sub ∞}, which is precisely defined. We confirm an inequality, first suggested by Haldane, that S{sub 4} is bounded from below by |S−1|/8. The Laughlin wavefunction saturates this bound, which we argue to imply that systems with ground state wavefunctions close to Laughlin’s absorb gravitons of predominantly one circular polarization. We consider a nonlinear model where the sum rules are saturated by a single magneto-roton mode. In this model, the magneto-roton arises from the mixing between oscillations of an internal metric and the hydrodynamic motion. Implications for experiments are briefly discussed.

  13. Helical edge states and fractional quantum Hall effect in a graphene electron-hole bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D; Luo, Jason Y; Young, Andrea F; Hunt, Benjamin M; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ashoori, Raymond C; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    Helical 1D electronic systems are a promising route towards realizing circuits of topological quantum states that exhibit non-Abelian statistics. Here, we demonstrate a versatile platform to realize 1D systems made by combining quantum Hall (QH) edge states of opposite chiralities in a graphene electron-hole bilayer at moderate magnetic fields. Using this approach, we engineer helical 1D edge conductors where the counterpropagating modes are localized in separate electron and hole layers by a tunable electric field. These helical conductors exhibit strong non-local transport signals and suppressed backscattering due to the opposite spin polarizations of the counterpropagating modes. Unlike other approaches used for realizing helical states, the graphene electron-hole bilayer can be used to build new 1D systems incorporating fractional edge states. Indeed, we are able to tune the bilayer devices into a regime hosting fractional and integer edge states of opposite chiralities, paving the way towards 1D helical conductors with fractional quantum statistics.

  14. Topologically induced fractional Hall steps in the integer quantum Hall regime of MoS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz Islam, SK; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-09-01

    The quantum magnetotransport properties of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide are derived using linear response theory. In particular, the effect of topological terms on longitudinal and Hall conductivity is analyzed. The Hall conductivity exhibits fractional steps in the integer quantum Hall regime. Further complete spin and valley polarization of the longitudinal conductivitity is seen in presence of these topological terms. Finally, the Shubnikov-de Hass oscillations are suppressed or enhanced contingent on the sign of these topological terms.

  15. Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gromov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.

  16. Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh

    2017-10-01

    We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.

  17. Copenhagen's single system premise prevents a unified view of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect

    CERN Document Server

    Post, E J

    1999-01-01

    This essay presents conclusive evidence of the impermissibility of Copenhagen's single system interpretation of the Schroedinger process. The latter needs to be viewed as a tool exclusively describing phase and orientation randomized ensembles and is not be used for isolated single systems. Asymptotic closeness of single system and ensemble behavior and the rare nature of true single system manifestations have prevented a definitive identification of this Copenhagen deficiency over the past three quarter century. Quantum uncertainty so becomes a basic trade mark of phase and orientation disordered ensembles. The ensuing void of usable single system tools opens a new inquiry for tools without statistical connotations. Three, in part already known, period integrals here identified as flux, charge and action counters emerge as diffeo-4 invariant tools fully compatible with the demands of the general theory of relativity. The discovery of the quantum Hall effect has been instrumental in forcing a distinction betw...

  18. Effective hypernetted-chain study of even-denominator-filling state of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftja, O.

    1999-01-01

    The microscopic approach for studying the half-filled state of the fractional quantum Hall effect is based on the idea of proposing a trial Fermi wave function of the Jastrow-Slater form, which is then fully projected onto the lowest Landau level. A simplified starting point is to drop the projection operator and to consider an unprojected wave function. A recent study claims that such a wave function approximated in a Jastrow form may still constitute a good starting point on the study of the half-filled state. In this paper we formalize the effective hypernetted-chain approximation and apply it to the unprojected Fermi wave function, which describes the even-denominator-filling states. We test the above approximation by using the Fermi hypernetted-chain theory, which constitutes the natural choice for the present case. Our results suggest that the approximation of the Slater determinant of plane waves as a Jastrow wave function may not be a very accurate approximation. We conclude that the lowest Landau-level projection operator cannot be neglected if one wants a better quantitative understanding of the phenomena. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Q-balls of quasi-particles in a (2, 0)-theory model of the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor, Ori J.; Hong, Yoon Pyo; Moore, Nathan; Sun, Hao-Yu; Tan, Hai Siong; Torres-Chicon, Nesty R.

    2015-09-01

    A toy model of the fractional quantum Hall effect appears as part of the low-energy description of the Coulomb branch of the A 1 (2 , 0)-theory formulated on ({S}^1× {{R}}^2)/{{Z}}_k , where the generator of {{Z}}_k acts as a combination of translation on S 1 and rotation by 2 π/k on {{R}}^2 . At low energy the configuration is described in terms of a 4+1D Super-Yang-Mills theory on a cone ({{R}}^2/{{Z}}_k) with additional 2+1D degrees of freedom at the tip of the cone that include fractionally charged particles. These fractionally charged "quasi-particles" are BPS strings of the (2 , 0)-theory wrapped on short cycles. We analyze the large k limit, where a smooth cigar-geometry provides an alternative description. In this framework a W-boson can be modeled as a bound state of k quasi-particles. The W-boson becomes a Q-ball, and it can be described as a soliton solution of Bogomolnyi monopole equations on a certain auxiliary curved space. We show that axisymmetric solutions of these equations correspond to singular maps from AdS 3 to AdS 2, and we present some numerical results and an asymptotic expansion.

  20. The constraint for the lowest Landau level and the effective field theory approach for the fractional quantum hall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongshui; Su Zhaobin.

    1992-09-01

    By applying the Dirac quantization method, we build the constraint that all electrons are in the lowest Landau level into the Chern-Simons field theory approach for the fractional quantum Hall system and show that the constraint can be transmuted from hierarchy to hierarchy. For a finite system, we derive that the action for each hierarchy can be split into two parts: a surface part provides the action for the edge excitations while the remaining part is precisely the bulk action for the next hierarchy. An the action for the edge could be decoupled from the bulk only at the hierarchy filling. (author). 16 refs

  1. Geometrical Description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeje; Yang, Bo; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2012-02-01

    We examine a description of fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles and quasiholes suggested by a recent geometrical approach (F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 116801 (2011)) to FQH systems, where the local excess electric charge density in the incompressible state is given by a topologically-quantized ``guiding-center spin'' times the Gaussian curvature of a ``guiding-center metric tensor'' that characterizes the local shape of the correlation hole around electrons in the fluid. We use a phenomenological energy function with two ingredients: the shear distortion energy of area-preserving distortions of the fluid, and a local (short-range) approximation to the Coulomb energy of the fluctuation of charge density associated with the Gaussian curvature. Quasiparticles and quasiholes of the 1/3 Laughlin state are modeled as ``punctures'' in the incompressible fluid which then relax by geometric distortion which generates Gaussian curvature, giving rise to the charge-density profile around the topological excitation.

  2. Phase Diagram of the ν=5/2 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: Effects of Landau-Level Mixing and Nonzero Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiryl Pakrouski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interesting non-Abelian states, e.g., the Moore-Read Pfaffian and the anti-Pfaffian, offer candidate descriptions of the ν=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state. But, the significant controversy surrounding the nature of the ν=5/2 state has been hampered by the fact that the competition between these and other states is affected by small parameter changes. To study the phase diagram of the ν=5/2 state, we numerically diagonalize a comprehensive effective Hamiltonian describing the fractional quantum Hall effect of electrons under realistic conditions in GaAs semiconductors. The effective Hamiltonian takes Landau-level mixing into account to lowest order perturbatively in κ, the ratio of the Coulomb energy scale to the cyclotron gap. We also incorporate the nonzero width w of the quantum-well and subband mixing. We find the ground state in both the torus and spherical geometries as a function of κ and w. To sort out the nontrivial competition between candidate ground states, we analyze the following four criteria: its overlap with trial wave functions, the magnitude of energy gaps, the sign of the expectation value of an order parameter for particle-hole symmetry breaking, and the entanglement spectrum. We conclude that the ground state is in the universality class of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state, rather than the anti-Pfaffian, for κ<κ_{c}(w, where κ_{c}(w is a w-dependent critical value 0.6≲κ_{c}(w≲1. We observe that both Landau-level mixing and nonzero width suppress the excitation gap, but Landau-level mixing has a larger effect in this regard. Our findings have important implications for the identification of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states.

  3. Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3  ±  6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.

  4. The quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klitzing von, K.

    1989-01-01

    The quantized Hall effect is theoretically explained in detail as are its basic properties. The explanation is completed with the pertinent mathematical relations and illustrative figures. Experimental data are critically assessed obtained by quantum transport measurement in a magnetic field on two-dimensional systems. The results are reported for a MOSFET silicon transistor and for GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The application is discussed of the quantized Hall effect in determining the fine structure constant or in implementing the resistance standard. (M.D.). 27 figs., 57 refs

  5. Elementary theory of quantum Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav N. Shrivastava

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is the generation of a current perpendicular to both the direction of the applied electric as well as magnetic field in a metal or in a semiconductor. It is used to determine the concentration of electrons. The quantum Hall effect with integer quantization was discovered by von Klitzing and fractionally charged states were found by Tsui, Stormer and Gossard. Robert Laughlin explained the quantization of Hall current by using “flux quantization” and introduced incompressibility to obtain the fractional charge. We have developed the theory of the quantum Hall effect by using the theory of angular momentum. Our predicted fractions are in accord with those measured. We emphasize our explanation of the observed phenomena. We use spin to explain the fractional charge and hence we discover spin-charge locking.

  6. Anomalous Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592 ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010

  7. Hall effect in noncommutative coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, Oemer F.; Jellal, Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    We consider electrons in uniform external magnetic and electric fields which move on a plane whose coordinates are noncommuting. Spectrum and eigenfunctions of the related Hamiltonian are obtained. We derive the electric current whose expectation value gives the Hall effect in terms of an effective magnetic field. We present a receipt to find the action which can be utilized in path integrals for noncommuting coordinates. In terms of this action we calculate the related Aharonov-Bohm phase and show that it also yields the same effective magnetic field. When magnetic field is strong enough this phase becomes independent of magnetic field. Measurement of it may give some hints on spatial noncommutativity. The noncommutativity parameter θ can be tuned such that electrons moving in noncommutative coordinates are interpreted as either leading to the fractional quantum Hall effect or composite fermions in the usual coordinates

  8. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  9. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  10. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  11. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  12. Composite fermions in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.L.; Kirczenow, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect and associated quantum transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems have been the focus of much attention for more than a decade. Recent theoretical development of interesting quasiparticles - 'composite fermions' - has led to significant advances in understanding and predicting the behaviour of two-dimensional electron systems under high transverse magnetic fields. Composite fermions may be viewed as fermions carrying attached (fictitious) magnetic flux. Here we review models of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, including the development of a unified picture of the integer and fractional effects based upon composite fermions. The composite fermion picture predicts remarkable new physics: the formation of a Fermi surface at high magnetic fields, and anomalous ballistic transport, thermopower, and surface acoustic wave behaviour. The specific theoretical predictions of the model, as well as the body of experimental evidence for these phenomena are reviewed. We also review recent edge-state models for magnetotransport in low-dimensional devices based on the composite fermion picture. These models explain the fractional quantum Hall effect and transport phenomena in nanoscale devices in a unified framework that also includes edge state models of the integer quantum Hall effect. The features of the composite fermion edge-state model are compared and contrasted with those of other recent edge-state models of the fractional quantum Hall effect. (author)

  13. Real-space imaging of fractional quantum Hall liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Junichiro; Muraki, Koji; Yusa, Go

    2013-01-01

    Electrons in semiconductors usually behave like a gas--as independent particles. However, when confined to two dimensions under a perpendicular magnetic field at low temperatures, they condense into an incompressible quantum liquid. This phenomenon, known as the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect, is a quantum-mechanical manifestation of the macroscopic behaviour of correlated electrons that arises when the Landau-level filling factor is a rational fraction. However, the diverse microscopic interactions responsible for its emergence have been hidden by its universality and macroscopic nature. Here, we report real-space imaging of FQH liquids, achieved with polarization-sensitive scanning optical microscopy using trions (charged excitons) as a local probe for electron spin polarization. When the FQH ground state is spin-polarized, the triplet/singlet intensity map exhibits a spatial pattern that mirrors the intrinsic disorder potential, which is interpreted as a mapping of compressible and incompressible electron liquids. In contrast, when FQH ground states with different spin polarization coexist, domain structures with spontaneous quasi-long-range order emerge, which can be reproduced remarkably well from the disorder patterns using a two-dimensional random-field Ising model. Our results constitute the first reported real-space observation of quantum liquids in a class of broken symmetry state known as the quantum Hall ferromagnet.

  14. Quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joynt, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A general investigation of the electronic structure of two dimensional systems is undertaken with a view towards understanding the quantum Hall effect. The work is limited to the case of a strong perpendicular magnetic field, with a disordered potential and an externally applied electric field. The electrons are treated as noninteracting. First, the scattering theory of the system is worked out. The surprising result is found that a wavepacket will reform after scattering from an isolated potential. Also it will tend to be accelerated in the neighborhood of the scatterer if the potential has bound states. Fredholm theory can then be used to show that the extended states carry an additional current which compensates for the zero current of the bound states. Together, these give the quantized conductance. The complementary case of a smooth random potential is treated by a path-integral approach which exploits the analogies to the classical equations of motion. The Green's function can be calculated approximately, which gives the general character of both the bound and extended states. Also the ratio of these two types of states can be computed for a given potential. The charge density is uniform in first approximation, and the Hall conductance is quantized. Higher-order corrections for more rapidly fluctuating potential are calculated. The most general conditions under which the conductance is quantized are discussed. Because of the peculiar scattering properties of the system, numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation is of interest, both to confirm the analytical results, and for pedagogical reasons. The stability and convergence problems inherent in the computer solution of the problem are analyzed. Results for some model scattering potentials are presented

  15. Fractional quantum Hall states of atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, Anders S.; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a method to create fractional quantum Hall states of atoms confined in optical lattices. We show that the dynamics of the atoms in the lattice is analogous to the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field if an oscillating quadrupole potential is applied together with a periodic modulation of the tunneling between lattice sites. In a suitable parameter regime the ground state in the lattice is of the fractional quantum Hall type, and we show how these states can be reached by melting a Mott-insulator state in a superlattice potential. Finally, we discuss techniques to observe these strongly correlated states

  16. Optical spectroscopy of GaAs in the extreme quantum limit: Integer and fractional quantum Hall effect, and onset of the electron solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.G.; Ford, R.A.; Haynes, S.R.; Ryan, J.F.; Turberfield, A.J.; Wright, P.A. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK)); Williams, F.I.B.; Deville, G.; Glattli, D.C. (CEN de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Mallett, J.R.; Oswald, P.M.W. (Clarendon Lab., Univ. of Oxford (UK) Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Burgt, M. van der; Herlach, F. (Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium)); Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J. (Philips Research Labs., Redhill (UK))

    1991-02-01

    Our recent optical detection of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects in GaAs, by intrinsic band-gap photoluminescence at dilution refrigerator temperatures, is reviewed. This work has been extended to the extreme quantum limit where a photoluminescence peak develops close to Landau level filling factor {nu}=1/5 which correlates both with the onset of threshold behaviour in current-voltage characteristics of the two-dimensional electron system and a resonant radio-frequency absorption; the latter are quantitatively accounted for by a model of crystalline electronic structure broken up into domains. Preliminary mK transport experiments in intense, pulsed magnetic fields are also described, which establish a basis to access the electron solid phase transition in a hitherto unattainable region of the (B,T) plane. (orig.).

  17. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  18. Anomalous Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  19. A conformal field theory description of fractional quantum Hall states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardonne, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we give a description of fractional quantum Hall states in terms of conformal field theory (CFT). As was known for a long time, the Laughlin states could be written in terms of correlators of chiral vertex operators of a c=1 CFT. It was shown by G. Moore and N. Read that more general

  20. Detection of fractional solitons in quantum spin Hall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, C.; Traverso Ziani, N.; Trauzettel, B.

    2018-03-01

    We propose two experimental setups that allow for the implementation and the detection of fractional solitons of the Goldstone-Wilczek type. The first setup is based on two magnetic barriers at the edge of a quantum spin Hall system for generating the fractional soliton. If then a quantum point contact is created with the other edge, the linear conductance shows evidence of the fractional soliton. The second setup consists of a single magnetic barrier covering both edges and implementing a long quantum point contact. In this case, the fractional soliton can unambiguously be detected as a dip in the conductance without the need to control the magnetization of the barrier.

  1. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.

    2014-04-01

    The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  2. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    OpenAIRE

    N'diaye, P. B.; Akosa, C. A.; Manchon, A.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-B\\"uttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic a...

  3. Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Vaezi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.

  4. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  5. Theory of the quantum hall effects in lattice systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliros, G.S.

    1990-06-01

    The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is identified as an Integral Quantum Hall Effect of electrons on a lattice with an even number of statistical flux quanta. A variational wavefunction in terms of the Hofstadter lattice eigenstates is proposed. (author). 21 refs

  6. Critical current in the Integral Quantum Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-11-01

    A multiparticle theory of the Integral Quantum Hall Effect (IQHE) was constructed operating with pairs wave function as an order parameter. The IQHE is described with bosonic macroscopic states while the fractional QHE with fermionic ones. The calculation of the critical current and Hall conductivity temperature dependence is presented. (author)

  7. ac spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entin-Wohlman, O.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The spin-Hall effect is described. The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are both shown to yield the low temperature spin-Hall effect for strongly localized electrons coupled to phonons. A frequency-dependent electric field E(ω) generates a spin-polarization current, normal to E, due to interference of hopping paths. At zero temperature the corresponding spin-Hall conductivity is real and is proportional to ω 2 . At non-zero temperatures the coupling to the phonons yields an imaginary term proportional to ω. The interference also yields persistent spin currents at thermal equilibrium, at E = 0. The contributions from the Dresselhaus and Rashba interactions to the interference oppose each other

  8. Fractional Quantum Hall States in a Ge Quantum Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O A; d'Ambrumenil, N; Dobbie, A; Leadley, D R; Suslov, A V; Green, E

    2016-04-29

    Measurements of the Hall and dissipative conductivity of a strained Ge quantum well on a SiGe/(001)Si substrate in the quantum Hall regime are reported. We analyze the results in terms of thermally activated quantum tunneling of carriers from one internal edge state to another across saddle points in the long-range impurity potential. This shows that the gaps for different filling fractions closely follow the dependence predicted by theory. We also find that the estimates of the separation of the edge states at the saddle are in line with the expectations of an electrostatic model in the lowest spin-polarized Landau level (LL), but not in the spin-reversed LL where the density of quasiparticle states is not high enough to accommodate the carriers required.

  9. Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.

  10. Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-02-24

    We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.

  11. Universal intrinsic spin Hall effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sinova, J.; Culcer, D.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Niu, Q.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 12 (2004), 126603/1-126603/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor quantum wells * spin-orbit interaction * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004

  12. Spin Hall effect for anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, S.; Basu, B.; Ghosh, Subir

    2007-01-01

    We explain the intrinsic spin Hall effect from generic anyon dynamics in the presence of external electromagnetic field. The free anyon is represented as a spinning particle with an underlying non-commutative configuration space. The Berry curvature plays a major role in the analysis

  13. Shot-noise evidence of fractional quasiparticle creation in a local fractional quantum Hall state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashisaka, Masayuki; Ota, Tomoaki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa

    2015-02-06

    We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T(1)(1-T(1)) over a wide range of T(1), where T(1) is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.

  14. Fabry-Perot Interferometry in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Douglas; Chang, Willy; Kou, Angela; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2011-03-01

    We present measurements of electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. Two classes of resistance oscillations may be seen as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, as we have previously reported. In small interferometers in the integer regime, oscillations of the type associated with Coulomb interaction are ubiquitous, while those consistent with single-particle Aharonov-Bohm interference are seen to co-exist in some configurations. The amplitude scaling of both types with temperature and device size is consistent with a theoretical model. Oscillations are further observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Here the dependence of the period on the filling factors in the constrictions and bulk of the interferometer can shed light on the effective charge of the interfering quasiparticles, but care is needed to distinguish these oscillations from those associated with integer quantum Hall states. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q and IBM.

  15. Testing the Topological Nature of the Fractional Quantum Hall Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Jain, Jainendra K.

    2009-01-01

    We carry out numerical diagonalization for much larger systems than before by restricting the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) edge excitations to a basis that is exact for a short-range interaction and very accurate for the Coulomb interaction. This enables us to perform substantial tests of the predicted universality of the edge physics. Our results suggest the possibility that the behavior of the FQH edge is intrinsically nonuniversal, even in the absence of edge reconstruction, and therefore may not bear a sharp and unique relation to the nature of the bulk FQH state

  16. The fractional quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoermer, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture on the title topic, delivered on the occasion of the Noble Prize awarding ceremony in 1998. The outline is completed with the author's autobiography. (P.A.)

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Cathode Flow Fraction and Position on the Performance and Operation of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In- Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. Tests were performed within NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 at background pressure levels that were six times lower than what has previously been attained in other vacuum facilities. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the cathode-to-anode flow fraction and cathode position on the performance and operational characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster. In addition, the impact of injecting additional xenon propellant in the vicinity of the cathode was also assessed. Cathode-to-anode flow fraction sensitivity tests were performed for power levels between 1.0 and 3.9 kW. It was found that varying the cathode flow fraction from 5 to approximately 10% of the anode flow resulted in the cathode-to-ground voltage becoming more positive. For an operating condition of 3.8 kW and 500 V, varying the cathode position from a distance of closest approach to 600 mm away did not result in any substantial variation in thrust but resulted in the cathode-to-ground changing from -17 to -4 V. The change in the cathode-to-ground voltage along with visual observations indicated a change in how the cathode plume was coupling to the thruster discharge. Finally, the injection of secondary xenon flow in the vicinity of the cathode had an impact similar to increasing the cathode-to-anode flow fraction, where the cathode-to-ground voltage became more positive and discharge current and thrust increased slightly. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned with a centrally mounted cathode in order to further assess the impact of cathode position on thruster performance.

  18. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  19. Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... the unconventional quantum Hall effect and then present in detail the route, which led to the most precise quantum Hall resistance universality test ever performed.......The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...

  20. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  1. Spin hall effect associated with SU(2) gauge field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the connection between spin Hall effect and spin force. Here we investigate that the spin force due to spin-orbit coupling, which, in two-dimensional system, is equivalent to forces of Hirsch and Chudnovsky besides constant factors 3 and frac{3}{2} respectively, is a part of classic Anandan force, and that the spin Hall effect is an anomalous Hall effect. Furthermore, we develop the method of AC phase to derive the expression for the spin force, and note that the most basic spin Hall effect indeed originate from the AC phase and is therefore an intrinsic quantum mechanical property of spin. This method differs from approach of Berry phase in the study of anomalous Hall effect , which is the intrinsic property of the perfect crystal. On the other hand, we use an elegant skill to show that the Chudnovsky-Drude model is reasonable. Here we have improved the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity of Chudnovsky. Compared to the theoretical values of spin Hall conductivity in the Chudnovsky-Drude model, ours are in better agreement with experimentation. Finally, we discuss the relation between spin Hall effect and fractional statistics.

  2. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  3. Nobel Prize in physics 1985: Quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    The conditions (like very strong magnetic fields, ultralow temperatures, and occurrence of a two-dimensional electron gas in microelectronic structures) for the measurement of the quantum Hall effect are explained. Two possible measuring methods are described. Measuring results for p-Si-MOSFET, GaAs/AlGaAs heterojuntions and grain boundaries in InSb crystals are reported. Differences between normal (integer) and fractional quantum Hall effect are discussed. One of the important consequences is that by means of the quantum Hall effect the value h/e 2 can be determined with very high accuracy. In 1985 Klaus von Klitzing was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the quantum Hall effect

  4. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, Alexander A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted

  7. Theory of spin Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2007-01-01

    An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...

  8. Quantum Hall Effect: proposed multi-electron tunneling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.

    1985-11-01

    Here we propose a tunneling experiment for the fractional and Integral Quantum Hall Effect. It may demonstrate multi-electron tunneling and may provide information about the nature of the macroscopic quantum states of 2D electronic liquid or solid. (author)

  9. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  10. Quasi-particle properties from tunneling in the v = 5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Iuliana P; Miller, J B; Marcus, C M; Kastner, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W

    2008-05-16

    Quasi-particles with fractional charge and statistics, as well as modified Coulomb interactions, exist in a two-dimensional electron system in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Theoretical models of the FQH state at filling fraction v = 5/2 make the further prediction that the wave function can encode the interchange of two quasi-particles, making this state relevant for topological quantum computing. We show that bias-dependent tunneling across a narrow constriction at v = 5/2 exhibits temperature scaling and, from fits to the theoretical scaling form, extract values for the effective charge and the interaction parameter of the quasi-particles. Ranges of values obtained are consistent with those predicted by certain models of the 5/2 state.

  11. Single electron probes of fractional quantum hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Vivek

    When electrons are confined to a two dimensional layer with a perpendicular applied magnetic field, such that the ratio of electrons to flux quanta (nu) is a small integer or simple rational value, these electrons condense into remarkable new phases of matter that are strikingly different from the metallic electron gas that exists in the absence of a magnetic field. These phases, called integer or fractional quantum Hall (IQH or FQH) states, appear to be conventional insulators in their bulk, but behave as a dissipationless metal along their edge. Furthermore, electrical measurements of such a system are largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of how the system is contacted or even how large the system is... only the order in which contacts are made appears to matter. This insensitivity to local geometry has since appeared in a number of other two and three dimensional systems, earning them the classification of "topological insulators" and prompting an enormous experimental and theoretical effort to understand their properties and perhaps manipulate these properties to create robust quantum information processors. The focus of this thesis will be two experiments designed to elucidate remarkable properties of the metallic edge and insulating bulk of certain FQH systems. To study such systems, we can use mesoscopic devices known as single electron transistors (SETs). These devices operate by watching single electrons hop into and out of a confining box and into a nearby wire (for measurement). If it is initially unfavorable for an electron to leave the box, it can be made favorable by bringing another charge nearby, modifying the energy of the confined electron and pushing it out of the box and into the nearby wire. In this way, the SET can measure nearby charges. Alternatively, we can heat up the nearby wire to make it easier for electrons to enter and leave the box. In this way, the SET is a sensitive thermometer. First, by operating the SET as an

  12. Edge State Propagation Direction in the Fractional Quantum Hall Regime: Multi-Terminal Magnetocapacitance Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, B.L.; MOON, JEONG-SUN; RENO, JOHN L.; SIMMONS, JERRY A.

    1999-01-01

    The propagation direction of fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) edge states has been investigated experimentally via the symmetry properties of the multi-terminal capacitances of a two dimensional electron gas. Although strong asymmetries with respect to zero magnetic field appear, no asymmetries with respect to even denominator Landau level filling factor ν are seen. This indicates that current-carrying FQHE edge states propagate in the same direction as integer QHE edge states. In addition, anomalous capacitance features, indicative of enhanced bulk conduction, are observed at ν = 1/2 and 3/2

  13. Hyperspherical Slater determinant approach to few-body fractional quantum Hall states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bin, E-mail: yanbin@purdue.edu; Wooten, Rachel E.; Daily, Kevin M.; Greene, Chris H.

    2017-05-15

    In a recent study (Daily et al., 2015), a hyperspherical approach has been developed to study few-body fractional quantum Hall states. This method has been successfully applied to the exploration of few boson and fermion problems in the quantum Hall region, as well as the study of inter-Landau level collective excitations (Rittenhouse et al., 2016; Wooten et al., 2016). However, the hyperspherical method as it is normally implemented requires a subsidiary (anti-)symmetrization process, which limits its computational effectiveness. The present work overcomes these difficulties and extends the power of this method by implementing a representation of the hyperspherical many-body basis space in terms of Slater determinants of single particle eigenfunctions. A clear connection between the hyperspherical representation and the conventional single particle picture is presented, along with a compact operator representation of the theoretical framework. - Highlights: • A hyperspherical method has been implemented to study the quantum Hall effect. • The hyperspherical many-body basis space is represented with Slater determinants. • Example numerical studies of the 4- and 8-electron systems are presented.

  14. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun; Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  15. Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior for strong disorder. This behavior may be of relevance ...

  16. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  17. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  18. Contribution of the study of the Hall Effect. Hall Effect of powder products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherville, Jean

    1961-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of an apparatus aimed at measuring the Hall Effect and the magneto-resistance of powders at room temperature and at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The author also proposes a theoretical contribution to the Hall Effect and reports the calculation of conditions to be met to obtain a correct value for the Hall constant. Results are experimentally verified. The method is then applied to the study of a set of powdered pre-graphitic graphites. The author shows that their Hall coefficient confirms the model already proposed by Mrozowski. The study of the Hall Effect of any kind of powders can thus be performed, and the Hall Effect can therefore be a mean to study mineral and organic compounds, and notably powdered biological molecules [fr

  19. Time and angle resolved phonon absorption in the fractional quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, A.M.

    2000-09-01

    The work described in this thesis is a study of the phonon absorption by a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the fractional quantum Hall regime and also at ν = 1/2. The fractional quantum Hall effect arises in 2DES's in high magnetic fields and is characterised by the quantisation of the transverse or Hall resistance and the vanishing longitudinal conductivity. The filling factor denotes the number of filled Landau levels and the quantum Hall effect occurs when this ratio is at certain rational odd denominator filling factors. The phenomenology of the effect arises due to the existence of an energy gap between the ground state and the lowest excited state. This energy gap is characterised by a deep minimum, or minima, at finite in-plane wavevector. Acoustic phonon absorption is expected to probe the energy gap at wavevectors close to or at the minimum in the dispersion curve. The experiments reported here incorporate the use of a thin film heater to produce a pulse of phonons of which a fraction are absorbed by the 2DES. A fast amplifier and signal averaging board enable detection of small signals due to absorption of phonons. The technique used allows time resolution of the phonon signal which typically takes place over a period of 10 μs or so. The time resolution enables different phonon modes to be studied. By altering the position of the heater relative to the 2DES angular resolution is also possible. The phonon absorption at several different filling factors has been investigated and the energy gaps found are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. The absorption at ν 1/2 has also been investigated. Here the composite fermions are expected to have a well defined Fermi wavevector. The absorption at ν = 1/2 and the fractional quantum Hall states is found to be qualitatively and quantitatively different. We see that the change in electron temperature atν = 1/2 is much less than at ν = 1/3 due to the larger heat capacity. At ν = 1

  20. Particle-hole symmetry and composite fermions in fractional quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam Thanh

    2018-05-01

    We study fractional quantum Hall states at filling fractions in the Jain sequences using the framework of composite Dirac fermions. Synthesizing previous work, we write an effective field theory consistent with all symmetry requirements, including Galilean invariance and particle-hole symmetry. Employing a Fermi-liquid description, we demonstrate the appearance of the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman algebra and compute the dispersion relation of neutral excitations and various response functions. Our results satisfy requirements of particle-hole symmetry. We show that while the dispersion relation obtained from the modified random-phase approximation (MRPA) of the Halperin-Lee-Read (HLR) theory is particle-hole symmetric, correlation functions obtained from this scheme are not. The results of the Dirac theory are shown to be consistent with the Haldane bound on the projected structure factor, while those of the MPRA of the HLR theory violate it.

  1. Exotic Non-Abelian Topological Defects in Lattice Fractional Quantum Hall States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Möller, Gunnar; Bergholtz, Emil J.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate extrinsic wormholelike twist defects that effectively increase the genus of space in lattice versions of multicomponent fractional quantum Hall systems. Although the original band structure is distorted by these defects, leading to localized midgap states, we find that a new lowest flat band representing a higher genus system can be engineered by tuning local single-particle potentials. Remarkably, once local many-body interactions in this new band are switched on, we identify various Abelian and non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states, whose ground-state degeneracy increases with the number of defects, i.e, with the genus of space. This sensitivity of topological degeneracy to defects provides a "proof of concept" demonstration that genons, predicted by topological field theory as exotic non-Abelian defects tied to a varying topology of space, do exist in realistic microscopic models. Specifically, our results indicate that genons could be created in the laboratory by combining the physics of artificial gauge fields in cold atom systems with already existing holographic beam shaping methods for creating twist defects.

  2. Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Tatiana

    The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  3. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. T.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Podzorov, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor. PMID:27025354

  4. Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V

    2016-03-30

    Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.

  5. Spin Hall Effect in Doped Semiconductor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2006-03-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect based on the diagrammatic perturbation theory. Side-jump (SJ) and skew-scattering (SS) contributions are explicitly taken into account to calculate the spin Hall conductivity, and we show their effects scale as σxy^SJ/σxy^SS ˜(/τ)/ɛF, where τ being the transport relaxation time. Motivated by recent experimental work we apply our theory to n-doped and p-doped 3D and 2D GaAs structures, obtaining analytical formulas for the SJ and SS contributions. Moreover, the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity is found as σs/σc˜10-3-10-4, in reasonable agreement with the recent experimental results of Kato et al. [Science 306, 1910 (2004)] in n-doped 3D GaAs system.

  6. Field theory approach to quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A.; Chaichian, M.

    1990-07-01

    The Fradkin's formulation of statistical field theory is applied to the Coulomb interacting electron gas in a magnetic field. The electrons are confined to a plane in normal 3D-space and also interact with the physical 3D-electromagnetic field. The magnetic translation group (MTG) Ward identities are derived. Using them it is shown that the exact electron propagator is diagonalized in the basis of the wave functions of the free electron in a magnetic field whenever the MTG is unbroken. The general tensor structure of the polarization operator is obtained and used to show that the Chern-Simons action always describes the Hall effect properties of the system. A general proof of the Streda formula for the Hall conductivity is presented. It follows that the coefficient of the Chern-Simons terms in the long-wavelength approximation is exactly given by this relation. Such a formula, expressing the Hall conductivity as a simple derivative, in combination with diagonal form of the full propagator allows to obtain a simple expressions for the filling factor and the Hall conductivity. Indeed, these results, after assuming that the chemical potential lies in a gap of the density of states, lead to the conclusion that the Hall conductivity is given without corrections by σ xy = νe 2 /h where ν is the filling factor. In addition it follows that the filling factor is independent of the magnetic field if the chemical potential remains in the gap. (author). 21 ref, 1 fig

  7. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  8. Evidence of a fractional quantum Hall nematic phase in a microscopic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, N.; Maciejko, J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2017-07-01

    At small momenta, the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman (GMP) mode in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect can be identified with gapped nematic fluctuations in the isotropic FQH liquid. This correspondence would be exact as the GMP mode softens upon approach to the putative point of a quantum phase transition to a FQH nematic. Motivated by these considerations as well as by suggestive evidence of an FQH nematic in tilted field experiments, we have sought evidence of such a nematic FQHE in a microscopic model of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level at filling factor 1/3. Using a family of anisotropic Laughlin states as trial wave functions, we find a continuous quantum phase transition between the isotropic Laughlin liquid and the FQH nematic. Results of numerical exact diagonalization also suggest that rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken, and that the phase diagram of the model contains both a nematic and a stripe phase.

  9. A Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ty Davis

    Electric propulsion technologies promise to revolutionize access to space, opening the door for mission concepts unfeasible by traditional propulsion methods alone. The Hall effect thruster is a relatively high thrust, moderate specific impulse electric propulsion device that belongs to the class of electrostatic thrusters. Hall effect thrusters benefit from an extensive flight history, and offer significant performance and cost advantages when compared to other forms of electric propulsion. Ongoing research on these devices includes the investigation of mechanisms that tend to decrease overall thruster efficiency, as well as the development of new techniques to extend operational lifetimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with the design and construction of a Small Modular Laboratory Hall Effect Thruster (SMLHET), and its operation on argon propellant gas. Particular attention was addressed at low-cost, modular design principles, that would facilitate simple replacement and modification of key thruster parts such as the magnetic circuit and discharge channel. This capability is intended to facilitate future studies of device physics such as anomalous electron transport and magnetic shielding of the channel walls, that have an impact on thruster performance and life. Preliminary results demonstrate SMLHET running on argon in a manner characteristic of Hall effect thrusters, additionally a power balance method was utilized to estimate thruster performance. It is expected that future thruster studies utilizing heavier though more expensive gases like xenon or krypton, will observe increased efficiency and stability.

  10. Anomalous Hall effect in disordered multiband metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Sinova, Jairo; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), 036601/1-036601/4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  11. Quantization and hall effect: necessities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    1999-01-01

    The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)

  12. Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal

    2011-01-01

    We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V 1 (r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, σ=ρθ (ρ is the electron concentration, θ is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.

  13. Exact Quantization of the Even-Denominator Fractional Quantum Hall State at ν =5/2 Landau Level Filling Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.; Pan, W.; Xia, J.; Shvarts, V.; Adams, D.E.; Xia, J.; Shvarts, V.; Adams, D.E.; Stormer, H.L.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.

    1999-01-01

    We report ultralow temperature experiments on the obscure fractional quantum Hall effect at Landau level filling factor ν=5/2 in a very high-mobility specimen of μ=1.7x10 7 cm 2 /V s . We achieve an electron temperature as low as ∼4 mK , where we observe vanishing R xx and, for the first time, a quantized Hall resistance, R xy =h/(5/2)e 2 to within 2ppm. R xy at the neighboring odd-denominator states ν=7/3 and 8/3 is also quantized. The temperature dependences of the R xx minima at these fractional fillings yield activation energy gaps Δ 5/2 =0.11 , Δ 7/3 =0.10 , and Δ 8/3 =0.055 K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  14. Giant photonic Hall effect in magnetophotonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, A M; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Granovsky, A B

    2005-10-01

    We have considered a simple, square, two-dimensional (2D) PC built of a magneto-optic matrix with square holes. It is shown that using such a magnetophotonic crystal it is possible to deflect a light beam at very large angles by applying a nonzero external magnetic field. The effect is called the giant photonic Hall effect (GPHE) or the magnetic superprism effect. The GPHE is based on magneto-optical properties, as is the photonic Hall effect [B. A. van Tiggelen and G. L. J. A. Rikken, in, edited by V. M. Shalaev (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002), p. 275]; however GPHE is not caused by asymmetrical light scattering but rather by the influence of an external magnetic field on the photonic band structure.

  15. Infinite symmetry in the quantum Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütken C.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The new states of matter and concomitant quantum critical phenomena revealed by the quantum Hall effect appear to be accompanied by an emergent modular symmetry. The extreme rigidity of this infinite symmetry makes it easy to falsify, but two decades of experiments have failed to do so, and the location of quantum critical points predicted by the symmetry is in increasingly accurate agreement with scaling experiments. The symmetry severely constrains the structure of the effective quantum field theory that encodes the low energy limit of quantum electrodynamics of 1010 charges in two dirty dimensions. If this is a non-linear σ-model the target space is a torus, rather than the more familiar sphere. One of the simplest toroidal models gives a critical (correlation length exponent that agrees with the value obtained from numerical simulations of the quantum Hall effect.

  16. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F D; Cazimajou, T; Sekine, Y; Hibino, H; Irie, H; Glattli, D C; Kumada, N; Roulleau, P

    2016-12-06

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  17. Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.

    2016-12-01

    We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.

  18. Anomalous hall effect in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Niu, Q.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 20 (2002), s. 207208-1-207208-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912; GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anomalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  19. Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B ) and electric (E ) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ2 rather than κ . For E =0 , SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ . In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.

  20. Optically induced Hall effect in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M; Gray, E Mac A, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2009-03-01

    We describe an experiment which investigates the effect of a longitudinal electric field on the spin-polarized carriers generated by a circularly polarized light in semiconductors. Our experiment observes the effect as a Hall voltage resulting from nonequilibrium magnetization induced by the spin-carrier electrons accumulating at the transverse boundaries of the sample as a result of asymmetries in scattering for spin-up and spin-down electrons in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. It is found that the effect depends on the longitudinal electric field and doping density as well as on temperature. The results are presented by discussing the dominant spin relaxation mechanisms in semiconductors.

  1. Fractionalizing Majorana Fermions: Non-Abelian Statistics on the Edges of Abelian Quantum Hall States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netanel H. Lindner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the non-Abelian statistics characterizing systems where counterpropagating gapless modes on the edges of fractional quantum Hall states are gapped by proximity coupling to superconductors and ferromagnets. The most transparent example is that of a fractional quantum spin Hall state, in which electrons of one spin direction occupy a fractional quantum Hall state of ν=1/m, while electrons of the opposite spin occupy a similar state with ν=-1/m. However, we also propose other examples of such systems, which are easier to realize experimentally. We find that each interface between a region on the edge coupled to a superconductor and a region coupled to a ferromagnet corresponds to a non-Abelian anyon of quantum dimension sqrt[2m]. We calculate the unitary transformations that are associated with the braiding of these anyons, and we show that they are able to realize a richer set of non-Abelian representations of the braid group than the set realized by non-Abelian anyons based on Majorana fermions. We carry out this calculation both explicitly and by applying general considerations. Finally, we show that topological manipulations with these anyons cannot realize universal quantum computation.

  2. Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...... be extracted from micro four-point measurements performed on a rectangular pad. The dimension of the investigated pad is 400 × 430 ¿m2, and the probe pitches range from 20 ¿m to 50 ¿m. The Monte Carlo method is used to find the optimal way to perform the Hall measurement and extract Hall mobility most...

  3. Prospect of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall effect in doped kagome lattice Mott insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

    2016-05-17

    Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.

  4. Scattering Effect on Anomalous Hall Effect in Ferromagnetic Transition Metals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-11-30

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has been discovered for over a century, but its origin is still highly controversial theoretically and experimentally. In this study, we investigated the scattering effect on the AHE for both exploring the underlying physics and technical applications. We prepared Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films with different Co volume fraction (34≤≤100) and studied the interfacial scattering effect on the AHE. The STEM HAADF images confirmed the inhomogeneous granular structure of the samples. As decreases from 100 to 34, the values of longitudinal resistivity () and anomalous Hall resistivity (AHE) respectively increase by about four and three orders in magnitude. The linear scaling relation between the anomalous Hall coefficient () and the measured at 5 K holds in both the as-prepared and annealed samples, which suggests a skew scattering dominated mechanism in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films. We prepared (Fe36//Au12/), (Ni36//Au12/) and (Ta12//Fe36/) multilayers to study the interfacial scattering effect on the AHE. The multilayer structures were characterized by the XRR spectra and TEM images of cross-sections. For the three serials of multilayers, both the and AHE increase with , which clearly shows interfacial scattering effect. The intrinsic contribution decreases with increases in the three serials of samples, which may be due to the crystallinity decaying or the finite size effect. In the (Fe36//Au12/) samples, the side-jump contribution increases with , which suggests an interfacial scattering-enhanced side jump. In the (Ni36//Au12/) samples, the side-jump contribution decreases with increases, which could be explained by the opposite sign of the interfacial scattering and grain boundary scattering contributed side jump. In the (Ta12//Fe36/) multilayers, the side-jump contribution changed from negative to positive, which is also because of the opposite sign of the interfacial scattering and grain boundary scattering

  5. Commemorative Symposium on the Hall Effect and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Westgate, C

    1980-01-01

    In 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in­ vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex­ panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes t...

  6. Topological honeycomb magnon Hall effect: A calculation of thermal Hall conductivity of magnetic spin excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owerre, S. A., E-mail: solomon@aims.ac.za [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town 7945, South Africa and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κ{sup xy} changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κ{sup xy} changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κ{sup xy} has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T{sup 2} law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.

  7. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  8. Nonadiabatic effects in the Quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.A.; Brown, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors consider the effect of a finite electric field on the states of a Bloch electron in two dimensions, with a uniform magnetic field present. They make use of the concept of electric time translation symmetry and treat the electric and magnetic fields symmetrically in a time dependent formalism. In addition to a wave vector k, the states are characterized by a frequency specifying the behavior under electric time translations. An effective Hamiltonian is employed to obtain the splitting of an isolated Bloch band into open-quotes frequencyclose quotes subbands. The time-averaged velocity and energy of the states are expressed in terms of the frequency dispersion. The relationship to the Stark ladder eigenstates in a scalar potential representation of the electric field is examined. This is seen to justify the use of the averaged energy in determining occupation of the states. In the weak electric field (adiabatic) limit, an expression is recovered for the quantized Hall conductivity of a magnetic subband as a topological invariant. A numerical procedure is outlined and results obtained over a range of electric field strengths. A transition between strong and weak field regimes is seen, with level repulsions between the frequencies playing an important role. The numerical results show how the magnetic subband structure and quantized Hall conductivity emerge as the electric field becomes weaker. In this regime, the behavior can be understood by comparison to the predictions of the adiabatic approximation. The latter predicts crossings in the frequencies at certain locations in wave vector space. Nonadiabatic effects are seen to produce gaps in the frequency spectrum at these locations. 35 refs., 14 figs

  9. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities

  10. Planar Hall Effect Sensors for Biodetection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni

    . In the second geometry (dPHEB) half of the sensor is used as a local negative reference to subtract the background signal from magnetic beads in suspension. In all applications below, the magnetic beads are magnetised using the magnetic field due to the bias current passed through the sensor, i.e., no external...... as labels and planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensor as readout for the beads. The choice of magnetic beads as label is motivated by the lack of virtually any magnetic background from biological samples. Moreover, magnetic beads can be manipulated via an external magnetic field...... hybridisation in real-time, in a background of suspended magnetic beads. This characteristic is employed in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, where the denaturation of DNA is monitored in real-time upon washing with a stringency buffer. The sensor setup includes temperature control and a fluidic...

  11. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  12. Magnon Hall effect on the Lieb lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Chen, Kai; He, Dahai

    2015-04-29

    Ferromagnetic insulators without inversion symmetry may show magnon Hall effect (MHE) in the presence of a temperature gradient due to the existence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In this theoretical study, we investigate MHE on a lattice with inversion symmetry, namely the Lieb lattice, where the DMI is introduced by adding an external electric field. We show the nontrivial topology of this model by examining the existence of edge states and computing the topological phase diagram characterized by the Chern numbers of different bands. Together with the topological phase diagram, we can further determine the sign and magnitude of the transverse thermal conductivity. The impact of the flat band possessed by this model on the thermal conductivity is discussed by computing the Berry curvature analytically.

  13. Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaobo; Ye, Ziliang; Rho, Junsuk; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-03-22

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light is very weak because of the extremely small photon momentum and spin-orbit interaction. Here, we report a strong photonic SHE resulting in a measured large splitting of polarized light at metasurfaces. The rapidly varying phase discontinuities along a metasurface, breaking the axial symmetry of the system, enable the direct observation of large transverse motion of circularly polarized light, even at normal incidence. The strong spin-orbit interaction deviates the polarized light from the trajectory prescribed by the ordinary Fermat principle. Such a strong and broadband photonic SHE may provide a route for exploiting the spin and orbit angular momentum of light for information processing and communication.

  14. Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D. -H.

    1996-01-01

    The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.

  15. Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houari, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…

  16. Imaging the Conductance of Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Edge States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Pascher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the conductance of a quantum point contact while the biased tip of a scanning probe microscope induces a depleted region in the electron gas underneath. At a finite magnetic field, we find plateaus in the real-space maps of the conductance as a function of tip position at integer (ν=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and fractional (ν=1/3, 2/3, 5/3, 4/5 values of transmission. They resemble theoretically predicted compressible and incompressible stripes of quantum Hall edge states. The scanning tip allows us to shift the constriction limiting the conductance in real space over distances of many microns. The resulting stripes of integer and fractional filling factors are rugged on scales of a few hundred nanometers, i.e., on a scale much smaller than the zero-field elastic mean free path of the electrons. Our experiments demonstrate that microscopic inhomogeneities are relevant even in high-quality samples and lead to locally strongly fluctuating widths of incompressible regions even down to their complete suppression for certain tip positions. The macroscopic quantization of the Hall resistance measured experimentally in a nonlocal contact configuration survives in the presence of these inhomogeneities, and the relevant local energy scale for the ν=2 state turns out to be independent of tip position.

  17. A system for pulse Hall effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.; Kupczak, R.

    1975-01-01

    Measuring system for fast Hall-voltage changes in an n-type germanium sample irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with a high-energy electron-beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator is described. (author)

  18. Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Superconductivity and Quantum Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Explains major superconducting properties including zero resistance, Meissner effect, sharp phase change, flux quantization, excitation energy gap, and Josephson effects using quantum statistical mechanical calculations. This book covers the 2D superconductivity and the quantum Hall effects

  19. A review of the quantum Hall effects in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falson, Joseph; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2018-05-01

    This review visits recent experimental efforts on high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) hosted at the Mg x Zn1-x O/ZnO heterointerface. We begin with the growth of these samples, and highlight the key characteristics of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy required for their production. The transport characteristics of these structures are found to rival that of traditional semiconductor material systems, as signified by the high electron mobility (μ > 1000 000 cm2 Vs‑1) and rich quantum Hall features. Owing to a large effective mass and small dielectric constant, interaction effects are an order of magnitude stronger in comparison with the well studied GaAs-based 2DES. The strong correlation physics results in robust Fermi-liquid renormalization of the effective mass and spin susceptibility of carriers, which in turn dictates the parameter space for the quantum Hall effect. Finally, we explore the quantum Hall effect with a particular emphasis on the spin degree of freedom of carriers, and how their large spin splitting allows control of the ground states encountered at ultra-low temperatures within the fractional quantum Hall regime. We discuss in detail the physics of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall states, whose observation and underlying character remain elusive and exotic.

  20. A Novel Hall Effect Sensor Using Elaborate Offset Cancellation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlassis N. Petoussis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is caused by a traverse force that is formed in the electrons or holes of metal element or semiconductor when are polarized by current source and simultaneously all the system it is found vertical in external magnetic field. Result is finally the production of difference of potential (Hall voltage in address vertical in that of current and magnetic field directions. In the present work is presented a new Hall sensor exploiting the former operation. In combination with his pioneering form and using dynamic spinning current technique with an elaborate sequence, it leads to satisfactory results of produced Hall voltage with small noise in a presence of external magnetic field. Anyone can see both the spinning current and anti-Hall technique in the same sensor simultaneously.

  1. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2016-07-27

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.

  2. Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.

  3. Non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states for hard-core bosons in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Belén

    2012-05-01

    I present a family of one-dimensional bosonic liquids analogous to non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states. A new quantum number is introduced to characterize these liquids, the chiral momentum, which differs from the usual angular or linear momentum in one dimension. As their two-dimensional counterparts, these liquids minimize a k-body hard-core interaction with the minimum total chiral momentum. They exhibit global order, with a hidden organization of the particles in k identical copies of a one-dimensional Laughlin state. For k=2 the state is a p-wave paired phase corresponding to the Pfaffian quantum Hall state. By imposing conservation of the total chiral momentum, an exact parent Hamiltonian is derived which involves long-range tunneling and interaction processes with an amplitude decaying with the chord distance. This family of non-Abelian liquids is shown to be in formal correspondence with a family of spin-(k)/(2) liquids which are total singlets made out of k indistinguishable resonating valence bond states. The corresponding spin Hamiltonians are obtained.

  4. Spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Masashige; Sigrist, Manfred

    2001-08-01

    In a chiral superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry a ``spontaneous Hall effect'' may be observed. We analyze this phenomenon by taking into account the surface properties of a chiral superconductor. We identify two main contributions to the spontaneous Hall effect. One contribution originates from the Bernoulli (or Lorentz) force due to spontaneous currents running along the surfaces of the superconductor. The other contribution has a topological origin and is related to the intrinsic angular momentum of Cooper pairs. The latter can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons-like term in the low-energy field theory of the superconductor and has some similarities with the quantum Hall effect. The spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral superconductor is, however, nonuniversal. Our analysis is based on three approaches to the problem: a self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory, and a hydrodynamic formulation. All three methods consistently lead to the same conclusion that the spontaneous Hall resistance of a two-dimensional superconducting Hall bar is of order h/(ekFλ)2, where kF is the Fermi wave vector and λ is the London penetration depth; the Hall resistance is substantially suppressed from a quantum unit of resistance. Experimental issues in measuring this effect are briefly discussed.

  5. All Optical Measurement Proposed for the Photovoltaic Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    We propose an all optical way to measure the recently proposed p hotovoltaic Hall effect , i.e., a Hall effect induced by a circularly polarized light in the absence of static magnetic fields. This is done in a pump-probe experiment with the Faraday rotation angle being the probe. The Floquet extended Kubo formula for photo-induced optical response is formulated and the ac-Hall conductivity is calculated. We also point out the possibility of observing the effect in two layered graphene, three-dimensional graphite, and more generally in multi-band systems such as materials described by the dp-model.

  6. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2007-01-01

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect

  7. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, School of Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2007-03-21

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect.

  8. Hall effects and related phenomena in disordered Rashba 2DEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Takashi; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Molenkamp, Laurens W

    2009-01-01

    We review our recent work on the spin and anomalous Hall effects and other related phenomena caused by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. We focus our attention on disorder effects on these transport properties by adopting a model of a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-type spin–orbit interaction. A spin-polarized model is adopted to calculate the anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance. It is shown that the spin Hall conductivity in the ballistic transport regime is cancelled by the so-called vertex corrections for the disorder scattering, and that the anomalous Hall conductivity and anisotropic magnetoresistance vanish unless the lifetime is spin dependent. We further present results on spin accumulation under an electric field

  9. The quantum Hall effect at 5/2 filling factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, R L

    2013-01-01

    Experimental discovery of a quantized Hall state at 5/2 filling factor presented an enigmatic finding in an established field of study that has remained an open issue for more than twenty years. In this review we first examine the experimental requirements for observing this state and outline the initial theoretical implications and predictions. We will then follow the chronology of experimental studies over the years and present the theoretical developments as they pertain to experiments, directed at sets of issues. These topics will include theoretical and experimental examination of the spin properties at 5/2; is the state spin polarized? What properties of the higher Landau levels promote development of the 5/2 state, what other correlation effects are observed there, and what are their interactions with the 5/2 state? The 5/2 state is not a robust example of the fractional quantum Hall effect: what experimental and material developments have allowed enhancement of the effect? Theoretical developments from initial pictures have promoted the possibility that 5/2 excitations are exceptional; do they obey non-abelian statistics? The proposed experiments to determine this and their executions in various forms will be presented: this is the heart of this review. Experimental examination of the 5/2 excitations through interference measurements will be reviewed in some detail, focusing on recent results that demonstrate consistency with the picture of non-abelian charges. The implications of this in the more general physics picture is that the 5/2 excitations, shown to be non-abelian, should exhibit the properties of Majorana operators. This will be the topic of the last review section. (review article)

  10. Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K

    2011-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)

  11. Hall effect in the two-dimensional Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Hall effect in the normal state is a commom theme of all the cuprate superconductors and has been one of the more puzzling observations on these puzzling materials. We describe a general scheme within the Luttinger liquid theory of these two-dimensional quantum fluids which corrrelates the anomalous Hall and resistivity observations on a wide variety of both pure and doped single crystals, especially the data in the accompanying Letter of Chien, Wang, and Ong

  12. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of Gamble I POS with Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Frese, M.H.; Peterkin, R.E.; Payne, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    Two dimensional single fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the effects of the Hall electric field on magnetic field transport in plasma opening switches of the type used on Gamble I. The Hall terms were included in the magnetic field transport equation in the two dimensional simulation code MACH2 through the use of a generalized Ohm's law. Calculations show the Hall terms augment the field transport previously observed to occur through ion fluid motion and diffusion. For modest values of microturbulent collision frequency, board current channels were observed . Results also show the magnetic field transport to be affected by the cathode boundary conditions with the Hall terms included. In all cases center of mass motion was slight

  14. Precision of single-engage micro Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recently a novel microscale Hall effect measurement technique has been developed to extract sheet resistance (RS), Hall sheet carrier density (NHS) and Hall mobility (μH) from collinear micro 4-point probe measurements in the vicinity of an insulating boundary [1]. The technique measures in less...... than a minute directly the local transport properties, which enables in-line production monitoring on scribe line test pads [2]. To increase measurement speed and reliability, a method in which 4-point measurements are performed using two different electrode pitches has been developed [3......]. In this study we calculate the measurement error on RS, NHS and μH resulting from electrode position errors, probe placement, sample size and Hall signal magnitude. We show the relationship between measurement precision and electrode pitch, which is important when down-scaling the micro 4-point probe to fit...

  15. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  16. The quantum Hall's effect: A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect. The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained. The Hall's voltage, V H = 2πħ 2 n s /em, where n s is the electron number density, for a 2-dimensional system, and h = 2πħ is the Planck's constant, is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor. Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance. Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached. At a fundamental level, the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with L H = 2π m/e 2 n s and C H = me 2 /2πħ 2 n s satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time, τ s . The Hall's resistance is found to be R H = √L H /C H . The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimensional gas. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Signatures of lattice geometry in quantum and topological Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Mertig, Ingrid; Henk, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons in skyrmion crystals (SkXs) is strongly related to the quantum Hall effect (QHE) on lattices. This relation suggests to revisit the QHE because its Hall conductivity can be unconventionally quantized. It exhibits a jump and changes sign abruptly if the Fermi level crosses a van Hove singularity. In this Paper, we investigate the unconventional QHE features by discussing band structures, Hall conductivities, and topological edge states for square and triangular lattices; their origin are Chern numbers of bands in the SkX (THE) or of the corresponding Landau levels (QHE). Striking features in the energy dependence of the Hall conductivities are traced back to the band structure without magnetic field whose properties are dictated by the lattice geometry. Based on these findings, we derive an approximation that allows us to determine the energy dependence of the topological Hall conductivity on any two-dimensional lattice. The validity of this approximation is proven for the honeycomb lattice. We conclude that SkXs lend themselves for experiments to validate our findings for the THE and—indirectly—the QHE. (paper)

  18. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamitsu, A.; Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and calcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by rigorous unified theory assuming both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  19. Anomalous Hall effect and Nernst effect in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, T.; Abe, N.; Fujii, T.; Asamitsu, A.; Onose, Y.; Onoda, S.; Nagaosa, N.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) in many ferromagnetic metals including pure metals, oxides, and chalcogenides, are studied to obtain unified understandings of their origins. We show the universal behavior of anomalous Hall conductivity σ xy as a function of longitudinal conductivity σ xx over six orders of magnitude, which is well reproduced by a recent theory assuming both the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the AHE. ANE is closely related with AHE and gives us further information about the electronic state in the ground state of ferromagnets. The temperature dependence of transverse Peltier coefficient α xy shows almost similar behavior among various ferromagnets, and this behavior is expected from a conventional Boltzmann transport theory

  20. DISK FORMATION IN MAGNETIZED CLOUDS ENABLED BY THE HALL EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. A dynamically important magnetic field presents a significant obstacle to the formation of protostellar disks. Recent studies have shown that magnetic braking is strong enough to suppress the formation of rotationally supported disks in the ideal MHD limit. Whether non-ideal MHD effects can enable disk formation remains unsettled. We carry out a first study on how disk formation in magnetic clouds is modified by the Hall effect, the least explored of the three non-ideal MHD effects in star formation (the other two being ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation). For illustrative purposes, we consider a simplified problem of a non-self-gravitating, magnetized envelope collapsing onto a central protostar of fixed mass. We find that the Hall effect can spin up the inner part of the collapsing flow to Keplerian speed, producing a rotationally supported disk. The disk is generated through a Hall-induced magnetic torque. Disk formation occurs even when the envelope is initially non-rotating, provided that the Hall coefficient is large enough. When the magnetic field orientation is flipped, the direction of disk rotation is reversed as well. The implication is that the Hall effect can in principle produce both regularly rotating and counter-rotating disks around protostars. The Hall coefficient expected in dense cores is about one order of magnitude smaller than that needed for efficient spin-up in these models. We conclude that the Hall effect is an important factor to consider in studying the angular momentum evolution of magnetized star formation in general and disk formation in particular.

  1. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-05-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  2. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  3. Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Hasebe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.

  4. Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2015-07-16

    We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.

  5. Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Otani, Y.; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.

  6. Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous effects of rotation and Hall current on the hydromagnetic flow past an accelerated horizontal plate relative to a rotating fluid is presented. It is found that for given values of m (Hall parameter, M (Hartmann number and an imposed rotation parameter Ω satisfying Ω = M 2m/(1 + m2, the transverse motion (transverse to the main flow disappears and the fluid moves in the direction of the plate only. The effects of the parameters m, M and Ω on the axial and transverse velocity profiles are shown graphically, whereas the effects of the parameters on the skin-friction components are shown by tabular values.

  7. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  8. Quantum Hall effect on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero Prieto, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We study the family of Landau Hamiltonians compatible with a magnetic field on a Riemann surface S by means of Fourier-Mukai and Nahm transforms. Starting from the geometric formulation of adiabatic charge transport on Riemann surfaces, we prove that Hall conductivity is proportional to the intersection product on the first homology group of S and therefore it is quantized. Finally, by using the theory of determinant bundles developed by Bismut, Gillet and Soul, we compute the adiabatic curvature of the spectral bundles defined by the holomorphic Landau levels. We prove that it is given by the polarization of the jacobian variety of the Riemann surface, plus a term depending on the relative analytic torsion.

  9. OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco

    2015-06-26

    Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltukov, Y M; Greshnov, A A

    2014-01-01

    It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given

  11. Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FENKLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively

  12. Complex scattering dynamics and the quantum Hall effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    We review both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of dynamically bound states. Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances in place of the classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide a quantitative explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage as seen by Kawaji et al., and possibly for noise effects

  13. Hall measurements and grain-size effects in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rose, A.; Maruska, H.P.; Eustace, D.J.; Feng, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of grain size on Hall measurements in polycrystalline silicon are analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using the model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge regions. For materials with large grain sizes, the carrier concentration is independent of the intergrain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small grains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistent with experimental results of mm-size Wacker and μm-size neutron-transmutation-doped polycrystalline silicon

  14. Theory of the quantized Hall effect. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, H.; Pruisken, A.M.M.; Libby, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the previous paper, we have demonstrated the need for a phase transition as a function of theta in the non-liner sigma-model describing the quantized Hall effect. In this work, we present arguments for the occurrence of exactly such a transition. We make use of a dilute gas instanton approximation as well as present a more rigorous duality argument to show that the usual scaling of the conductivity to zero at large distances is altered whenever sigmasub(xy)sup((0)) approx.= 1/2ne 2 /h, n integer. This then completes our theory of the quantized Hall effect. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of the Hall effect in semiconductors at supersonic frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putyato, I.V.; Sukhanov, S.; Lezhnev, N.B.

    1978-01-01

    A new method of measuring the Hall effect in variable magnetic fields at super-high frequencies using slotted line is proposed. The method is applied to the measurement of the Hall effect in n-InSb samples. It is shown that the level of output signal of samples reduces with the increasing the charge carrier concentration and with decreasing the mobility. But the range of quadratic part of the dependence of the output signal power on the control current increases. It is stated that the output signal of samples does not depend on the magnetic field frequency in the range of 4-7.3 GHz

  16. Measurement of the Hall effect in semiconductors at supersonic frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putyato, I V; Sukhanov, S; Lezhnev, N B [AN Tadzhikskoj SSR, Khorog. Pamirskij Biologicheskij Inst.

    1978-01-01

    A new method of measuring the Hall effect in variable magnetic fields at super-high frequencies using slotted line is proposed. The method is applied to the measurement of the Hall effect in n-InSb samples. It is shown that the level of output signal of samples reduces with the increasing the charge carrier concentration and with decreasing the mobility. But the range of quadratic part of the dependence of the output signal power on the control current increases. It is stated that the output signal of samples does not depend on the magnetic field frequency in the range of 4-7.3 GHz.

  17. Complex dynamics of the integer quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.; Nicopoulos, V.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL

    1991-01-01

    We investigate both classical and quantum potential scattering in two dimensions in a magnetic field, with applications to the integer quantum Hall effect. Classical scattering is complex, due in one case to the approach of scattering states to an infinite number of bound states. We show that bound states are generic, and occur for all but extremely smooth scattering potentials (|rvec ∇| → 0). Quantum scattering follows the classical behavior rather closely, exhibiting sharp resonances rather than classical bound states. Extended scatterers provide an explanation for the breakdown of the QHE at a comparatively small Hall voltage. 16 refs., 14 figs

  18. Effect of Anode Dielectric Coating on Hall Thruster Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, L.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.; Semenov, V.

    2003-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon observed in the near-anode region of a Hall thruster is that the anode fall changes from positive to negative upon removal of the dielectric coating, which is produced on the anode surface during the normal course of Hall thruster operation. The anode fall might affect the thruster lifetime and acceleration efficiency. The effect of the anode coating on the anode fall is studied experimentally using both biased and emissive probes. Measurements of discharge current oscillations indicate that thruster operation is more stable with the coated anode

  19. The quantum anomalous Hall effect on a star lattice with spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mengsu; Wan Shaolong

    2012-01-01

    We study a star lattice with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field and find that there is a quantum anomalous Hall effect in this system, and that there are five energy gaps at Dirac points and quadratic band crossing points. We calculate the Berry curvature distribution and obtain the Hall conductivity (Chern number ν) quantized as integers, and find that ν =- 1,2,1,1,2 when the Fermi level lies in these five gaps. Our model can be viewed as a general quantum anomalous Hall system and, in limit cases, can give what the honeycomb lattice and kagome lattice give. We also find that there is a nearly flat band with ν = 1 which may provide an opportunity for realizing the fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect. Finally, the chiral edge states on a zigzag star lattice are given numerically, to confirm the topological property of this system. (paper)

  20. The integer quantum hall effect revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hastings, Matthew [Q STATION, CALIFORNIA

    2009-01-01

    For T - L x L a finite subset of Z{sup 2}, let H{sub o} denote a Hamiltonian on T with periodic boundary conditions and finite range, finite strength intetactions and a unique ground state with a nonvanishing spectral gap. For S {element_of} T, let q{sub s} denote the charge at site s and assume that the total charge Q = {Sigma}{sub s {element_of} T} q{sub s} is conserved. Using the local charge operators q{sub s}, we introduce a boundary magnetic flux in the horizontal and vertical direction and allow the ground state to evolve quasiadiabatically around a square of size one magnetic flux, in flux space. At the end of the evolution we obtain a trivial Berry phase, which we compare, via a method reminiscent of Stokes Theorem. to the Berry phase obtained from an evolution around an exponentially small loop near the origin. As a result, we show, without any averaging assumption, that the Hall conductance is quantized in integer multiples of e{sup 2}/h up to exponentially small corrections of order e{sup -L/{zeta}}, where {zeta}, is a correlation length that depends only on the gap and the range and strength of the interactions.

  1. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  2. Micro-four-point Probe Hall effect Measurement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    barriers and with a magnetic field applied normal to the plane of the sheet. Based on this potential, analytical expressions for the measured four-point resistance in presence of a magnetic field are derived for several simple sample geometries. We show how the sheet resistance and Hall effect...

  3. Magnetic microbead detection using the planar Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejsing, Louise; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Menon, Aric K.; Ferreira, Hugo A.; Graham, Daniel L.; Freitas, Paulo P.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic sensors based on the planar Hall effect of exchanged-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. It is demonstrated that the sensors are feasible for detecting just a few commercial 2.0 μm magnetic beads commonly used for bioseparation (Micromer-M, Micromod, Germany) and that the sensor sense current is sufficient to generate a signal from the beads

  4. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 37; Issue 3. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on Thermal Instability of Radiative Plasma for Star Formation in Interstellar Medium (ISM). Sachin Kaothekar. Research Article Volume 37 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 23 ...

  5. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a kn...

  6. Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 muV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 ...

  7. The infrared Hall effect in YBCO: Temperature and frequency dependence of Hall scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, M.; Cerne, J.; Drew, H.D.; Schmadel, D.C.; Hughes, R.; Preston, J.S.; Kung, P.J.; Vale, L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors measure the Hall angle, θ H , in YBCO films in the far- and mid-infrared to determine the temperature and frequency dependence of the Hall scattering. Using novel modulation techniques they measure both the Faraday rotation and ellipticity induced by these films in high magnetic fields to deduce the complex conductivity tensor. They observe a strong temperature dependence of the mid-infrared Hall conductivity in sharp contrast to the weak dependence of the longitudinal conductivity. By fitting the frequency dependent normal state Hall angle to a Lorentzian θ H (ω) = ω H /(γ H minus iω) they find the Hall frequency, ω H , is nearly independent of temperature. The Hall scattering rate, γ H , is consistent with γ H ∼ T 2 up to 200 K and is remarkably independent of IR frequency suggesting non-Fermi liquid behavior

  8. Comparison of nuclear electric resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance in integer and fractional quantum Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimatsu, Toru; Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs

  9. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  10. Theory of anomalous Hall effect in europium chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkkonen, J.

    1976-04-01

    Considering the exchange interaction between the conduction electrons in a broad 5d-type band and the magnetic electrons in the localized 4f-shells, it is shown that in addition to the ordinary d-f exchange diagonal in band index, there is also a non-diagonal interaction representing a one particle transfer between the conduction and magnetic electrons. Including the spin-orbit coupling, an effective Hamiltonian for the conductionelectrons is obtained, which contains additional asymmetric scattering terms. The ordinary d-f exchange is treated as the dominating scattering interaction. The anomatous Hall effect results by skew scattering and side jump mechanisms. The density matrix method is used to derive the transport properties. The effect of the correlation of spins at different lattice sites is discussed. The model indicates that the anomatous Hall effect can be seen in heavily doped samples. (author)

  11. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address

  12. Effect of quantum tunneling on spin Hall magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seulgi; Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk

    2017-02-22

    We present a formalism that simultaneously incorporates the effect of quantum tunneling and spin diffusion on the spin Hall magnetoresistance observed in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator bilayers (such as Pt/Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) and normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayers (such as Pt/Co), in which the angle of magnetization influences the magnetoresistance of the normal metal. In the normal metal side the spin diffusion is known to affect the landscape of the spin accumulation caused by spin Hall effect and subsequently the magnetoresistance, while on the ferromagnet side the quantum tunneling effect is detrimental to the interface spin current which also affects the spin accumulation. The influence of generic material properties such as spin diffusion length, layer thickness, interface coupling, and insulating gap can be quantified in a unified manner, and experiments that reveal the quantum feature of the magnetoresistance are suggested.

  13. Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Malakeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.

  14. Spin disorder effect in anomalous Hall effect in MnGa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, A. P. A.; Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    We report on resistivity and Hall effect in MnGa thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. Highly (1 1 1)-textured MnGa film with L10 structure exhibits hard magnetic properties with coercivities as high as 20 kOe and spin disorder mechanisms contributing to the Hall conductivity at room temperature. Density functional theory calculations were performed to determine the intrinsic Berry curvature in the momentum space with chiral spin structure that results in an anomalous Hall conductivity of 127 (Ωcm)-1 comparable to that measured at low temperature. In addition to residual and side-jump contributions, which are enhanced by thermal activation, both anomalous Hall conductivity and Hall angle increase between 100 K and room temperature. The present results reinforce the potential of Mn-Ga system for developing Hall effect-based spintronic devices.

  15. Unusual Thermal Hall Effect in a Kitaev Spin Liquid Candidate α -RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Sugii, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Shimozawa, M.; Yamashita, M.; Kurita, N.; Tanaka, H.; Nasu, J.; Motome, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The Kitaev quantum spin liquid displays the fractionalization of quantum spins into Majorana fermions. The emergent Majorana edge current is predicted to manifest itself in the form of a finite thermal Hall effect, a feature commonly discussed in topological superconductors. Here we report on thermal Hall conductivity κx y measurements in α -RuCl3 , a candidate Kitaev magnet with the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In a spin-liquid (Kitaev paramagnetic) state below the temperature characterized by the Kitaev interaction JK/kB˜80 K , positive κx y develops gradually upon cooling, demonstrating the presence of highly unusual itinerant excitations. Although the zero-temperature property is masked by the magnetic ordering at TN=7 K , the sign, magnitude, and T dependence of κx y/T at intermediate temperatures follows the predicted trend of the itinerant Majorana excitations.

  16. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  17. Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Segal, Amir [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Markovich, Gil, E-mail: gilmar@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Gerber, Alexander, E-mail: gerber@post.tau.ac.il [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field. - Highlights: • Ni nanoparticle ink capable of forming conductive films on drying. • The Ni nanoparticle films exhibit significant extraordinary Hall effect. • This system could be used for preparing printed magnetic field sensors integrated in 3D printed structures.

  18. Edge states in quantum Hall effect in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miransky, V.A.; Sharapov, S.G.; Shovkovy, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results concerning the spectrum of edge states in the quantum Hall effect in graphene. In particular, special attention is paid to the derivation of the conditions under which gapless edge states exist in the spectrum of graphene with 'zigzag' and 'armchair' edges. It is found that in the case of a half-plane or a ribbon with zigzag edges, there are gapless edge states only when a spin gap dominates over a Dirac mass gap. In the case of a half-plane with an armchair edge, the existence of the gapless edge states depends on the specific type of Dirac mass gaps. The implications of these results for the dynamics in the quantum Hall effect in graphene are discussed

  19. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1966-11-15

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = {mu}{rho}/{sigma} x curlV and V -{mu}/({sigma}{mu}{sub 0}) x curlB (MKS units) where {rho}, {sigma} and {mu} denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given.

  20. Zero field Quantum Hall Effect in QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raya, K; Sánchez-Madrigal, S; Raya, A

    2013-01-01

    We study analytic structure of the fermion propagator in the Quantum Electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions (QED3) in the Landau gauge, both in perturbation theory and nonperturbatively, by solving the corresponding Schwinger-Dyson equation in rainbow approximation. In the chiral limit, we found many nodal solutions, which could be interpreted as vacuum excitations. Armed with these solutions, we use the Kubo formula and calculate the filling factor for the zero field Quantum Hall Effect

  1. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1966-11-01

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = μρ/σ x curlV and V -μ/(σμ 0 ) x curlB (MKS units) where ρ, σ and μ denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given

  2. Outline of a theory of the two-dimensional hall effect in the quantum limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosatti, E. (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia); Parrinello, M. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Trieste (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia)

    1983-03-05

    The ground state of two-dimensional electrons of density N/L/sup 2/ in a strong transverse magnetic field B is discussed in terms of localized magnetic functions. For all ''commensurate'' fractional fillings of the n=0 Landau level, occurring at Bsub(st)=(s/sup 2/+t/sup 2/+st)2..pi..(h/2..pi..)cN/eL/sup 2/, with s, t integers, it is found that the ground state is a triangular lattice. This lattice has unusual properties, because it is tied to the magnetic functions. In particular, it has a finite Hall conductivity sigmasub(xy)=e/sup 2//2..pi..(h/2..pi..)(s/sup 2/+t/sup 2/+st) and it also exhibits perfect diamagnetism relative to Bsub(st). It does, however, display no proper Meissner effect, because the London depth is macroscopically large. The excess field B-Bsub(st) gives rise instead to defects in the lattice, where the extra electrons (holes) become ''interstitials'' (''vacancies''). If the defects are free to move, the Hall conductivity will not stay quantized. On the other hand, if all defects are pinned by inhomogeneities, Hall plateaux are expected around each Bsub(st). This picture, while providing a natural explanation for the quantized Hall effect at both integer and fractional filling, leads to a simple understanding of the plateau width vs. temperature and simple quality, and can also explain, at finite temperatures, the behaviour of the longitudinal conductivity sigmasub(yy) and its observed asymmetry for integer filling.

  3. Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsev, V; Polkovnikov, A

    2012-04-24

    Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect.

  4. Fast micro Hall effect measurements on small pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Nielsen, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Sheet resistance, carrier mobility, and sheet carrier density are important parameters in semiconductor production, and it is therefore important to be able to rapidly and accurately measure these parameters even on small samples or pads. The interpretation of four-point probe measurements on small...... pads is non-trivial. In this paper we discuss how conformal mapping can be used to evaluate theoretically expected measurement values on small pads. Theoretical values calculated from analytical mappings of simple geometries are compared to the values found from the numerical conformal mapping...... of a square onto the infinite half-plane, where well-established solutions are known. Hall effect measurements are performed to show, experimentally, that it is possible to measure Hall mobility in less than one minute on squares as small as 7070 lm2 with a deviation of 66.5% on a 1r level from accurate...

  5. Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, C., E-mail: carlos.hernandezr@unimilitar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 # 101-80, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb L2C, Université Montpellier II, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-11-15

    In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer–Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.

  6. Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien; Lee, K.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-07-13

    Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  9. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.

    2017-10-23

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  10. Anomalous Hall effect in ZrTe5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tian; Lin, Jingjing; Gibson, Quinn; Kushwaha, Satya; Liu, Minhao; Wang, Wudi; Xiong, Hongyu; Sobota, Jonathan A.; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kirchmann, Patrick S.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cava, R. J.; Ong, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    Research in topological matter has expanded to include the Dirac and Weyl semimetals1-10, which feature three-dimensional Dirac states protected by symmetry. Zirconium pentatelluride has been of recent interest as a potential Dirac or Weyl semimetal material. Here, we report the results of experiments performed by in situ three-dimensional double-axis rotation to extract the full 4π solid angular dependence of the transport properties. A clear anomalous Hall effect is detected in every sample studied, with no magnetic ordering observed in the system to the experimental sensitivity of torque magnetometry. Large anomalous Hall signals develop when the magnetic field is rotated in the plane of the stacked quasi-two-dimensional layers, with the values vanishing above about 60 K, where the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance also disappears. This suggests a close relation in their origins, which we attribute to the Berry curvature generated by the Weyl nodes.

  11. Anomalous Hall effect scaling in ferromagnetic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Grigoryan, Vahram L.; Xiao, Jiang; Wang, Xuhui; Xia, Ke

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scaling law for anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic thin films. Our approach distinguishes multiple scattering sources, namely, bulk impurity, phonon for Hall resistivity, and most importantly the rough surface contribution to longitudinal resistivity. In stark contrast to earlier laws that rely on temperature- and thickness-dependent fitting coefficients, this scaling law fits the recent experimental data excellently with constant parameters that are independent of temperature and film thickness, strongly indicating that this law captures the underlying physical processes. Based on a few data points, this scaling law can even fit all experimental data in full temperature and thickness range. We apply this law to interpret the experimental data for Fe, Co, and Ni and conclude that (i) the phonon-induced skew scattering is unimportant as expected; (ii) contribution from the impurity-induced skew scattering is negative; (iii) the intrinsic (extrinsic) mechanism dominates in Fe (Co), and both the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions are important in Ni.

  12. Hall effect in a strong magnetic field: Direct comparisons of compressible magnetohydrodynamics and the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we numerically test a model of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field: the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic model (RHMHD) derived by [Gomez et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 102303 (2008)] with the addition of weak compressible effects. The main advantage of this model lies in the reduction of computational cost. Nevertheless, up until now the degree of agreement with the original Hall MHD system and the range of validity in a regime of turbulence were not established. In this work direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field are compared with simulations of the weak compressible RHMHD model. The results show that the degree of agreement is very high (when the different assumptions of RHMHD, such as spectral anisotropy, are satisfied). Nevertheless, when the initial conditions are isotropic but the mean magnetic field is maintained strong, the results differ at the beginning but asymptotically reach a good agreement at relatively short times. We also found evidence that the compressibility still plays a role in the dynamics of these systems, and the weak compressible RHMHD model is able to capture these effects. In conclusion the weak compressible RHMHD model is a valid approximation of the Hall MHD turbulence in the relevant physical context.

  13. Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-09-27

    In this paper, we report the results of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The surface scattering effect has been extracted from the total anomalous Hall effect. By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced by rapid thermal annealing modifies not only the magnetization and longitudinal resistivity but also the anomalous Hall effect; a large exponent γ ∼ 5.7 has been attributed to interface scattering-dominated anomalous Hall effect.

  14. Hall effect in the presence of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    A rotating relativistic fermion system is considered. The consideration is based on the Dirac equation written in the laboratory (non-rotating) reference frame. Rotation in this approach gives rise to the effective magnetic and electric fields that act in the same way both on positive and negative electric charges. In the presence of external electric field in the given system the electric current appears orthogonal to both the electric field and the axis of rotation. The possible applications to the physics of quark-gluon plasma are discussed.

  15. ADHM and the 4d quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barns-Graham, Alec; Dorey, Nick; Lohitsiri, Nakarin; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2018-04-01

    Yang-Mills instantons are solitonic particles in d = 4 + 1 dimensional gauge theories. We construct and analyse the quantum Hall states that arise when these particles are restricted to the lowest Landau level. We describe the ground state wavefunctions for both Abelian and non-Abelian quantum Hall states. Although our model is purely bosonic, we show that the excitations of this 4d quantum Hall state are governed by the Nekrasov partition function of a certain five dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory with Chern-Simons term. The partition function can also be interpreted as a variant of the Hilbert series of the instanton moduli space, counting holomorphic sections rather than holomorphic functions. It is known that the Hilbert series of the instanton moduli space can be rewritten using mirror symmetry of 3d gauge theories in terms of Coulomb branch variables. We generalise this approach to include the effect of a five dimensional Chern-Simons term. We demonstrate that the resulting Coulomb branch formula coincides with the corresponding Higgs branch Molien integral which, in turn, reproduces the standard formula for the Nekrasov partition function.

  16. An edge index for the quantum spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Quantum spin-Hall systems are topological insulators displaying dissipationless spin currents flowing at the edges of the samples. In contradistinction to the quantum Hall systems where the charge conductance of the edge modes is quantized, the spin conductance is not and it remained an open problem to find the observable whose edge current is quantized. In this paper, we define a particular observable and the edge current corresponding to this observable. We show that this current is quantized and that the quantization is given by the index of a certain Fredholm operator. This provides a new topological invariant that is shown to take the generic values 0 and 2, in line with the Z 2 topological classification of time-reversal invariant systems. The result gives an effective tool for the investigation of the edge structure in quantum spin-Hall systems. Based on a reasonable assumption, we also show that the edge conducting channels are not destroyed by a random edge. (fast track communication)

  17. Magnetoacoustic Waves and Instabilities in a Hall-Effect-Dominated Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, S

    1970-05-15

    The dispersion equation is studied for small-amplitude plane harmonic waves in a compressible plasma moving perpendicular to a magnetic field with a constant fractional ionization. The modes of propagation are analysed mainly from a qualitative point of view and one of them is shown to be unstable due to the Hall effect. This mode has been previously analysed by other authors in connection with MHD power generators but in a more restricted and isolated sense. The present work not only generalizes and modifies their results on this special mode, but also makes it possible to picture the whole spectrum of propagation modes in a simple and physically intelligible way.

  18. Magnetoresistance in quantum Hall metals due to Pancharatnam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive the trial Hall resistance formula for the quantum Hall metals to address both the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. Within the degenerate (and crossed) Landau levels, and in the presence of changing magnetic field strength, one can invoke two physical processes responsible for the electron ...

  19. Complex scattering dynamics and the integer quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trugman, S.A.; Waugh, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a magnetic field on potential scattering is investigated microscopically. A magnetic field renders the scattering of a classical charged particle far more complex than previously suspected. Consequences include possible 1/f noise and an explanation of the observed breakdown of the quantum Hall effect at large currents. A particular scatterer is described by a discontinuous one dimensional Hamiltonian map, a class of maps that has not previously been studied. A renormalization group analysis indicates that singular behavior arises from the interplay of electron orbits that are periodic and orbits that are quasiperiodic

  20. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  1. A model study of present-day Hall-effect circulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placke, B. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Bosco, S. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); DiVincenzo, D.P. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Quantum Information, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA), Fundamentals of Future Information Technologiesh, Juelich (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute, Theoretical Nanoelectronics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Stimulated by the recent implementation of a three-port Hall-effect microwave circulator of Mahoney et al. (MEA), we present model studies of the performance of this device. Our calculations are based on the capacitive-coupling model of Viola and DiVincenzo (VD). Based on conductance data from a typical Hall-bar device obtained from a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field, we numerically solve the coupled field-circuit equations to calculate the expected performance of the circulator, as determined by the S parameters of the device when coupled to 50Ω ports, as a function of frequency and magnetic field. Above magnetic fields of 1.5 T, for which a typical 2DEG enters the quantum Hall regime (corresponding to a Landau-level filling fraction ν of 20), the Hall angle θ{sub H} = tan{sup -1} σ{sub xy}/σ{sub xx} always remains close to 90 , and the S parameters are close to the analytic predictions of VD for θ{sub H} = π/2. As anticipated by VD, MEA find the device to have rather high (kΩ) impedance, and thus to be extremely mismatched to 50Ω, requiring the use of impedance matching. We incorporate the lumped matching circuits of MEA in our modeling and confirm that they can produce excellent circulation, although confined to a very small bandwidth. We predict that this bandwidth is significantly improved by working at lower magnetic field when the Landau index is high, e.g. ν = 20, and the impedance mismatch is correspondingly less extreme. Our modeling also confirms the observation of MEA that parasitic port-to-port capacitance can produce very interesting countercirculation effects. (orig.)

  2. A model study of present-day Hall-effect circulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placke, B.; Bosco, S.; DiVincenzo, D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulated by the recent implementation of a three-port Hall-effect microwave circulator of Mahoney et al. (MEA), we present model studies of the performance of this device. Our calculations are based on the capacitive-coupling model of Viola and DiVincenzo (VD). Based on conductance data from a typical Hall-bar device obtained from a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a magnetic field, we numerically solve the coupled field-circuit equations to calculate the expected performance of the circulator, as determined by the S parameters of the device when coupled to 50Ω ports, as a function of frequency and magnetic field. Above magnetic fields of 1.5 T, for which a typical 2DEG enters the quantum Hall regime (corresponding to a Landau-level filling fraction ν of 20), the Hall angle θ_H = tan"-"1 σ_x_y/σ_x_x always remains close to 90 , and the S parameters are close to the analytic predictions of VD for θ_H = π/2. As anticipated by VD, MEA find the device to have rather high (kΩ) impedance, and thus to be extremely mismatched to 50Ω, requiring the use of impedance matching. We incorporate the lumped matching circuits of MEA in our modeling and confirm that they can produce excellent circulation, although confined to a very small bandwidth. We predict that this bandwidth is significantly improved by working at lower magnetic field when the Landau index is high, e.g. ν = 20, and the impedance mismatch is correspondingly less extreme. Our modeling also confirms the observation of MEA that parasitic port-to-port capacitance can produce very interesting countercirculation effects. (orig.)

  3. Spin-injection Hall effect in a planar photovoltaic cell

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Irvine, A.C.; Sinova, J.; Park, B.G.; Zarbo, L.P.; Xu, X.L.; Kaestner, B.; Novák, Vít; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2009), s. 675-681 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA ČR GEFON/06/E001 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : extraordinary Hall effects * spintronics * photvoltaics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 15.491, year: 2009

  4. Fractional quantum Hall systems near nematicity: Bimetric theory, composite fermions, and Dirac brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dung Xuan; Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh

    2018-05-01

    We perform a detailed comparison of the Dirac composite fermion and the recently proposed bimetric theory for a quantum Hall Jain states near half filling. By tuning the composite Fermi liquid to the vicinity of a nematic phase transition, we find that the two theories are equivalent to each other. We verify that the single mode approximation for the response functions and the static structure factor becomes reliable near the phase transition. We show that the dispersion relation of the nematic mode near the phase transition can be obtained from the Dirac brackets between the components of the nematic order parameter. The dispersion is quadratic at low momenta and has a magnetoroton minimum at a finite momentum, which is not related to any nearby inhomogeneous phase.

  5. Hall-effect-controlled gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. I. Wind solutions at the inner disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is largely controlled by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Among these the role of the Hall effect is the least explored and most poorly understood. In this series, we have included, for the first time, all three non-ideal MHD effects in a self-consistent manner to investigate the role of the Hall effect on PPD gas dynamics using local shearing-box simulations. In this first paper, we focus on the inner region of PPDs, where previous studies (Bai and Stone 2013; Bai 2013) excluding the Hall effect have revealed that the inner disk up to ∼10 AU is largely laminar, with accretion driven by a magnetocentrifugal wind. We confirm this basic picture and show that the Hall effect modifies the wind solutions depending on the polarity of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B 0 threading the disk. When B 0 ⋅Ω>0, the horizontal magnetic field is strongly amplified toward the disk interior, leading to a stronger disk wind (by ∼50% or less in terms of the wind-driven accretion rate). The enhanced horizontal field also leads to much stronger large-scale Maxwell stress (magnetic braking) that contributes to a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. When B 0 ⋅Ω<0, the horizontal magnetic field is reduced, leading to a weaker disk wind (by ≲ 20%) and negligible magnetic braking. Under fiducial parameters, we find that when B 0 ⋅Ω>0, the laminar region extends farther to ∼10-15 AU before the magnetorotational instability sets in, while for B 0 ⋅Ω<0, the laminar region extends only to ∼3-5 AU for a typical accretion rate of ∼10 –8 to10 –7 M ☉ yr –1 . Scaling relations for the wind properties, especially the wind-driven accretion rate, are provided for aligned and anti-aligned field geometries.

  6. Hall-effect-controlled gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks. I. Wind solutions at the inner disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    The gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is largely controlled by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Among these the role of the Hall effect is the least explored and most poorly understood. In this series, we have included, for the first time, all three non-ideal MHD effects in a self-consistent manner to investigate the role of the Hall effect on PPD gas dynamics using local shearing-box simulations. In this first paper, we focus on the inner region of PPDs, where previous studies (Bai and Stone 2013; Bai 2013) excluding the Hall effect have revealed that the inner disk up to ∼10 AU is largely laminar, with accretion driven by a magnetocentrifugal wind. We confirm this basic picture and show that the Hall effect modifies the wind solutions depending on the polarity of the large-scale poloidal magnetic field B{sub 0} threading the disk. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the horizontal magnetic field is strongly amplified toward the disk interior, leading to a stronger disk wind (by ∼50% or less in terms of the wind-driven accretion rate). The enhanced horizontal field also leads to much stronger large-scale Maxwell stress (magnetic braking) that contributes to a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. When B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the horizontal magnetic field is reduced, leading to a weaker disk wind (by ≲ 20%) and negligible magnetic braking. Under fiducial parameters, we find that when B{sub 0}⋅Ω>0, the laminar region extends farther to ∼10-15 AU before the magnetorotational instability sets in, while for B{sub 0}⋅Ω<0, the laminar region extends only to ∼3-5 AU for a typical accretion rate of ∼10{sup –8} to10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Scaling relations for the wind properties, especially the wind-driven accretion rate, are provided for aligned and anti-aligned field geometries.

  7. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Q.; Li, P.; Wen, Yan; Zhao, C.; Zhang, Junwei; Manchon, Aurelien; Mi, W. B.; Peng, Y.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/Au(12/n)nm)n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10–310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) can be roughly described by ρAHE∼ργxx with γ=2.65±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n=1 to n=4 and samples from n=4 to n=12, respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.

  8. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Q.

    2016-07-22

    To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/Au(12/n)nm)n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples\\' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10–310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) can be roughly described by ρAHE∼ργxx with γ=2.65±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n=1 to n=4 and samples from n=4 to n=12, respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.

  9. Hall effect of K-doped superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Eunseon; Lee, Nam Hoon; Kang, Won Nam [Dept. of physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Tae Jong; Kim, Dong Ho [Dept. of physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We have studied Hall effect for potassium (K)-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}superconducting thin films by analyzing the relation between the longitudinal resistivity (ρ{sub xy}) and the Hall resistivity (ρ{sub xy}). The thin films used in this study were fabricated on Al{sub O3} (000l) substrates by using an ex-situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique under a high-vacuum condition of ∼10{sup -6} Torr. The samples showed the high superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub C}) of ∼40 K. The ρ{sub xx} and ρ{sub xy}the for K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films were measured by using a physical property measurement system (PPMS) with a temperature sweep (T-sweep) mode at an applied current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} and at magnetic fields from 0 up to 9 T. We report the T-sweep results of the ρ{sub xx} and the ρ{sub xy} to investigate Hall scaling behavior on the basis of the relation of ρ{sub xy} = A(ρ{sub xy}){sup β}. The ρ{sub xx} values are 3.0 ± 0.2 in the c-axis-oriented K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films, whereas the thin films with various oriented-directions like a polycrystal showed slightly lower β than that of c-axis-oriented thin films. Interestingly, the β value is decreased with increasing magnetic fields.

  10. Extreme Soft Limit Observation of Quantum Hall Effect in a 3-d Semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiweiss, Michael; Yin, Ming; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Preston, Harry; Datta, Timir

    2004-03-01

    We report on the evidence for quantum hall effect at 38K and in magnetic fields (B) as low as 1k-Orsted. Our specimens were semiconducting, carbon replica opal (CRO) structures. CRO are three dimensional bulk systems where the carbon is grown by CVD into the porous regions in artificial silica opals. The carbon forms layers on top of the silica spheres as eggshells. The shells are of uneven thickness and are perforated at the contacts points of the opal spheres and form a closed packed, three dimensional crystal structure. Plateaus in inverse R_xy that are conjugated with well-defined Subnikov-deHass modulations in R_xx were observed. The quantum steps that are particularly prominent were the states with fill factors v = p/q (p,q are integers) were the well know fractions, 1/3, 1/2, 3/5, 1 and 5/2. QHE steps indicate that the carriers are localized in two-dimensional regions, which may be due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio associated with replica opal structure. From the B-1 vs v straight line, the effective surface carrier density, ns = 2.2 x 10^14 m-2. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first to report fractional quantum hall plateaus in a bulk system.

  11. Effect of hall currents on thermal instability of dusty couple stress fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Amrish Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, effect of Hall currents on the thermal instability of couple-stress fluid permeated with dust particles has been considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, dust particles and Hall currents are found to have destabilizing effect while couple stresses have stabilizing effect on the system. Magnetic field induced by Hall currents has stabilizing/destabilizing effect under certain conditions. It is found that due to the presence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field, oscillatory modes are produced which were non-existent in their absence.

  12. Resistivity and Hall effect in Y9Co7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Datars, W.R.; Kozlowski, G.; Woods, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the resistivity and Hall effect of Y 9 Co 7 has been measured from room temperature to 1.6 K. The saturation of the resistivity at high temperature is similar to that of A15 compounds and can be interpreted in terms of a localised phonon mode formation as shown by Yu and Anderson for A15 compounds. A T 2 -dependence of the resistivity is observed for temperatures below approx.= 25 K. A similar T 2 -dependence at low temperatures is always observed in A15 compounds as well and is not fully understood. However, a T 2 -dependence below 10 K does not seem to be due to itinerant ferromagnetism in Y 9 Co 7 as concluded recently by Kolodziejczyk and Spalek. The observation of a peak at approx.= 25 K in the Hall coefficient suggests a spin glass type of freezing at low temperatures which possibly can account for the T 2 -dependence of the resistivity below approx.= 10 K. (author)

  13. Hall effect measurements on proton-irradiated ROSE samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Borchi, E.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk samples obtained from two wafers of a silicon monocrystal material produced by Float-Zone refinement have been analyzed using the four-point probe method. One of the wafers comes from an oxygenated ingot; two sets of pure and oxygenated samples have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the fluence range from 10 13 p/cm 2 to 2x10 14 p/cm 2 . Van der Pauw resistivity and Hall coefficient have been measured before and after irradiation as a function of the temperature. A thermal treatment (30 minutes at 100C) has been performed to accelerate the reverse annealing effect in the irradiated silicon. The irradiated samples show the same exponential dependence of the resistivity and of the Hall coefficient on the temperature from 370K to 100K, corresponding to the presence of radiation-induced deep energy levels around 0.6-0.7eV in the silicon gap. The free carrier concentrations (n, p) have been evaluated in the investigated fluence range. The inversion of the conductivity type from n to p occurred respectively at 7x10 13 p/cm 2 and at 4x10 13 p/cm 2 before and after the annealing treatment, for both the two sets. Only slight differences have been detected between the pure and oxygenated samples

  14. Gap Structure and Gapless Structure in Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosuke Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-order composite fermion states are correlated with many quasiparticles. The energy calculations are very complicated. We develop the theory of Tao and Thouless to explain them. The total Hamiltonian is (+, where includes Landau energies and classical Coulomb energies. We find the most uniform electron configuration in Landau states which has the minimum energy of . At =(2−1/(2, all the nearest electron pairs are forbidden to transfer to any empty states because of momentum conservation. Therefore, perturbation energies of the nearest electron pairs are zero in all order of perturbation. At =/(2−1, /(2+1, all the nearest electron (or hole pairs can transfer to all hole (or electron states. At =4/11, 4/13, 5/13, 5/17, 6/17, only the specific nearest hole pairs can transfer to all electron states. For example, the nearest-hole-pair energy at =4/11 is lower than the limiting energies from both sides (the left side =(4+1/(11+3 and the right side =(4−1/(11−3 for infinitely large . Thus, the nearest-hole-pair energy at specific is different from the limiting values from both sides. The property yields energy gap for the specific . Also gapless structure appears at other filling factors (e.g., at =1/2.

  15. On the ground state for fractional quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellal, A.

    1998-09-01

    In the present letter, we investigate the ground state wave function for an explicit model of electrons in an external magnetic field with specific inter-particle interactions. The excitation states of this model are also given. (author)

  16. Optical probing of quantum Hall effect of composite fermions and of the liquid-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossella, F; Bellani, V; Dionigi, F; Amado, M; Diez, E; Kowalik, K; Biasiol, G; Sorba, L

    2011-01-01

    In the photoluminescence spectra of a two-dimensional electron gas in the fractional quantum Hall regime we observe the states at filling factors ν = 4/5, 5/7, 4/11 and 3/8 as clear minima in the intensity or area emission peak. The first three states are described as interacting composite fermions in fractional quantum Hall regime. The minimum in the intensity at ν 3/8, which is not explained within this picture, can be an evidence of a suppression of the screening of the Coulomb interaction among the effective quasi-particles involved in this intriguing state. The magnetic field energy dispersion at very low temperatures is also discussed. At low field the emission follows a Landau dispersion with a screened magneto-Coulomb contribution. At intermediate fields the hidden symmetry manifests. At high field above ν = 1/3 the electrons correlate into an insulating phase, and the optical emission behaviour at the liquid-insulator transition is coherent with a charge ordering driven by Coulomb correlations.

  17. Planar Hall effect sensor with magnetostatic compensation layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    Demagnetization effects in cross-shaped planar Hall effect sensors cause inhomogeneous film magnetization and a hysteretic sensor response. Furthermore, when using sensors for detection of magnetic beads, the magnetostatic field from the sensor edges attracts and holds magnetic beads near...... the sensor edges causing inhomogeneous and non-specific binding of the beads. We show theoretically that adding a compensation magnetic stack beneath the sensor stack and exchange-biasing it antiparallel to the sensor stack, the magnetostatic field is minimized. We show experimentally that the compensation...... stack removes nonlinear effects from the sensor response, it strongly reduces hysteresis, and it increases the homogeneity of the bead distribution. Finally, it reduces the non-specific binding due to magnetostatic fields allowing us to completely remove beads from the compensated sensor using a water...

  18. Quantum Hall effect and hopping conductivity in n-InGaAs/InAlAs nanoheterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudina, S. V., E-mail: svpopova@imp.uran.ru; Arapov, Yu. G.; Saveliev, A. P.; Neverov, V. N.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Vinichenko, A. N. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The longitudinal and Hall magnetoresistances are measured in the quantum Hall effect regime in the n-InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures at temperatures of T = (1.8–30) K in magnetic fields up to B = 9 T. Temperature-induced transport in the region of the longitudinal resistance minima, corresponding to the plateau regions at Hall resistance, is investigated within the framework of the concept of hopping conductivity in a strongly localized electron system. The analysis of variable-range hopping conductivity in the region of the second, third, and fourth plateau of the quantum Hall effect provides the possibility of determining the localization length exponent.

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin Hall effects of Dirac electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/n i u, where 2Δ is the band gap, n i is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential. (author)

  20. Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve

    2006-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field

  1. Spin Hall and Nernst effects of Weyl magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A.; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of a three-dimensional insulating magnetic structure which represents a magnonic analog of the layered electronic system described by A. A. Burkov and L. Balents [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 127205 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.127205]. In particular, our model realizes Weyl magnons as well as surface states with a Dirac spectrum. In this model, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is responsible for the separation of opposite Weyl points in momentum space. We calculate the intrinsic (due to the Berry curvature) transport properties of Weyl and so-called anomalous Hall effect magnons. The results are compared with fermionic analogs.

  2. Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.

  3. Quantum Hall effects recent theoretical and experimental developments

    CERN Document Server

    Ezawa, Zyun Francis

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm for research on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is unbounded. The QHE is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in all branches of physics. Tremendous theoretical and experimental developments are still being made in this sphere. Composite bosons, composite fermions and anyons were among distinguishing ideas in the original edition. In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role. In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experime...

  4. Experimental Verification of the Hall Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ren; Masaaki Yamada; Stefan Gerhardt; Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn

    2005-01-01

    In this letter we report a clear and unambiguous observation of the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field suggested by numerical simulations in the reconnecting current sheet in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). Measurements show that the Hall effect is large in collisionless regime and becomes small as the collisionality increases, indicating that the Hall effect plays an important role in collisionless reconnection

  5. Environmental induced renormalization effects in quantum Hall edge states due to 1/f noise and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, A; Ferraro, D; Sassetti, M; Carrega, M; Magnoli, N

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general mechanism for the renormalization of the tunnelling exponents in edge states of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Mutual effects of the coupling with out-of-equilibrium 1/f noise and dissipation are considered for both the Laughlin sequence and the composite co- and counter-propagating edge states with Abelian or non-Abelian statistics. For states with counter-propagating modes, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed mechanism in the so-called disorder-dominated phase. Prototypes of these states, such as ν = 2/3 and ν = 5/2, are discussed in detail, and the rich phenomenology induced by the presence of a noisy environment is presented. The proposed mechanism could help justify the strong renormalizations reported in many experimental observations carried out at low temperatures. We show how environmental effects could affect the relevance of the tunnelling excitations, leading to important implications, in particular for the ν = 5/2 case. (paper)

  6. Observation of Spin Hall Effect in Photon Tunneling via Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-01-01

    Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications. PMID:25487043

  7. Observation of spin Hall effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Zhiyou; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2014-12-09

    Photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) manifesting itself as spin-dependent splitting escapes detection in previous photon tunneling experiments due to the fact that the induced beam centroid shift is restricted to a fraction of wavelength. In this work, we report on the first observation of this tiny effect in photon tunneling via weak measurements based on preselection and postselection technique on the spin states. We find that the spin-dependent splitting is even larger than the potential barrier thickness when spin-polarized photons tunneling through a potential barrier. This photonic SHE is attributed to spin-redirection Berry phase which can be described as a consequence of the spin-orbit coupling. These findings provide new insight into photon tunneling effect and thereby offer the possibility of developing spin-based nanophotonic applications.

  8. Higher dimensional quantum Hall effect as A-class topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, Kazuki, E-mail: khasebe@stanford.edu

    2014-09-15

    We perform a detail study of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects and A-class topological insulators with emphasis on their relations to non-commutative geometry. There are two different formulations of non-commutative geometry for higher dimensional fuzzy spheres: the ordinary commutator formulation and quantum Nambu bracket formulation. Corresponding to these formulations, we introduce two kinds of monopole gauge fields: non-abelian gauge field and antisymmetric tensor gauge field, which respectively realize the non-commutative geometry of fuzzy sphere in the lowest Landau level. We establish connection between the two types of monopole gauge fields through Chern–Simons term, and derive explicit form of tensor monopole gauge fields with higher string-like singularity. The connection between two types of monopole is applied to generalize the concept of flux attachment in quantum Hall effect to A-class topological insulator. We propose tensor type Chern–Simons theory as the effective field theory for membranes in A-class topological insulators. Membranes turn out to be fractionally charged objects and the phase entanglement mediated by tensor gauge field transforms the membrane statistics to be anyonic. The index theorem supports the dimensional hierarchy of A-class topological insulator. Analogies to D-brane physics of string theory are discussed too.

  9. Landau level broadening without disorder, non-integer plateaus without interactions- an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2006-01-01

    I review some aspects of an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect, which is not based on the presence of disorder potentials. Instead, a quantization of the electronic drift current in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is employed to construct a non-linear transport theory. Another important ingredient of the alternative theory is the coupling of the two-dimensional electron gas to the leads and the applied voltages. By working in a picture where the external voltages fix the chemical potential in the 2D subsystem, the experimentally observed linear relation between the voltage and the location of the quantum Hall plateaus finds an natural explanation. Also, the classical Hall effect emerges as a natural limit of the quantum Hall effect. For low temperatures (or high currents), a non-integer substructure splits higher Landau levels into sublevels. The appearance of substructure and non-integer plateaus in the resistivity is not linked to electron-electron interactions, but caused by the presence of a (linear) electric field. Some of the resulting fractions correspond exactly to half-integer plateaus. (Author)

  10. Hall current effects in dynamic magnetic reconnection solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, I.J.D.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Watson, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of Hall current contributions on flow driven planar magnetic merging solutions is discussed. The Hall current is important if the dimensionless Hall parameter (or normalized ion skin depth) satisfies c H >η, where η is the inverse Lundquist number for the plasma. A dynamic analysis of the problem shows, however, that the Hall current initially manifests itself, not by modifying the planar reconnection field, but by inducing a non-reconnecting perpendicular 'separator' component in the magnetic field. Only if the stronger condition c H 2 >η is satisfied can Hall currents be expected to affect the planar merging. These analytic predictions are then tested by performing a series of numerical experiments in periodic geometry, using the full system of planar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The numerical results confirm that the nature of the merging changes dramatically when the Hall coupling satisfies c H 2 >η. In line with the analytic treatment of sheared reconnection, the coupling provided by the Hall term leads to the emergence of multiple current layers that can enhance the global Ohmic dissipation at the expense of the reconnection rate. However, the details of the dissipation depend critically on the symmetries of the simulation, and when the merging is 'head-on' (i.e., comprises fourfold symmetry) the reconnection rate can be enhanced

  11. Wireless power transfer exploring spin rectification and inverse spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, R. L.; Garcia, W. J. S.; Dugato, D. A.; da Silva, R. B.; Harres, A.

    2018-04-01

    Devices based on spin rectification effects are of great interest for broadband communication applications, since they allow the rectification of radio frequency signals by simple ferromagnetic materials. The phenomenon is enhanced at ferromagnetic resonance condition, which may be attained when an external magnetic field is applied. The necessity of such field, however, hinders technological applications. Exploring spin rectification and spin Hall effects in exchange-biased samples, we were able to rectify radio frequency signals without an external applied magnetic field. Direct voltages of the order of μV were obtained when Ta/NiFe/FeMn/Ta thin films were exposed to microwaves in a shorted microstrip line for a relatively broad frequency range. Connecting the films to a resistive load, we estimated the fraction of the incident radio frequency power converted into usable dc power.

  12. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.; Zhang, Bei; Liu, Z. X.; Wang, Z.; Li, W.; Wu, Z. B.; Yu, R. H.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2010-01-01

    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  13. Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.

    2010-04-01

    Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010

  14. Extraordinary Hall effect in Co implanted GaAs hybrid magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Tateishi, K.; Nawate, M.; Sakamoto, I.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid Co/GaAs ferromagnetic semiconductors have been prepared by implantation method. In these samples, sheet resistance shows weak temperature dependence, and the extraordinary Hall effect with positive coefficient is observed. In small Co content samples, Hall resistance increases with decreasing temperature and maximum value of 3.6x10 -2 Ω is obtained at 150 K

  15. Hall effect in the normal phase of the organic superconductor (TMTSF)2PF6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, J.; Cooper, J.R.; Jerome, D.

    2000-01-01

    We report accurate Hall effect measurements performed in the normal phase of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)(2)PF(6) at ambient pressure. The Hall coefficient is found to be strongly temperature dependent all the way from 300 K down to the spin density wave onset arising aroun...

  16. Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Guo, Zaibing

    2015-01-01

    Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly

  17. Hole mobilities and the effective Hall factor in p-type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, M.; Irmer, G.; Monecke, J.; Siegel, W.

    1997-06-01

    We prove the effective Hall factor in p-GaAs to be larger than values discussed in the literature up to now. The scattering rates for the relevant scattering mechanisms in p-GaAs have been recalculated after critical testing the existing models. These calculations allow to deduce theoretical drift and theoretical Hall mobilities as functions of temperature which can be compared with measured data. Theoretical Hall factors in the heavy and light hole bands and an effective Hall factor result. The calculated room temperature values of the drift mobility and of the effective Hall factor are 118 cm2/V s and 3.6, respectively. The fitted acoustic deformation potential E1=7.9 eV and the fitted optical coupling constant DK=1.24×1011 eV/m are close to values published before. It is shown that the measured strong dependence of the Hall mobility on the Hall concentration is not mainly caused by scattering by ionized impurities but by the dependence of the effective Hall factor on the hole concentration.

  18. Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shafique, Maryam [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, A., E-mail: anum@math.qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects. - Highlights: • Peristalsis in the presence of Jeffery nanofluid is formulated. • Compliant properties of channel walls are addressed. • Impact of Hall and ion slip effects is outlined. • Influence of Joule heating and radiation is investigated. • Mixed convection for both heat and mass transfer is present.

  19. Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2015-08-25

    The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.

  20. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  1. W∞ gauge theory and the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuya, K.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that a planar system of Hall electrons coupled to an applied electromagnetic field is written in the form of a W ∞ gauge theory. The associated W ∞ gauge field is expressed nonlinearly in terms of an infinite set of multipoles of the electromagnetic field. The W ∞ transformations generate mixing among the Landau levels. They provide a systematic way to classify the electromagnetic characteristics of the Hall system according to the resolution of external probes. In particular, an exact long-wavelength connection is derived between the carrier density and the Hall conductance in the presence of electron-electron interactions. Our approach is complementary to an earlier one and reveals a dual role the W ∞ gauge symmetry plays in the Hall dynamics. (author)

  2. Topological approach to quantum Hall effects and its important applications: higher Landau levels, graphene and its bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Janusz; Łydżba, Patrycja; Jacak, Lucjan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the topological approach to quantum Hall effects is carefully described. Commensurability conditions together with proposed generators of a system braid group are employed to establish the fractional quantum Hall effect hierarchies of conventional semiconductors, monolayer and bilayer graphene structures. Obtained filling factors are compared with experimental data and a very good agreement is achieved. Preliminary constructions of ground-state wave functions in the lowest Landau level are put forward. Furthermore, this work explains why pyramids of fillings from higher bands are not counterparts of the well-known composite-fermion hierarchy - it provides with the cause for an intriguing robustness of ν = 7/3 , 8/3 and 5/2 states (also in graphene). The argumentation why paired states can be developed in two-subband systems (wide quantum wells) only when the Fermi energy lies in the first Landau level is specified. Finally, the paper also clarifies how an additional surface in bilayer systems contributes to an observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect near half-filling, ν = 1/2 .

  3. Magnon Hall effect without Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-01-25

    Topological magnon bands and magnon Hall effect in insulating collinear ferromagnets are induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) even at zero magnetic field. In the geometrically frustrated star lattice, a coplanar/noncollinear [Formula: see text] magnetic ordering may be present due to spin frustration. This magnetic structure, however, does not exhibit topological magnon effects even with DMI in contrast to collinear ferromagnets. We show that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the star plane induces a non-coplanar spin configuration with nonzero spin scalar chirality, which provides topological effects without the need of DMI. The non-coplanar spin texture originates from the topology of the spin configurations and does not need the presence of DMI or magnetic ordering, which suggests that this phenomenon may be present in the chiral spin liquid phases of frustrated magnetic systems. We propose that these anomalous topological magnon effects can be accessible in polymeric iron (III) acetate-a star-lattice antiferromagnet with both spin frustration and long-range magnetic ordering.

  4. Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).

  5. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yuelei; Li, Peng; He, Xin; Zhang, Junli; He, Yao; Peng, Yong; Yu, Ronghai; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co

  6. Quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Q.; Thouless, Ds.J.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-10-01

    Whenever the Fermi level lies in a gap (or mobility gap) the bulk Hall conductance can be expressed in a topologically invariant form showing the quantization explicitly. The new formulation generalizes the earlier result by TKNN to the situation where many body interaction and substrate disorder are also present. When applying to the fractional quantized Hall effect we draw the conclusion that there must be a symmetry breaking in the many body ground state. The possibility of writing the fractionally quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant is also carefully discussed. 19 references

  7. Topological superconductivity, topological confinement, and the vortex quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantini, M. Cristina; Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2011-01-01

    Topological matter is characterized by the presence of a topological BF term in its long-distance effective action. Topological defects due to the compactness of the U(1) gauge fields induce quantum phase transitions between topological insulators, topological superconductors, and topological confinement. In conventional superconductivity, because of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the photon acquires a mass due to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. In this paper we derive the corresponding effective actions for the electromagnetic field in topological superconductors and topological confinement phases. In topological superconductors magnetic flux is confined and the photon acquires a topological mass through the BF mechanism: no symmetry breaking is involved, the ground state has topological order, and the transition is induced by quantum fluctuations. In topological confinement, instead, electric charge is linearly confined and the photon becomes a massive antisymmetric tensor via the Stueckelberg mechanism. Oblique confinement phases arise when the string condensate carries both magnetic and electric flux (dyonic strings). Such phases are characterized by a vortex quantum Hall effect potentially relevant for the dissipationless transport of information stored on vortices.

  8. Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian

    2016-01-13

    We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.

  9. Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-04-26

    We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.

  10. Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.

  11. Hall effect thruster with an AlN chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, S.; Jayet, Y.; Mazouffre, S.; Veron, E.; Echegut, P.; Dudeck, M.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma discharge of a Hall-effect thruster (SPT) is strongly depending of the plasma-insulated wall interactions. These interactions are mainly related to the energy deposition, potential sheath effect and electron secondary emission rate (e.s.e.). In usual SPT, the annular channel is made of BN-SiO 2 . The SPT100-ML (laboratory model will be tested with an AlN chamber in the French test facility Pivoine in the laboratoire d'Aerothermique (Orleans-France). The different parameters such as discharge current, thrust, plasma oscillations and wall temperature will studied for several operating conditions. The results will be compared with a fluid model developed in IPPT (Warsaw-Poland) taking into account electron emission from the internal and external walls and using previous experimental measurements of e.s.e. for AlN from ONERA (Toulouse-France). The surface state of AlN will be analysed before and after experiments by an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope and by a Strength Electron Microscope. (author)

  12. The Josephson and Quantum Hall effect in metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifka, E.

    1990-01-01

    This first generation of DC voltage standards based upon the Josephson effect made use of one tunnel junction coupled with microwaves via an external resonator. The needed output voltage level of 1 V was derived either by means of room temperature resistive divider or the cryogenic current comparator from the quantized microwave-induced voltage drop on the Josephson tunnel junction. In order to increase the accuracy of th standard, series arrays of Josephson tunnel junctions, in which the quantized voltage drops are added together thus providing reference voltage of several hundreds mV, are commonly used in some national laboratories. As the radiating frequency used is 70 GHz or higher the actual sample containing tunnel junction array takes form of an millimeter wave integrated circuit feeded by the thin film fin-line. This improved DC voltage standard has relative uncertainty lower by an amount which equals to the contribution of the resistive divider and allied measuring circuitry. This paper traces the present and future of studies involving the use of the Josephson and Quantum Hall Effect in meteorology

  13. Unconventional scaling of the anomalous Hall effect accompanying electron localization correction in the dirty regime

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Y. M.

    2013-03-05

    Scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity σAH∝σ2xx has been observed in the dirty regime of two-dimensional weak and strong localization regions in ultrathin, polycrystalline, chemically disordered, ferromagnetic FePt films. The relationship between electron transport and temperature reveals a quantitatively insignificant Coulomb interaction in these films, while the temperature dependent anomalous Hall conductivity experiences quantum correction from electron localization. At the onset of this correction, the low-temperature anomalous Hall resistivity begins to be saturated when the thickness of the FePt film is reduced, and the corresponding Hall conductivity scaling exponent becomes 2, which is above the recent unified theory of 1.6 (σAH∝σ1.6xx). Our results strongly suggest that the correction of the electron localization modulates the scaling exponent of the anomalous Hall effect.

  14. Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

  15. Modular invariance, universality and crossover in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    1999-01-01

    An analytic form for the conductivity tensor in crossover between two quantum Hall plateaux is derived, which appears to be in good agreement with existing experimental data. The derivation relies on an assumed symmetry between quantum Hall states, a generalisation of the law of corresponding states from rational filling factors to complex conductivity, which has a mathematical expression in terms of an action of the modular group on the upper-half complex conductivity plane. This symmetry implies universality in quantum Hall crossovers. The assumption that the β-function for the complex conductivity is a complex analytic function, together with some experimental constraints, results in an analytic expression for the crossover, as a function of the external magnetic field

  16. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  17. Theory of spin Hall effect: extension of the Drude model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M

    2007-11-16

    An extension of the Drude model is proposed that accounts for the spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to the combined action of the external electric field, crystal field, and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for the spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, the spin Hall conductivity sigma s and charge conductivity sigma c are related through sigma s=[2pi variant /(3mc2)]sigma2c with m being the bare electron mass. The theoretically computed value is in agreement with experiment.

  18. Giant Planar Hall Effect in the Dirac Semimetal ZrTe5

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhang, Junwei; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Xixiang

    2018-01-01

    Exploration and understanding of exotic topics in quantum physics such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals have become highly popular in the area of condensed matter. It has recently been predicted that a theoretical giant planar Hall effect can be induced

  19. Ultra-Compact Center-Mounted Hollow Cathodes for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a long lifetime, compact hollow cathode that can be mounted along the axis of a 600 W-class Hall effect thruster. Testing at kilowatt...

  20. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...

  1. Design and performance evaluation of a hall effect magnetic compass for oceanographic and meteorological applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Tengali, T.; Mishra, M.; Fadate, C.; Gomes, L.

    A Hall Effect magnetic compass, suitable for oceanographic and meteorological applications, has been designed and its performance characteristics have been evaluated. Slope of the least-squares-fitted linear graph was found to be close to the ideal...

  2. Hall effects on MHD flow past an accelerated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundalgekar, V.M.; Ravi, S.; Hiremath, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of the MHD flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, viscous fluid past a uniformly accelerated plate is presented. The velocity profiles are shown graphically and the numerical values of axial and transverse components of skin friction are tabulated. At high values of the Hall parameter, ωtau, the velocity is found to be oscillatory near the plate. (author)

  3. Characterization of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors with flame visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendorf, S.; Walker, M. L. R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the characterization and qualification of Hall effect thruster propellant distributors is presented. A quantitative measurement of the azimuthal number density uniformity, a metric which impacts propellant utilization, is obtained from photographs of a premixed flame anchored on the exit plane of the propellant distributor. The technique is demonstrated for three propellant distributors using a propane-air mixture at reservoir pressure of 40 psi (gauge) (377 kPa) exhausting to atmosphere, with volumetric flow rates ranging from 15-145 cfh (7.2-68 l/min) with equivalence ratios from 1.2 to 2.1. The visualization is compared with in-vacuum pressure measurements 1 mm downstream of the distributor exit plane (chamber pressure held below 2.7 × 10-5 Torr-Xe at all flow rates). Both methods indicate a non-uniformity in line with the propellant inlet, supporting the validity of the technique of flow visualization with flame luminosity for propellant distributor characterization. The technique is applied to a propellant distributor with a manufacturing defect in a known location and is able to identify the defect and characterize its impact. The technique is also applied to a distributor with numerous small orifices at the exit plane and is able to resolve the resulting non-uniformity. Luminosity data are collected with a spatial resolution of 48.2-76.1 μm (pixel width). The azimuthal uniformity is characterized in the form of standard deviation of azimuthal luminosities, normalized by the mean azimuthal luminosity. The distributors investigated achieve standard deviations of 0.346 ± 0.0212, 0.108 ± 0.0178, and 0.708 ± 0.0230 mean-normalized luminosity units respectively, where a value of 0 corresponds to perfect uniformity and a value of 1 represents a standard deviation equivalent to the mean.

  4. Angular dependencies of longitudinal magnetoresistivity and planar Hall effect of single and multilayered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.W.; Lee, J.H.; Park, B.K.; Rhie, K.; Jang, P.W.; Hwang, D.G.; Lee, S.S.; Kim, M.Y.; Rhee, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetoresistivity and planar Hall effect of a Glass/Fe70A/[Co21A/Cu25A] 20 multilayer coupled antiferromagnetically a single layer (Co81Nb19) thin film, and NiO based Glass/Ni350A/Py50A/Cu20A/Py50A (Py = Ni 83 Fe 17 ) spin value are studied. Planar Hall resistivity is analysed concurrently with the resistivity of the sample. With variation of direction and strength of the applied fields, we found that the magnetization process affects significantly the planar Hall effect. We developed a simple method to find the easy axis of single layer magnetic thin films. We also observed the variation of magnetization of each layer separately for an antiferromagnetically coupled multilayer, and a NiO-based spin value with the planar Hall effect. (author)

  5. Interplay of Rashba effect and spin Hall effect in perpendicular Pt/Co/MgO magnetic multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云驰; 杨光; 董博闻; 王守国; 王超; 孙阳; 张静言; 于广华

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of the Rashba effect and the spin Hall effect originating from current induced spin–orbit coupling was investigated in the as-deposited and annealed Pt/Co/MgO stacks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The above two effects were analyzed based on Hall measurements under external magnetic fields longitudinal and vertical to dc current, respectively. The coercive field as a function of dc current in vertical mode with only the Rashba effect involved decreases due to thermal annealing. Meanwhile, spin orbit torques calculated from Hall resistance with only the spin Hall effect involved in the longitudinal mode decrease in the annealed sample. The experimental results prove that the bottom Pt/Co interface rather than the Co/MgO top one plays a more critical role in both Rashba effect and spin Hall effect.

  6. Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing; Mi, W. B.; Aboljadayel, Razan; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Q.; Gonzalez Barba, Priscila; Manchon, Aurelien; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    . By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced

  7. 3D Quantum Hall Effect of Fermi Arc in Topological Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. M.; Sun, Hai-Peng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xie, X. C.

    2017-09-01

    The quantum Hall effect is usually observed in 2D systems. We show that the Fermi arcs can give rise to a distinctive 3D quantum Hall effect in topological semimetals. Because of the topological constraint, the Fermi arc at a single surface has an open Fermi surface, which cannot host the quantum Hall effect. Via a "wormhole" tunneling assisted by the Weyl nodes, the Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces can form a complete Fermi loop and support the quantum Hall effect. The edge states of the Fermi arcs show a unique 3D distribution, giving an example of (d -2 )-dimensional boundary states. This is distinctly different from the surface-state quantum Hall effect from a single surface of topological insulator. As the Fermi energy sweeps through the Weyl nodes, the sheet Hall conductivity evolves from the 1 /B dependence to quantized plateaus at the Weyl nodes. This behavior can be realized by tuning gate voltages in a slab of topological semimetal, such as the TaAs family, Cd3 As2 , or Na3Bi . This work will be instructive not only for searching transport signatures of the Fermi arcs but also for exploring novel electron gases in other topological phases of matter.

  8. On electrostatic acceleration of plasmas with the Hall effect using electrode shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2001-01-01

    Resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to model the electromagnetic acceleration of plasmas in coaxial channels. When the Hall effect is considered, the inclusion of resistivity is necessary to obtain physically meaningful solutions. In resistive MHD with the Hall effect, if and only if the electric current and the plasma flow are orthogonal (J·U=0), then there is a conserved quantity, in the form of U 2 /2+w+eΦ/M, along the flow, where U is the flow velocity, Φ is the electric potential, w is the enthalpy, and M is the ion mass. New solutions suggest that in coaxial geometry the Hall effect along the axial plasma flow can be balanced by proper shaping of conducting electrodes, with acceleration then caused by an electrostatic potential drop along the streamlines of the flow. The Hall effect separation of ion and electron flow then just cancels the electrostatic charge separation. Assuming particle ionization increases with energy density in the system, the resulting particle flow rates (J p ) scales with accelerator bias (V bias ) as J p ∝V bias 2 , exceeding the Child--Langmuir limit. The magnitude of the Hall effect (as determined by the Morozov Hall parameter, Ξ, which is defined as the ratio of electric current to particle current) is related to the energy needed for the creation of each ion--electron pair

  9. Influence of energy bands on the Hall effect in degenerate semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chhi-Chong; Tsai, Jensan

    1989-01-01

    The influence of energy bands on the Hall effect and transverse magnetoresistance has been investigated according to the scattering processes of carriers in degenerate semiconductors such as InSb. Results show that the Hall angle, Hall coefficient, and transverse magnetoresistance depend on the dc magnetic field for both parabolic and nonparabolic band structures of semiconductors and also depend on the scattering processes of carriers in semiconductors due to the energy-dependent relaxation time. From their numerical analysis for the Hall effect, it is shown that the conduction electrons in degenerate semiconductors play a major role for the carrier transport phenomenon. By comparing with experimental data of the transverse magnetoresistance, it shows that the nonparabolic band model is better in agreement with the experimental work than the parabolic band model of semiconductors

  10. Experimental approach of plasma supersonic expansion physics and of Hall effect propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouffre, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    This report for accreditation to supervise research (HDR) proposes a synthesis of scientific and research works performed by the author during about ten years. Thus, a first part addresses studies on plasma rarefied supersonic flows: expansion through a sonic hole and through a Laval nozzle. The next part addresses the study of plasma propulsion for spacecraft, and more particularly electric propulsion based on the Hall effect: phenomena of ionic and atomic transport, characteristics of the electric field, energy deposition on walls, basic scale laws, related works, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion systems. The third part presents perspectives and projects related to propulsion by Hall effect (research topics, planned researches, a European project on high power, hybrid Hall-RF propulsion) and to ions-ions plasma (the PEGASES concept, the NExET test installation, RF source of negative ions and magnetic trap)

  11. Spin Hall effect in a 2DEG in the presence of magnetic couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, C; Schwab, P; Dzierzawa, M; Raimondi, R; Milletari, M

    2009-01-01

    It is now well established that the peculiar linear-in-momentum dependence of the Rashba (and of the Dresselhaus) spin-orbit coupling leads to the vanishing of the spin Hall conductivity in the bulk of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this paper we discuss how generic magnetic couplings change this behaviour providing then a potential handle on the spin Hall effect. In particular we examine the influence of magnetic impurities and an in-plane magnetic field. We find that in both cases there is a finite spin Hall effect and we provide explicit expressions for the spin Hall conductivity. The results can be obtained by means of the quasiclassical Green function approach, that we have recently extended to spin-orbit coupled electron systems.

  12. Intrinsic quantum spin Hall and anomalous Hall effects in h-Sb/Bi epitaxial growth on a ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru

    2016-06-07

    Exploring a two-dimensional intrinsic quantum spin Hall state with a large band gap as well as an anomalous Hall state in realizable materials is one of the most fundamental and important goals for future applications in spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Here, by combining first-principles calculations with a tight-binding model, we predict that Sb or Bi can epitaxially grow on a stable and ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film substrate, forming a flat honeycomb sheet. The flatness of Sb or Bi provides an opportunity for the existence of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, with its position effectively tuned by surface hydrogenation. The Dirac points in spin up and spin down channels split due to the proximity effects induced by MnO2. In the presence of both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find two band gaps exhibiting a large band gap quantum spin Hall state and a nearly quantized anomalous Hall state which can be tuned by adjusting the Fermi level. Our findings provide an efficient way to realize both quantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall conductivity in a single material.

  13. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) and anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of ρxx and ρAHE respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient (Rs) and of ρxx to log(Rs)~γlog(ρxx), we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of γ= 0.97±0.02. This fitting value of γ in Rsρxxγ clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both ρxx and ρAHE significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, γ=0.99±0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scatterings of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.

  14. The Hall coefficient: a tool for characterizing graphene field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrfritz, Peter; Seyller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Graphene field effect transistors are considered as a candidate for future high-frequency applications. For their realization, the optimal combination of substrate, graphene preparation, and insulator deposition and composition is required. This optimization must be based on an in-depth characterization of the obtained graphene insulator metal (GIM) stack. Hall effect measurements are frequently employed to study such systems, thereby focussing primarily on the charge carrier mobility. In this work we show how an analysis of the sheet Hall coefficient can reveal further important properties of the GIM stack, like, e.g., the interface trap density and the spacial charge inhomogeneity. To that end, we provide an extensive description of the GIM diode, which leads to an accurate calculation of the sheet Hall coefficient dependent on temperature and gate voltage. The gate dependent inverse sheet Hall coefficient is discussed in detail before we introduce the concept of an equivalent temperature, which is a measure of the spacial charge inhomogeneity. In order to test the concept, we apply it to evaluate already measured Hall data taken from the literature. This evaluation allows us to determine the Drude mobility, even at the charge neutrality point, which is inaccessible with a simple one band Hall mobility analysis, and to shed light on the spacial charge inhomogeneity. The formalism is easily adaptable and provides experimentalists a powerful tool for the characterization of their graphene field effect devices. (paper)

  15. Hall effect on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities at an elliptic magnetic stagnation line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Günther O.; Faghihi, Mustafa

    1987-06-01

    To answer the question whether the Hall effect removes the unphysical feature of ideal magnetohydrodynamics of predicting small wavelength kink instabilities at any elliptic magnetic stagnation line, a normal mode analysis is performed of the motion of an incompressible Hall fluid about cylindrical Z-pinch equilibria with circular cross sections. The eigenvalue loci in the complex frequency plane are derived for the equilibrium with constant current density. Every particular mode becomes stable as the Hall parameter exceeds a critical value. This value, however, depends on the mode such that it increases to infinity as the ideal growth rate decreases to zero, implying that there always remains an infinite number of slowly growing instabilities. Correspondingly, the stability criterion for equilibria with arbitrary current distributions is independent of the Hall parameter.

  16. Hall effect on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities at an elliptic magnetic stagnation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Faghihi, M.

    1987-01-01

    To answer the question whether the Hall effect removes the unphysical feature of ideal magnetohydrodynamics of predicting small wavelength kink instabilities at any elliptic magnetic stagnation line, a normal mode analysis is performed of the motion of an incompressible Hall fluid about cylindrical Z-pinch equilibria with circular cross sections. The eigenvalue loci in the complex frequency plane are derived for the equilibrium with constant current density. Every particular mode becomes stable as the Hall parameter exceeds a critical value. This value, however, depends on the mode such that it increases to infinity as the ideal growth rate decreases to zero, implying that there always remains an infinite number of slowly growing instabilities. Correspondingly, the stability criterion for equilibria with arbitrary current distributions is independent of the Hall parameter

  17. Sub-grid-scale effects on short-wave instability in magnetized hall-MHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.

    2010-11-01

    Aiming to clarify effects of short-wave modes on nonlinear evolution/saturation of the ballooning instability in the Large Helical Device, fully three-dimensional simulations of the single-fluid MHD and the Hall MHD equations are carried out. A moderate parallel heat conductivity plays an important role both in the two kinds of simulations. In the single-fluid MHD simulations, the parallel heat conduction effectively suppresses short-wave ballooning modes but it turns out that the suppression is insufficient in comparison to an experimental result. In the Hall MHD simulations, the parallel heat conduction triggers a rapid growth of the parallel flow and enhance nonlinear couplings. A comparison between single-fluid and the Hall MHD simulations reveals that the Hall MHD model does not necessarily improve the saturated pressure profile, and that we may need a further extension of the model. We also find by a comparison between two Hall MHD simulations with different numerical resolutions that sub-grid-scales of the Hall term should be modeled to mimic an inverse energy transfer in the wave number space. (author)

  18. The effect of interfacial intermixing on magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of interfacial intermixing on magnetization and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Pd multilayers is studied by using rapid thermal annealing to enhance the interfacial diffusion. The dependence of saturation magnetization and coercivity on the temperature of rapid thermal annealing at 5 K is discussed. It is found that AHE is closely related to the relative thickness of the Co and Pd layers. Localized paramagnetism has been observed which destroys AHE, while AHE can be enhanced by annealing.

  19. Can Hall effect trigger Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in sub-Alfvénic flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    In the Hall magnetohydrodynamics, the onset condition of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is solely determined by the Hall effect and is independent of the nature of shear flows. In addition, the physical mechanism behind the super- and sub-Alfvénic flows becoming unstable is quite different: the high-frequency right circularly polarized whistler becomes unstable in the super-Alfvénic flows whereas low-frequency, left circularly polarized ion-cyclotron wave becomes unstable in the presence of sub-Alfvénic shear flows. The growth rate of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the super-Alfvénic case is higher than the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamic rate. In the sub-Alfvénic case, the Hall effect opens up a new, hitherto inaccessible (to the magnetohydrodynamics) channel through which the partially or fully ionized fluid can become Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable. The instability growth rate in this case is smaller than the super-Alfvénic case owing to the smaller free shear energy content of the flow. When the Hall term is somewhat smaller than the advection term in the induction equation, the Hall effect is also responsible for the appearance of a new overstable mode whose growth rate is smaller than the purely growing Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. On the other hand, when the Hall diffusion dominates the advection term, the growth rate of the instability depends only on the Alfvén -Mach number and is independent of the Hall diffusion coefficient. Further, the growth rate in this case linearly increases with the Alfvén frequency with smaller slope for sub-Alfvénic flows.

  20. Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2017-08-01

    In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.

  1. Terahertz optical-Hall effect for multiple valley band materials: n-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, P.; Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C.M.; Schubert, M.

    2011-01-01

    The optical-Hall effect comprises generalized ellipsometry at long wavelengths on samples with free-charge carriers placed within external magnetic fields. Measurement of the anisotropic magneto-optic response allows for the determination of the free-charge carrier properties including spatial anisotropy. In this work we employ the optical-Hall effect at terahertz frequencies for analysis of free-charge carrier properties in multiple valley band materials, for which the optical free-charge carrier contributions originate from multiple Brillouin-zone conduction or valence band minima or maxima, respectively. We investigate exemplarily the room temperature optical-Hall effect in low phosphorous-doped n-type silicon where free electrons are located in six equivalent conduction-band minima near the X-point. We simultaneously determine their free-charge carrier concentration, mobility, and longitudinal and transverse effective mass parameters.

  2. Interfacial scattering effect on anisotropic magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect in Ta/Fe multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-12-26

    The effect of interfacial scattering on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the (Ta12n/Fe36n)n multilayers, where the numbers give the thickness in nanometer and n is an integer from 1 to 12. The multilayer structure has been confirmed by the XRR spectra and STEM images of cross-sections. The magneto-transport properties were measured by four-point probe method in Hall bar shaped samples in the temperature range of 5 - 300 K. The AMR increases with n, which could be ascribed to the interfacial spin-orbit scattering. At 5 K, the longitudinal resistivity (ρ) increases by 6.4 times and the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρ) increases by 49.4 times from n =1 to n =12, indicative of the interfacial scattering effect. The skew-scattering, side-jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE were separated successfully. As n increases from 1 to 12, the intrinsic contribution decreases because of the decaying crystallinity or finite size effect and the intrinsic contribution dominated the AHE for all samples. The side jump changes from negative to positive because the interfacial scattering and intralayer scattering in Fe layers both contribute to side jump in the AHE but with opposite sign.

  3. Observation of the i = 1/2 fractional quantum Hall plateau in AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs selectively doped double heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindelof, P.E.; Bruus, H.; Taboryski, R.; Soerensen, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    An inverted and a normal GaAs/AlGaAs interface grown back to back in a socalled selectively doped double heterostructure (SD DH) has been studied in magnetic fields up to 12 tesla and at temperatures down to 0.3 K. The longitudinal resistance goes to zero at minima of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The Hall resistivity is found to exhibit the quantum Hall effect. By etching the surface of the double heterostructure wafer we create an unbalance in the density of electrons in the two parallel two-dimensional electronic sheets. Although we in this way create only a modest change in the electron densities, we observe a significant change in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which can be interpreted as a beat between the oscillations of two electron layers with different densities. At the same time we observe a significant variation of the width of the quantum Hall steps. The most astonishing feature of our results is a clear quantum Hall plateou at 1/2 filling in each of the two parallel layers observed at temperatures below 1 K at a magnetic field above 10 T. Weak localization was also studied and such experiments are consistent with two parallel and independent two-dimensional electronic layers. (orig.)

  4. Analytical theory and possible detection of the ac quantum spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W Y; Ren, Y J; Lin, Z X; Shen, R; Sheng, L; Sheng, D N; Xing, D Y

    2017-07-11

    We develop an analytical theory of the low-frequency ac quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect based upon the scattering matrix formalism. It is shown that the ac QSH effect can be interpreted as a bulk quantum pumping effect. When the electron spin is conserved, the integer-quantized ac spin Hall conductivity can be linked to the winding numbers of the reflection matrices in the electrodes, which also equal to the bulk spin Chern numbers of the QSH material. Furthermore, a possible experimental scheme by using ferromagnetic metals as electrodes is proposed to detect the topological ac spin current by electrical means.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect from vortex motion in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.; Yang, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the unusual Seebeck effect is taken into consideration in explaining the possible origin of the anomalous Hall effect for high-T c superconductors. Combining Maki's theory of transport entropy and Tinkham's theory of resistive transition, we explain why the anomalous Hall effect can be observed in high-T c superconductors, but is absent in most conventional superconductors. The behavior of ρ xy (H,T) in our theory is qualitatively consistent with experiments. In addition, our theory not only predicts that ρ xy will become positive from ρ xy xy |∝ρ xx 2 in the region of ρ xy xy will diminish with increasing defect concentration

  6. Hall magnetohydrodynamic effects for current sheet flapping oscillations related to the magnetic double gradient mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkaev, N. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    Hall magnetohydrodynamic model is investigated for current sheet flapping oscillations, which implies a gradient of the normal magnetic field component. For the initial undisturbed current sheet structure, the normal magnetic field component is assumed to have a weak linear variation. The profile of the electric current velocity is described by hyperbolic functions with a maximum at the center of the current sheet. In the framework of this model, eigenfrequencies are calculated as functions of the wave number for the ''kink'' and ''sausage'' flapping wave modes. Because of the Hall effects, the flapping eigenfrequency is larger for the waves propagating along the electric current, and it is smaller for the opposite wave propagation with respect to the current. The asymmetry of the flapping wave propagation, caused by Hall effects, is pronounced stronger for thinner current sheets. This is due to the Doppler effect related to the electric current velocity.

  7. MnSi nanostructures obtained from epitaxially grown thin films: magnetotransport and Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, D.; Steinki, N.; Schilling, M.; Fernández Scarioni, A.; Krzysteczko, P.; Dziomba, T.; Schumacher, H. W.; Menzel, D.; Süllow, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of the (magneto)transport properties, including Hall effect, of bulk, epitaxially grown thin film and nanostructured MnSi. In order to set our results in relation to published data we extensively characterize our materials, this way establishing a comparatively good sample quality. Our analysis reveals that in particular for thin film and nanostructured material, there are extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the electronic transport properties, which by modeling the data we separate out. Finally, we discuss our Hall effect data of nanostructured MnSi under consideration of the extrinsic contributions and with respect to the question of the detection of a topological Hall effect in a skyrmionic lattice.

  8. The effective action for edge states in higher-dimensional quantum Hall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effective action for the edge excitations of a quantum Hall droplet of fermions in higher dimensions is generically given by a chiral bosonic action. We explicitly analyze the quantum Hall effect on complex projective spaces CP k , with a U(1) background magnetic field. The edge excitations are described by Abelian bosonic fields on S 2k-1 with only one spatial direction along the boundary of the droplet relevant for the dynamics. Our analysis also leads to an action for edge excitations for the case of the Zhang-Hu four-dimensional quantum Hall effect defined on S 4 with an SU(2) background magnetic field, using the fact that CP 3 is an S 2 -bundle over S 4

  9. Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2015-06-30

    Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.

  10. Interfacial scattering effect on anomalous Hall effect in Ni/Au multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-21

    The effect of interfacial scattering on anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the ${{\\\\left(\\\\text{N}{{\\\\text{i}}_{\\\\frac{36}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}/\\\\text{A}{{\\\\text{u}}_{\\\\frac{12}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}\\ ight)}_{n}}$ multilayers. Field-dependent Hall resistivity was measured in the temperature range of 5–300 K with the magnetic field up to 50 kOe. The anomalous Hall resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ ) was enhanced by more than six times at 5 K from n  =  1 to n  =  12 due to the increased interfacial scattering, whereas the longitudinal resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ ) was increased nearly three times. A scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}\\\\sim \\ ho _{xx}^{\\\\gamma}$ with $\\\\gamma =1.85$ was obtained for ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ and ${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ measured at 5 K, indicating that the dominant mechanism(s) of the AHE in these multilayers should be side-jump or/and intrinsic in nature. The new scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}=\\\\alpha {{\\ ho}_{xx0}}+\\\\beta \\ ho _{xx0}^{2}+b\\ ho _{xx}^{2}$ (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206) has been applied to our data to identify the origin of the AHE in this type of multilayer.

  11. A novel approach for simultaneous measurements of Hall effect and magnetoresistance effect in solid and liquid state of gallium and mercury metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, M.; Nakao, M.; Singh, C.D.; Mogi, I.; Awaji, S.

    2004-01-01

    An AC-DC method has been proposed for simultaneous measurements of Hall effect and magnetoresistance effect in solid and liquid state of Ga and Hg metals. In low magnetic field Hall signal in solid state is proportional to magnetic field B, while in liquid state Hall signal is affected by magnetoresistance effect. It has been found that magnetoresistance has a B 2 dependence on magnetic field and affects the Hall signal. In high magnetic field, the Hall effect in liquid state is affected by a very large magnetoresistance effect compared in solid state. The magnetoresistance effect in liquid state is higher than solid state

  12. Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, R.N., E-mail: barik.rabinarayan@rediffmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Trident Academy of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Dash, G.C., E-mail: gcdash@indiatimes.com [Department of Mathematics, S.O.A. University, Bhubaneswar (India); Rath, P.K., E-mail: pkrath_1967@yahoo.in [Department of Mathematics, B.R.M. International Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2013-01-15

    Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S{sup 2}. Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)

  13. Hall effects on unsteady MHD flow between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, R.N.; Dash, G.C.; Rath, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Hall effects on the unsteady MHD rotating flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid between two rotating disks with non-coincident parallel axes have been studied. There exists an axisymmetric solution to this problem. The governing equations are solved by applying Laplace transform method. It is found that the torque experienced by the disks decreases with an increase in either the Hall parameter, m or the rotation parameter, S 2 . Further, the axis of rotation has no effect on the fluid flow. (author)

  14. Sixteen-state magnetic memory based on the extraordinary Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, A.; Karpovski, M.; Gerber, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a proof-of-concept study of split-cell magnetic storage in which multi-bit magnetic memory cells are composed of several multilevel ferromagnetic dots with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Extraordinary Hall effect is used for reading the data. Feasibility of the approach is supported by realization of four-, eight- and sixteen- state cells. - Highlights: ► We propose a novel structure of multi-bit magnetic random access memory. ► Each cell contains several interconnected storage dots. ► Extraordinary Hall effect is used for reading the data. ► Four-, eight- and sixteen-state cells have been realized.

  15. Physcicists rewarded for 'fractional electrons'

    CERN Multimedia

    Ball, P

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel prize for physics has been awarded to Horst Stormer, Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin.Stormer and Tsui were the first to observe the fractional quantum Hall effect and Laughlin provided the theory shortly afterwards (1 page).

  16. Disorder effect on chiral edge modes and anomalous Hall conductance in Weyl semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takane, Yositake

    2016-01-01

    Typical Weyl semimetals host chiral surface states and hence show an anomalous Hall response. Although a Weyl semimetal phase is known to be robust against weak disorder, the effect of disorder on chiral states has not been fully clarified so far. We study the behavior of such chiral states in the presence of disorder and its consequences on an anomalous Hall response, focusing on a thin slab of Weyl semimetal with chiral surface states along its edge. It is shown that weak disorder does not disrupt chiral edge states but crucially affects them owing to the renormalization of a mass parameter: the number of chiral edge states changes depending on the strength of disorder. It is also shown that the Hall conductance is quantized when the Fermi level is located near Weyl nodes within a finite-size gap. This quantization of the Hall conductance collapses once the strength of disorder exceeds a critical value, suggesting that it serves as a probe to distinguish a Weyl semimetal phase from a diffusive anomalous Hall metal phase. (author)

  17. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  18. Generation and spectroscopic signatures of a fractional quantum Hall liquid of photons in an incoherently pumped optical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umucalılar, R. O.; Carusotto, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate theoretically a driven dissipative model of strongly interacting photons in a nonlinear optical cavity in the presence of a synthetic magnetic field. We show the possibility of using a frequency-dependent incoherent pump to create a strongly correlated ν =1 /2 bosonic Laughlin state of light: Due to the incompressibility of the Laughlin state, fluctuations in the total particle number and excitation of edge modes can be tamed by imposing a suitable external potential profile for photons. We further propose angular-momentum-selective spectroscopy of the emitted light as a tool to obtain unambiguous signatures of the microscopic physics of the quantum Hall liquid of light.

  19. Hall effect driven by non-collinear magnetic polarons in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, K. S.; Averkiev, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this letter, we develop the theory of Hall effect driven by non-collinear magnetic textures (topological Hall effect—THE) in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs). We show that a carrier spin-orbit interaction induces a chiral magnetic ordering inside a bound magnetic polaron (BMP). The inner structure of non-collinear BMP is controlled by the type of spin-orbit coupling, allowing us to create skyrmion- (Rashba) or antiskyrmion-like (Dresselhaus) configurations. The asymmetric scattering of itinerant carriers on polarons leads to the Hall response which exists in weak external magnetic fields and at low temperatures. We point out that DMS-based systems allow one to investigate experimentally the dependence of THE both on a carrier spin polarization and on a non-collinear magnetic texture shape.

  20. Scaling of anomalous hall effect in amorphous CoFeB Films with accompanying quantum correction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-08

    Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB films with thickness ranging from 2 to 160 nm have been investigated. We have found that the scaling relationship between longitudinal (ρxx) and anomalous Hall (ρAH) resistivity is distinctly different in the Bloch and localization regions. For ultrathin CoFeB films, the sheet resistance (Rxx) and anomalous Hall conductance (GAH) received quantum correction from electron localization showing two different scaling relationships at different temperature regions. In contrast, the thicker films show a metallic conductance, which have only one scaling relationship in the entire temperature range. Furthermore, in the dirty regime of localization regions, an unconventional scaling relationship View the MathML sourceσAH∝σxxα with α=1.99 is found, rather than α=1.60 predicted by the unified theory.

  1. Hall effect upon small wavelength kink instabilities near an elliptic magnetic stagnation line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Faghihi, M.

    1985-12-01

    To explore the question whether the Hall effect removes the unphysical feature of ideal magnetohydrodynamics of predicting unstable small wavelenght kinks near any elliptic magnetic stagnation line, a spectral analysis is performed of the motion of an incompressible plasma about cylindrical Z-pinch equilibria with circular sections. The eigenvalue loci in the complex frequency plane are derived for the equilibrium with constant current density. These show that every particular mode becomes stable as the Hall parameter exceeds a critical value. However, this critical value is a decreasing function of the ideal growth rate and has a pole at the origin, implying that there always remains an infinite reservoir of slowly growing instabilities. Correspondingly, for equilibiria with arbitrary current distributions, the stability criterion is unaffected by the Hall term. (author)

  2. Axial Hall effect and universality of holographic Weyl semi-metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, Christian; Fernández-Pendás, Jorge; Landsteiner, Karl [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,c/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-28

    The holographic Weyl semimetal is a model of a strongly coupled topological semi-metal. A topological quantum phase transition separates a topological phase with non-vanishing anomalous Hall conductivity from a trivial state. We investigate how this phase transition depends on the parameters of the scalar potential (mass and quartic self coupling) finding that the quantum phase transition persists for a large region in parameter space. We then compute the axial Hall conductivity. The algebraic structure of the axial anomaly predicts it to be 1/3 of the electric Hall conductivity. We find that this holds once a non-trivial renormalization effect on the external axial gauge fields is taken into account. Finally we show that the phase transition also occurs in a top-down model based on a consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity.

  3. Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, G. S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, M. R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, F. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency.

  4. Engineering the quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene with uniaxial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diniz, G. S.; Guassi, M. R.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the manipulation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in graphene by means of the uniaxial strain. The values of Chern number and Hall conductance demonstrate that the strained graphene in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange field, for vanishing intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, possesses non-trivial topological phase, which is robust against the direction and modulus of the strain. Besides, we also find that the interplay between Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit couplings results in a topological phase transition in the strained graphene. Remarkably, as the strain strength is increased beyond approximately 7%, the critical parameters of the exchange field for triggering the quantum anomalous Hall phase transition show distinct behaviors—decrease (increase) for strains along zigzag (armchair) direction. Our findings open up a new platform for manipulation of the QAHE by an experimentally accessible strain deformation of the graphene structure, with promising application on novel quantum electronic devices with high efficiency

  5. Topological phase transitions and quantum Hall effect in the graphene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwith, P.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2018-04-01

    Monolayer staggered materials of the graphene family present intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and can be driven through several topological phase transitions using external circularly polarized lasers and static electric or magnetic fields. We show how topological features arising from photoinduced phase transitions and the magnetic-field-induced quantum Hall effect coexist in these materials and simultaneously impact their Hall conductivity through their corresponding charge Chern numbers. We also show that the spectral response of the longitudinal conductivity contains signatures of the various phase-transition boundaries, that the transverse conductivity encodes information about the topology of the band structure, and that both present resonant peaks which can be unequivocally associated with one of the four inequivalent Dirac cones present in these materials. This complex optoelectronic response can be probed with straightforward Faraday rotation experiments, allowing the study of the crossroads between quantum Hall physics, spintronics, and valleytronics.

  6. Giant Planar Hall Effect in the Dirac Semimetal ZrTe5

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2018-03-03

    Exploration and understanding of exotic topics in quantum physics such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals have become highly popular in the area of condensed matter. It has recently been predicted that a theoretical giant planar Hall effect can be induced by a chiral anomaly in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. ZrTe5 is considered an intriguing Dirac semimetal at the boundary of weak and strong topological insulators, though this claim is still controversial. In this study, we report the observation in ZrTe5 of giant planar Hall resistivity. We have also noted three different dependences of this resistivity on the magnetic field, as predicted by theory, maximum planar Hall resistivity occurs at the Lifshitz transition temperature. In addition, we have discovered a nontrivial Berry phase, as well as a chiral-anomaly-induced negative longitudinal and a giant in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance. All these experimental observations coherently demonstrate that ZrTe5 is a Dirac semimetal.

  7. Covariant Conservation Laws and the Spin Hall Effect in Dirac-Rashba Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milletarı, Mirco; Offidani, Manuel; Ferreira, Aires; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of two-dimensional Dirac-Rashba systems in the presence of disorder and external perturbations. We unveil a set of exact symmetry relations (Ward identities) that impose strong constraints on the spin dynamics of Dirac fermions subject to proximity-induced interactions. This allows us to demonstrate that an arbitrary dilute concentration of scalar impurities results in the total suppression of nonequilibrium spin Hall currents when only Rashba spin-orbit coupling is present. Remarkably, a finite spin Hall conductivity is restored when the minimal Dirac-Rashba model is supplemented with a spin-valley interaction. The Ward identities provide a systematic way to predict the emergence of the spin Hall effect in a wider class of Dirac-Rashba systems of experimental relevance and represent an important benchmark for testing the validity of numerical methodologies.

  8. Comparison of Medium Power Hall Effect Thruster Ion Acceleration for Krypton and Xenon Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Pumping is provided by four single-stage cryogenic panels (single-stage cold heads at 25 K) and one 50 cm two stage cryogenic pump (12 K). This vacuum...test chamber has a mea- sured pumping speed of 36 kL/s on xenon. The Hall thruster used in this study is a medium power laboratory Hall effect...The first compo- nent passes through a krypton opto-galvanic cell and is terminated by a beam dump . The opto-galvanic cell current is capacitively

  9. Anomalous Hall effect in a diluted p-InAs〈Mn〉 magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanov, R. K., E-mail: arslanovr@gmail.com; Arslanov, T. R.; Daunov, M. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The dependences of the electrical resistivity and the Hall coefficient of single-crystal p-InAs〈Mn〉 bulk samples with an acceptor concentration of about 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} on uniform pressure P = 4–6 GPa at T = 300 K in the region of impurity conduction are quantitatively analyzed. The anomalous Hall effect is shown to occur in p-InAs〈Mn〉. Its contribution is negative and correlates with the deionization of acceptors and an increase in the magnetic susceptibility.

  10. A programmable quantum current standard from the Josephson and the quantum Hall effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.poirier@lne.fr; Lafont, F.; Djordjevic, S.; Schopfer, F.; Devoille, L. [Quantum metrology group, Laboratoire National de métrologie et d' Essais, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)

    2014-01-28

    We propose a way to realize a programmable quantum current standard (PQCS) from the Josephson voltage standard and the quantum Hall resistance standard (QHR) exploiting the multiple connection technique provided by the quantum Hall effect (QHE) and the exactness of the cryogenic current comparator. The PQCS could lead to breakthroughs in electrical metrology like the realization of a programmable quantum current source, a quantum ampere-meter, and a simplified closure of the quantum metrological triangle. Moreover, very accurate universality tests of the QHE could be performed by comparing PQCS based on different QHRs.

  11. Paired Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of individual articles on various topics. Their significance in the corresponding field as well as connections between them are emphasized in a general and comprehensive introduction. In the first article, the author explores the consequences for macroscopic effective Lagrangians of assuming that the momentum density is proportional to the flow of conserved current. The universal corrections obtained for the macroscopic Lagrangian of a superconductor describe the London Hall effect, and provide a fully consistent derivation of it. In the second article, a heuristic principle is proposed for quantized Hall states: the existence and incompressibility of fractionally quantized Hall states is explained by an argument based on an adiabatic localization of magnetic flux, the process of trading uniform flux for an equal amount of fictitious flux attached to the particles. This principle is exactly implemented in the third article. For a certain class of model Hamiltonians, the author obtains Laughlin's Jastrow type wave functions explicitly from a filled Landau level, by smooth extrapolation in quantum statistics. The generalization of this analysis to the torus geometry shows that theorems restricting the possibilities of quantum statistics on closed surfaces are circumvented in the presence of a magnetic field. In the last article, the existence is proposed of a novel incompressible quantum liquid, a paired Hall state, at a half filled Landau level. This state arises adiabatically from free fermions in zero magnetic field, and reduces to a state previously proposed by Halperin in the limit of tightly bound pairs. It supports unusual excitations, including neutral fermions and charge e/4 anyons with statistical parameter θ = π/8

  12. Hall effect and magnetization in the magnetic superconductor RuSr2GdCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurelo, A.R.; Pimentel, J.L.; Wolff Fabris, F.; Schaf, J.; Pureur, P.; Vieira, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    We report on Hall effect, longitudinal resistivity and magnetization measurements in the rutheno-cuprate RuSr 2 GdCu 2 O 8 . Combining these results we separate the anomalous contribution to the Hall effect and argue that the occurrence of canting and chirality have to be considered for describing this property

  13. Spin precession and spin Hall effect in monolayer graphene/Pt nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savero Torres, W.; Sierra, J. F.; Benítez, L. A.; Bonell, F.; Costache, M. V.; Valenzuela, S. O.

    2017-12-01

    Spin Hall effects have surged as promising phenomena for spin logics operations without ferromagnets. However, the magnitude of the detected electric signals at room temperature in metallic systems has been so far underwhelming. Here, we demonstrate a two-order of magnitude enhancement of the signal in monolayer graphene/Pt devices when compared to their fully metallic counterparts. The enhancement stems in part from efficient spin injection and the large spin resistance of graphene but we also observe 100% spin absorption in Pt and find an unusually large effective spin Hall angle of up to 0.15. The large spin-to-charge conversion allows us to characterise spin precession in graphene under the presence of a magnetic field. Furthermore, by developing an analytical model based on the 1D diffusive spin-transport, we demonstrate that the effective spin-relaxation time in graphene can be accurately determined using the (inverse) spin Hall effect as a means of detection. This is a necessary step to gather full understanding of the consequences of spin absorption in spin Hall devices, which is known to suppress effective spin lifetimes in both metallic and graphene systems.

  14. Effects of Hall current and electrical resistivity on the stability of gravitating anisotropic quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, S.; Prajapati, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The effects of Hall current and finite electrical resistivity are studied on the stability of uniformly rotating and self-gravitating anisotropic quantum plasma. The generalized Ohm's law modified by Hall current and electrical resistivity is used along with the quantum magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations. The general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis and discussed in the parallel and perpendicular propagations. In the parallel propagation, the Jeans instability criterion, expression of critical Jeans wavenumber, and Jeans length are found to be independent of non-ideal effects and uniform rotation but in perpendicular propagation only rotation affects the Jeans instability criterion. The unstable gravitating mode modified by Bohm potential and the stable Alfven mode modified by non-ideal effects are obtained separately. The criterion of firehose instability remains unaffected due to the presence of non-ideal effects. In the perpendicular propagation, finite electrical resistivity and quantum pressure anisotropy modify the dispersion relation, whereas no effect of Hall current was observed in the dispersion characteristics. The Hall current, finite electrical resistivity, rotation, and quantum corrections stabilize the growth rate. The stability of the dynamical system is analyzed using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion.

  15. Raman crystallinity and Hall Effect studies of microcrystalline silicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) was used to crystallize sputtered amorphous silicon thin films on aluminium‐coated glass at annealing temperatures ranging from 250‐520°C in vacuum. Crystalline volume fractions were measured by Raman spectrometry as a function of annealing temperature. It was shown that the ...

  16. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  17. Anomalous Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells in proximity to chiral p -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    By using the gauge-invariant optical Bloch equation, we perform a microscopic kinetic investigation on the anomalous Hall effect in chiral p -wave superconducting states. Specifically, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in the absence of the magnetic field is zero as a consequence of Galilean invariance in our description. As for the extrinsic channel, a finite anomalous Hall current is obtained from the impurity scattering with the optically excited normal quasiparticle current even at zero temperature. From our kinetic description, it can be clearly seen that the excited normal quasiparticle current is due to an induced center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs through the acceleration driven by ac electric field. For the induced anomalous Hall current, we show that the conventional skew-scattering channel in the linear response makes the dominant contribution in the strong impurity interaction. In this case, our kinetic description as a supplementary viewpoint mostly confirms the results of Kubo formalism in the literature. Nevertheless, in the weak impurity interaction, this skew-scattering channel becomes marginal and we reveal that an induction channel from the Born contribution dominates the anomalous Hall current. This channel, which has long been overlooked in the literature, is due to the particle-hole asymmetry by nonlinear optical excitation. Finally, we study the case in the chiral p -wave superconducting state with a transverse conical magnetization, which breaks the Galilean invariance. In this situation, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is no longer zero. Comparison of this intrinsic channel with the extrinsic one from impurity scattering is addressed.

  18. High precision micro-scale Hall Effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Accurate characterization of ultra shallow junctions (USJ) is important in order to understand the principles of junction formation and to develop the appropriate implant and annealing technologies. We investigate the capabilities of a new micro-scale Hall effect measurement method where Hall...... effect is measured with collinear micro four-point probes (M4PP). We derive the sensitivity to electrode position errors and describe a position error suppression method to enable rapid reliable Hall effect measurements with just two measurement points. We show with both Monte Carlo simulations...... and experimental measurements, that the repeatability of a micro-scale Hall effect measurement is better than 1 %. We demonstrate the ability to spatially resolve Hall effect on micro-scale by characterization of an USJ with a single laser stripe anneal. The micro sheet resistance variations resulting from...

  19. Exchange-biased planar Hall effect sensor optimized for biosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.; Freitas, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of exchange-biased Permalloy planar Hall effect sensor crosses with a fixed active area of w x w = 40 x 40 mu m(2) and Permalloy thicknesses of t = 20, 30, and 50 nm. It is shown that a single domain model describes the system well...

  20. Perceptions about Residence Hall Wingmates and Alcohol-Related Secondhand Effects among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Bush, Elizabeth N.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the secondhand effects among college freshmen of others' alcohol use and related student characteristics, and perceptions about residence hallmates. Participants: The authors surveyed 509 incoming freshmen residing in predominantly freshman residence halls. Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey 2…

  1. Valley Hall effect in disordered monolayer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Souza, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    ("unfolding") the Berry curvature from the folded Brillouin zone of the disordered supercell onto the normal Brillouin zone of the pristine crystal, and then averaging over several realizations of disorder. We use this scheme to study from first principles the effect of sulfur vacancies on the valley Hall...

  2. Minimal model of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall Effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, W.; Sigrist, M.; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 21 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 217203. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  3. Temperature effects in exchange-biased planar Hall sensors for bioapplications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Freitas, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependence of exchange biased planar Hall effect sensors is investigated between T = −10 and 70 °C. It is shown that a single domain model describes the system well and that the temperature coefficient of the low-field sensitivity at T = 25 °C is 0.32%/°C. A procedure for temperat...

  4. Interface and phase transition between Moore-Read and Halperin 331 fractional quantum Hall states: Realization of chiral Majorana fermion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun

    2017-12-01

    We consider an interface separating the Moore-Read state and Halperin 331 state in a half-filled Landau level, which can be realized in a double quantum well system with varying interwell tunneling and/or interaction strengths. In the presence of electron tunneling and strong Coulomb interactions across the interface, we find that all charge modes localize and the only propagating mode left is a chiral Majorana fermion mode. Methods to probe this neutral mode are proposed. A quantum phase transition between the Moore-Read and Halperin 331 states is described by a network of such Majorana fermion modes. In addition to a direct transition, they may also be separated by a phase in which the Majorana fermions are delocalized, realizing an incompressible state which exhibits quantum Hall charge transport and bulk heat conduction.

  5. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskowska, Karolina; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Rogula-Kopiec, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with total suspended particles (TSP) and their respirable fraction (PM4) in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air) of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  6. Particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a selected athletic hall: ambient concentrations, origin and effects on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuskowska Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs associated with total suspended particles (TSP and their respirable fraction (PM4 in one of the Warsaw sports halls. Samples of dust were collected for 15 days simultaneously inside and outside (atmospheric air of the sports hall. The obtained data allowed calculating diagnostic ratios indicating the origin of the PAHs and selected indicators of cumulative exposure to the PAH mixture. Both PM and PAH in the surveyed area were derived from the combustion of solid fuels; this involved pollution both in the atmospheric air and in the air inside the sports hall. It has been shown that the exposure of sports hall users to PAHs is significantly higher than the exposure resulting from concentrations recorded in the atmospheric air.

  7. Proposal for an Experimental Test of the Role of Confining Potentials in the Integral Quantum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Brueckner, Reinhold

    2000-01-01

    We propose an experiment using a three-gate quantum Hall device to probe the dependence of the integral quantum Hall effect (IQHE) on the shape of the lateral confining potential in edge regions. This shape can, in a certain configuration determine whether or not the IQHE occurs.

  8. Non-adiabatic effect on Laughlin's argument of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I; Hatsugai, Y

    2009-01-01

    We have numerically studied a non-adiabatic charge transport in the quantum Hall system pumped by a magnetic flux, as one of the simplest theoretical realizations of non-adiabatic Thouless pumping. In the adiabatic limit, a pumped charge is quantized, known as Laughlin's argument in a cylindrical lattice. In a uniform electric field, we obtained a formula connecting quantized pumping in the adiabatic limit and no-pumping in the sudden limit. The intermediate region between the two limits is determined by the Landau gap. A randomness or impurity effect is also discussed.

  9. Enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous hall effect in Co/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yiwei; Zhang, Jingyan, E-mail: jyzhang@ustb.edu.cn; Jiang, Shaolong; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Xujing; Yu, Guanghua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Ni multilayer were optimized by manipulating its interface structure (inducing HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion) and post-annealing treatment. A strong PMA can be obtained in Co/Ni multilayers with HfO{sub 2} capping layer even after annealing at 400 °C. The heavy metal Hf may improve the interfacial spin-orbit coupling, which responsible for the enhanced PMA and high annealing stability. Moreover, the multilayer containing HfO{sub 2} capping layer also exhibited high saturation anomalous Hall resistivity through post-annealing, which is 0.85 μΩ cm after annealing at 375 °C, 211% larger than in the sample at deposited state which is only 0.27 μΩ cm. The enhancement of AHE is mainly attributed to the interface scattering through post-annealing treatment. - Highlights: • The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect of Co/Ni multilayer films were studied. • The PMA thermal stability of the Co/Ni ML can be enhanced by HfO{sub 2} capping layer and Pt insertion. • The anomalous Hall resistivity of Co/Ni ML covered by HfO{sub 2} was enhanced by post-annealing treatment.

  10. Plasma pressure tensor effects on reconnection: Hybrid and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lin; Winske, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Collisionless reconnection is studied using two-dimensional (2-D) hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (Hall-MHD) simulations. Both use the full electron pressure tensor instead of a localized resistivity in Ohm's law to initiate reconnection; an initial perturbation or boundary driving to the equilibrium is used. The initial configurations include one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D current sheets both with and without a guide field. Electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and overall agreement is found between the calculations in both reconnection rate and global configuration [L. Yin et al., J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10761 (2001)]. It is shown that the electron drifts in the small-transverse-scale fields near the X point cause the electron motion to decouple from the ion motion, and that reconnection occurs due to electron viscous effects contained in the off-diagonal terms of the electron pressure tensor. Comparing the hybrid and Hall-MHD simulations shows that effects of the off-diagonal terms in the ion pressure tensor, i.e., the ion gyro-radius effects, are necessary in order to model correctly the ion out-of-plane motion. It is shown that these effects can be modeled efficiently in a particle Hall-MHD simulation in which particle ions are used in a predictor/corrector manner to implement ion gyro-radius corrections [L. Yin et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2575 (2002)]. For modeling reconnection in large systems, a new integrated approach is examined in which Hall-MHD calculations using a full electron pressure tensor model is embedded inside a MHD simulation. The embedded simulation of current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics in a realistic 2-D magnetotail equilibrium exhibits smooth transitions of plasma and field quantities between the two regions, with small-scale physics represented well in the compressed current sheet and in the near-X-point region

  11. Rotating ferro-nanofluid over stretching plate under the effect of hall current and joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed S., E-mail: eng_moh_sayed@live.com

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of boundary layer over a stretching plate filled with ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and subjected to magnetic field with hall current, joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation has been investigated. The modeling based on nonlinear partial differential equations due to continuity, momentum and heat equations, these equations transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation technique then solved numerically. The effect of hall current, joule heating and thermal radiation on the physical quantities such as surface shear stress and heat flux have been investigated and discussed. Moreover, the velocities and temperature profiles of the boundary layer under the influence of the presented external forces plotted and discussed. - Highlights: • The existence of the hall current increases the transverse velocity, as well as has a limited impact on the longitudinal velocity. • Boundary layer temperature exposed to nonlinear thermal radiation is higher than that exposed to linear thermal radiation. • Joule heating increases the boundary layer temperature near the surface especially in the linear model of thermal radiation. • Magnetic field with hall current increases the x-direction skin friction and reduces it in the y-direction.

  12. Realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect from a magnetic Weyl semimetal

    OpenAIRE

    Muechler, Lukas; Liu, Enke; Xu, Qiunan; Felser, Claudia; Sun, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and magnetic Weyl semimetals (WSMs) are topological states induced by intrinsic magnetic moments and spin-orbital coupling. Their similarity suggests the possibility of achieving the QAHE by dimensional confinement of a magnetic WSM along one direction. In this study, we investigate the emergence of the QAHE in the two dimensional (2D) limit of magnetic WSMs due to finite size effects. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with effective mode...

  13. Hall effect mobility for SiC MOSFETs with increasing dose of nitrogen implantation into channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Munetaka; Iwamatsu, Toshiaki; Amishiro, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kita, Koji; Yamakawa, Satoshi

    2018-04-01

    The Hall effect mobility (μHall) of the Si-face 4H-SiC metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with a nitrogen (N)-implanted channel region was investigated by increasing the N dose. The μHall in the channel region was systematically examined regarding channel structures, that is, the surface and buried channels. It was experimentally demonstrated that increasing the N dose results in an improvement in μHall in the channel region due to the formation of the buried channel. However, further increase in N dose was found to decrease the μHall in the channel region, owing to the decrease in the electron mobility in the N-implanted bulk region.

  14. Determination of the Pt spin diffusion length by spin-pumping and spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vlaminck, Vincent [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenería, Universidad San Fransciso de Quito, Quito (Ecuador); Divan, Ralu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    The spin diffusion length of Pt at room temperature and at 8 K is experimentally determined via spin pumping and spin Hall effect in permalloy/Pt bilayers. Voltages generated during excitation of ferromagnetic resonance from the inverse spin Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance effect were investigated with a broadband approach. Varying the Pt layer thickness gives rise to an evolution of the voltage line shape due to the superposition of the above two effects. By studying the ratio of the two voltage components with the Pt layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of Pt can be directly extracted. We obtain a spin diffusion length of ∼1.2 nm at room temperature and ∼1.6 nm at 8 K.

  15. Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, Alexander B.; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-01-01

    A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed

  16. Influence of grain size on the extraordinary Hall effect in magnetic granular alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, Alexander B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Kalitsov, Alan V.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    A quantum statistical theory of the influence of grain size on the residual extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) in magnetic metal-insulator granular alloys is presented. It is shown that under certain conditions the quasi-classical size-effect (QSE) can lead to similar behaviors of EHE in metal-metal and metal-insulator alloys. The possible dependences of EHE coefficient on the grain size and the role of the QSE in the giant EHE in nanocomposites are discussed.

  17. Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y

    2015-07-01

    In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.

  18. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.

  19. Anomalous Hall effect assisted by interfacial chemical reaction in perpendicular Co/Pt multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Jiang, Shaolong; Teng, Jiao

    2018-05-01

    To uncover the underlying mechanism of Mg effect on the improved anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of perpendicular [Pt/Co]3/Mg/HfO2 multilayers, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis has been carried out. It is found that Mg interlayer at the Co/HfO2 interface could prevent the Co oxidation to some extent via interfacial chemical reaction. As a result, A large anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAH) is obtained in perpendicular [Pt/Co]3/Mg/HfO2 multilayers, with a maximum ρAH of 3.02 μΩ cm, which is 59% larger than that in Co/Pt multilayers without Mg insertion. This effective modification of the AHE based on interfacial chemical reaction provides a promising pathway for spintronic applications.

  20. Geometrical Optics of Beams with Vortices: Berry Phase and Orbital Angular Momentum Hall Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed

  1. Spin Hall effect of a light beam in left-handed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hailu; Wen Shuangchun; Shu Weixing; Tang Zhixiang; Zou Yanhong; Fan Dianyuan

    2009-01-01

    We establish a general propagation model to describe the spin Hall effect of light beam in left-handed materials (LHMs). A spin-dependent shift of the beam centroid perpendicular to the refractive index gradient for the light beam through an air-LHM interface is demonstrated. For a certain circularly polarized component, whether the transverse shift is positive or negative depends on the magnitude of the refractive index gradient. Very surprisingly, the spin Hall effect in the LHM is unreversed, although the sign of refractive index gradient is reversed. The physics underlying this counterintuitive effect is that the spin angular momentum of photons is unreversed. Further, we reveal that the angular shift in the LHM is reversed due to the negative diffraction. These findings provide alternative evidence for that the linear momentum of photons is reversed, while the spin angular momentum is unreversed in the LHM.

  2. Geometrical optics of beams with vortices: Berry phase and orbital angular momentum Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Yu

    2006-07-28

    We consider propagation of a paraxial beam carrying the spin angular momentum (polarization) and intrinsic orbital angular momentum (IOAM) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the presence of IOAM can dramatically enhance and rearrange the topological phenomena that previously were considered solely in connection to the polarization of transverse waves. In particular, the appearance of a new type of Berry phase that describes the parallel transport of the beam structure along a curved ray is predicted. We derive the ray equations demonstrating the splitting of beams with different values of IOAM. This is the orbital angular momentum Hall effect, which resembles the Magnus effect for optical vortices. Unlike the spin Hall effect of photons, it can be much larger in magnitude and is inherent to waves of any nature. Experimental means to detect the phenomena are discussed.

  3. Prediction of giant intrinsic spin-Hall effect in strained p-GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph; Kubis, Tillmann; Vogl, Peter [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We present a systematic study of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various two dimensional nanostructures using the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. We include elastic impurity scattering as well as inelastic acoustical phonon scattering. The parameters for the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling are obtained from an atomistic tight binding calculation. We predict exceptionally large spin polarization effects in specially band engineered and geometrically designed nanostructures. In strained p-GasAs, we find a k-linear spin splitting that is enhanced by a factor of 50 compared to the unstrained case. We propose a T shaped three-terminal device that acts as a spin polarizer without external magnetic field. Optimizing the geometry with respect to the spin-precession length results in a spin accumulation at the drain contacts of up to 25%. We also study the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect. In a four-terminal ''H'' shaped structure it can be used to measure the direct spin-Hall effect by simply applying a gate voltage. For such a measurement, we predict a threshold value for the spin-orbit coupling strength that cannot be met by simple n-GaAs systems.

  4. Spectral Analysis of Non-ideal MRI Modes: The Effect of Hall Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandas, Gopakumar; Pessah, Martin E., E-mail: gopakumar@nbi.ku.dk, E-mail: mpessah@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2017-03-20

    The effect of magnetic field diffusion on the stability of accretion disks is a problem that has attracted considerable interest of late. In particular, the Hall effect has the potential to bring about remarkable changes in the dynamical behavior of disks that are without parallel. In this paper, we conduct a systematic examination of the linear eigenmodes in a weakly magnetized differentially rotating gas with a special focus on Hall diffusion. We first develop a geometrical representation of the eigenmodes and provide a detailed quantitative description of the polarization properties of the oscillatory modes under the combined influence of the Coriolis and Hall effects. We also analyze the effects of magnetic diffusion on the structure of the unstable modes and derive analytical expressions for the kinetic and magnetic stresses and energy densities associated with the non-ideal magnetorotational instability (MRI). Our analysis explicitly demonstrates that, if the dissipative effects are relatively weak, the kinetic stresses and energies make up the dominant contribution to the total stress and energy density when the equilibrium angular momentum and magnetic field vectors are anti-parallel. This is in sharp contrast to what is observed in the case of the ideal or dissipative MRI. We conduct shearing box simulations and find very good agreement with the results derived from linear theory. Because the modes under consideration are also exact solutions of the nonlinear equations, the unconventional nature of the kinetic and magnetic stresses may have significant implications for the nonlinear evolution in some regions of protoplanetary disks.

  5. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-22

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  6. In Situ Hall Effect Monitoring of Vacuum Annealing of In2O3:H Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans F. Wardenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen doped In2O3 thin films were prepared by room temperature sputter deposition with the addition of H2O to the sputter gas. By subsequent vacuum annealing, the films obtain high mobility up to 90 cm2/Vs. The films were analyzed in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical transmission and Hall effect measurements. Furthermore, we present results from in situ Hall effect measurements during vacuum annealing of In2O3:H films, revealing distinct dependence of carrier concentration and mobility with time at different annealing temperatures. We suggest hydrogen passivation of grain boundaries as the main reason for the high mobility obtained with In2O3:H films.

  7. Valley Hall Conductivity in Graphene: Effects of Higher-Order Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tsuneya

    2018-04-01

    The valley Hall conductivity, having opposite signs between the K and K' valleys, is calculated in monolayer and bilayer graphenes with nonzero gap in the presence of short-range scatterers within a single-site approximation. In the case of small disorder, the Hall conductivity is quantized into ±e2/2h and ±e2/h in the monolayer and bilayer graphene, respectively, in the gap region, while it is enhanced over the results in the absence of scatterers in the band region. With the increase in the strength of each impurity potential, large asymmetry between the conduction and valence band appears. For scatterers with attractive potential, the disorder parameter is effectively enhanced and reduced in the conduction and valence band, respectively. The behavior is opposite for repulsive scatterers. Effects of skew scattering causing asymmetry in the scattering direction remain small and do not play significant role.

  8. Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xiaohui [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002 (China); Yi, Xunong [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Wen, Shuangchun [Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-10-13

    We report the realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect. By breaking the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical vector beam, the intrinsic vortex phases that the two spin components of the vector beam carries, which is similar to the geometric Pancharatnam-Berry phase, are no longer continuous in the azimuthal direction, and leads to observation of spin accumulation at the opposite edge of the beam. Due to the inherent nature of the phase and independency of light-matter interaction, the observed photonic spin Hall effect is intrinsic. Modulating the topological charge of the vector beam, the spin-dependent splitting can be enhanced and the direction of spin accumulation is switchable. Our findings may provide a possible route for generation and manipulation of spin-polarized photons, and enables spin-based photonics applications.

  9. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  10. Topological magnon bands and unconventional thermal Hall effect on the frustrated honeycomb and bilayer triangular lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-09-27

    In the conventional ferromagnetic systems, topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect are due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). In principle, however, the DMI is either negligible or it is not allowed by symmetry in some quantum magnets. Therefore, we expect that topological magnon features will not be present in those systems. In addition, quantum magnets on the triangular-lattice are not expected to possess topological features as the DMI or spin-chirality cancels out due to equal and opposite contributions from adjacent triangles. Here, however, we predict that the isomorphic frustrated honeycomb-lattice and bilayer triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic system will exhibit topological magnon bands and topological thermal Hall effect in the absence of an intrinsic DMI. These unconventional topological magnon features are present as a result of magnetic-field-induced non-coplanar spin configurations with nonzero scalar spin chirality. The relevance of the results to realistic bilayer triangular antiferromagnetic materials are discussed.

  11. Scaling of Anomalous Hall Effects in Facing-Target Reactively Sputtered Fe4N Films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-13

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the reactively sputtered epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films is investigated systematically. The Hall resistivity is positive in the entire temperature range. The magnetization, carrier density and grain boundaries scattering have a major impact on the AHE scaling law. The scaling exponent γ in the conventional scaling of is larger than 2 in both the epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films. Although γ>2 has been found in heterogeneous systems due to the effects of the surface and interface scattering on AHE, γ>2 is not expected in homogenous epitaxial systems. We demonstrated that γ>2 results from residual resistivity (ρxx0) in γ′-Fe4N films. Furthermore, the side-jump and intrinsic mechanisms are dominant in both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples according to the proper scaling relation.

  12. Photoinduced quantum spin and valley Hall effects, and orbital magnetization in monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate that 100% valley-polarized transport in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides can be obtained using off-resonant circularly polarized light. By tuning the intensity of the off-resonant light the intrinsic band gap in one valley is reduced, while it is enhanced in the other valley, enabling single valley quantum transport. As a consequence, we predict (i) enhancement of the longitudinal electrical conductivity, accompanied by an increase in the spin polarization of the flowing electrons, (ii) enhancement of the intrinsic spin Hall effect, together with a reduction of the intrinsic valley Hall effect, and (iii) enhancement of the orbital magnetic moment and orbital magnetization. These mechanisms provide appealing opportunities to the design of nanoelectronics based on dichalcogenides.

  13. Oxidized Mn:Ge magnetic semiconductor: Observation of anomalous Hall effect and large magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc Dung, Dang; Choi, Jiyoun; Feng, Wuwei; Cao Khang, Nguyen; Cho, Sunglae

    2018-03-01

    We report on the structural and magneto-transport properties of the as-grown and oxidized Mn:Ge magnetic semiconductors. Based on X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, the samples annealed at 650 and 700 °C became fully oxidized and the chemical binding energies of Mn was found to be Mn3O4. Thus, the system became Mn3O4 clusters embedded in Ge1-yOy. The as-grown sample showed positive linear Hall effect and negligible negative magnetoresistance (MR), which trend remained for the sample annealed up to 550 °C. Interestingly, for the samples annealed at above 650 °C, we observed the anomalous Hall effect around 45 K and the giant positive MR, which are respectively 59.2% and 78.5% at 7 kOe annealed at 650 °C and 700 °C.

  14. Chiral pair of Fermi arcs, anomaly cancellation, and spin or valley Hall effects in Weyl metals with broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Iksu; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2018-04-01

    Anomaly cancellation has been shown to occur in broken time-reversal symmetry Weyl metals, which explains the existence of a Fermi arc. We extend this result in the case of broken inversion symmetry Weyl metals. Constructing a minimal model that takes a double pair of Weyl points, we demonstrate the anomaly cancellation explicitly. This demonstration explains why a chiral pair of Fermi arcs appear in broken inversion symmetry Weyl metals. In particular, we find that this pair of Fermi arcs gives rise to either "quantized" spin Hall or valley Hall effects, which corresponds to the "quantized" version of the charge Hall effect in broken time-reversal symmetry Weyl metals.

  15. Hall effect enhanced low-field sensitivity in a three-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    be attributed to an additional influence coming from the Hall effect. Output sensitivities of 0.19 mV/T at zero-field and 0.2 mV/T at 0.01 T have been measured in the device, which is equivalent to the ones of the conventional EMR sensors with a bias of ∼0.04 T

  16. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS ...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

  17. Spectrum Diagnosis for Fuchsia Plume of Hall Effect Thruster with Xenon as Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Daren; Ding Jiapeng; Dai Jingmin

    2006-01-01

    The colour of the Hall effect thruster's plume is often light-green, and sometimes a fuchsia plume appears during experiments. Based on a spectrum and colour analysis, and a comparison with normal plumes, a conclusion is made that the density of the Xe ions and the temperature of electrons are low when the plume appears fuchsia. In this condition, most of the components of the plume are Xe atoms, and the ionization rate of the propellant is low

  18. Properties of Hall magnetohydrodynamic waves modified by electron inertia and finite Larmor radius effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, P. A.; Wright, A. N.; McKenzie, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    The linear wave equation (sixth order in space and time) and the corresponding dispersion relation is derived for Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves including electron inertial and finite Larmor radius effects together with several limiting cases for a homogeneous plasma. We contrast these limits with the solution of the full dispersion relation in terms of wave normal (k perpendicular ,k || ) diagrams to clearly illustrate the range of applicability of the individual approximations. We analyze the solutions in terms of all three MHD wave modes (fast, slow, and Alfven), with particular attention given to how the Alfven branch (including the cold ideal field line resonance (FLR) [D. J. Southwood, Planet. Space Sci. 22, 483 (1974)]) is modified by the Hall term and electron inertial and finite Larmor radius effects. The inclusion of these terms breaks the degeneracy of the Alfven branch in the cold plasma limit and displaces the asymptote position for the FLR to a line defined by the electron thermal speed rather than the Alfven speed. For a driven system, the break in this degeneracy implies that a resonance would form at one field line for small k perpendicular and then shift to another as k perpendicular →∞. However for very large ωk perpendicular /V A , Hall term effects lead to a coupling to the whistler mode, which would then transport energy away from the resonant layer. The inclusion of the Hall term also significantly effects the characteristics of the slow mode. This analysis reveals an interesting 'swapping' of the perpendicular root behavior between the slow and Alfven branches.

  19. Orbital magnetic moment and extrinsic spin Hall effect for iron impurities in gold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Janiš, Václav; Lichtenstein, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 11 (2011), "113112-1"-"113112-4" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA AV ČR IAA100100912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : spin Hall effect * XMCD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v84/i11/e113112

  20. Interlayer Hall effect in double quantum wells subject to in-plane magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolorenč, Jindřich; Smrčka, Ludvík; Středa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2002), s. 085301-1 - 085301-7 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA ČR GA202/01/0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : double - layer two-dimensional electron system * magnetotransport * Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  1. Hall-Effect Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring Pier Scour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scour around bridge pier is a major cause of bridge failure such as collapse resulted in loss of life and property. Most of available sensors and approaches for monitoring bridge pier scour are very expensive, which is a main challenge for mass deployment of numerous bridges. Our proposed scour monitoring system utilized low-cost commercial sensors, hall-effect sensors (unit price< $1 that are capable of real-time measuring bridge pier scour with resolution of ~ 2.5 cm, and overall cost for single sensor node of our proposed work is at least 40 % less expensive than existing work. The hall- effect sensor is evaluated under controlled conditions in two laboratory flumes. After scour event, the typical voltage change of the hall-effect sensor is ~ 300 mV, and the system achieve signal-to-noise ratio performance of ~ 60 dB. Finally, we also provide an equation to predict the time variation of scour depth around pier model. Moreover, the master-slave architecture of bridge pier scour monitoring system has scalability and flexibility for mass deployment. This technique has the potential for further widespread implementation in the field.

  2. Chemical reaction at ferromagnet/oxide interface and its influence on anomalous Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Teng, Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xi; Li, Xu-Jing; Feng, Chun; Wang, Hai-Cheng; Li, Ming-Hua; Yu, Guang-Hua; Wu, Zheng-Long

    2014-01-01

    Chemical reactions at the ferromagnet/oxide interface in [Pt/Fe] 3 /MgO and [Pt/Fe] 3 /SiO 2 multilayers before and after annealing were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that Fe atoms at the Fe/MgO interface were completely oxidized in the as-grown state and significantly deoxidized after vacuum annealing. However, only some of the Fe atoms at the Fe/SiO 2 interface were oxidized and rarely deoxidized after annealing. The anomalous Hall effect was modified by this interfacial chemical reaction. The saturation anomalous Hall resistance (R xy ) was greatly increased in the [Pt/Fe] 3 /MgO multilayers after annealing and was 350% higher than that in the as-deposited film, while R xy of the [Pt/Fe] 3 /SiO 2 multilayer only increased 10% after annealing.

  3. Annealing effects on resistivity and Hall coefficient of neutron irradiated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggeri, U.

    1995-01-01

    High Temperature Annealing (HTA) treatment has been carried out on fast-neutron irradiated silicon samples with temperatures up to 300 C. Fluences of irradiation up to 1x10 14 n/cm 2 were used. Before annealing, samples irradiated with fluences higher than 1x10 13 n/cm 2 suffered the type conductivity inversion from n-type to p-type. The changes in the resisitivity and Hall coefficient during each annealing step have been measured by Hall effect analysis. Results indicate the possible creation of acceptors for low temperature annealing up to 150 C and the phosphorous release by E centres at annealing temperatures among 150 C and 200 C. Heating samples up to 300 C allows the recovering of the sample resistivity to its value before irradiation, with the peculiarity that bulks inverted to p-type after irradiation does not come back to n-type after annealing. (orig.)

  4. Intrinsic quantum anomalous hall effect in a two-dimensional anilato-based lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Huaqing; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng

    2018-06-13

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state in a monolayer anilato-based metal-organic framework M2(C6O4X2)3 (M = Mn and Tc, X = F, Cl, Br and I). The spin-orbit coupling of M d orbitals opens a nontrivial band gap up to 18 meV at the Dirac point. The electron counting rule is used to explain the intrinsic nature of the QAH state. The calculated nonzero Chern number, gapless edge states and quantized Hall conductance all confirm the nontrivial topological properties in the anilato-based lattice. Our findings provide an organic materials platform for the realization of the QAH effect without the need for magnetic and charge doping, which are highly desirable for the development of low-energy-consumption spintronic devices.

  5. Hall effect in high- Tc Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Burke, T.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Safari, A.; Sundar, H. G. K.; Bonometti, R.; Alexander, C.; Rau, C.; Waters, K.

    1989-04-01

    We have performed point-by-point and continuous Hall effect experiments as a function of temperature in polycrystalline Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ. We have shown that the positive Hall constant shows an abrupt increase upon decreasing temperature at a value just above Tc. This temperature corresponds to where the resistance versus temperature data deviates from linearity. At very high fields of 6.8 and 15 T we observe a subsequent decrease in RH. We interpret these data as supportive of a contribution toward the superconductivity mechanism arising from internal excitions or change transfer excitations such that the bound exciton concentration increases near Tc at the expense of positive carries which are reflected in both bound and free holes.

  6. Effect of Anode Magnetic Shield on Magnetic Field and Ion Beam in Cylindrical Hall Thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jie; Wang Shiqing; Liu Jian; Xu Li; Tang Deli; Geng Shaofei

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the effect of the anode magnetic shielding on the magnetic field and ion beam in a cylindrical Hall thruster is presented. The results show that after the anode is shielded by the magnetic shield, the magnetic field lines near the anode surface are obviously convex curved, the ratio of the magnetic mirror is enhanced, the width of the positive magnetic field gradient becomes larger than that without the anode magnetic shielding, the radial magnetic field component is enhanced, and the discharge plasma turbulence is reduced as a result of keeping the original saddle field profile and the important role the other two saddle field profiles play in restricting electrons. The results of the particle in cell (PIC) numerical simulation show that both the ion number and the energy of the ion beam increase after the anode is shielded by the magnetic shield. In other words, the specific impulse of the cylindrical Hall thruster is enhanced.

  7. The Hall effect: An acid test for the Luttinger liquid theory of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Hall effect has been one of the most intriguing puzzles of the 'normal' metallic state in cuprate superconductors. It is shown that the Luttinger liquid theory provides a quantitative picture of the data, in particular showing that relaxation time τ perpendicular defined by the Hall angle tan θ H ω c τ perpendicular is the relaxation rate of the spinon elementary excitations and that θ H has a simple and characteristic temperature dependence (A+BT 2 ) -1 . Observed magnitudes of θ H are incompatible with Fermi liquid theory. A discussion is added of the interlayer mechanism for superconductivity and the new form of BCS gap equation which results from it. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Low temperature hall effect investigation of conducting polymer-carbon nanotubes composite network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Afarin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Behzad, Kasra; M Abdi, Mahnaz; Din, Fasih Ud

    2012-11-14

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-carboxylic functionalized multi wall carbon nanotube composites (PPy/f-MWCNT) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structure of the resulting complex nanotubes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of f-MWCNT concentration on the electrical properties of the resulting composites were studied at temperatures between 100 K and 300 K. The Hall mobility and Hall coefficient of PPy and PPy/f-MWCNT composite samples with different concentrations of f-MWCNT were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility decreased slightly with increasing temperature, while the conductivity was dominated by the gradually increasing carrier density.

  9. Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-25

    The electronic properties of silicene are distinct from both the conventional two dimensional electron gas and the famous graphene due to strong spin orbit interaction and the buckled structure. Silicene has the potential to overcome limitations encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address the longitudinal conductivity for elastic impurity scattering in the first Born approximation. We show that the combination of an electric field with intrinsic spin orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state. Silicene constitutes a model system for exploring the spin and valley physics not accessible in graphene due to the small spin orbit interaction.

  10. Investigation of the Hall Effect Thruster Breathing Mode and Spoke Mode Instabilities in the Very Near Field

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most practical forms of electric propulsion is the Hall Effect Thruster (HET), which makes use of electric and magnetic fields to create and eject a...

  11. Assessment of bilayer silicene to probe as quantum spin and valley Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Majeed Ur; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2018-02-01

    Silicene takes precedence over graphene due to its buckling type structure and strong spin orbit coupling. Motivated by these properties, we study the silicene bilayer in the presence of applied perpendicular electric field and intrinsic spin orbit coupling to probe as quantum spin/valley Hall effect. Using analytical approach, we calculate the spin Chern-number of bilayer silicene and then compare it with monolayer silicene. We reveal that bilayer silicene hosts double spin Chern-number as compared to single layer silicene and therefore accordingly has twice as many edge states in contrast to single layer silicene. In addition, we investigate the combined effect of intrinsic spin orbit coupling and the external electric field, we find that bilayer silicene, likewise single layer silicene, goes through a phase transitions from a quantum spin Hall state to a quantum valley Hall state when the strength of the applied electric field exceeds the intrinsic spin orbit coupling strength. We believe that the results and outcomes obtained for bilayer silicene are experimentally more accessible as compared to bilayer graphene, because of strong SO coupling in bilayer silicene.

  12. Design and Testing of a Hall Effect Thruster with Additively Manufactured Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, Ethan

    The UAH-78AM is a low-power Hall effect thruster developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville to study the application of low-cost additive manufacturing in the design and fabrication of Hall thrusters. The goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of using unconventional materials to produce a low-cost functioning Hall effect thruster and consider how additive manufacturing can expand the design space and provide other benefits. The thruster features channel walls and a propellant distributor that were manufactured using 3D printing with a variety of materials including ABS, ULTEM, and glazed ceramic. A version of the thruster was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain performance metrics and to validate the ability of the thruster to produce thrust and sustain a discharge. The design of the thruster and the transient performance measurements are presented here. Measured thrust ranged from 17.2 mN to 30.4 mN over a discharge power of 280 W to 520 W with an anode Isp range of 870 s to 1450 s. Temperature limitations of materials used for the channel walls and propellant distributor limit the ability to run the thruster at thermal steady-state. While the current thruster design is not yet ready for continuous operation, revisions to the device that could enable longer duration tests are discussed.

  13. Hall effect in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Tóth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jia, X.; Combi, M. R.; Hansen, K. C.; Fougere, N.; Shou, Y.; Tenishev, V.; Altwegg, K.; Rubin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics simulations have been carried out in studying the solar wind and cometary plasma interactions for decades. Various plasma boundaries have been simulated and compared well with observations for comet 1P/Halley. The Rosetta mission, which studies comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, challenges our understanding of the solar wind and comet interactions. The Rosetta Plasma Consortium observed regions of very weak magnetic field outside the predicted diamagnetic cavity. In this paper, we simulate the inner coma with the Hall magnetohydrodynamics equations and show that the Hall effect is important in the inner coma environment. The magnetic field topology becomes complex and magnetic reconnection occurs on the dayside when the Hall effect is taken into account. The magnetic reconnection on the dayside can generate weak magnetic field regions outside the global diamagnetic cavity, which may explain the Rosetta Plasma Consortium observations. We conclude that the substantial change in the inner coma environment is due to the fact that the ion inertial length (or gyro radius) is not much smaller than the size of the diamagnetic cavity.

  14. Scaling relation of the anomalous Hall effect in (Ga,Mn)As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glunk, M.; Daeubler, J.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2009-09-01

    We present magnetotransport studies performed on an extended set of (Ga,Mn)As samples at 4.2 K with longitudinal conductivities σxx ranging from the low-conductivity to the high-conductivity regime. The anomalous Hall conductivity σxy(AH) is extracted from the measured longitudinal and Hall resistivities. A transition from σxy(AH)=20Ω-1cm-1 due to the Berry phase effect in the high-conductivity regime to a scaling relation σxy(AH)∝σxx1.6 for low-conductivity samples is observed. This scaling relation is consistent with a recently developed unified theory of the anomalous Hall effect in the framework of the Keldysh formalism. It turns out to be independent of crystallographic orientation, growth conditions, Mn concentration, and strain, and can therefore be considered universal for low-conductivity (Ga,Mn)As. The relation plays a crucial role when deriving values of the hole concentration from magnetotransport measurements in low-conductivity (Ga,Mn)As. In addition, the hole diffusion constants for the high-conductivity samples are determined from the measured longitudinal conductivities.

  15. Effects of facility backpressure on the performance and plume of a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mitchell Louis Ronald

    2005-07-01

    This dissertation presents research aimed at understanding the relationship between facility background pressure, Hall thruster performance, and plume characteristics. Due to the wide range of facilities used in Hall thruster testing, it is difficult for researchers to make adequate comparisons between data sets because of both dissimilar instrumentation and backpressures. The differences in the data sets are due to the ingestion of background gas into the Hall thruster discharge channel and charge-exchange collisions in the plume. Thus, this research aims to understand facility effects and to develop the tools needed to allow researchers to obtain relevant plume and performance data for a variety of chambers and backpressures. The first portion of this work develops a technique for calibrating a vacuum chamber in terms of pressure to account for elevated backpressures while testing Hall thrusters. Neutral gas background pressure maps of the Large Vacuum Test Facility are created at a series of cold anode flow rates and one hot flow rate at two UM/AFRL P5 5 kW Hall thruster operating conditions. These data show that a cold flow pressure map can be used to approximate the neutral background pressure in the chamber with the thruster in operation. In addition, the data are used to calibrate a numerical model that accurately predicts facility backpressure within a vacuum chamber of specified geometry and pumping speed. The second portion of this work investigates how facility backpressure influences the plume, plume diagnostics, and performance of the P5 Hall thruster. Measurements of the plume and performance characteristics over a wide range of pressures show that ingestion, a decrease in the downstream plasma potential, and broadening of the ion energy distribution function cause the increase in thrust with backpressure. Furthermore, a magnetically-filtered Faraday probe accurately measures ion current density at elevated operating pressures. The third portion of

  16. Steady convection in MHD Benard problem with Hall effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Palese

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we apply some variants of the classical energy method to study the nonlinear Lyapunov stability of the thermodiffusive equilibrium for a viscous thermoelectroconducting fully ionized fluid in a horizontal layer heated from below. The classical L^2 norm, too weak to highlight some stabilizing or unstabilizing effects, can be used to dominate the nonlinear terms. A more fine Lyapunov function is obtained by reformulating the initial perturbation evolution problem, in terms of some independent scalar fields. In such a way, if the principle of exchange of stabilities holds, we obtain the coincidence of linear and nonlinear stability bounds.

  17. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha; Dolan, Mike; Ali, Yusuf; Cline, Mojee

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university residence halls. This study involved a total of 430 students recruited from 4 residence halls during the fall semester at the University of Colorado at the Boulder campus. Dormitories were paired into control and product groups. In the product groups, alcohol gel hand-sanitizer dispensers were installed in every room, bathroom, and dining hall. The data were statistically analyzed for the differences between product and control groups in reported symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism from classes. The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school/work days. Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of handwashing through increasing awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, and the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer in university dormitories. This resulted in fewer upper respiratory-illness symptoms, lower illness rates, and lower absenteeism.

  18. Pumping conductance, the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect, and statistics of topological invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhaus, Jan; Ilan, Roni; Freed, Daniel; Freedman, Michael; Moore, Joel E.

    2015-06-01

    The pumping conductance of a disordered two-dimensional Chern insulator scales with increasing size and fixed disorder strength to sharp plateau transitions at well-defined energies between ordinary and quantum Hall insulators. When the disorder strength is scaled to zero as system size increases, the "metallic" regime of fluctuating Chern numbers can extend over the whole band. A simple argument leads to a sort of weighted equipartition of Chern number over minibands in a finite system with periodic boundary conditions: even though there must be strong fluctuations between disorder realizations, the mean Chern number at a given energy is determined by the clean Berry curvature distribution, as in the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect formula for metals. This estimate is compared to numerical results using recently developed operator algebra methods, and indeed the dominant variation of average Chern number is explained by the intrinsic anomalous Hall formula. A mathematical appendix provides more precise definitions and a model for the full distribution of Chern numbers.

  19. Resonant scattering on impurities in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvitz, A.

    1994-06-01

    We developed a new approach to carrier transport between the edge states via resonant scattering on impurities, which is applicable both for short and long range impurities. A detailed analysis of resonant scattering on a single impurity is performed. The results used for study of the inter-edge transport by multiple resonant hopping via different impurities' site. We found the total conductance can be obtained from an effective Schroedinger equation with constant diagonal matrix elements in the Hamiltonian, where the complex non-diagonal matrix elements are the amplitudes of a carrier hopping between different impurities. It is explicitly shown how the complex phase leads to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the total conductance. Neglecting the contribution of self-crossing resonant-percolation trajectories, we found that the inter-edge carrier transport is similar to propagation in one-dimensional system with off-diagonal disorder. Then we demonstrated that each Landau band has an extended state Ε Ν , while all other states are localized, and the localization length behaves as L - 1 Ν (Ε) ∼ (Ε - Ε Ν ) 2 . (author)

  20. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  1. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    While annular Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope from 1 kW down to 100 W while maintaining an efficiency of 45-55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. In addition, the central magnetic pole piece defining the interior wall of the annular channel can experience excessive heat loads in a miniaturized Hall thruster, with the temperature eventually exceeding the Curie temperature of the material and in extreme circumstances leading to accelerated erosion of the channel wall. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from 50 W up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHTs insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio is lower. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion, making the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. This potential for high performance in the low-power regime has served as the impetus for research and development efforts aimed at understanding and improving CHT performance. Recently, a 2.6 cm channel diameter permanent magnet CHT (shown in Fig. 1) was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed

  2. Hall effects on peristalsis of boron nitride-ethylene glycol nanofluid with temperature dependent thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Gul, Maimoona; Shehzad, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Current study provides a comprehensive numerical investigation of the peristaltic transport of boron nitride-ethylene glycol nanofluid through a symmetric channel in presence of magnetic field. Significant effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis have been included in the energy equation. Hall and Ohmic heating effects are also taken into consideration. Resulting system of non-linear equations is solved numerically using NDSolve in Mathematica. Expressions for velocity, temperature, concentration and streamlines are derived and plotted under the assumption of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Influence of various parameters on heat and mass transfer rates have been discussed with the help of bar charts.

  3. Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru

  4. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-03

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.

  5. Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Chuan; Huang, Leng-Wei; Hung, Dung-Shing; Chiang, Tung-Han; Huang, J. C. A.; Liang, Jun-Zhi; Lee, Shang-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered

  6. Field effect in the quantum Hall regime of a high mobility graphene wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, C., E-mail: cbarraud@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Choi, T.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Butti, P.; Shorubalko, I. [Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Science and Technologies, EMPA Elect. Metrol. Reliabil. Lab., CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-08-21

    In graphene-based electronic devices like in transistors, the field effect applied thanks to a gate electrode allows tuning the charge density in the graphene layer and passing continuously from the electron to the hole doped regime across the Dirac point. Homogeneous doping is crucial to understand electrical measurements and for the operation of future graphene-based electronic devices. However, recently theoretical and experimental studies highlighted the role of the electrostatic edge due to fringing electrostatic field lines at the graphene edges [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008); F. T. Vasko and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092115 (2010)]. This effect originates from the particular geometric design of the samples. A direct consequence is a charge accumulation at the graphene edges giving a value for the density, which deviates from the simple picture of a plate capacitor and also varies along the width of the graphene sample. Entering the quantum Hall regime would, in principle, allow probing this accumulation thanks to the extreme sensitivity of this quantum effect to charge density and the charge distribution. Moreover, the presence of an additional and counter-propagating edge channel has been predicted [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008)] giving a fundamental aspect to this technological issue. In this article, we investigate this effect by tuning a high mobility graphene wire into the quantum Hall regime in which charge carriers probe the electrostatic potential at high magnetic field close to the edges. We observe a slight deviation to the linear shift of the quantum Hall plateaus with magnetic field and we study its evolution for different filling factors, which correspond to different probed regions in real space. We discuss the possible origins of this effect including an increase of the charge density towards the edges.

  7. Effect of anisotropy on anomalous Hall effect in Tb-Fe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, V. Hari; Markandeyulu, G.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2009-01-01

    The electrical and Hall resistivities of Tb x Fe 100-x thin films in the temperature range 13-300 K were investigated. The sign of Hall resistivity at 300 K is found to change from positive for x=28 film to negative for x=30 film, in accordance with the compensation of Tb and Fe moments. All the films are seen to have planar magnetic anisotropy at 13 K. The temperature coefficients of electrical resistivities of the amorphous films with 19≤x≤51 are seen to be negative. The temperature dependence of Hall resistivity of these films is explained on the basis of random magnetic anisotropy model. The temperature dependences of Hall resistivities of the x=22 and 41 films are seen to exhibit a nonmonotonous behavior due to change in anisotropy from perpendicular to planar. The same behavior is considered for the explanation regarding the probable formation of Berry phase curvature in these films.

  8. Spin-Hall effect and emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition in n-Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Paul C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-04-01

    Spin current experiences minimal dephasing and scattering in Si due to small spin-orbit coupling and spin-lattice interactions is the primary source of spin relaxation. We hypothesize that if the specimen dimension is of the same order as the spin diffusion length then spin polarization will lead to non-equilibrium spin accumulation and emergent phase transition. In n-Si, spin diffusion length has been reported up to 6 μm. The spin accumulation in Si will modify the thermal transport behavior of Si, which can be detected with thermal characterization. In this study, we report observation of spin-Hall effect and emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition behavior using magneto-electro-thermal transport characterization. The freestanding Pd (1 nm)/Ni80Fe20 (75 nm)/MgO (1 nm)/n-Si (2 μm) thin film specimen exhibits a magnetic field dependent thermal transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance behavior attributed to Rashba effect. An emergent phase transition is discovered using self-heating 3ω method, which shows a diverging behavior at 270 K as a function of temperature similar to a second order phase transition. We propose that spin-Hall effect leads to the spin accumulation and resulting emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition. We propose that the length scale for Rashba effect can be equal to the spin diffusion length and two-dimensional electron gas is not essential for it. The emergent antiferromagnetic phase transition is attributed to the site inversion asymmetry in diamond cubic Si lattice.

  9. The effect of magnetic mirror on near wall conductivity in Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, D.; Liu, H.; Fu, H.; Cao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of magnetic mirror on near wall conductivity is studied in the acceleration region of Hall thrusters. The electron dynamics process in the plasma is described by test particle method, in which electrons are randomly emitted from the centerline towards the inner wall of the channel. It is found that the effective collision coefficient, i.e. the rate of electrons colliding with the wall, changes dramatically with the magnetic mirror effect being considered; and that it decreases further with the increase of magnetic mirror ratio to enhance the electron mobility accordingly. In particular, under anistropic electron velocity distribution conditions, the magnetic mirror effect becomes even more prominent. Furthermore, due to decrease in magnetic mirror ratio from the exhaust plane to the anode in Hall thrusters, the axial gradient of electron mobility with magnetic mirror effect is greater than without it. The magnetic mirror effects on electron mobility are derived analytically and the results are found in agreement with the simulation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and piezoelectric effect in GaAs Hall samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2017-02-01

    Application of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to a two-dimensional electron system leads to a variety of quantum phases ranging from incompressible quantum Hall liquid to Wigner solid, charge density wave, and exotic non-Abelian states. A few quantum phases seen in past experiments on GaAs Hall samples of electrons show pronounced anisotropic magnetoresistance values at certain weak magnetic fields. We argue that this might be due to the piezoelectric effect that is inherent in a semiconductor host such as GaAs. Such an effect has the potential to create a sufficient in-plane internal strain that will be felt by electrons and will determine the direction of high and low resistance. When Wigner solid, charge density wave, and isotropic liquid phases are very close in energy, the overall stability of the system is very sensitive to local order and, thus, can be strongly influenced even by a weak perturbation such as the piezoelectric-induced effective electron-electron interaction, which is anisotropic. In this work, we argue that an anisotropic interaction potential may stabilize anisotropic liquid phases of electrons even in a strong magnetic field regime where normally one expects to see only isotropic quantum Hall or isotropic Fermi liquid states. We use this approach to support a theoretical framework that envisions the possibility of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state of electrons in the lowest Landau level. In particular, we argue that an anisotropic liquid state of electrons may stabilize in the lowest Landau level close to the liquid-solid transition region at filling factor ν =1 /6 for a given anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for a liquid crystalline state with broken rotational symmetry indicate stability of liquid crystalline order consistent with the existence of an anisotropic liquid state of electrons stabilized by anisotropy at filling factor ν =1 /6 of the lowest Landau level.

  11. Effect of dust on tilted electrostatic resistive instability in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Jasvendra; Singh, Sukhmander; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of negatively charged dust on resistive instability corresponding to the electrostatic wave is investigated in a Hall thruster plasma when this purely azimuthal wave is tilted and strong axial component of wave vector is developed. Analytical calculations are done to obtain the relevant dispersion equation, which is solved numerically to investigate the growth rate of the instability. The magnitude of the growth rate in the plasma having dust particles is found to be much smaller than the case of pure plasma. However, the instability grows faster for the increasing dust density and the higher charge on the dust particles. The higher magnetic field is also found to support the instability.

  12. Empirical electron cross-field mobility in a Hall effect thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrigues, L.; Perez-Luna, J.; Lo, J.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Mazouffre, S.

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport across the magnetic field in Hall effect thrusters is still an open question. Models have so far assumed 1/B 2 or 1/B scaling laws for the 'anomalous' electron mobility, adjusted to reproduce the integrated performance parameters of the thruster. We show that models based on such mobility laws predict very different ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) than measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A fixed spatial mobility profile, obtained by analysis of improved LIF measurements, leads to much better model predictions of thruster performance and IVDF than 1/B 2 or 1/B mobility laws for discharge voltages in the 500-700 V range.

  13. Spin-dependent Hall effect in degenerate semiconductors: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M

    2008-01-01

    The spin-dependent Hall (SDH) effect in degenerate semiconductors is investigated theoretically. Starting from a two-component drift-diffusion equation, an expression for SDH voltage (V SDH ) is derived, and drift and diffusive contributions to V SDH are studied. For the possible enhancement of the diffusive part, degenerate and nondegenerate cases are examined. We find that due to an increase in the diffusion coefficient V SDH increases in a degenerate semiconductor, consistent with the experimental observations. The expression for V SDH is reduced in three limiting cases, namely diffusive, drift-diffusion crossover and drift, and is analysed. The results agree with those obtained in recent theoretical investigations.

  14. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bisig, André

    2017-01-04

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  15. Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

    2013-01-04

    We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern.

  16. Transport theory for disordered multiple-band systems: Anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalev, A.A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Výborný, Karel; Sinova, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 19 (2009), 19529/1-19529/19 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KJB100100802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic materials * Hall effect * magnetoresistance * quasiparticles * spin-orbit interactions * two-dimensional electro n gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.79.195129

  17. Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bisig, André ; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Rhensius, Jan; Moutafis, Christoforos; von Bieren, Arndt; Heidler, Jakoba; Kiliani, Gillian; Kammerer, Matthias; Curcic, Michael; Weigand, Markus; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schü tz, Gisela; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Klä ui, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.

  18. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection

    KAUST Repository

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim

    2017-07-19

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a residue-free graphene film using a thin gold supporting layer. A Hall effect device made of this gold-transferred graphene was demonstrated to significantly enhance the sensitivity (≈ 5 times) for hybridization detection, with a linear detection range of 1 pM – 100nM for DNA target. Our findings provide an efficient method to boost the sensitivity of graphene-based biosensors for DNA recognition.

  19. Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.M.; Qamar, Rashid

    2009-01-01

    The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties

  20. Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow of an Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between concentric cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, M.A. [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mafzalrana@yahoo.com; Siddiqui, A.M. [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, York Campus, York, PA 17403 (United States); Qamar, Rashid [Management Information System, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2009-01-15

    The hydromagnetic flow of an electrically conducting, incompressible Oldroyd 6-constant fluid between two concentric cylinders is investigated. The flow is generated by moving inner cylinder and/or application of the constant pressure gradient. Two non-linear boundary value problems are solved numerically. The effects of material parameters, pressure gradient, magnetic field and Hall parameter on the velocity are studied. The graphical representation of velocity reveals that characteristics for shear thinning/shear thickening behaviour of a fluid is dependent upon the rheological properties.

  1. Diffusion in plasma: The Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urpin, V., E-mail: Vadim.urpin@uv.es [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and Hall effect is considered, and it is argued that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of a chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type of waves in which the impurity number density oscillates alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure.

  2. Defects characterization of arsenic implanted silicon by AC Hall effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, H.; Ghibaudo, G.; Christofides, C.

    1986-01-01

    AC and DC Hall effects measurements as a function of temperature (77 - 300K) and frequency (1Hz - 100KHz) have been performed to characterize implanted Silicon films. This technique enables the determination of the annihilation processes of defects in such layers as a function of temperature of isochronal annealings (300/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C during 1 hour). The experimental results are discussed with respect to proper transport models based on short and long range disorder considerations in order to find out the features of defects and inhomogeneities arising from implantation and their thermal annihilation after isochronal annealing

  3. Electromagnetic spin–orbit interaction and giant spin-Hall effect in dielectric particle clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yineng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-09

    We report a phenomenon that electromagnetic spin–orbit interactions can be tailored by dielectric nanoparticles, and self-similar giant spin-Hall effect has been observed in the dielectric particle cluster. The near-field phase singularities and phase vorticity in the longitudinal component of scattered field can also be controlled by such a dielectric structure. The origin of phenomena is believed to be due to the collective resonance excitation in the dielectric particle cluster. It is expected to find applications in optics information processing and designing new nanophotonic devices.

  4. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  5. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  6. Some applications of the field theory to condensed matter physics: the different sides of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandelier, F.

    2003-12-01

    The quantum Hall effect appears in low temperature electron systems submitted to intense magnetic fields. Electrons are trapped in a thin layer (∼ 100.10 -8 cm thick) at the interface between 2 semiconductors or between a semiconductor and an insulating material. This thesis presents 3 personal contributions to the physics of plane systems and particularly to quantum Hall effect systems. The first contribution is a topological approach, it involves the study of Landau's problem in a geometry nearing that of Hall effect experiments. A mathematical formalism has been defined and by using the Kubo's formula, the quantification of the Hall conductivity can be linked to the Chern class of threaded holes. The second contribution represents a phenomenological approach based on dual symmetries and particularly on modular symmetries. This contribution uses visibility diagrams that have already produced right predictions concerning resistivity curves or band structures. The introduction of a physical equivalence has allowed us to build a phase diagram for the quantum Hall effect at zero temperature. This phase diagram agrees with the experimental facts concerning : -) the existence of 2 insulating phases, -) direct transitions between an insulating phase and any Hall phase through integer or fractionary values of the filling factor (ν), -) selection rules, and -) classification of the Hall states and their distribution around a metal state. The third contribution concerns another phenomenological approach based on duality symmetries. We have considered a class of (2+1)-dimensional effective models with a Maxwell-Chern-Simons part that includes a non-locality. This non-locality implies the existence of a hidden duality symmetry with a Z 2 component: z → 1/z. This symmetry has allowed us to meet the results of the Fisher's law concerning the components of the resistivity tensor. (A.C.)

  7. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in a pyrochlore Kondo lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefe, Sarah; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    The metallic variant of the pyrochlore iridates Pr2Ir2O7 has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state [PRL 96 087204 (2006), PRL 98, 057203 (2007), Nature 463, 210 (2010)] and quantum criticality [Nat. Mater. 13, 356 (2014)]. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr2Ir2O7 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on the pyrochlore lattice. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations and determine the zero-temperature phase diagram. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr2Ir2O7 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  8. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in frustrated Kondo lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschen, Silke; Grefe, Sarah Elaine; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    Among the pyrochlore iridates, the metallic compound Pr2 Ir2O7 (Pr-227) has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state and quantum criticality. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr-227 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on frustrated lattices. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr-227 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  9. Hall effect and photoconductivity lifetime studies of gallium nitride, indium nitride, and mercury cadmium telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Craig H.

    A deep understanding of both carrier recombination and transport is necessary for semiconductor engineering, particularly in defining the ultimate limits of performance for a given device before spending the resources to perfect its fabrication. Hall effect measurements utilizing a variable magnetic field are necessary to discriminate between conduction in epitaxial layers and conduction originating at the surface or at an interfacial layer. For thick hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) grown GaN, variable field Hall measurements revealed the presence of small but significant lower mobility surface and interface electrons which would otherwise lead to errors in interpreting the electrical properties. In addition, QMSA analysis of the measurements indicates that thick GaN samples contain a large spread in electron mobility values, most likely with depth. For molecular beam epitaxial InN, it was found that electrical measurements are affected by surface charge conduction, as well as the non-uniformity of mobility and carrier concentration with depth. Both of these effects mask the surprisingly high quality of the material close to the surface. Photoconductance lifetime and variable-magnetic-field Hall and transient measurements were performed on a series of undoped, In-doped and As-doped HgCdTe grown by MBE and MOCVD. N-type layers often significantly influence the interpretation of the electrical measurements. Even the best Low Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) n-type material still appears to be dominated by defect-related recombination, as intrinsic lifetimes calculated with full band structure can be well above those measured. Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) lifetimes increase somewhat with carrier concentration, as if the n-type doping process were passivating Schockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defects. P-type MWIR films lie mainly below the predicted values, and their relationship between concentration and lifetime is essentially unchanged by growth technique, indicating that a

  10. Investigation of carrier density and mobility in microcrystalline silicon alloys using Hall effect and thermopower measurements; Untersuchung der Ladungstraegerkonzentration und -beweglichkeit in mikrokristallinen Siliziumlegierungen mit Hall-Effekt und Thermokraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellmer, Christian

    2012-08-31

    The electronic properties of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers in thin-film solar cells significantly affect the efficiency of solar cells. An important property of the individual layer is the electronic transport, which is described by the variables conductivity, photoconductivity, mobility, and carrier concentration. In the past, individual characterization methods were typically used to determine the electronic properties. Using the combination of Hall effect, conductivity, and thermoelectric power measurements additional variables can be derived, such as the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge, making a more detailed description of the material possible. To systematically study the electronic properties - in particular carrier mobility and carrier concentration - various series of silicon films are prepared for this work including microcrystalline silicon layers of different doping and crystallinity and a series of silicon films where the Fermi level is moved by irradiation with high energy electrons on one and the same sample. The results show that the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline transport is relatively abrupt. If the electron transport takes place in only amorphous regions, it is marked by the sign anomaly of the Hall effect. If a continuous crystalline path exists, the electronic properties are dominated by the crystalline volume fraction. The results of the measurements of silicon layers are compared with those of microcrystalline silicon carbide samples. Silicon carbide is especially interesting for future applications in thin-film solar cells due to high transparency and high conductivity. It is shown that the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge as a function of temperature in p- and n-type microcrystalline silicon and silicon carbide samples largely coincide with those of crystalline silicon or silicon carbide. A square root shaped profile of the density of

  11. Design and development of DC high current sensor using Hall-Effect method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Sasti Dwi Tungga; Panatarani, C.; Joni, I. Made

    2016-02-01

    This paper report a newly developed high DC current sensor by using a Hall effect method and also the measurement system. The Hall effect sensor receive the magnetic field generated by a current carrying conductor wire. The SS49E (Honeywell) magnetoresistive sensor was employed to sense the magnetic field from the field concentrator. The voltage received from SS49E then converted into digital by using analog to digital converter (ADC-10 bit). The digital data then processed in the microcontroller to be displayed as the value of the electric current in the LCD display. In addition the measurement was interfaced into Personal Computer (PC) using the communication protocols of RS232 which was finally displayed in real-time graphical form on the PC display. The performance test on the range ± 40 Ampere showed that the maximum relative error is 5.26%. It is concluded that the sensors and the measurement system worked properly according to the design with acceptable accuracy.

  12. Design and Testing of a Hall Effect Thruster with 3D Printed Channel and Propellant Distributor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, Ethan P.; Xu, Kunning G.

    2017-01-01

    The UAH-78AM is a low-power Hall effect thruster developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville with channel walls and a propellant distributor manufactured using 3D printing. The goal of this project is to assess the feasibility of using unconventional materials to produce a low-cost functioning Hall effect thruster and consider how additive manufacturing can expand the design space and provide other benefits. A version of the thruster was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center to obtain performance metrics and to validate the ability of the thruster to produce thrust and sustain a discharge. An overview of the thruster design and transient performance measurements are presented here. Measured thrust ranged from 17.2 millinewtons to 30.4 millinewtons over a discharge power of 280 watts to 520 watts with an anode I (sub SP)(Specific Impulse) range of 870 seconds to 1450 seconds. Temperature limitations of materials used for the channel walls and propellant distributor limit the ability to run the thruster at thermal steady-state.

  13. Tuning the stability and the skyrmion Hall effect in magnetic skyrmions by adjusting their exchange strengths with magnetic disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wu, H. Z.; Miao, B. F.; Wu, D.; Ding, H. F.

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic skyrmion is a promising candidate for the future information technology due to its small size, topological protection and the ultralow current density needed to displace it. The applications, however, are currently limited by its narrow phase diagram and the skyrmion Hall effect which prevents the skyrmion motion at high speed. In this work, we study the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction induced magnetic skyrmion that exchange coupled with magnetic nano-disks utilizing the micromagnetic simulation. We find that the stability and the skyrmion Hall effect of the created skyrmion can be tuned effectively with the coupling strength, thus opens the space to optimize the performance of the skyrmion based devices.

  14. Hall A

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electroand photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity...

  15. Hall C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hall C's initial complement of equipment (shown in the figure), includes two general-purpose magnetic spectrometers. The High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) has a large...

  16. The effect of Ni and Fe doping on Hall anomaly in vortex state of doped YBCO samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazarzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated hall effect on YBa2Cu3-xMxO7-δ (M=Ni, Fe bulk samples, with dopant amount 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.045 for Ni and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03 for Fe, with magnetic field (H=2.52, 4.61, 6.27 kOe perpendicular to sample’s surface with constant current 100 mA. Our study shows that as both dopants increases, TC decreases and it decreases faster by Ni . In these ranges of dopant and magnetic field the Hall sign reversal has been observed in all samples once and also ∆max has occurred in lower temperatures, its magnitude increases by Ni, and in Fe doped samples except in sample with dopant amount x=0.03, which almost decreases, that it can show effect of magnetic doping on hall effect.

  17. Tunable anomalous hall effect induced by interfacial catalyst in perpendicular multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Peng, W. L.; Sun, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Dong, B. W.; Zheng, X. Q.; Yu, G. H.; Wang, C.; Zhao, Y. C.; Wang, S. G.

    2018-04-01

    The interfacial structures, playing a critical role on the transport properties and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin films and multilayers, can be modified by inserting an ultrathin functional layer at the various interfaces. The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the multilayers with core structure of Ta/CoFeB/X/MgO/Ta (X: Hf or Pt) is tuned by interfacial catalytic engineering. The saturation anomalous Hall resistance (RAH) is increased by 16.5% with 0.1 nm Hf insertion compared with the reference sample without insertion. However, the RAH value is decreased by 9.0% with 0.1 nm Pt insertion. The interfacial states were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results indicate that a strong bonding between Hf and O for Hf insertion, but no bonding between Pt and O for Pt insertion. The bonding between metal and oxygen leads to various oxygen migration behavior at the interfaces. Therefore, the opposite behavior about the RAH originates from the different oxygen behavior due to various interfacial insertion. This work provides a new approach to manipulate spin transport property for the potential applications.

  18. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  19. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  20. Theory of Topological Spin Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Impact on Current-induced Motion

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2017-09-09

    We demonstrate that the nontrivial magnetic texture of antiferromagnetic skyrmions (AFM-Sks) promotes a non-vanishing topological spin Hall effect (TSHE) on the flowing electrons. This results in a substantial enhancement of the non-adiabatic torque and hence improves the skyrmion mobility. This non-adiabatic torque increases when decreasing the skyrmion size, and therefore scaling down results in a much higher torque efficiency. In clean AFM-Sks, we find a significant boost of the TSHE close to van Hove singularity. Interestingly, this effect is enhanced away from the band gap in the presence of non-magnetic interstitial defects. Furthermore, unlike their ferromagnetic counterpart, TSHE in AFM-Sks increases with increase in disorder strength thus opening promising avenues for materials engineering of this effect.

  1. Comment on 'Effects of Magnetic Field Gradient on Ion Beam Current in Cylindrical Hall Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the key difference of the cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) as compared to the end-Hall ion source cannot be exclusively attributed to the magnetic field topology [Tang et al. J. Appl. Phys., 102, 123305 (2007)]. With a similar mirror-type topology, the CHT configuration provides the electric field with nearly equipotential magnetic field surfaces and a better suppression of the electron cross-field transport, as compared to both the end-Hall ion source and the cylindrical Hall ion source of Tang et al

  2. Scaling of the anomalous Hall current in Fe100−x(SiO2)x films

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.; Zhang, Bei; Wang, Q. X.; Mi, W. B.; Wang, Z.; Li, W.; Yu, R. H.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2011-01-01

    To study the origin of the anomalous Hall effect, Fe100−x(SiO2)x granular films with a volume fraction of SiO2 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 40.51) were fabricated using cosputtering. Hall and longitudinal resistivities were measured in the temperature range of 5–350 K

  3. Influence of Shape Anisotropy on Magnetization Dynamics Driven by Spin Hall Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the lateral dimension of spin Hall effect based magnetic random-access memory (SHE-RAM devices is scaled down, shape anisotropy has varied influence on both the magnetic field and the current-driven switching characteristics. In this paper, we study such influences on elliptic film nanomagnets and theoretically investigate the switching characteristics for SHE-RAM element with in-plane magnetization. The analytical expressions for critical current density are presented and the results are compared with those obtained from macrospin and micromagnetic simulation. It is found that the key performance indicators for in-plane SHE-RAM, including thermal stability and spin torque efficiency, are highly geometry dependent and can be effectively improved by geometric design.

  4. Circuit models and SPICE macro-models for quantum Hall effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortolano, Massimo; Callegaro, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Precise electrical measurement technology based on the quantum Hall effect is one of the pillars of modern quantum electrical metrology. Electrical networks including one or more QHE elements can be used as quantum resistance and impedance standards. The analysis of these networks allows metrologists to evaluate the effect of the inevitable parasitic parameters on their performance as standards. This paper presents a concise review of the various circuit models for QHE elements proposed in the literature, and the development of a new model. This last model is particularly suited to be employed with the analogue electronic circuit simulator SPICE. The SPICE macro-model and examples of SPICE simulations, validated by comparison with the corresponding analytical solution and/or experimental data, are provided. (paper)

  5. Quantum Hall Effect and Semimetallic Behavior of Dual-Gated ABA-Stacked Trilayer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Henriksen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure of multilayer graphenes depends strongly on the number of layers as well as the stacking order. Here we explore the electronic transport of purely ABA-stacked trilayer graphenes in a dual-gated field-effect device configuration. We find both that the zero-magnetic-field transport and the quantum Hall effect at high magnetic fields are distinctly different from the monolayer and bilayer graphenes, and that they show electron-hole asymmetries that are strongly suggestive of a semimetallic band overlap. When the ABA trilayers are subjected to an electric field perpendicular to the sheet, Landau-level splittings due to a lifting of the valley degeneracy are clearly observed.

  6. Hall effect measurement for precise sheet resistance and thickness evaluation of Ruthenium thin films using non-equidistant four-point probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Westergaard Østerberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new micro Hall effect measurement method using non-equidistant electrodes. We show theoretically and verify experimentally that it is advantageous to use non-equidistant electrodes for samples with low Hall sheet resistance. We demonstrate the new method by experiments where Hall sheet carrier densities and Hall mobilities of Ruthenium thin films (3-30 nm are determined. The measurements show that it is possible to measure Hall mobilities as low as 1 cm2V−1s−1 with a relative standard deviation of 2-3%. We show a linear relation between measured Hall sheet carrier density and film thickness. Thus, the method can be used to monitor thickness variations of ultra-thin metal films.

  7. Excess hall effect in epitaxial YBCO film under moderate magnetic fields, approached by renormalized superconducting fluctuations model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puica, I.; Lang, W.; Goeb, W.; Sobolewski, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Measurements of the Hall effect and the resistivity on precisely-patterned YBCO thin film in moderate magnetic fields B from 0.5 to 6 T oriented parallel to the crystallographic c axis reveal a sign reversal of the Hall coefficient for B < 3 T. The data are confronted with the full quantitative expressions given by the renormalized fluctuation model for the excess Hall conductivity. The model offers a satisfactory quantitative approach to the experimental results, for moderate fields and temperatures near the critical region, provided the inhomogeneity of the critical temperature distribution is also taken into account. For lower fields and temperatures, the adequacy of the model is altered by vortex pinning. (author)

  8. Effect of non-uniform Hall parameter on the electrode voltage drop in Faraday-type combustion MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    Following a simplified approach, an expression is derived for the gas-dynamic voltage drop in a finitely segmented Faraday-type combustion MHD generator, taking into account the non-uniform Hall parameter across the channel. Combining the electrical sheath voltage drop, discussed briefly, with the gas-dynamic voltage drop, the effect of a non-uniform Hall parameter on the electrode voltage drop is studied using the theoretical and experimental input parameters of the Indian MHD channel test. The condition for the validity of the usual assumption of uniform Hall parameter across the channel is pointed out. Analysis of the measured electrode voltage drop predicts the real gas conductivity in the core to be in the range of 60 to 75 per cent of the theoretically calculated core conductivity. (author)

  9. Effective field theory of an anomalous Hall metal from interband quantum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Victor; Assawasunthonnet, Wathid; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We construct an effective field theory, a two-dimensional two-component metallic system described by a model with two Fermi surfaces ("pockets"). This model describes a translationally invariant metallic system with two types of fermions, each with its own Fermi surface, with forward scattering interactions. This model, in addition to the O (2 ) rotational invariance, has a U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetry of separate charge conservation for each Fermi surface. For sufficiently attractive interactions in the d -wave (quadrupolar) channel, this model has an interesting phase diagram that includes a spontaneously generated anomalous Hall metal phase. We derive the Landau-Ginzburg effective action of quadrupolar order parameter fields which enjoys an O (2 )×U (1 ) global symmetry associated to spatial isotropy and the internal U (1 ) relative phase symmetries, respectively. We show that the order parameter theory is dynamically local with a dynamical scaling of z =2 and perform a one-loop renormalization group analysis of the Landau-Ginzburg theory. The electronic liquid crystal phases that result from spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied and we show the presence of Landau damped Nambu-Goldstone modes at low momenta that is a signature of non-Fermi-liquid behavior. Electromagnetic linear response is also analyzed in both the normal and symmetry broken phases from the point of view of the order parameter theory. The nature of the coupling of electromagnetism to the order parameter fields in the normal phase is non-minimal and decidedly contains a precursor to the anomalous Hall response in the form of a order-parameter-dependent Chern-Simons term in the effective action.

  10. High Voltage Solar Array Arc Testing for a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Todd; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Vaughn, J. A.; Jongeward, G. A.; Mikellides, I. G.; Ferguson, D.; Kerslake, T. W.; Peterson, T.; Snyder, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    The deleterious effects of spacecraft charging are well known, particularly when the charging leads to arc events. The damage that results from arcing can severely reduce system lifetime and even cause critical system failures. On a primary spacecraft system such as a solar array, there is very little tolerance for arcing. Motivated by these concerns, an experimental investigation was undertaken to determine arc thresholds for a high voltage (200-500 V) solar array in a plasma environment. The investigation was in support of a NASA program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster (D2HET) system. By directly coupling the solar array to a Hall-effect thruster, the D2HET program seeks to reduce mass, cost and complexity commonly associated with the power processing in conventional power systems. In the investigation, multiple solar array technologies and configurations were tested. The cell samples were biased to a negative voltage, with an applied potential difference between them, to imitate possible scenarios in solar array strings that could lead to damaging arcs. The samples were tested in an environment that emulated a low-energy, HET-induced plasma. Short duration trigger arcs as well as long duration sustained arcs were generated. Typical current and voltage waveforms associated with the arc events are presented. Arc thresholds are also defined in terms of voltage, current and power. The data will be used to propose a new, high-voltage (greater than 300 V) solar array design for which the likelihood of damage from arcing is minimal.

  11. Hall effect measurements of high-quality M n3CuN thin films and the electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshiki; Hatano, Takafumi; Urata, Takahiro; Iida, Kazumasa; Takenaka, Koshi; Ikuta, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    The physical properties of M n3CuN were studied using thin films. We found that an annealing process was very effective to improve the film quality, the key of which was the use of Ti that prevented the formation of oxide impurities. Using these high-quality thin films, we found strong strain dependence for the ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) and a sign change of the Hall coefficient at TC. The analysis of Hall coefficient data revealed a sizable decrease of hole concentration and a large increase of electron mobility below TC, which is discussed in relation to the electronic structure of this material.

  12. Measurements of Hk and Ms in thin magnetic films by the angular dependence of the planar Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatskicheva, M.; Vatskichev, L.

    1987-11-01

    It is shown that the angular dependences of the planar Hall effect measured with infinite magnetic field and with magnetic field H⩾ Hk have an intersection point and this fact is enough for measuring the anisotropy field Hk applying the method presented by Pastor, Ferreiro and Torres in J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 53 (1986) 349, 62 (1986) 101. The scaling of the Hall tension U proportional to M2s in mV/Am -1 gives a possibility for calculating the Ms-values of the films. These assumptions are verified for NiFe- and NiFeGe films with a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Improved derivation of the modified BGK collision term and applications to the Hall effect and cold plasma dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.

    1983-01-01

    A derived addition to the BGK collision term,is improved and expressed in simple form. The collision frequency for scattering depends anisotropically on the velocity vector. The improved macroscopic equation of momentum flow is applied to the Hall effect, the cold plasma dispersion relation and the cyclotron resonance. The Hall coefficient which is constant in the case of the BGK collision term now depends on the magnetic field. It is also shown that, compared with the almost symmetric classical curves of cyclotron resonance, the new curves are considerably asymmetric and their half-widths are about 3/2 times the classical ones. (autho)

  14. Hall effect in La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, M.; Maiorov, B.; Sirena, M.; Steren, L.B.; Guimpel, J.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the temperature and thickness dependence of the transport properties of La 0.6 Sr 0.4 MnO 3 films. Hall voltage and magnetoresistance measurements on 10 and 150 nm thick films were performed with this purpose. From the ordinary Hall component, we calculated the density of carriers, which has hole-character and is systematically lower than that expected from the chemical composition of the manganite in both samples. Localization effects observed at low temperature in the resistivity of the thinner film, associated with the substrate-induced disorder, are correlated with a decrease of the density of carriers

  15. Giant anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effect in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Huan-Wen; He, Hongtao; Wang, Jiannong; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance is the change tendency of resistance of a material on the mutual orientation of the electric current and the external magnetic field. Here, we report experimental observations in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 of giant anisotropic magnetoresistance and its transverse version, called the planar Hall effect. The relative anisotropic magnetoresistance is negative and up to -68% at 2 K and 10 T. The high anisotropy and the minus sign in this isotropic and nonmagnetic material are attributed to a field-dependent current along the magnetic field, which may be induced by the Berry curvature of the band structure. This observation not only reveals unusual physical phenomena in Weyl and Dirac semimetals, but also finds additional transport signatures of Weyl and Dirac fermions other than negative magnetoresistance.

  16. Spin-dependent Hall effect in degenerate semiconductors: a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-10-15

    The spin-dependent Hall (SDH) effect in degenerate semiconductors is investigated theoretically. Starting from a two-component drift-diffusion equation, an expression for SDH voltage (V{sub SDH}) is derived, and drift and diffusive contributions to V{sub SDH} are studied. For the possible enhancement of the diffusive part, degenerate and nondegenerate cases are examined. We find that due to an increase in the diffusion coefficient V{sub SDH} increases in a degenerate semiconductor, consistent with the experimental observations. The expression for V{sub SDH} is reduced in three limiting cases, namely diffusive, drift-diffusion crossover and drift, and is analysed. The results agree with those obtained in recent theoretical investigations.

  17. Hall effect biosensors with ultraclean graphene film for improved sensitivity of label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Wu, Dongqin; Ye, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Tra, Vu Thanh; Wei, Qiuping; Fu, Li; Yu, Aimin; Li, Lain-Jong; Lin, Cheng-Te

    2018-01-15

    The quality of graphene strongly affects the performance of graphene-based biosensors which are highly demanded for the sensitive and selective detection of biomolecules, such as DNA. This work reported a novel transfer process for preparing a residue-free graphene film using a thin gold supporting layer. A Hall effect device made of this gold-transferred graphene was demonstrated to significantly enhance the sensitivity (≈ 5 times) for hybridization detection, with a linear detection range of 1pM to 100nM for DNA target. Our findings provide an efficient method to boost the sensitivity of graphene-based biosensors for DNA recognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonthermal fusion reactor concept based on Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The failure of magnetic confinement controlled thermonuclear fusion research to achieve its goal is attributed to its foundation on the incomplete MHD plasma description instead of the more general HMHD (Hall-effect magnetohydrodynamics) theory. The latter allows for a certain magnetic plasma self-confinement under described stringent conditions. A reactor concept based on the formation, acceleration, and forced disintegration of magnetized whirl structures, plasmoids, is proposed. The four conventional MHD theory objections, i.e., absence of dynamo action, fast decay caused by resistivity, non-existence of magnetic self-confinement, and negligible non-thermal fusion yield, are shown not to apply. Support for the scheme from dense plasma focus research is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  19. Kinetic equations for clean superconductors: Application to the flux flow hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    The kinetic equations for clean superconductors (l>>ζ) are derived. expanding the equations for the time dependent Green functions in the quasiclassical parameter, the new contributions are found which contain the derivatives of the distribution functions with respect to the quasiparticle momentum. The transition from the ultra-clean case (no relaxation) to a relaxation-dominated behavior, for which the kinetic equations coincide with the usual quasiclassical approximation, occurs for the relaxation time of the order of ℎE F /Δ 2 . The kinetic equations can be used for various dynamic processes in superconductors including the flux-flow Hall effect. The derived equations, after necessary modifications for the p-wave pairing, are especially suitable for nonstationary problems in the theory of superfluidity of 3 He

  20. The Hall-Rodriguez theory of latent inhibition: Further assessment of compound stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Márquez, Raúl; Gil, Marta; Alonso, Gumersinda; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    According to a recent theory (Hall & Rodriguez, 2010), the latent inhibition produced by nonreinforced exposure to a target stimulus (B) will be deepened by subsequent exposure of that stimulus in compound with another (AB). This effect of compound exposure is taken to depend on the addition of a novel A to the familiar B and is not predicted for equivalent preexposure on which AB trials precede the A trials. This prediction was tested in 2 experiments using rats. Experiment 1 used an aversive procedure with flavors as the stimuli; Experiment 2 used an appetitive procedure with visual and auditory stimuli. In both, we found that conditioning with B as the conditioned stimulus proceeded more slowly (i.e., latent inhibition was greater) in subjects given the B-AB sequence in preexposure than in subjects given the AB-B sequence.

  1. Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...... by the sensor self-field or a combination thereof. The sensors can be made nominally insensitive to small external magnetic fields, while being maximally sensitive to magnetic beads, magnetized by the sensor self-field. Thus, the sensor designs can be tailored towards specific applications with minimal...... of the dynamic magnetic response of suspensions of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 80 nm are performed. Furthermore, a method to amplify the signal by appropriate combinations of multiple sensor segments is demonstrated....

  2. Hall effect enhanced low-field sensitivity in a three-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-06-06

    An extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device with a 3-contact geometry has been fabricated and characterized. A large enhancement of the output sensitivity at low magnetic fields compared to the conventional EMR device has been found, which can be attributed to an additional influence coming from the Hall effect. Output sensitivities of 0.19 mV/T at zero-field and 0.2 mV/T at 0.01 T have been measured in the device, which is equivalent to the ones of the conventional EMR sensors with a bias of ∼0.04 T. The exceptional performance of EMR sensors in the high field region is maintained in the 3-contact device.

  3. Enhanced spin Hall effect of tunneling light in hyperbolic metamaterial waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li

    2016-08-01

    Giant enhancement of spin Hall effect of tunneling light (SHETL) is theoretically proposed in a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) structure with hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). We calculate the transverse shift of right-circularly polarized light in a SiO2-air-HMM-air-SiO2 waveguide and analyze the physical mechanism of the enhanced SHETL. The HMM anisotropy can greatly increase the transverse shift of polarized light even though HMM loss might reduce it. Compared with transverse shift of transmitted light through a single HMM slab with ZnAlO/ZnO multilayer, the maximum transverse shift of tunneling light through a FTIR structure with identical HMM can be significantly enlarged by more than three times which reaches -38 μm without any amplification method.

  4. Skyrmion formation and optical spin-Hall effect in an expanding coherent cloud of indirect excitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, D V; Flayac, H; Nalitov, A V; Solnyshkov, D D; Gippius, N A; Malpuech, G

    2013-06-14

    We provide a theoretical description of the polarization pattern and phase singularities experimentally evidenced recently in a condensate of indirect excitons [H. High et al., Nature 483, 584 (2012)]. We show that the averaging of the electron and hole orbital motion leads to a comparable spin-orbit interaction for both types of carriers. We demonstrate that the interplay between a radial coherent flux of bright indirect excitons and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction results in the formation of spin domains and of topological defects similar to Skyrmions. We reproduce qualitatively all the features of the experimental data and obtain a polarization pattern as in the optical spin-Hall effect despite the different symmetry of the spin-orbit interactions.

  5. Anomalous Hall effect and magnetoresistance behavior in Co/Pd1−xAgx multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Z. B.

    2013-02-13

    In this paper, we report anomalous Hall effect (AHE) correlated with the magnetoresistance behavior in [Co/Pd1-xAg x]n multilayers. For the multilayers with n = 6, the increase in Ag content from x = 0 to 0.52 induces the change in AHE sign from negative surface scattering-dominated AHE to positive interface scattering-dominated AHE, which is accompanied with the transition from anisotropy magnetoresistance (AMR) dominated transport to giant magnetoresistance (GMR) dominated transport. For n = 80, scaling analysis with Rs ∝ρ xx γ yields γ ∼ 3.44 for x = 0.52 which presents GMR-type transport, in contrast to γ ∼ 5.7 for x = 0 which presents AMR-type transport. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Magnetic Chern bands and triplon Hall effect in an extended Shastry-Sutherland model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, M.; Schmidt, K. P.

    2017-05-01

    We study topological properties of one-triplon bands in an extended Shastry-Sutherland model relevant for the frustrated quantum magnet SrCu2(BO3)2 . To this end perturbative continuous unitary transformations are applied about the isolated dimer limit allowing us to calculate the one-triplon dispersion up to high order in various couplings including intra- and interdimer Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and a general uniform magnetic field. We determine the Berry curvature and the Chern number of the different one-triplon bands. We demonstrate the occurrence of Chern numbers ±1 and ±2 for the case that two components of the magnetic field are finite. Finally, we also calculate the triplon Hall effect arising at finite temperatures.

  7. Enhancing or suppressing the spin Hall effect of light in layered nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hailu; Ling Xiaohui; Zhou Xinxing; Shu Weixing; Wen Shuangchun; Fan Dianyuan [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Opto-Electronic Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light in layered nanostructures is investigated theoretically in this paper. A general propagation model describing the spin-dependent transverse splitting of wave packets in the SHE of light is established from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. We show that the transverse displacement of the wave-packet centroid can be tuned to either a negative or a positive value, or even zero, by just adjusting the structure parameters, suggesting that the SHE of light in layered nanostructures can be enhanced or suppressed in a desired way. The inherent physics behind this interesting phenomenon is attributed to the optical Fabry-Perot resonance. We believe that these findings will open the possibility for developing new nanophotonic devices.

  8. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

    2014-01-01

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method. - Highlights: • Fractioning effects signaled in electron beam using an ANOVA at 6 equal increments. • Fractioning effects not signaled in gamma using an ANOVA up to 7 equal increments. • Insensitivity of alanine to dose fractioning indicates nominal impact on calibration

  9. Hall effect and the magnetotransport properties of Co2MnSi1-xAlx Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestigiacomo, Joseph C.; Young, David P.; Adams, Philip W.; Stadler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the transport properties of the quaternary Heusler alloys Co2MnSi1-xAlx (0≤x≤1), which have been theoretically predicted to develop a half-metallic band structure as x →0. Resistivity versus temperature measurements as a function of Al concentration (x) revealed a systematic reduction in the residual resistivity ratio as well as a transition from weakly localized to half-metallic conduction as x →0. From measurements of the ordinary and anomalous Hall effects, the charge carrier concentration was found to increase, while the anomalous Hall coefficient decreased by nearly an order of magnitude with each sample as x →0 (Δx=0.25.). Scaling of the anomalous Hall effect with longitudinal resistivity reveals that both the skew-scattering and intrinsic contributions grow quickly as x →1, indicating that disorder and band-structure effects cause the large anomalous Hall effect magnitudes observed for Co2MnAl.

  10. Experimental observation of the spin-Hall effect in a spin–orbit coupled two-dimensional hole gas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaestner, B.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.; Nomura, K.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2006), s. 47-52 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin-orbit interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.084, year: 2006

  11. Detection and quantification of inverse spin Hall effect from spin pumping in permalloy/normal metal bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced

  12. Testing dependence of anomalous Hall effect on resistivity in SrRuO3 by its increase with electron irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haham, N.; Konczykowski, M.; Kuiper, Bouwe; Koster, Gertjan; Klein, L.

    2013-01-01

    We measure the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in several patterns of the itinerant ferromagnet SrRuO 3 before and after the patterns are irradiated with electrons. The irradiation increases the resistivity of the patterns due to the introduction of point defects and we find that the AHE coefficient R s

  13. Effect of cellulase treatment of long fiber fraction on strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fiber and unbeaten short-fiber fractions. The obtained test results have indicate that the application of enzyme on appropriate fiber fraction have positive effects on the strength properties of the corrugated medium. The short span compression ...

  14. Effect of default menus on food selection and consumption in a college dining hall simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnitz, Cynthia; Loeb, Katharine L; Keller, Kathleen L; Boutelle, Kerri; Schwartz, Marlene B; Todd, Lauren; Marcus, Sue

    2018-05-01

    To test an obesity prevention strategy derived from behavioural economics (optimal defaults plus delay), focused on changing the college dining hall service method. After a uniform pre-load, participants attended an experimental lunch in groups randomized to one of three conditions: a nutrient-dense, lower-fat/energy lunch as an optimal default (OD); a less-nutrient-dense, higher-fat/energy lunch as a suboptimal default (SD); or a free array (FA) lunch. In the OD condition, students were presented a menu depicting healthier vegetarian and omnivore foods as default, with opt-out alternatives (SD menu) available on request with a 15 min wait. In the SD condition, the same menu format was used with the positioning of food items switched. In the FA condition, all choices were presented in uniform fonts and were available immediately. Private rooms designed to provide a small version of a college dining hall, on two campuses of a Northeastern US university. First-year college students (n 129). There was a significant main effect for condition on percentage of optimal choices selected, with 94 % of food choices in the OD condition optimal, 47 % in the FA condition optimal and none in the SD condition optimal. Similarly, energy intake for those in the SD condition significantly exceeded that in the FA condition, which exceeded that in the OD condition. Presenting menu items as optimal defaults with a delay had a significant impact on choice and consumption, suggesting that further research into its long-term applicability is warranted.

  15. Magnetotransport properties of 8-Pmmn borophene: effects of Hall field and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S K Firoz

    2018-07-11

    The polymorph of 8-Pmmn borophene is an anisotropic Dirac material with tilted Dirac cones at two valleys. The tilting of the Dirac cones at two valleys are in opposite directions, which manifests itself via the valley dependent Landau levels in presence of an in-plane electric field (Hall field). The valley dependent Landau levels cause valley polarized magnetotransport properties in presence of the Hall field, which is in contrast to the monolayer graphene with isotropic non-tilted Dirac cones. The longitudinal conductivity and Hall conductivity are evaluated by using linear response theory in low temperature regime. An analytical approximate form of the longitudinal conductivity is also obtained. It is observed that the tilting of the Dirac cones amplifies the frequency of the longitudinal conductivity oscillation (Shubnikov-de Haas). On the other hand, the Hall conductivity exhibits graphene-like plateaus except the appearance of valley dependent steps which are purely attributed to the Hall field induced lifting of the valley degeneracy in the Landau levels. Finally we look into the different cases when the Hall field is applied to the strained borophene and find that valley dependency is fully dominated by strain rather than Hall field. Another noticeable point is that if the real magnetic field is replaced by the strain induced pseudo magnetic field then the electric field looses its ability to cause valley polarized transport.

  16. Nonequilibrium chemical potential in a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhabov, D. A., E-mail: pokhabov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Bakarov, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The nonequilibrium state of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime is studied in Hall bars equipped with additional inner contacts situated within the bar. The magnetic-field dependence of the voltage drop between different contact pairs are studied at various temperatures. It was found that the voltage between the inner and outer contacts exhibits peaks of significant amplitude in narrow magnetic-field intervals near integer filling factors. Furthermore, the magnetic-field dependence of the voltage in these intervals exhibits a hysteresis, whereas the voltage between the outer contacts remains zero in the entire magnetic-field range. The appearance of the observed voltage peaks and their hysteretic behavior can be explained by an imbalance between the chemical potentials of edge and bulk states, resulting from nonequilibrium charge redistribution between the edge and bulk states when the magnetic field sweeps under conditions of the quantum Hall effect. The results of the study significantly complement the conventional picture of the quantum Hall effect, explicitly indicating the existence of a significant imbalance at the edge of the two-dimensional electron gas: the experimentally observed difference between the electrochemical potentials of the edge and bulk exceeds the distance between Landau levels by tens of times.

  17. MHD Mixed Convection Flow in a Rotating Channel in the Presence of an Inclined Magnetic Field with the Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A.; Sharma, B. K.

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study of an oscillatory unsteady MHD flow and heat and mass transfer in a vertical rotating channel with an inclined uniform magnetic field and the Hall effect is carried out. The conservation equations of momentum, energy, and species are formulated in a rotating frame of reference with inclusion of the buoyancy effects and Lorentz forces. The Lorentz forces are determined by using the generalized Ohm law with the Hall parameter taken into account. The obtained coupled partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and solved numerically by using the explicit finite difference method. The effects of various model parameters, like the Hall parameter, Hartmann number, wall suction/injection parameter, rotation parameter, angle of magnetic field inclination, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, etc., on the channel velocities, skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are examined. It is found that the influence of the Hartmann number and Hall parameter on the channel velocities and skin friction coefficients is dependent on the value of the wall suction/injection parameter.

  18. Magnetic properties and Hall effect of single-crystalline YMn6Sn6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlirova, K.; Sechovsky, V.; Boer, F.R. de; Yoshii, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Hagiwara, M.; Lefevre, C.; Venturini, G.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetization behavior and Hall resistivity of YMn 6 Sn 6 , which crystallizes in the hexagonal HfFe 6 Ge 6 -type of structure, have been investigated on single crystals at various temperatures in the ordered magnetic state. The field dependence of the Hall resistivity shows anomalies, which are related to the field-induced spin reorientations occurring in YMn 6 Sn 6 . It is also found that the Hall resistivity cannot simply be described by the anomalous contribution proportional to the magnetization, but that an additional field-dependent contribution is present

  19. Extremely Large Magnetoresistance at Low Magnetic Field by Coupling the Nonlinear Transport Effect and the Anomalous Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Xiong, Chengyue; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zhen-Gang; Cai, Jianwang; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2016-04-13

    The anomalous Hall effect of a magnetic material is coupled to the nonlinear transport effect of a semiconductor material in a simple structure to achieve a large geometric magnetoresistance (MR) based on a diode-assisted mechanism. An extremely large MR (>10(4) %) at low magnetic fields (1 mT) is observed at room temperature. This MR device shows potential for use as a logic gate for the four basic Boolean logic operations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nuclear spin Hall and Klein tunneling effects during oxidation with electric and magnetic field inductions in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Reginald B; McClary, Felicia; Rice, Bria; Jackman, Corine; Mitchell, James W

    2012-12-14

    The recent observation of the explosive oxidation of graphene with enhancement for decreasing temperature and the requirements for synchronizing oxidants for collective oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions presented a chemical scenario for the thermal harvesting by the magnetic spin Hall Effect. More experimental data are presented to demonstrate such spin Hall Effect by determining the influence of spins of so-called spectator fermionic cations. Furthermore, the so-called spectator bosonic cations are discovered to cause a Klein tunneling effect during the redox reaction of graphene. The Na(+) and K(+), fermionic cations and the Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), bosonic cations were observed and compared under a variety of experimental conditions: adiabatic reactions with initial temperatures (18-22 °C); reactions toward infinite dilution; isothermal reactions under nonadiabatic conditions at low temperature of 18 °C; reactions under paramagnetic O(2) or diamagnetic N(2) atmospheres of different permeabilities; reactions in applied and no applied external magnetic field; and reactions toward excess concentrations of common and uncommon Na(+) and Mg(2+) cations. The observed reaction kinetics and dynamics under these various, diverse conditions are consistent with the spin Hall mechanism, energy harvesting and short time violation of Second Law of Thermodynamics for redox reactions of graphene by the Na(+)K(+) mixture and are consistent with the Klein tunnel mechanism for the redox reactions of graphene by the Mg(2+)Ca(2+) mixture. Mixed spin Hall and Klein tunnel mechanisms are discovered to slow and modulate explosive redox reactions. Such spin Hall Effect also gives explanation of recent tunneling of electrons through boron nitride.