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Sample records for fractional derivative models

  1. Cosmological Models with Fractional Derivatives and Fractional Action Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.K. Shchigolev

    2011-01-01

    Cosmological models of a scalar field with dynamical equations containing fractional derivatives or derived from the Einstein-Hilbert action of fractional order, are constructed. A number of exact solutions to those equations of fractional cosmological models in both eases is given.

  2. State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response....... It is shown that the identified parameters can be used in a linear fractional order state-space model to simulate the loudspeakers’ time domain response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...

  3. Analysis of the Keller–Segel Model with a Fractional Derivative without Singular Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using some investigations based on information theory, the model proposed by Keller and Segel was extended to the concept of fractional derivative using the derivative with fractional order without singular kernel recently proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio. We present in detail the existence of the coupled-solutions using the fixed-point theorem. A detailed analysis of the uniqueness of the coupled-solutions is also presented. Using an iterative approach, we derive special coupled-solutions of the modified system and we present some numerical simulations to see the effect of the fractional order.

  4. The least-squares mixing models to generate fraction images derived from remote sensing multispectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Smith, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Constrained-least-squares and weighted-least-squares mixing models for generating fraction images derived from remote sensing multispectral data are presented. An experiment considering three components within the pixels-eucalyptus, soil (understory), and shade-was performed. The generated fraction images for shade (shade image) derived from these two methods were compared by considering the performance and computer time. The derived shade images are related to the observed variation in forest structure, i.e., the fraction of inferred shade in the pixel is related to different eucalyptus ages.

  5. New fractional derivatives with nonlocal and non-singular kernel: Theory and application to heat transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atangana Abdon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we proposed a new fractional derivative with non-local and no-singular kernel. We presented some useful properties of the new derivative and applied it to solve the fractional heat transfer model.

  6. Fractional Derivative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    The degree by which a function can be differentiated need not be restricted to integer values. Usually most of the field equations of physics are taken to be second order, curiosity asks what happens if this is only approximately the case and the field equations are nearly second order. For Robertson-Walker cosmology there is a simple fractional modification of the Friedman and conservation equations. In general fractional gravitational equations similar to Einstein's are hard to define as this requires fractional derivative geometry. What fractional derivative geometry might entail is briefly looked at and it turns out that even asking very simple questions in two dimensions leads to ambiguous or intractable results. A two dimensional line element which depends on the Gamma-function is looked at.

  7. Deriving pedotransfer functions for soil quartz fraction in southern France from reverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Fritz, Noureddine; Berne, Christine; Piguet, Bruno; Maurel, William; Meurey, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The quartz fraction in soils is a key parameter of soil thermal conductivity models. Because it is difficult to measure the quartz fraction in soils, this information is usually unavailable. This source of uncertainty impacts the simulation of sensible heat flux, evapotranspiration and land surface temperature in numerical simulations of the Earth system. Improving the estimation of soil quartz fraction is needed for practical applications in meteorology, hydrology and climate modeling. This paper investigates the use of long time series of routine ground observations made in weather stations to retrieve the soil quartz fraction. Profile soil temperature and water content were monitored at 21 weather stations in southern France. Soil thermal diffusivity was derived from the temperature profiles. Using observations of bulk density, soil texture, and fractions of gravel and soil organic matter, soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity were estimated. The quartz fraction was inversely estimated using an empirical geometric mean thermal conductivity model. Several pedotransfer functions for estimating quartz content from gravimetric or volumetric fractions of soil particles (e.g., sand) were analyzed. The soil volumetric fraction of quartz (fq) was systematically better correlated with soil characteristics than the gravimetric fraction of quartz. More than 60 % of the variance of fq could be explained using indicators based on the sand fraction. It was shown that soil organic matter and/or gravels may have a marked impact on thermal conductivity values depending on which predictor of fq is used. For the grassland soils examined in this study, the ratio of sand-to-soil organic matter fractions was the best predictor of fq, followed by the gravimetric fraction of sand. An error propagation analysis and a comparison with independent data from other tested models showed that the gravimetric fraction of sand is the best predictor of fq when a larger variety of soil types

  8. Stochastic seismic response of structures with added viscoelastic dampers modeled by fractional derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶昆; 李黎; 唐家祥

    2003-01-01

    Viscoelastic dampers, as supplementary energy dissipation devices, have been used in building structures under seismic excitation or wind loads. Different analytical models have been proposed to describe their dynamic force deformation characteristics. Among these analytical models, the fractional derivative models have attracted more attention as they can capture the frequency dependence of the material stiffness and damping properties observed from tests very well. In this paper, a Fourier-transform-based technique is presented to obtain the fractional unit impulse function and the response of structures with added viscoelastic dampers whose force-deformation relationship is described by a fractional derivative model. Then, a Duhamel integral-type expression is suggested for the response analysis of a fractional damped dynamic system subjected to deterministic or random excitation. Through numerical verification, it is shown that viscoelastic dampers are effective in reducing structural responses over a wide frequency range, and the proposed schemes can be used to accurately predict the stochastic seismic response of structures with added viscoelastic dampers described by a Kelvin model with fractional derivative.

  9. Vertical Distribution of Suspended Sediment under Steady Flow: Existing Theories and Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equation (fADE model is a new approach to describe the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. However, the advantages and parameter definition of the fADE model in describing the sediment suspension distribution are still unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study first reviews seven models, including the fADE model, for the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. The fADE model, among others, describes both Fickian and non-Fickian diffusive characteristics of suspended sediment, while the other six models assume that the vertical diffusion of suspended sediment follows Fick’s first law. Second, this study explores the sensitivity of the fractional index of the fADE model to the variation of particle sizes and sediment settling velocities, based on experimental data collected from the literatures. Finally, empirical formulas are developed to relate the fractional derivative order to particle size and sediment settling velocity. These formulas offer river engineers a substitutive way to estimate the fractional derivative order in the fADE model.

  10. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2016-01-01

    A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog......-bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model...... by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors....

  11. Fractional Derivatives in Dengue Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  12. Fractional derivatives in Dengue epidemics

    CERN Document Server

    Pooseh, Shakoor; Torres, Delfim F M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the use of fractional calculus, i.e., the use of integrals and derivatives of non-integer (arbitrary) order, in epidemiology. The proposed approach is illustrated with an outbreak of dengue disease, which is motivated by the first dengue epidemic ever recorded in the Cape Verde islands off the coast of west Africa, in 2009. Numerical simulations show that in some cases the fractional models fit better the reality when compared with the standard differential models. The classical results are obtained as particular cases by considering the order of the derivatives to take an integer value.

  13. Deformation analysis of polymers composites: rheological model involving time-based fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, L.; Wang, R.; Duan, Z. Q.; Chen, Q.

    2016-08-01

    A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog-bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model, is suggested to characterize the time-dependent behavior of GFRP composites by replacing Newtonian dashpot with the Abel dashpot in the classical Maxwell model. The analytic solution for the fractional derivative Maxwell model is given and the relative parameters are determined. The results estimated by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors.

  14. A Modified Groundwater Flow Model Using the Space Time Riemann-Liouville Fractional Derivatives Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of uncertainty in groundwater hydrology is of great importance as it is known to result in misleading output when neglected or not properly accounted for. In this paper we examine this effect in groundwater flow models. To achieve this, we first introduce the uncertainties functions u as function of time and space. The function u accounts for the lack of knowledge or variability of the geological formations in which flow occur (aquifer in time and space. We next make use of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives that were introduced by Kobelev and Romano in 2000 and its approximation to modify the standard version of groundwater flow equation. Some properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. The classical model for groundwater flow, in the case of density-independent flow in a uniform homogeneous aquifer is reformulated by replacing the classical derivative by the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives approximations. The modified equation is solved via the technique of green function and the variational iteration method.

  15. Numerical simulations to the nonlinear model of interpersonal relationships with time fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Muharrem Tuncay; Baskonus, Haci Mehmet; Bulut, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this manuscript is to obtain numerical solutions for the nonlinear model of interpersonal relationships with time fractional derivative. The variational iteration method is theoretically implemented and numerically conducted only to yield the desired solutions. Numerical simulations of desired solutions are plotted by using Wolfram Mathematica 9. The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their comments that help improve the manuscript.

  16. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2006-08-04

    We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function.

  17. Quantifying Arsenic Leaching from Soils Using a Fractional-Derivative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Zhang, Y.; LU, B.

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic leaching from soils can exhibit multiple-rate kinetics due to the heterogeneity nature of the medium, motivating the development of a fractional-order derivative model (FDM). The sorption-desorption process in saturated natural soils may not be limited to be a single rate or can reach equilibrium quickly, even at the laboratory scale. Applications of the FDM show that the multi-rate mass transfer quantifies the multi-stage desorption in Arsenic leaching characterized by the heavy late-time tailing behavior.

  18. Biot-JKD model: simulation of 1D transient poroelastic waves with fractional derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Emilie; Lombard, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    A time-domain numerical modeling of Biot poroelastic waves is presented. The viscous dissipation occurring in the pores is described using the dynamic permeability model developed by Johnson-Koplik-Dashen (JKD). Some of the coefficients in the Biot-JKD model are proportional to the square root of the frequency: in the time-domain, these coefficients introduce order 1/2 shifted fractional derivatives involving a convolution product. Based on a diffusive representation, the convolution kernel is replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations. Thanks to the dispersion relation, the coefficients in the diffusive representation are obtained by performing an optimization procedure in the frequency range of interest. A splitting strategy is then applied numerically: the propagative part of Biot-JKD equations is discretized using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. Comparisons with analytical solution...

  19. Assessing composition and structure of soft biphasic media from Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2017-03-01

    Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.

  20. Wave equation for generalized Zener model containing complex order fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Teodor M.; Janev, Marko; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan

    2017-03-01

    We study waves in a viscoelastic rod whose constitutive equation is of generalized Zener type that contains fractional derivatives of complex order. The restrictions following from the Second Law of Thermodynamics are derived. The initial boundary value problem for such materials is formulated and solution is presented in the form of convolution. Two specific examples are analyzed.

  1. Wave equation for generalized Zener model containing complex order fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanacković, Teodor M.; Janev, Marko; Konjik, Sanja; Pilipović, Stevan

    2017-01-01

    We study waves in a viscoelastic rod whose constitutive equation is of generalized Zener type that contains fractional derivatives of complex order. The restrictions following from the Second Law of Thermodynamics are derived. The initial boundary value problem for such materials is formulated and solution is presented in the form of convolution. Two specific examples are analyzed.

  2. Free vibrations of a taut cable with a general viscoelastic damper modeled by fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study extends dynamic understanding of a taut cable with a viscous damper at arbitrary location to that with a general linear viscoelastic (VE) damper portrayed by a five-parameter fractional derivative model (FDM). The FDM is able to describe a generalized relationship between force and deformation of viscoelastic dampers (material) in a wide frequency range, which can simulate a practical damper including its support condition or a secondary tie between neighboring cables. Free vibrations of the passively controlled cable system have then been formulated analytically through complex modal analysis. For the restricted case that the FDM is installed close to one cable anchorage, asymptotic solutions for the system complex frequency and modal damping are presented; explicit formulas have also been derived to determine the maximal attainable damping and corresponding optimum FDM parameters, based on which effects of frequency-dependent damper properties are appreciated. Considering the FDM located at arbitrary location, the three distinct regimes of frequency evolutions observed for a cable with a viscous damper have been generalized to that with a VE damper; also, new characteristics of the regime diagram and the frequency evolution in each regime are observed.

  3. Characterizing time dependent anomalous diffusion process: A survey on fractional derivative and nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Song; Chen, Wen; Hon, Y. C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the temporal effects in the modeling of flows through porous media and particles transport. Studies will be made among the time fractional diffusion model and two classical nonlinear diffusion models. The effects of the parameters upon the mentioned models have been studied. By simulating the sub-diffusion processes and comparing the numerical results of these models under different boundary conditions, we can conclude that the time fractional diffusion model is more suitable for simulating the sub-diffusion with steady diffusion rate; whereas the nonlinear models are more appropriate for depicting the sub-diffusion under changing diffusion rate.

  4. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  5. UNSTEADY FLOWS OF A GENERALIZED SECOND GRADE FLUID WITH THE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE MODEL BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wenchang; XU Mingyu

    2004-01-01

    The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of a generalized second grade fluid is introduced. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for a class of unsteady flows for the generalized second grade fluid with the fractional derivative model between two parallel plates by using the Laplace transform and Fourier transform for fractional calculus. The unsteady flows are generated by the impulsive motion or periodic oscillation of one of the plates. In addition, the solutions of the shear stresses at the plates are also determined.

  6. Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Bayin, S S

    2014-01-01

    Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered.

  7. Fractional derivative and hereditary combined model for memory effects on flexible polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfarhani, Makram; Jarraya, Abdessalem; Abid, Said; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    In a quasi-static regime with cyclic loading, the force-displacement curve of flexible polyurethane exhibits complicated behavior: nonlinearity, visco-elasticity, hysteresis, residual force, etc. Beside nonlinearity and visco-elasticity, this material displays high dependence on the displacement rate and past loading history. Its dependence on compression rate helps to appropriately identify the force-displacement curve. Based on the new curve identification, the overall foam response is assumed to be a composite of a nonlinear elastic component and a visco-elastic component. The elastic component is expressed as a polynomial function in displacement, while the visco-elastic one is formulated according to the hereditary approach to represent the foam visco-elastic damping force during the loading phase and according to the fractional derivative approach during unloading to represent the visco-elastic residual force in the material. The focus of this study was to develop mathematical formulations and identification parameters to faithfully characterize the visco-elastic behavior of flexible polyurethane foam under multi-cycle compressive tests. A parameter calibration methodology based on the separation of the measurement data of each component force was established. This optimization process helps to avoid the parameter values admixture problem during the phase of numeric calculations of the same component force. The validity of the model results is checked according to the simulation accuracy, the physical significance of results and their agreement with the obtained force-displacement curve identification.

  8. Modeling electro-magneto-hydrodynamic thermo-fluidic transport of biofluids with new trend of fractional derivative without singular kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhameed, M.; Vieru, D.; Roslan, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic flow of the non-Newtonian behavior of biofluids, with heat transfer, through a cylindrical microchannel. The fluid is acted by an arbitrary time-dependent pressure gradient, an external electric field and an external magnetic field. The governing equations are considered as fractional partial differential equations based on the Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives without singular kernel. The usefulness of fractional calculus to study fluid flows or heat and mass transfer phenomena was proven. Several experimental measurements led to conclusion that, in such problems, the models described by fractional differential equations are more suitable. The most common time-fractional derivative used in Continuum Mechanics is Caputo derivative. However, two disadvantages appear when this derivative is used. First, the definition kernel is a singular function and, secondly, the analytical expressions of the problem solutions are expressed by generalized functions (Mittag-Leffler, Lorenzo-Hartley, Robotnov, etc.) which, generally, are not adequate to numerical calculations. The new time-fractional derivative Caputo-Fabrizio, without singular kernel, is more suitable to solve various theoretical and practical problems which involve fractional differential equations. Using the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative, calculations are simpler and, the obtained solutions are expressed by elementary functions. Analytical solutions of the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are obtained by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The influence of the fractional parameter, Eckert number and Joule heating parameter on the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are numerically analyzed and graphic presented. This fact can be an important in Biochip technology, thus making it possible to use this analysis technique extremely effective to control bioliquid samples of nanovolumes in microfluidic devices used for biological

  9. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.

  10. Optimization of Integer Order Integrators for Deriving Improved Models of Their Fractional Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Second and third order digital integrators (DIs have been optimized first using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO with minimized error fitness function obtained by registering mean, median, and standard deviation values in different random iterations. Later indirect discretization using Continued Fraction Expansion (CFE has been used to ascertain a better fitting of proposed integer order optimized DIs into their corresponding fractional counterparts by utilizing their refined properties, now restored in them due to PSO algorithm. Simulation results for the comparisons of the frequency responses of proposed 2nd and 3rd order optimized DIs and proposed discretized mathematical models of half integrators based on them, with their respective existing operators, have been presented. Proposed integer order PSO optimized integrators as well as fractional order integrators (FOIs have been observed to outperform the existing recently published operators in their respective domains reasonably well in complete range of Nyquist frequency.

  11. Modelling the Formation of Liver Zones within the Scope of Fractional Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop and extend earlier results related to mathematical modelling of the liver formation zone by the adoption of noninteger order derivative. The hidden uncertainties in the model are captured and controlled thanks to the Caputo derivative. The stationary states are investigated and the time-dependent solution is approximated using two recent iteration methods. In particular, we discuss the convergence of these methods by constructing a suitable Hilbert space.

  12. Modelling the Formation of Liver Zones within the Scope of Fractional Order Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Oukouomi Noutchie, Suares Clovis

    2014-01-01

    We develop and extend earlier results related to mathematical modelling of the liver formation zone by the adoption of noninteger order derivative. The hidden uncertainties in the model are captured and controlled thanks to the Caputo derivative. The stationary states are investigated and the time-dependent solution is approximated using two recent iteration methods. In particular, we discuss the convergence of these methods by constructing a suitable Hilbert space. PMID:25276791

  13. Challenges in the Application of Fractional Derivative Models in Capturing Solute Transport in Porous Media: Darcy-Scale Fractional Dispersion and the Influence of Medium Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous media consisting of segregated flow regions are fractional-order systems, where the regional-scale anomalous diffusion can be described by the fractional derivative model (FDM. The standard FDM, however, first, cannot characterize the Darcy-scale dispersion through repacked sand columns, and second, the link between medium properties and model parameters remains unknown. To fill these two knowledge gaps, this study applies a tempered fractional derivative model (TFDM to capture bromide transport through laboratory repacked sand. Column transport experiments are conducted first, where glass beads and silica sand with different diameters are repacked individually. Late-time tails are observed in the breakthrough curves (BTC of bromide even in relatively homogeneous glass beads. The TFDM can capture the observed subdiffusion, especially the late-time BTC with a transient declining rate. Results also show that both the size distribution of repacked sand and the magnitude of fluid velocity can affect subdiffusion. In particular, a wider sand size distribution or a smaller flow rate can enhance the subdiffusion, leading to a smaller time index and a higher truncation parameter in the TFDM. Therefore, the Darcy-scale dispersion follows the tempered stable law, and the model parameters might be related to the soil size and flow conditions.

  14. Fractional diffusion: recovering the distributed fractional derivative from overposed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, W.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable recent study in ‘subdiffusion’ models that replace the standard parabolic equation model by a one with a fractional derivative in the time variable. There are many ways to look at this newer approach and one such is to realize that the order of the fractional derivative is related to the time scales of the underlying diffusion process. This raises the question of what order α of derivative should be taken and if a single value actually suffices. This has led to models that combine a finite number of these derivatives each with a different fractional exponent {αk} and different weighting value c k to better model a greater possible range of time scales. Ultimately, one wants to look at a situation that combines derivatives in a continuous way—the so-called distributional model with parameter μ ≤ft(α \\right) . However all of this begs the question of how one determines this ‘order’ of differentiation. Recovering a single fractional value has been an active part of the process from the beginning of fractional diffusion modeling and if this is the only unknown then the markers left by the fractional order derivative are relatively straightforward to determine. In the case of a finite combination of derivatives this becomes much more complex due to the more limited analytic tools available for such equations, but recent progress in this direction has been made, (Li et al 2015 Appl. Math. Comput. 257 381–97, Li and Yamamoto 2015 Appl. Anal. 94 570–9). This paper considers the full distributional model where the order is viewed as a function μ ≤ft(α \\right) on the interval (0, 1]. We show existence, uniqueness and regularity for an initial-boundary value problem including an important representation theorem in the case of a single spatial variable. This is then used in the inverse problem of recovering the distributional coefficient μ ≤ft(α \\right) from a time trace of the solution and a uniqueness result is

  15. Monte Carlo derived absorbed fractions for a voxelized model of Oncorhynchus mykiss, a rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Caffrey, Emily; Hess, Catherine; Higley, Kathryn

    2014-08-01

    Simple, ellipsoidal geometries have long been the standard for estimating radiation dose rates in non-human biota (NHB). With the introduction of a regulatory protection standard that emphasizes protection of NHB as its own end point, there has been interest in improved models for the calculation of dose rates in NHB. Here, we describe the creation of a voxelized model for a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a freshwater aquatic salmonid. Absorbed fractions (AFs) for both photon and electron sources were tabulated at electron energies of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 MeV and photon energies of 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 MeV. A representative set of the data is made available in this publication; the entire set of absorbed fractions is available as electronic supplementary materials. These results are consistent with previous voxelized models and reinforce the well-understood relationship between the AF and the target's mass and location, as well as the energy of the incident radiation.

  16. Can a Time Fractional-Derivative Model Capture Scale-Dependent Dispersion in Saturated Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Rhiannon M; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Song; Sun, HongGuang; Qian, Jiazhong

    2017-07-10

    Time nonlocal transport models such as the time fractional advection-dispersion equation (t-fADE) were proposed to capture well-documented non-Fickian dynamics for conservative solutes transport in heterogeneous media, with the underlying assumption that the time nonlocality (which means that the current concentration change is affected by previous concentration load) embedded in the physical models can release the effective dispersion coefficient from scale dependency. This assumption, however, has never been systematically examined using real data. This study fills this historical knowledge gap by capturing non-Fickian transport (likely due to solute retention) documented in the literature (Huang et al. 1995) and observed in our laboratory from small to intermediate spatial scale using the promising, tempered t-fADE model. Fitting exercises show that the effective dispersion coefficient in the t-fADE, although differing subtly from the dispersion coefficient in the standard advection-dispersion equation, increases nonlinearly with the travel distance (varying from 0.5 to 12 m) for both heterogeneous and macroscopically homogeneous sand columns. Further analysis reveals that, while solute retention in relatively immobile zones can be efficiently captured by the time nonlocal parameters in the t-fADE, the motion-independent solute movement in the mobile zone is affected by the spatial evolution of local velocities in the host medium, resulting in a scale-dependent dispersion coefficient. The same result may be found for the other standard time nonlocal transport models that separate solute retention and jumps (i.e., displacement). Therefore, the t-fADE with a constant dispersion coefficient cannot capture scale-dependent dispersion in saturated porous media, challenging the application for stochastic hydrogeology methods in quantifying real-world, preasymptotic transport. Hence improvements on time nonlocal models using, for example, the novel subordination

  17. Green's Theorem for Generalized Fractional Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Odzijewicz, Tatiana; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    We study three types of generalized partial fractional operators. An extension of Green's theorem, by considering partial fractional derivatives with more general kernels, is proved. New results are obtained, even in the particular case when the generalized operators are reduced to the standard partial fractional derivatives and fractional integrals in the sense of Riemann-Liouville or Caputo.

  18. Fractional Langevin equation and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau Fa, Kwok

    2007-10-01

    In this present work we consider a fractional Langevin equation with Riemann-Liouville fractional time derivative which modifies the classical Newtonian force, nonlocal dissipative force, and long-time correlation. We investigate the first two moments, variances and position and velocity correlation functions of this system. We also compare them with the results obtained from the same fractional Langevin equation which uses the Caputo fractional derivative.

  19. Mathematical modelling of fractional order circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    In this work a classical derivation of fractional order circuits models is presented. Generalized constitutive equations in terms of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives are introduced in the Maxwell's equations. Next the Kirchhoff voltage law is applied in a RCL circuit configuration. A fractional differential equation model is obtained with Caputo derivatives. Thus standard initial conditions apply.

  20. A New fractional derivative for differential equation of fractional order under interval uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Salahshour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we develop a new definition of fractional derivative under interval uncertainty. This fractional derivative, which is called conformable fractional derivative, inherits some interesting properties from the integer differentiability which is more convenient to work with the mathematical models of the real-world phenomena. The interest for this new approach was born from the notion that makes a dependency just on the basic limit definition of the derivative. We will introduce and prove the main features of this well-behaved simple fractional derivative under interval arithmetic uncertainty. The actualization and usefulness of this approach are validated by solving two practical models.

  1. A comparison/validation of a fractional derivative model with an empirical model of non-linear shock waves in swelling shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore

    2013-04-01

    Control of drilling parameters, as fluid pressure, mud weight, salt concentration is essential to avoid instabilities when drilling through shale sections. To investigate shale deformation, fundamental for deep oil drilling and hydraulic fracturing for gas extraction ("fracking"), a non-linear model of mechanic and chemo-poroelastic interactions among fluid, solute and the solid matrix is here discussed. The two equations of this model describe the isothermal evolution of fluid pressure and solute density in a fluid saturated porous rock. Their solutions are quick non-linear Burger's solitary waves, potentially destructive for deep operations. In such analysis the effect of diffusion, that can play a particular role in fracking, is investigated. Then, following Civan (1998), both diffusive and shock waves are applied to fine particles filtration due to such quick transients , their effect on the adjacent rocks and the resulting time-delayed evolution. Notice how time delays in simple porous media dynamics have recently been analyzed using a fractional derivative approach. To make a tentative comparison of these two deeply different methods,in our model we insert fractional time derivatives, i.e. a kind of time-average of the fluid-rocks interactions. Then the delaying effects of fine particles filtration is compared with fractional model time delays. All this can be seen as an empirical check of these fractional models.

  2. Use of a variable-index fractional-derivative model to capture transient dispersion in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, HongGuang; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Reeves, Donald M.

    2014-02-01

    Field and numerical experiments of solute transport through heterogeneous porous and fractured media show that the growth of contaminant plumes may not exhibit constant scaling, and may instead transition between diffusive states (i.e., superdiffusion, subdiffusion, and Fickian diffusion) at various transport scales. These transitions are likely attributed to physical properties of the medium, such as spatial variations in medium heterogeneity. We refer to this transitory dispersive behavior as "transient dispersion", and propose a variable-index fractional-derivative model (FDM) to describe the underlying transport dynamics. The new model generalizes the standard constant-index FDM which is limited to stationary heterogeneous media. Numerical methods including an implicit Eulerian method (for spatiotemporal transient dispersion) and a Lagrangian solver (for multiscaling dispersion) are utilized to produce variable-index FDM solutions. The variable-index FDM is then applied to describe transient dispersion observed at two field tracer tests and a set of numerical experiments. Results show that 1) uranine transport at the small-scale Grimsel test site transitions from strong subdispersion to Fickian dispersion, 2) transport of tritium at the regional-scale Macrodispersion Experimental (MADE) site transitions from near-Fickian dispersion to strong superdispersion, and 3) the conservative particle transport through regional-scale discrete fracture network transitions from superdispersion to Fickian dispersion. The variable-index model can efficiently quantify these transitions, with the scale index varying linearly in time or space.

  3. Use of a variable-index fractional-derivative model to capture transient dispersion in heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongguang; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Reeves, Donald M

    2014-02-01

    Field and numerical experiments of solute transport through heterogeneous porous and fractured media show that the growth of contaminant plumes may not exhibit constant scaling, and may instead transition between diffusive states (i.e., superdiffusion, subdiffusion, and Fickian diffusion) at various transport scales. These transitions are likely attributed to physical properties of the medium, such as spatial variations in medium heterogeneity. We refer to this transitory dispersive behavior as "transient dispersion", and propose a variable-index fractional-derivative model (FDM) to describe the underlying transport dynamics. The new model generalizes the standard constant-index FDM which is limited to stationary heterogeneous media. Numerical methods including an implicit Eulerian method (for spatiotemporal transient dispersion) and a Lagrangian solver (for multiscaling dispersion) are utilized to produce variable-index FDM solutions. The variable-index FDM is then applied to describe transient dispersion observed at two field tracer tests and a set of numerical experiments. Results show that 1) uranine transport at the small-scale Grimsel test site transitions from strong subdispersion to Fickian dispersion, 2) transport of tritium at the regional-scale Macrodispersion Experimental (MADE) site transitions from near-Fickian dispersion to strong superdispersion, and 3) the conservative particle transport through regional-scale discrete fracture network transitions from superdispersion to Fickian dispersion. The variable-index model can efficiently quantify these transitions, with the scale index varying linearly in time or space.

  4. A fractional derivative model for highspeed train-induced ground vibration%高速列车引起地基振动分数阶模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周星德; 吴利平; 曾鹏; 韩婷婷; 林荣庚

    2014-01-01

    A fractional derivative model was developed for predicting ground vibrations induced by high-speed trains.In order to determine the order of fractional derivative of each soil layer,on the premise that the maximum strain of ground is less than 3%and the strain approximately linearly changes with time,a linear strain hypothesis was put forward. The damping function with fractional derivative was proposed by simulating Binghamton model.The order of fractional derivative of each soil layer was obtained by using Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and curve fitting.As the order of fractional derivative was complex and difficult to calculate when different fractional orders existed in equations of motion,a generalized damping energy was defined in order to acquire an equivalent damping order of fractional derivatives.At last, a Sweden's X2000 high-speed passenger train was taken as an example,the feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by comparing the simulation results with the proposed method with test data.%为更准确描述列车道轨地基土体阻尼特征,引入分数阶模型。各层土体分数阶次通过Riemann-Liouville分数阶定义、测试数据,据曲线拟合方式确定;考虑含分数阶运动方程计算复杂,将各土层分数阶次借助阻尼等效原则变为一等效分数阶次;采用Oustaloup算法将分数阶通过频域逼近方式获得整数阶表示。用Matlab软件进行仿真分析,并与实测结果对比。

  5. Time-delay and fractional derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado JA

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the calculation of fractional algorithms based on time-delay systems. The study starts by analyzing the memory properties of fractional operators and their relation with time delay. Based on the Fourier analysis an approximation of fractional derivatives through time-delayed samples is developed. Furthermore, the parameters of the proposed approximation are estimated by means of genetic algorithms. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the new perspective.

  6. Potentials of Arbitrary Forces with Fractional Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Alhalholy, Tareq S.; Rousan, Akram

    The Laplace transform of fractional integrals and fractional derivatives is used to develop a general formula for determining the potentials of arbitrary forces: conservative and nonconservative in order to introduce dissipative effects (such as friction) into Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. The results are found to be in exact agreement with Riewe's results of special cases. Illustrative examples are given.

  7. Fractional Order Models of Industrial Pneumatic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhassan Razminia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a new approach for modeling of versatile controllers in industrial automation and process control systems such as pneumatic controllers. Some fractional order dynamical models are developed for pressure and pneumatic systems with bellows-nozzle-flapper configuration. In the light of fractional calculus, a fractional order derivative-derivative (FrDD controller and integral-derivative (FrID are remodeled. Numerical simulations illustrate the application of the obtained theoretical results in simple examples.

  8. Measuring memory with the order of fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Maolin; Wang, Zaihua; Hu, Haiyan

    2013-12-01

    Fractional derivative has a history as long as that of classical calculus, but it is much less popular than it should be. What is the physical meaning of fractional derivative? This is still an open problem. In modeling various memory phenomena, we observe that a memory process usually consists of two stages. One is short with permanent retention, and the other is governed by a simple model of fractional derivative. With the numerical least square method, we show that the fractional model perfectly fits the test data of memory phenomena in different disciplines, not only in mechanics, but also in biology and psychology. Based on this model, we find that a physical meaning of the fractional order is an index of memory.

  9. Comparison between classical Kelvin-Voigt and fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt models in prediction of linear viscoelastic behaviour of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farno, Ehsan; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Eshtiaghi, Nicky

    2017-09-22

    Appropriate sewage sludge rheological models are essential for computational fluid dynamic simulation of wastewater treatment processes, in particular aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The liquid-like behaviour of sludge is well documented but the solid-like behaviour remains poorly described despite its importance for dead-zone formation. In this study, classical Kelvin-Voigt model, commonly used for sludge in literature, were compared with fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model regarding their predictive ability for describing the solid-like behaviour. Results showed that the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model best fitted the experimental data obtained from creep and frequency sweep tests. Whereas, classical Kelvin-Voigt could not fit the frequency sweep data as this model is not a function of angular velocity. Also, the Kelvin-Voigt model was unable to predict the creep data at low stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of

  11. A nonlinear and fractional derivative viscoelastic model for rail pads in the dynamic analysis of coupled vehicle-slab track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyang; Cai, Chengbiao; Spanos, Pol D.

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear and fractional derivative viscoelastic (FDV) model is used to capture the complex behavior of rail pads. It is implemented into the dynamic analysis of coupled vehicle-slab track (CVST) systems. The vehicle is treated as a multi-body system with 10 degrees of freedom, and the slab track is represented by a three layer Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The model for the rail pads is one dimensional, and the force-displacement relation is based on a superposition of elastic, friction, and FDV forces. This model takes into account the influences of the excitation frequency and of the displacement amplitude through a fractional derivative element, and a nonlinear friction element, respectively. The Grünwald representation of the fractional derivatives is employed to numerically solve the fractional and nonlinear equations of motion of the CVST system by means of an explicit integration algorithm. A dynamic analysis of the CVST system exposed to excitations of rail harmonic irregularities is carried out, pointing out the stiffness and damping dependence on the excitation frequency and the displacement amplitude. The analysis indicates that the dynamic stiffness and damping of the rail pads increase with the excitation frequency while they decrease with the displacement amplitude. Furthermore, comparisons between the proposed model and ordinary Kelvin model adopted for the CVST system, under excitations of welded rail joint irregularities and of random track irregularities, are conducted in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The proposed model is shown to possess several modeling advantages over the ordinary Kelvin element which overestimates both the stiffness and damping features at high frequencies.

  12. Aging and Rejuvenation with Fractional Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Science, University of North Texas, P. O. Box 311427, Denton, Texas 76203-1427, USA 2Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFM, via...interval 2,m,3, yield a generalized master equation equivalent to the sum of an ordinary Markov contribution and a fractional derivative term. We show...though these processes are associated with quite different physical phenomena [14]. His general argu- ments rested on three assumptions: (1) microscopic

  13. Fractional derivatives for physicists and engineers background and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Uchaikin, Vladimir V

    2013-01-01

    The first derivative of a particle coordinate means its velocity, the second means its acceleration, but what does a fractional order derivative mean? Where does it come from, how does it work, where does it lead to? The two-volume book written on high didactic level answers these questions. Fractional Derivatives for Physicists and Engineers— The first volume contains a clear introduction into such a modern branch of analysis as the fractional calculus. The second develops a wide panorama of applications of the fractional calculus to various physical problems. This book recovers new perspectives in front of the reader dealing with turbulence and semiconductors, plasma and thermodynamics, mechanics and quantum optics, nanophysics and astrophysics.  The book is addressed to students, engineers and physicists, specialists in theory of probability and statistics, in mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, to everybody who doesn't wish to stay apart from the new mathematical methods becoming more and ...

  14. Deriving fractional rate of degradation of logistic-exponential (LE) model to evaluate early in vitro fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Sun, X Z; Tang, S X; Tan, Z L; Pacheco, D

    2013-06-01

    Water-soluble components of feedstuffs are mainly utilized during the early phase of microbial fermentation, which could be deemed an important determinant of gas production behavior in vitro. Many studies proposed that the fractional rate of degradation (FRD) estimated by fitting gas production curves to mathematical models might be used to characterize the early incubation for in vitro systems. In this study, the mathematical concept of FRD was developed on the basis of the Logistic-Exponential (LE) model, with initial gas volume being zero (LE0). The FRD of the LE0 model exhibits a continuous increase from initial (FRD 0) toward final asymptotic value (FRD F) with longer incubation time. The relationships between the FRD and gas production at incubation times 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h were compared for four models, in addition to LE0, Generalization of the Mitscherlich (GM), c th order Michaelis-Menten (MM) and Exponential with a discrete LAG (EXPLAG). A total of 94 in vitro gas curves from four subsets with a wide range of feedstuffs from different laboratories and incubation periods were used for model testing. Results indicated that compared with the GM, MM and EXPLAG models, the FRD of LE0 model consistently had stronger correlations with gas production across the four subsets, especially at incubation times 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h. Thus, the LE0 model was deemed to provide a better representation of the early fermentation rates. Furthermore, the FRD 0 also exhibited strong correlations (P < 0.05) with gas production at early incubation times 2, 4, 6 and 8 h across all four subsets. In summary, the FRD of LE0 model provides an alternative to quantify the rate of early stage incubation, and its initial value could be an important starting parameter of rate.

  15. Derivative with two fractional orders: A new avenue of investigation toward revolution in fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2016-10-01

    In order to describe more complex problems using the concept of fractional derivatives, we introduce in this paper the concept of fractional derivatives with orders. The new definitions are based upon the concept of power law together with the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. The first order is included in the power law function and the second one is in the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. Each order therefore plays an important role while modeling, for instance, problems with two layers with different properties. This is the case, for instance, in thermal science for a reaction diffusion within a media with two different layers with different properties. Another case is that of groundwater flowing within an aquifer where geological formation is formed with two layers with different properties. The paper presents new fractional operators that will open new doors for research and investigations in modeling real world problems. Some useful properties of the new operators are presented, in particular their relationship with existing integral transforms, namely the Laplace, Sumudu, Mellin and Fourier transforms. The numerical approximation of the new fractional operators are presented. We apply the new fractional operators on the model of groundwater plume with degradation and limited sorption and solve the new model numerically with some numerical simulations. The numerical simulation leaves no doubt in believing that the new fractional operators are powerfull mathematical tools able to portray complexes real world problems.

  16. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  17. Wright functions governed by fractional directional derivatives and fractional advection diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ovidio, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    We consider fractional directional derivatives and establish some connection with stable densities. Solutions to advection equations involving fractional directional derivatives are presented and some properties investigated. In particular we obtain solutions written in terms of Wright functions by exploiting operational rules involving the shift operator. We also consider fractional advection diffusion equations involving fractional powers of the negative Laplace operator and directional derivatives of fractional order and discuss the probabilistic interpretations of solutions.

  18. Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2015-01-01

    Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.

  19. Geometrical explanation of the fractional complex transform and derivative chain rule for fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ji-Huan, E-mail: hejihuan@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Elagan, S.K., E-mail: sayed_khalil2000@yahoo.com [Mathematics and Statistics Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. 888 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Menofiya University, Shebin Elkom (Egypt); Li, Z.B., E-mail: zhengbiaoli@l26.com [College of Mathematics and Information Science, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011 (China)

    2012-01-09

    The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.

  20. Control and Synchronization of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Control and Synchronization of the Fractional-Order Lorenz Chaotic System via Fractional-Order Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhou; Rui Ding

    2012-01-01

    The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  2. Electrodynamic Analysis of Dissipative Electromagnetic Materials Based on Fractional Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Kang-Bo; LIANG Chang-Hong; DANG Xiao-Jie

    2007-01-01

    The generalized Lagrangian is defined in a dissipative electromagnetic medium on the basis of the combination of dynamical analysis and fractional derivative.Lorentz medium models are obtained by formulating relevant EulerLagrange equations.The invariance is obtained subsequently by investigating the invariance of time variation in the system,and then the relation between the related Hamiltonian and electromagnetic energy density is investigated.Canonical equations are obtained eventually.The electrodynamic interpretation on dissipative electromagnetic systems is revesled.

  3. Time-fractional derivatives in relaxation processes: a tutorial survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this tutorial survey is to revisit the basic theory of relaxation processes governed by linear differential equations of fractional order. The fractional derivatives are intended both in the Rieamann-Liouville sense and in the Caputo sense. After giving a necessary outline of the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity, we contrast these two types of fractional derivatives in their ability to take into account initial conditions in the constitutive equations of fractional order. We also provide historical notes on the origins of the Caputo derivative and on the use of fractional calculus in viscoelasticity.

  4. Approximating fractional derivatives through the generalized mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Galhano, Alexandra M.; Oliveira, Anabela M.; Tar, József K.

    2009-11-01

    This paper addresses the calculation of fractional order expressions through rational fractions. The article starts by analyzing the techniques adopted in the continuous to discrete time conversion. The problem is re-evaluated in an optimization perspective by tacking advantage of the degree of freedom provided by the generalized mean formula. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the new algorithm.

  5. Asymptotical Stability of Nonlinear Fractional Differential System with Caputo Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the stability of nonlinear fractional differential systems equipped with the Caputo derivative. At first, a sufficient condition on asymptotical stability is established by using a Lyapunov-like function. Then, the fractional differential inequalities and comparison method are applied to the analysis of the stability of fractional differential systems. In addition, some other sufficient conditions on stability are also presented.

  6. Fractionally Integrated Models With ARCH Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Michael A.; Kunst, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce ARFIMA-ARCH models which simultaneously incorporate fractional differencing and conditional heteroskedasticity. We develop the likelihood function and a numerical estimation procedure for this model class. Two ARCH models - Engle- and Weiss-type - are explicitly treated and stationarity conditions are derived. Finite-sample properties of the estimation procedure are explored by Monte Carlo simulation. An application to the Standard & Poor 500 Index indicates existence o...

  7. ISOPERIMETRIC PROBLEMS OF THE CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Almeida; Rui A. C. Ferreira; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we study isoperimetric problems of the calculus of variations with left and right Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Both situations when the lower bound of the variational integrals coincide and do not coincide with the lower bound of the fractional derivatives are considered.

  8. Fractional Order Differential Equations Involving Caputo Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Dahmani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Banach contraction principle and Schaefer theorem are applied to establish new results for the existence and uniqueness of solutions for some Caputo fractional differential equations. Some examples are also discussed to illustrate the main results.

  9. No Violation of the Leibniz Rule. No Fractional Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that a violation of the Leibniz rule is a characteristic property of derivatives of non-integer orders. We prove that all fractional derivatives D^a, which satisfy the Leibniz rule D^(fg)=(D^a f) g + f (D^a g), should have the integer order a=1, i.e. fractional derivatives of non-integer orders cannot satisfy the Leibniz rule.

  10. On the definition of fractional derivatives in rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades fractional calculus has been increasingly applied to physics, especially to rheology.It is well known that there are obivious differences between Riemann-Liouville (R-L) definition and Caputo definition,which are the two most commonly used definitions of fractional derivatives.The multiple definitions of fractional derivatives have hindered the application of fractional calculus in rheology.In this paper,we clarify that the R-L definition and Caputo definition are both Theolog...

  11. Recovery of renal function after administration of adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction in rat model of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunwoo; Jang, Myoung Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun; Park, Jin Young; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-03-10

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major challenge in critical care medicine. The purpose of this study is to determine the therapeutic effects of the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and the optimal route for SVF delivery in a rat model of AKI induced by I/R injury. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (10 animals per group): sham, nephrectomy control, I/R injury control, renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection. To induce AKI by I/R injury, the left renal artery was clamped with a nontraumatic vascular clamp for 40 min, and the right kidney was removed. Rats receiving renal arterial infusion of SVF had a significantly reduced increase in serum creatinine compared with the I/R injury control group at 4 days after I/R injury. The glomerular filtration rate of the renal arterial SVF infusion group was maintained at a level similar to that of the sham and nephrectomy control groups at 14 days after I/R injury. Masson's trichrome staining showed significantly less fibrosis in the renal arterial SVF infusion group compared with that in the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal arterial SVF infusion and subcapsular SVF injection groups compared with the I/R injury control group in the outer stripe (P renal function is effectively rescued from AKI induced by I/R injury through the renal arterial administration of SVF in a rat model.

  12. Heat transfer analysis of fractional second-grade fluid subject to Newtonian heating with Caputo and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad Imran; Shah, Nehad Ali; Aleem, Maryam; Khan, Ilyas

    2017-08-01

    The present study is a comparative analysis of unsteady flows of a second-grade fluid with Newtonian heating and time-fractional derivatives, namely, the Caputo fractional derivative (singular kernel) and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative (non-singular kernel). A physical model for second-grade fluids is developed with fractional derivatives. The expressions for temperature and velocity fields in dimensionless form as well as rates of heat transfer are determined by means of the Laplace transform technique. Solutions for ordinary cases corresponding to integer order derivatives are also obtained. Numerical computations for a comparison between the solutions of the problem with the Caputo time-fractional derivative, problem with Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivative and of the ordinary fluid problem were made. The influence of some flow parameters and fractional parameter α on temperature field as well as velocity field was presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  13. Asymptotical Stability of Nonlinear Fractional Differential System with Caputo Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability of nonlinear fractional differential systems equipped with the Caputo derivative. At first, a sufficient condition on asymptotical stability is established by using a Lyapunov-like function. Then, the fractional differential inequalities and comparison method are applied to the analysis of the stability of fractional differential systems. In addition, some other sufficient conditions on stability are also presented.

  14. Computational solutions of unified fractional reaction-diffusion equations with composite fractional time derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R. K.; Mathai, A. M.; Haubold, H. J.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the computational solutions of an unified fractional reaction-diffusion equation, which is obtained from the standard diffusion equation by replacing the time derivative of first order by the generalized fractional time-derivative defined by Hilfer (2000), the space derivative of second order by the Riesz-Feller fractional derivative and adding the function ϕ (x, t) which is a nonlinear function governing reaction. The solution is derived by the application of the Laplace and Fourier transforms in a compact and closed form in terms of the H-function. The main result obtained in this paper provides an elegant extension of the fundamental solution for the space-time fractional diffusion equation obtained earlier by Mainardi et al. (2001, 2005) and a result very recently given by Tomovski et al. (2011). Computational representation of the fundamental solution is also obtained explicitly. Fractional order moments of the distribution are deduced. At the end, mild extensions of the derived results associated with a finite number of Riesz-Feller space fractional derivatives are also discussed.

  15. Optimal approximation of fractional derivatives through discrete-time fractions using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Galhano, Alexandra M.; Oliveira, Anabela M.; Tar, József K.

    2010-03-01

    This study addresses the optimization of rational fraction approximations for the discrete-time calculation of fractional derivatives. The article starts by analyzing the standard techniques based on Taylor series and Padé expansions. In a second phase the paper re-evaluates the problem in an optimization perspective by tacking advantage of the flexibility of the genetic algorithms.

  16. A note on the definition of fractional derivatives applied in rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yang; Ke-Qin Zhu

    2011-01-01

    It is known that there exist obivious differences between the two most commonly used definitions of fractional derivatives-Riemann-Liouville (R-L) definition and Caputo definition.The multiple definitions of fractional derivatives in fractional calculus have hindered the application of fractional calculus in rheology.In this paper,we clarify that the R-L definition and Caputo definition are both rheologically imperfect with the help of mechanical analogues of the fractional element model (Scott-Blair model).We also clarify that to make them perfect rheologically,the lower terminals of both definitions should be put to -∞.We further prove that the R-L definition with lower terminal a → -∞ and the Caputo definition with lower terminal a → -∞ are equivalent in the differentiation of functions that are smooth enough and functions that have finite number of singular points.Thus we can define the fractional derivatives in rheology as the R-L derivatives with lower terminal a → -∞ (or,equivalently,the Caputo derivatives with lower terminal a → -∞) not only for steady-state processes,but also for transient processes.Based on the above definition,the problems of composition rules of fractional operators and the initial conditions for fractional differential equations are discussed,respectively.As an example we study a fractional oscillator with Scott-Blair model and give an exact solution of this equation under given initial conditions.

  17. Fractional modified dyadic integral and derivative on R+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, BI

    2005-01-01

    For functions in the Lebesgue space L(R+), a modified strong dyadic integral J(alpha) and a modified strong dyadic derivative D-(alpha) of fractional order alpha > 0 are introduced. For a given function f is an element of L(R+), criteria for the existence of these integrals and derivatives are obtai

  18. Fractional modified dyadic integral and derivative on R+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, BI

    2005-01-01

    For functions in the Lebesgue space L(R+), a modified strong dyadic integral J(alpha) and a modified strong dyadic derivative D-(alpha) of fractional order alpha > 0 are introduced. For a given function f is an element of L(R+), criteria for the existence of these integrals and derivatives are obtai

  19. THE FLOW ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN FRACTAL RESERVOIR WITH THE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ji; TONG Deng-ke

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, fractional order derivative, fractal dimension and spectral dimension are introduced into the seepage flow mechanics to establish the flow models of fluids in fractal reservoirs with the fractional derivative. The flow characteristics of fluids through a fractal reservoir with the fractional order derivative are studied by using the finite integral transform, the discrete Laplace transform of sequential fractional derivatives and the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. Exact solutions are obtained for arbitrary fractional order derivative. The long-time and short-time asymptotic solutions for an infinite formation are also obtained. The pressure transient behavior of fluids flow through an infinite fractal reservoir is studied by using the Stehfest's inversion method of the numerical Laplace transform. It shows that the order of the fractional derivative affect the whole pressure behavior, particularly, the effect of pressure behavior of the early-time stage is larger The new type flow model of fluid in fractal reservoir with fractional derivative is provided a new mathematical model for studying the seepage mechanics of fluid in fractal porous media.

  20. Fractional dynamical model for neurovascular coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-08-01

    The neurovascular coupling is a key mechanism linking the neural activity to the hemodynamic behavior. Modeling of this coupling is very important to understand the brain function but it is at the same time very complex due to the complexity of the involved phenomena. Many studies have reported a time delay between the neural activity and the cerebral blood flow, which has been described by adding a delay parameter in some of the existing models. An alternative approach is proposed in this paper, where a fractional system is used to model the neurovascular coupling. Thanks to its nonlocal property, a fractional derivative is suitable for modeling the phenomena with delay. The proposed model is coupled with the first version of the well-known balloon model, which relates the cerebral blood flow to the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Through some numerical simulations, the properties of the fractional model are explained and some preliminary comparisons to a real BOLD data set are provided. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  2. A fractional model for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption process has a fractional property, and a fractional model is suggested to study a transport model of direct textile industry wastewater. An approximate solution of the concentration is obtained by the variational iteration method.

  3. Nonlinear Langevin Equation of Hadamard-Caputo Type Fractional Derivatives with Nonlocal Fractional Integral Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessada Tariboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study existence and uniqueness of solutions for a problem consisting of nonlinear Langevin equation of Hadamard-Caputo type fractional derivatives with nonlocal fractional integral conditions. A variety of fixed point theorems are used, such as Banach’s fixed point theorem, Krasnoselskii’s fixed point theorem, Leray-Schauder’s nonlinear alternative, and Leray-Schauder’s degree theory. Enlightening examples illustrating the obtained results are also presented.

  4. A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JOYDIP BANERJEE; UTTAM GHOSH; SUSMITA SARKAR; SHANTANU DAS

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the fractional Schrödinger equation are then described for the case of particles in one-dimensional infinite potential well. One of the motivations for using fractional calculus in physical systems is that the space and time variables, which we often deal with, exhibit coarse-grained phenomena. This means infinite simal quantities cannot be arbitrarily taken to zero – rather they are non-zero with a minimum spread. This type of non-zero spread arises in the microscopic to mesoscopic levels of system dynamics, which means that, if we denote x as the point in space and t as the point in time, then limit of the differentials dx (and dt ) cannot be taken as zero. To take the concept of coarse graining into account, use the infinite simal quantities as $(\\Delta x)^\\alpha$ (and $(\\Delta t)^\\alpha$) with 0 < $\\alpha$ < 1; called as ‘fractional differentials’. For arbitrarily small $\\Delta x$ and $\\Delta t$ (tending towards zero), these ‘fractional’ differentials are greaterthan $\\Delta x$ (and $\\Delta t$), i.e. $(\\Delta x)^\\alpha$ > $\\Delta x$ and $(\\Delta t)^\\alpha$ > $\\Delta t$. This way of defining the fractional differentials helps us to use fractional derivatives in the study of dynamic systems.

  5. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives.

  6. Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems Modeling, Analysis and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Petráš, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    "Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation" presents a study of fractional-order chaotic systems accompanied by Matlab programs for simulating their state space trajectories, which are shown in the illustrations in the book. Description of the chaotic systems is clearly presented and their analysis and numerical solution are done in an easy-to-follow manner. Simulink models for the selected fractional-order systems are also presented. The readers will understand the fundamentals of the fractional calculus, how real dynamical systems can be described using fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, how such equations can be solved, and how to simulate and explore chaotic systems of fractional order. The book addresses to mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and other scientists interested in chaos phenomena or in fractional-order systems. It can be used in courses on dynamical systems, control theory, and applied mathematics at graduate or postgraduate level. ...

  7. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ashkan; Min, James; Achenbach, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) derived from coronary computed tomography (FFRCT) has high diagnostic performance in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The diagnostic performance of FFRCT in patients with hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM), who are at risk of microvascular impairment, is...

  8. Modeling electron fractionalization with unconventional Fock spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that certain fractionally-charged quasiparticles can be modeled on D-dimensional lattices in terms of unconventional yet simple Fock algebras of creation and annihilation operators. These unconventional Fock algebras are derived from the usual fermionic algebra by taking roots (the square root, cubic root, etc) of the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators. If the fermions carry non-Abelian charges, then this approach fractionalizes the Abelian charges only. In particular, the mth-root of a spinful fermion carries charge e/m and spin 1/2. Just like taking a root of a complex number, taking a root of a fermion yields a mildly non-unique result. As a consequence, there are several possible choices of quantum exchange statistics for fermion-root quasiparticles. These choices are tied to the dimensionality D=1,2,3,\\ldots of the lattice by basic physical considerations. One particular family of fermion-root quasiparticles is directly connected to the parafermion zero-energy modes expected to emerge in certain mesoscopic devices involving fractional quantum Hall states. Hence, as an application of potential mesoscopic interest, I investigate numerically the hybridization of Majorana and parafermion zero-energy edge modes caused by fractionalizing but charge-conserving tunneling.

  9. A Study of Fractional Schrodinger Equation-composed via Jumarie fractional derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Joydip; Sarkar, Susmita; Das, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    One of the motivations for using fractional calculus in physical systems is due to fact that many times, in the space and time variables we are dealing which exhibit coarse-grained phenomena, meaning that infinitesimal quantities cannot be placed arbitrarily to zero-rather they are non-zero with a minimum length. Especially when we are dealing in microscopic to mesoscopic level of systems. Meaning if we denote x the point in space and t as point in time; then the differentials dx (and dt) cannot be taken to limit zero, rather it has spread. A way to take this into account is to use infinitesimal quantities as (\\Deltax)^\\alpha (and (\\Deltat)^\\alpha) with 0\\Deltax. This way defining the differentials-or rather fractional differentials makes us to use fractional derivatives in the study of dynamic systems. In fractional calculus the fractional order trigonometric functions play important role. The Mittag-Leffler function which plays important role in the field of fractional calculus; and the fractional order tri...

  10. Fractional Brownian motions via random walk in the complex plane and via fractional derivative. Comparison and further results on their Fokker-Planck equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumarie, Guy E-mail: jumarie.guy@uqam.ca

    2004-11-01

    There are presently two different models of fractional Brownian motions available in the literature: the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of white noise on the one hand, and the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n defined by using a random walk in the complex plane, on the other hand. The paper provides a comparison between these two approaches, and in addition, takes this opportunity to contribute some complements. These two models are more or less equivalent on the theoretical standpoint for fractional order between 0 and 1/2, but their practical significances are quite different. Otherwise, for order larger than 1/2, the fractional derivative model has no counterpart in the complex plane. These differences are illustrated by an example drawn from mathematical finance. Taylor expansion of fractional order provides the expression of fractional difference in terms of finite difference, and this allows us to improve the derivation of Fokker-Planck equation and Kramers-Moyal expansion, and to get more insight in their relation with stochastic differential equations of fractional order. In the case of multi-fractal systems, the Fokker-Planck equation can be solved by using path integrals, and the fractional dynamic equations of the state moments of the stochastic system can be easily obtained. By combining fractional derivative and complex white noise of order n, one obtains a family of complex-valued fractional Brownian motions which exhibits long-range dependence. The conclusion outlines suggestions for further research, mainly regarding Lorentz transformation of fractional noises.

  11. Analysis of oil fractions derived from hydrogenation of aspen wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boocock, D.G.B. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario); Kallury, R.K.M.R.; Tidwell, T.T.

    1983-09-01

    The carboxylic, phenolic, basic, and neutral fractions resulting from fractionation of four oil samples derived from wood hydrogenation were analyzed by IR, /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR, VPC, HPLC, GC/MS, and CIMS. About 20% of the phenolic fraction is comprised of distillable alkyl phenols and catechols, the ratios of which could be determined as 2:1 and 1:1 for Raney nickel and nickel carbonate catalyzed oils, respectively, by VPC, CIMS, and /sup 13/C NMR techniques. One-third of the neutral fraction consisted of alkyl cyclopentanones and cyclohexanones in a 1:2 ratio as determined by /sup 13/C carbonyl peak integrations and by VPC. The composition of the carboxylic acid fraction was obtained by VPC and CIMS, the latter being utilized to arrive at the relative amounts of C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ aliphatic acids. Combination of VPC and CIMS facilitated the identification of alkyl imidazoles as the major constituents of the basic fraction. 41 references, 5 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Analytical Solutions of the Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Advection Dispersion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional advection-dispersion equations are used in groundwater hydrology to model the transport of passive tracers carried by fluid flow in porous medium. A space-time fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE is a generalization of the classical ADE in which the first-order space derivative is replaced with Caputo or Riemann-Liouville derivative of order , and the second-order space derivative is replaced with the Caputo or the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order . We derive the solution of the new equation in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions using Laplace transfrom. Some examples are given. The results from comparison let no doubt that the FADE is better in prediction than ADE.

  13. Fractional constant elasticity of variance model

    OpenAIRE

    Ngai Hang Chan; Chi Tim Ng

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a European option pricing formula for fractional market models. Although there exist option pricing results for a fractional Black-Scholes model, they are established without accounting for stochastic volatility. In this paper, a fractional version of the Constant Elasticity of Variance (CEV) model is developed. European option pricing formula similar to that of the classical CEV model is obtained and a volatility skew pattern is revealed.

  14. Antinociception of petroleum ether fraction derived from crude methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves and its possible mechanisms of action in animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Jaios, E. S.; Omar, M. H.; Abd. Rahman, S.; Hamid, S. S. A.; Ching, S. M.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Deny, S.; Taher, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum L. (family Melastomaceae) has been traditionally used as remedies against various ailments including those related to pain. The methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves has been proven to show antinociceptive activity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most effective fraction among the petroleum ether- (PEMM), ethyl acetate- (EAMM) and aqueous- (AQMM) fractions obtained through successive fractionation of crude, dried methanol extract of M. m...

  15. An efficient method for solving fractional Hodgkin-Huxley model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A. M.; Sweilam, N. H.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate numerical method for solving fractional Hodgkin-Huxley model. A non-standard finite difference method (NSFDM) is implemented to study the dynamic behaviors of the proposed model. The Grünwald-Letinkov definition is used to approximate the fractional derivatives. Numerical results are presented graphically reveal that NSFDM is easy to implement, effective and convenient for solving the proposed model.

  16. A Fractional Order Recovery SIR Model from a Stochastic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, C N; Henry, B I; McGann, A V

    2016-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been a proliferation of epidemiological models with ordinary derivatives replaced by fractional derivatives in an ad hoc manner. These models may be mathematically interesting, but their relevance is uncertain. Here we develop an SIR model for an epidemic, including vital dynamics, from an underlying stochastic process. We show how fractional differential operators arise naturally in these models whenever the recovery time from the disease is power-law distributed. This can provide a model for a chronic disease process where individuals who are infected for a long time are unlikely to recover. The fractional order recovery model is shown to be consistent with the Kermack-McKendrick age-structured SIR model, and it reduces to the Hethcote-Tudor integral equation SIR model. The derivation from a stochastic process is extended to discrete time, providing a stable numerical method for solving the model equations. We have carried out simulations of the fractional order recovery model showing convergence to equilibrium states. The number of infecteds in the endemic equilibrium state increases as the fractional order of the derivative tends to zero.

  17. DYNAMICAL STABILITY OF VISCOELASTIC COLUMN WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE CONSTITUTIVE RELATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根国; 朱正佑; 程昌钧

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic stability of simple supported viscoelastic column, subjected to a periodic axial force, is investigated. The viscoelastic material was assumed to obey the fractional derivative constitutive relation. The governing equation of motion was derived as a weakly singular Volterra integro-partial-differential equation, and it was simplified into a weakly singular Volterra integro-ordinary-differential equation by the Galerkin method. In terms of the averaging method, the dynamical stability was analyzed. A new numerical method is proposed to avoid storing all history data. Numerical examples are presented and the numerical results agree with the analytical ones.

  18. Fractional Langevin model of gait variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latka Miroslaw

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The stride interval in healthy human gait fluctuates from step to step in a random manner and scaling of the interstride interval time series motivated previous investigators to conclude that this time series is fractal. Early studies suggested that gait is a monofractal process, but more recent work indicates the time series is weakly multifractal. Herein we present additional evidence for the weakly multifractal nature of gait. We use the stride interval time series obtained from ten healthy adults walking at a normal relaxed pace for approximately fifteen minutes each as our data set. A fractional Langevin equation is constructed to model the underlying motor control system in which the order of the fractional derivative is itself a stochastic quantity. Using this model we find the fractal dimension for each of the ten data sets to be in agreement with earlier analyses. However, with the present model we are able to draw additional conclusions regarding the nature of the control system guiding walking. The analysis presented herein suggests that the observed scaling in interstride interval data may not be due to long-term memory alone, but may, in fact, be due partly to the statistics.

  19. Equivalent Circuits Applied in Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Fractional Derivatives with and without Singular Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Gómez-Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an alternative representation of integer and fractional electrical elements in the Laplace domain for modeling electrochemical systems represented by equivalent electrical circuits. The fractional derivatives considered are of Caputo and Caputo-Fabrizio type. This representation includes distributed elements of the Cole model type. In addition to maintaining consistency in adjusted electrical parameters, a detailed methodology is proposed to build the equivalent circuits. Illustrative examples are given and the Nyquist and Bode graphs are obtained from the numerical simulation of the corresponding transfer functions using arbitrary electrical parameters in order to illustrate the methodology. The advantage of our representation appears according to the comparison between our model and models presented in the paper, which are not physically acceptable due to the dimensional incompatibility. The Markovian nature of the models is recovered when the order of the fractional derivatives is equal to 1.

  20. A Fast Implicit Finite Difference Method for Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equations with Fractional Derivative Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taohua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional advection-dispersion equations, as generalizations of classical integer-order advection-dispersion equations, are used to model the transport of passive tracers carried by fluid flow in a porous medium. In this paper, we develop an implicit finite difference method for fractional advection-dispersion equations with fractional derivative boundary conditions. First-order consistency, solvability, unconditional stability, and first-order convergence of the method are proven. Then, we present a fast iterative method for the implicit finite difference scheme, which only requires storage of O(K and computational cost of O(Klog⁡K. Traditionally, the Gaussian elimination method requires storage of O(K2 and computational cost of O(K3. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of the method are checked with a numerical example.

  1. Space-Time Fractional Reaction-Diffusion Equations Associated with a Generalized Riemann–Liouville Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Saxena

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the investigation of the computational solutions of a unified fractional reaction-diffusion equation, which is obtained from the standard diffusion equation by replacing the time derivative of first order by the generalized Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative defined by others and the space derivative of second order by the Riesz–Feller fractional derivative and adding a function ɸ(x, t. The solution is derived by the application of the Laplace and Fourier transforms in a compact and closed form in terms of Mittag–Leffler functions. The main result obtained in this paper provides an elegant extension of the fundamental solution for the space-time fractional diffusion equation obtained by others and the result very recently given by others. At the end, extensions of the derived results, associated with a finite number of Riesz–Feller space fractional derivatives, are also investigated.

  2. Fractional and multivariable calculus model building and optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents a rigorous approach to multivariable calculus in the context of model building and optimization problems. This comprehensive overview is based on lectures given at five SERC Schools from 2008 to 2012 and covers a broad range of topics that will enable readers to understand and create deterministic and nondeterministic models. Researchers, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in mathematics, statistics, physics, engineering, and biological sciences will find this book to be a valuable resource for finding appropriate models to describe real-life situations. The first chapter begins with an introduction to fractional calculus moving on to discuss fractional integrals, fractional derivatives, fractional differential equations and their solutions. Multivariable calculus is covered in the second chapter and introduces the fundamentals of multivariable calculus (multivariable functions, limits and continuity, differentiability, directional derivatives and expansions of multivariable ...

  3. An efficient method for solving fractional Hodgkin–Huxley model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, A.M., E-mail: abdelhameed_nagy@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, 13518 Benha (Egypt); Sweilam, N.H., E-mail: n_sweilam@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12613 Giza (Egypt)

    2014-06-13

    In this paper, we present an accurate numerical method for solving fractional Hodgkin–Huxley model. A non-standard finite difference method (NSFDM) is implemented to study the dynamic behaviors of the proposed model. The Grünwald–Letinkov definition is used to approximate the fractional derivatives. Numerical results are presented graphically reveal that NSFDM is easy to implement, effective and convenient for solving the proposed model. - Highlights: • An accurate numerical method for solving fractional Hodgkin–Huxley model is given. • Non-standard finite difference method (NSFDM) is implemented to the proposed model. • NSFDM can solve differential equations involving derivatives of non-integer order. • NDFDM is very powerful and efficient technique for solving the proposed model.

  4. Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.

  5. Fractional Heat Conduction Models and Thermal Diffusivity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Žecová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the fractional heat conduction models and their use for determining thermal diffusivity. A brief historical overview of the authors who have dealt with the heat conduction equation is described in the introduction of the paper. The one-dimensional heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are listed. Analytical and numerical methods of solution of the heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are described. Individual methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the examples of simulations are listed. The proposal and experimental verification of the methods for determining thermal diffusivity using half-order derivative of temperature by time are listed at the conclusion of the paper.

  6. Positive solutions of fractional differential equations with derivative terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the existence of positive solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equation whose nonlinearity contains the first-order derivative, $$displaylines{ D_{0^+}^{alpha}u(t+f(t,u(t,u'(t=0,quad tin (0,1,; n-14 $ $(ninmathbb{N}$, $D_{0^+}^{alpha}$ is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of order $alpha$ and $f(t,u,u':[0,1] imes [0,inftyimes(-infty,+infty o [0,infty$ satisfies the Caratheodory type condition. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of at least one or two positive solutions by using the nonlinear alternative of the Leray-Schauder type and Krasnosel'skii's fixed point theorem. In addition, several other sufficient conditions are established for the existence of at least triple, n or 2n-1 positive solutions. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results.

  7. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.

  8. Discrete random walk models for space-time fractional diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenflo, Rudolf; Mainardi, Francesco; Moretti, Daniele; Pagnini, Gianni; Paradisi, Paolo

    2002-11-01

    A physical-mathematical approach to anomalous diffusion may be based on generalized diffusion equations (containing derivatives of fractional order in space or/and time) and related random walk models. By space-time fractional diffusion equation we mean an evolution equation obtained from the standard linear diffusion equation by replacing the second-order space derivative with a Riesz-Feller derivative of order {alpha} is part of (0,2] and skewness {theta} (module{theta}{<=}{l_brace}{alpha},2-{alpha}{r_brace}), and the first-order time derivative with a Caputo derivative of order {beta} is part of (0,1]. Such evolution equation implies for the flux a fractional Fick's law which accounts for spatial and temporal non-locality. The fundamental solution (for the Cauchy problem) of the fractional diffusion equation can be interpreted as a probability density evolving in time of a peculiar self-similar stochastic process that we view as a generalized diffusion process. By adopting appropriate finite-difference schemes of solution, we generate models of random walk discrete in space and time suitable for simulating random variables whose spatial probability density evolves in time according to this fractional diffusion equation.

  9. A fractional diffusion equation model for cancer tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyiola, Olaniyi Samuel; Zaman, F. D.

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we consider cancer tumor models and investigate the need for fractional order derivative as compared to the classical first order derivative in time. Three different cases of the net killing rate are taken into account including the case where net killing rate of the cancer cells is dependent on the concentration of the cells. At first, we use a relatively new analytical technique called q-Homotopy Analysis Method on the resulting time-fractional partial differential equations to obtain analytical solution in form of convergent series with easily computable components. Our numerical analysis enables us to give some recommendations on the appropriate order (fractional) of derivative in time to be used in modeling cancer tumor.

  10. Finite element formulation of viscoelastic sandwich beams using fractional derivative operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galucio, A. C.; Deü, J.-F.; Ohayon, R.

    This paper presents a finite element formulation for transient dynamic analysis of sandwich beams with embedded viscoelastic material using fractional derivative constitutive equations. The sandwich configuration is composed of a viscoelastic core (based on Timoshenko theory) sandwiched between elastic faces (based on Euler-Bernoulli assumptions). The viscoelastic model used to describe the behavior of the core is a four-parameter fractional derivative model. Concerning the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. Curve-fitting aspects are focused, showing a good agreement with experimental data. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, the Grünwald definition of the fractional operator is employed. To solve the equation of motion, a direct time integration method based on the implicit Newmark scheme is used. One of the particularities of the proposed algorithm lies in the storage of displacement history only, reducing considerably the numerical efforts related to the non-locality of fractional operators. After validations, numerical applications are presented in order to analyze truncation effects (fading memory phenomena) and solution convergence aspects.

  11. Numerical solution of fractional-in-space nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the Riesz fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.; Atangana, Abdon

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, dynamics of time-dependent fractional-in-space nonlinear Schrödinger equation with harmonic potential V(x),x in R in one, two and three dimensions have been considered. We approximate the Riesz fractional derivative with the Fourier pseudo-spectral method and advance the resulting equation in time with both Strang splitting and exponential time-differencing methods. The Riesz derivative introduced in this paper is found to be so convenient to be applied in models that are connected with applied science, physics, and engineering. We must also report that the Riesz derivative introduced in this work will serve as a complementary operator to the commonly used Caputo or Riemann-Liouville derivatives in the higher-dimensional case. In the numerical experiments, one expects the travelling wave to evolve from such an initial function on an infinite computational domain (-∞, &infty); , which we truncate at some large, but finite values L. It is important that the value of L is chosen large enough to give enough room for the wave function to propagate. We observe a different distribution of complex wave functions for the focusing and defocusing cases.

  12. Likelihood Inference for a Nonstationary Fractional Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    values Xº-n, n = 0, 1, ..., under the assumption that the errors are i.i.d. Gaussian. We consider the likelihood and its derivatives as stochastic processes in the parameters, and prove that they converge in distribution when the errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and the initial values......This paper discusses model based inference in an autoregressive model for fractional processes based on the Gaussian likelihood. The model allows for the process to be fractional of order d or d - b; where d = b > 1/2 are parameters to be estimated. We model the data X¿, ..., X¿ given the initial...... are bounded. We use this to prove existence and consistency of the local likelihood estimator, and to ?find the asymptotic distribution of the estimators and the likelihood ratio test of the associated fractional unit root hypothesis, which contains the fractional Brownian motion of type II...

  13. Likelihood inference for a nonstationary fractional autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    values X0-n, n = 0, 1,...,under the assumption that the errors are i.i.d. Gaussian. We consider the likelihood and its derivatives as stochastic processes in the parameters, and prove that they converge in distribution when the errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and the initial values......This paper discusses model based inference in an autoregressive model for fractional processes based on the Gaussian likelihood. The model allows for the process to be fractional of order d or d-b; where d ≥ b > 1/2 are parameters to be estimated. We model the data X1,...,XT given the initial...... are bounded. We use this to prove existence and consistency of the local likelihood estimator, and to find the asymptotic distribution of the estimators and the likelihood ratio test of the associated fractional unit root hypothesis, which contains the fractional Brownian motion of type II....

  14. Immune-system-dependent anti-tumor activity of a plant-derived polyphenol rich fraction in a melanoma mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadena, A; Urueña, C; Prieto, K; Martinez-Usatorre, A; Donda, A; Barreto, A; Romero, P; Fiorentino, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that part of the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents require an intact immune system. This is in part due to the induction of immunogenic cell death. We have identified a gallotannin-rich fraction, obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) as an anti-tumor agent in both breast carcinoma and melanoma. Here, we report that P2Et treatment results in activation of caspase 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome c and externalization of annexin V in tumor cells, thus suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This was preceded by the onset of autophagy and the expression of immunogenic cell death markers. We further demonstrate that P2Et-treated tumor cells are highly immunogenic in vaccinated mice and induce immune system activation, clearly shown by the generation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing tyrosine-related protein 2 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the tumor protective effects of P2Et treatment were abolished in immunodeficient mice, and partially lost after CD4 and CD8 depletion, indicating that P2Et's anti-tumor activity is highly dependent on immune system and at least in part of T cells. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the gallotannin-rich fraction P2Et's anti-tumor effects are mediated to a great extent by the endogenous immune response following to the exposure to immunogenic dying tumor cells. PMID:27253407

  15. An Adaptive Image Denoising Model of Anisotropic Diffusion Based on Fractional Derivative%基于分数阶导数的自适应各向异性扩散图像去噪模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迎春; 桂志国; 李化奇; 李晓岩

    2011-01-01

    针对传统的纯各向异性扩散模型(一阶导数,用梯度表示)在平滑区域过度扩散,产生“阶梯效应”和四阶PDE(Partial Differential Equations)模型(二阶导数,用Laplace算子表示)去噪效果差的缺点,在分数阶偏微分理论的基础上提出了基于分数阶导数的自适应各向异性扩散图像去噪模型.该模型在图像的不同位置采用不同的正则化约束,具有局部自适应的特点.实验结果表明:该模型在有效去除噪声的同时,能够很好地保持图像的边缘和纹理细节信息,经过该算法处理后的图像具有更好的质量和视觉效果.%As the traditional pure anisotropic diffusion model (1-order derivative used by the gradient) brings "staircase effect" by excessive diffusion in smooth regions, and the 4-order PDE (2-order derivative used by the Laplacian) model suffers poor denoising effect, an adaptive image denoising model of anisotropic diffusion based on fractional derivative was proposed. As a locally adaptive process, the proposed model adopts different regularization constraints in different parts of the image. Experimental results show that the new model not only efficiently remove noise, but also retain the edge and detail information. Better quality and visual effects of the image is achieved with this model.

  16. Approximate self-similar solutions to a nonlinear diffusion equation with time-fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Łukasz; Okrasińska, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we consider a fractional nonlinear problem for anomalous diffusion. The diffusion coefficient we use is of power type, and hence the investigated problem generalizes the porous-medium equation. A generalization is made by introducing a fractional time derivative. We look for self-similar solutions for which the fractional setting introduces other than classical space-time scaling. The resulting similarity equations are of nonlinear integro-differential type. We approximate these equations by an expansion of the integral operator and by looking for solutions in a power function form. Our method can be easily adapted to solve various problems in self-similar diffusion. The approximations obtained give very good results in numerical analysis. Their simplicity allows for easy use in applications, as our fitting with experimental data shows. Moreover, our derivation justifies theoretically some previously used empirical models for anomalous diffusion.

  17. Vibrations of a Simply Supported Beam with a Fractional Viscoelastic Material Model – Supports Movement Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Freundlich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents vibration analysis of a simply supported beam with a fractional order viscoelastic material model. The Bernoulli-Euler beam model is considered. The beam is excited by the supports movement. The Riemann – Liouville fractional derivative of order 0 α ⩽ 1 is applied. In the first stage, the steady-state vibrations of the beam are analyzed and therefore the Riemann – Liouville fractional derivative with lower terminal at −∞ is assumed. This assumption simplifies solution of the fractional differential equations and enables us to directly obtain amplitude-frequency characteristics of the examined system. The characteristics are obtained for various values of fractional derivative of order α and values of the Voigt material model parameters. The studies show that the selection of appropriate damping coefficients and fractional derivative order of damping model enables us to fit more accurately dynamic characteristic of the beam in comparison with using integer order derivative damping model.

  18. On the analytical solution of Fornberg–Whitham equation with the new fractional derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Olaniyi Samuel Iyiola; Gbenga Olayinka Ojo

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by the simplicity, natural and efficient nature of the new fractional derivative introduced by R Khalil et al in J. Comput. Appl. Math. 264, 65 (2014), analytical solution of space-time fractional Fornberg–Whitham equation is obtained in series form using the relatively new method called q-homotopy analysis method (q-HAM). The new fractional derivative makes it possible to introduce fractional order in space to the Fornberg–Whitham equation and be able to obtain its solution. This work displays the elegant nature of the application of q-HAM to solve strongly nonlinear fractional differential equations. The presence of the auxiliary parameter h helps in an effective way to obtain better approximation comparable to exact solutions. The fraction-factor in this method gives it an edge over other existing analytical methods for nonlinear differential equations. Comparisons are made on the existence of exact solutions to these models. The analysis shows that our analytical solutions converge very rapidly to the exact solutions.

  19. Multi-Fraction Bayesian Sediment Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Schmelter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian approach to sediment transport modeling can provide a strong basis for evaluating and propagating model uncertainty, which can be useful in transport applications. Previous work in developing and applying Bayesian sediment transport models used a single grain size fraction or characterized the transport of mixed-size sediment with a single characteristic grain size. Although this approach is common in sediment transport modeling, it precludes the possibility of capturing processes that cause mixed-size sediments to sort and, thereby, alter the grain size available for transport and the transport rates themselves. This paper extends development of a Bayesian transport model from one to k fractional dimensions. The model uses an existing transport function as its deterministic core and is applied to the dataset used to originally develop the function. The Bayesian multi-fraction model is able to infer the posterior distributions for essential model parameters and replicates predictive distributions of both bulk and fractional transport. Further, the inferred posterior distributions are used to evaluate parametric and other sources of variability in relations representing mixed-size interactions in the original model. Successful OPEN ACCESS J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 1067 development of the model demonstrates that Bayesian methods can be used to provide a robust and rigorous basis for quantifying uncertainty in mixed-size sediment transport. Such a method has heretofore been unavailable and allows for the propagation of uncertainty in sediment transport applications.

  20. A fractional derivative approach to full creep regions in salt rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Wang, C. P.; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Based on the definition of the constant-viscosity Abel dashpot, a new creep element, referred to as the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, is proposed to characterize damage growth in salt rock samples during creep tests. Ultrasonic testing is employed to determine a formula of the variable viscosity...... coefficient, indicating that the change of the variable viscosity coefficient with the time meets a negative exponent law. In addition, by replacing the Newtonian dashpot in the classical Nishihara model with the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, a damage-mechanism-based creep constitutive model is proposed...... rock. Furthermore, a sensitivity study is carried out, showing the effects of stress level, fractional derivative order and viscosity coefficient exponent on creep strain of salt rock. It is indicated that the fractional derivative creep model proposed in the paper provides a precise description...

  1. Explicit Finite-Difference Scheme for the Numerical Solution of the Model Equation of Nonlinear Hereditary Oscillator with Variable-Order Fractional Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parovik Roman I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the model of variable-order nonlinear hereditary oscillator based on a numerical finite-difference scheme. Numerical experiments have been carried out to evaluate the stability and convergence of the difference scheme. It is argued that the approximation, stability and convergence are of the first order, while the scheme is stable and converges to the exact solution.

  2. Non-Noether symmetries of Hamiltonian systems with conformable fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Li, Wang; Jing-Li, Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations and the fractional non-Noether symmetry of Hamilton systems by the conformable fractional derivative. Firstly, the exchanging relationship between isochronous variation and fractional derivatives, and the fractional Hamilton principle of the system under this fractional derivative are proposed. Secondly, the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations of Hamilton systems based on the Hamilton principle are established. Thirdly, the fractional non-Noether symmetries, non-Noether theorem and non-Noether conserved quantities for the Hamilton systems with the conformable fractional derivatives are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11272287 and 11472247), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT13097), and the Key Science and Technology Innovation Team Project of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. 2013TD18).

  3. Local Fractional Fourier Series Solutions for Nonhomogeneous Heat Equations Arising in Fractal Heat Flow with Local Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fractal heat flow within local fractional derivative is investigated. The nonhomogeneous heat equations arising in fractal heat flow are discussed. The local fractional Fourier series solutions for one-dimensional nonhomogeneous heat equations are obtained. The nondifferentiable series solutions are given to show the efficiency and implementation of the present method.

  4. Mathematical Models Arising in the Fractal Forest Gap via Local Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest new gap models via local fractional calculus are investigated. The JABOWA and FORSKA models are extended to deal with the growth of individual trees defined on Cantor sets. The local fractional growth equations with local fractional derivative and difference are discussed. Our results are first attempted to show the key roles for the nondifferentiable growth of individual trees.

  5. Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.

  6. On the Solutions Fractional Riccati Differential Equation with Modified Riemann-Liouville Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Merdan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional variational iteration method (FVIM is performed to give an approximate analytical solution of nonlinear fractional Riccati differential equation. Fractional derivatives are described in the Riemann-Liouville derivative. A new application of fractional variational iteration method (FVIM was extended to derive analytical solutions in the form of a series for these equations. The behavior of the solutions and the effects of different values of fractional order are indicated graphically. The results obtained by the FVIM reveal that the method is very reliable, convenient, and effective method for nonlinear differential equations with modified Riemann-Liouville derivative

  7. Fractional derivatives in the transport of drugs across biological materials and human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Michele; Cametti, Cesare

    2016-11-01

    The diffusion of drugs across a composite structure such as a biological membrane is a rather complex phenomenon, because of its inhomogeneous nature, yielding a diffusion rate and a drug solubility strongly dependent on the local position across the membrane itself. These problems are particularly strengthened in composite structures of a considerable thickness like, for example, the human skin, where the high heterogeneity provokes the transport through different simultaneous pathways. In this note, we propose a generalization of the diffusion model based on Fick's 2nd equation by substituting a diffusion constant by means of the memory formalism approach (diffusion with memory). In particular, we employ two different definitions of the fractional derivative, i.e., the usual Caputo fractional derivative and a new definition recently proposed by Caputo and Fabrizio. The model predictions have been compared to experimental results concerning the permeation of two different compounds through human skin in vivo, such as piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, and 4-cyanophenol, a test chemical model compound. Moreover, we have also considered water penetration across human stratum corneum and the diffusion of an antiviral agent employed as model drugs across the skin of male hairless rats. In all cases, a satisfactory good agreement based on the diffusion with memory has been found. However, the model based on the new definition of fractional derivative gives a better description of the experimental data, on the basis of the residuals analysis. The use of the new definition widens the applicability of the fractional derivative to diffusion processes in highly heterogeneous systems.

  8. Asymptotic expansions for Riesz fractional derivatives of Airy functions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico); V. Varlamov

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRiesz fractional derivatives of a function, $D_{x}^{\\alpha}f(x)$ (also called Riesz potentials), are defined as fractional powers of the Laplacian. Asymptotic expansions for large $x$ are computed for the Riesz fractional derivatives of the Airy function of the first kind, $Ai(x)$, and

  9. Regression model for tuning the PID controller with fractional order time delay system

    OpenAIRE

    S.P. Agnihotri; Laxman Madhavrao Waghmare

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a regression model based for tuning proportional integral derivative (PID) controller with fractional order time delay system is proposed. The novelty of this paper is that tuning parameters of the fractional order time delay system are optimally predicted using the regression model. In the proposed method, the output parameters of the fractional order system are used to derive the regression function. Here, the regression model depends on the weights of the exponential function...

  10. Mixed convolved action for classical and fractional-derivative dissipative dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargush, G F

    2012-12-01

    The principle of mixed convolved action provides a new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. Here, the focus is initially on classical single-degree-of-freedom oscillators incorporating either Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell dissipative elements and then, subsequently, on systems that utilize fractional-derivative constitutive models. In each case, an appropriate mixed convolved action is formulated, and a corresponding weak form is discretized in time using temporal shape functions to produce an algorithm suitable for numerical solution. Several examples are considered to validate the mixed convolved action principles and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms. For undamped systems, the algorithm is found to be symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. In the case of dissipative systems, the approach is shown to be robust and to be accurate with good convergence characteristics for both classical and fractional-derivative based models. As part of the derivations, some interesting results in the calculus of Caputo fractional derivatives also are presented.

  11. On estimates of a fractional counterpart of the logarithmic derivative of a meromorphic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Chyzhykov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding lower bounds for growth of solutions of a fractional differential equation in the complex plane. We estimate a fractional integral of the logarithmic derivative of a meromorphic function.

  12. Exact solutions of a class of fractional Hamiltonian equations involving Caputo derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cankaya University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Trujillo, Juan J [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, University of La Laguna, 38271 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr, E-mail: JTrujill@ullmat.es, E-mail: baleanu@venus.nipne.ro

    2009-11-15

    The fractional Hamiltonian equations corresponding to the Lagrangians of constrained systems within Caputo derivatives are investigated. The fractional phase space is obtained and the exact solutions of some constrained systems are obtained.

  13. A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians based on Fractional Mean Field Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of crowds of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micro-macro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end. Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model respectively.

  14. On a fractal LC-electric circuit modeled by local fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro; Cattani, Carlo; Gao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    A non-differentiable model of the LC-electric circuit described by a local fractional differential equation of fractal dimensional order is addressed in this article. From the fractal electrodynamics point of view, the relaxation oscillator, defined on Cantor sets in LC-electric circuit, and its exact solution using the local fractional Laplace transform are obtained. Comparative results among local fractional derivative, Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative and conventional derivative are discussed. Local fractional calculus is proposed as a new tool suitable for the study of a large class of electric circuits.

  15. Modeling Students' Mathematics Using Steffe's Fraction Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson H.; McCloskey, Andrea V.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, more teachers learn about the successful intervention program known as Math Recovery (USMRC 2008; Wright 2003). The program uses Steffe's whole-number schemes to model, understand, and support children's development of whole-number reasoning. Readers are probably less familiar with Steffe's fraction schemes, which have proven similarly…

  16. Dynamical models of happiness with fractional order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyun; Yang, Jianying

    2010-03-01

    This present study focuses on a dynamical model of happiness described through fractional-order differential equations. By categorizing people of different personality and different impact factor of memory (IFM) with different set of model parameters, it is demonstrated via numerical simulations that such fractional-order models could exhibit various behaviors with and without external circumstance. Moreover, control and synchronization problems of this model are discussed, which correspond to the control of emotion as well as emotion synchronization in real life. This study is an endeavor to combine the psychological knowledge with control problems and system theories, and some implications for psychotherapy as well as hints of a personal approach to life are both proposed.

  17. An Expansion Formula with Higher-Order Derivatives for Fractional Operators of Variable Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type.

  18. A fractional calculus model of anomalous dispersion of acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharmby, Andrew W

    2016-09-01

    An empirical formula based on viscoelastic analysis techniques that employs concepts from the fractional calculus that was used to model the dielectric behavior of materials exposed to oscillating electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency, terahertz, and infrared bands. This work adapts and applies the formula to model viscoelastic behavior of materials that show an apparent increase of phase velocity of vibration with an increase in frequency, otherwise known as anomalous dispersion. A fractional order wave equation is derived through the application of the classic elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle whose analytical solution is used to describe absorption and dispersion of acoustic waves in the viscoelastic material displaying anomalous dispersion in a specific frequency range. A brief discussion and comparison of an alternative fractional order wave equation recently formulated is also included.

  19. Space-time fractional diffusion equation using a derivative with nonsingular and regular kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, using the fractional operators with Mittag-Leffler kernel in Caputo and Riemann-Liouville sense the space-time fractional diffusion equation is modified, the fractional equation will be examined separately; with fractional spatial derivative and fractional temporal derivative. For the study cases, the order considered is 0 < β , γ ≤ 1 respectively. In this alternative representation we introduce the appropriate fractional dimensional parameters which characterize consistently the existence of the fractional space-time derivatives into the fractional diffusion equation, these parameters related to equation results in a fractal space-time geometry provide a new family of solutions for the diffusive processes. The proposed mathematical representation can be useful to understand electrochemical phenomena, propagation of energy in dissipative systems, viscoelastic materials, material heterogeneities and media with different scales.

  20. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  1. A Novel Operational Matrix of Caputo Fractional Derivatives of Fibonacci Polynomials: Spectral Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, two numerical algorithms for solving some linear and nonlinear fractional-order differential equations are presented and analyzed. For this purpose, a novel operational matrix of fractional-order derivatives of Fibonacci polynomials was constructed and employed along with the application of the tau and collocation spectral methods. The convergence and error analysis of the suggested Fibonacci expansion were carefully investigated. Some numerical examples with comparisons are presented to ensure the efficiency, applicability and high accuracy of the proposed algorithms. Two accurate semi-analytic polynomial solutions for linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations are the result.

  2. Analysis of the flow of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids in fractal reservoir with the fractional derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Dengke; WANG Ruihe

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, fractional order derivative, fractal dimension and spectral dimension are introduced into the seepage flow mechanics to establish the relaxation models of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids with the fractional derivative in fractal reservoirs. A new type integral transform is introduced, and the flow characteristics of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids with the fractional order derivative through a fractal reservoir are studied by using the integral transform, the discrete Laplace transform of sequential fractional derivatives and the generalized Mittag-Leffler function. Exact solutions are obtained for arbitrary fractional order derivative. The long-time and short-time asymptotic solutions for an infinite formation are also obtained. The pressure transient behavior of non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids flow through an infinite fractal reservoir is studied by using the Stehfest's inversion method of the numerical Laplace transform. It is shown that the clearer the viscoelastic characteristics of the fluid, the more the fluid is sensitive to the order of the fractional derivative. The new type integral transform provides a new analytical tool for studying the seepage mechanics of fluid in fractal porous media.

  3. Wnt5a Regulates the Assembly of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction-Derived Microvasculatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat M Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (hSVF cells are an easily accessible, heterogeneous cell system that can spontaneously self-assemble into functional microvasculatures in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying vascular self-assembly and maturation are poorly understood, therefore we utilized an in vitro model to identify potential in vivo regulatory mechanisms. We utilized passage one (P1 hSVF because of the rapid UEA1+ endothelium (EC loss at even P2 culture. We exposed hSVF cells to a battery of angiogenesis inhibitors and found that the pan-Wnt inhibitor IWP2 produced the most significant hSVF-EC networking decrease (~25%. To determine which Wnt isoform(s and receptor(s may be involved, hSVF was screened by PCR for isoforms associated with angiogenesis, with only WNT5A and its receptor, FZD4, being expressed for all time points observed. Immunocytochemistry confirmed Wnt5a protein expression by hSVF. To see if Wnt5a alone could restore IWP2-induced EC network inhibition, recombinant human Wnt5a (0-150 ng/ml was added to IWP2-treated cultures. The addition of rhWnt5a significantly increased EC network area and significantly decreased the ratio of total EC network length to EC network area compared to untreated controls. To determine if Wnt5a mediates in vivo microvascular self-assembly, 3D hSVF constructs containing an IgG isotype control, anti-Wnt5a neutralizing antibody or rhWnt5a were implanted subcutaneously for 2w in immune compromised mice. Compared to IgG controls, anti-Wnt5a treatment significantly reduced vessel length density by ~41%, while rhWnt5a significantly increased vessel length density by ~62%. However, anti-Wnt5a or rhWnt5a did not significantly affect the density of segments and nodes, both of which measure vascular complexity. Taken together, this data demonstrates that endogenous Wnt5a produced by hSVF plays a regulatory role in microvascular self-assembly in vivo. These findings also suggest that

  4. A mathematical model on fractional Lotka-Volterra equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Gupta, P K

    2011-05-21

    The article presents the solutions of Lotka-Volterra equations of fractional-order time derivatives with the help of analytical method of nonlinear problem called the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). By using initial values, the explicit solutions of predator and prey populations for different particular cases have been derived. The numerical solutions show that only a few iterations are needed to obtain accurate approximate solutions. The method performs extremely well in terms of efficiency and simplicity to solve this historical biological model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Heavy Metal Sorption Kinetics Using Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Friesen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are commonly regarded as environmentally aggressive and hazardous to human health. Among the different metals, lead plays an important economic role due to its large use in the automotive industry, being an essential component of batteries. Different approaches have been reported in the literature aimed at lead removal, and among them a very successful one considers the use of water hyacinths for sorption-based operation. The modeling of the metal sorption kinetics is a fundamental step towards in-depth studies and proper separation equipment design and optimization. Fractional calculus represents a novel approach and a growing research field for process modeling, which is based on the successful use of derivatives of arbitrary order. This paper reports the modeling of the kinetics of lead sorption by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes using a fractional calculus. A general procedure on error analysis is also employed to prove the actual fractional nature of the proposed model by the use of parametric variance analysis, which was carried out using two different approaches (with the complete Hessian matrix and with a simplified Hessian matrix. The joint parameter confidence regions were generated, allowing to successfully show the fractional nature of the model and the sorption process.

  6. Comprehensive and Holistic Analysis of HT-29 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Tumor-Bearing Nude Mouse Model: Interactions Among Fractions Derived From the Chinese Medicine Formula Tian Xian Liquid in Effects on Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing

    2016-06-03

    The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m

  7. Existence and uniqueness results for pantograph equations with generalized fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vivek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness results for nonlinear pantograph equations with generalized fractional derivative(Katugampola Caputo fractional derivative. We use the Krasnoselkii's fixed point theorem to show the existence results. An example is provided to illustrate the results.

  8. Derivation of the fine structure constant using fractional dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfain, E

    2003-01-01

    Both classical and quantum electrodynamics assume that random fluctuations are absent from the steady-state evolution of the underlying physical system. Our work goes beyond this approximation and accounts for the continuous exposure to stochastic fluctuations. It is known that the asymptotic limit of quantum field dynamics, dominated by large and persistent perturbations, may be described as an anomalous diffusion process. We use fractional calculus as an appropriate tool to handle this highly non-trivial regime. It is shown that the fine structure constant can be recovered from the fractional evolution equation of the density matrix under standard normalization conditions.

  9. Generalized elastic model yields a fractional Langevin equation description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Chechkin, Aleksei; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-04-23

    Starting from a generalized elastic model which accounts for the stochastic motion of several physical systems such as membranes, (semi)flexible polymers, and fluctuating interfaces among others, we derive the fractional Langevin equation (FLE) for a probe particle in such systems, in the case of thermal initial conditions. We show that this FLE is the only one fulfilling the fluctuation-dissipation relation within a new family of fractional Brownian motion equations. The FLE for the time-dependent fluctuations of the donor-acceptor distance in a protein is shown to be recovered. When the system starts from nonthermal conditions, the corresponding FLE, which does not fulfill the fluctuation-dissipation relation, is derived.

  10. The Lamb-Bateman integral equation and the fractional derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D; Sacchetti, D

    2010-01-01

    The Lamb-Bateman integral equation was introduced to study the solitary wave diffraction and its solution was written in terms of an integral transform. We prove that it is essentially the Abel integral equation and its solution can be obtained using the formalism of fractional calculus.

  11. Fractional derivative of the Hurwitz ζ-function and chaotic decay to zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fractional order derivative of a Dirichlet series, Hurwitz zeta function and Riemann zeta function is explicitly computed using the Caputo fractional derivative in the Ortigueira sense. It is observed that the obtained results are a natural generalization of the integer order derivative. Some interesting properties of the fractional derivative of the Riemann zeta function are also investigated to show that there is a chaotic decay to zero (in the Gaussian plane and a promising expression as a complex power series.

  12. An integer order approximation method based on stability boundary locus for fractional order derivative/integrator operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Furkan Nur; Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Tan, Nusret; Atherton, Derek P

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces an integer order approximation method for numerical implementation of fractional order derivative/integrator operators in control systems. The proposed method is based on fitting the stability boundary locus (SBL) of fractional order derivative/integrator operators and SBL of integer order transfer functions. SBL defines a boundary in the parametric design plane of controller, which separates stable and unstable regions of a feedback control system and SBL analysis is mainly employed to graphically indicate the choice of controller parameters which result in stable operation of the feedback systems. This study reveals that the SBL curves of fractional order operators can be matched with integer order models in a limited frequency range. SBL fitting method provides straightforward solutions to obtain an integer order model approximation of fractional order operators and systems according to matching points from SBL of fractional order systems in desired frequency ranges. Thus, the proposed method can effectively deal with stability preservation problems of approximate models. Illustrative examples are given to show performance of the proposed method and results are compared with the well-known approximation methods developed for fractional order systems. The integer-order approximate modeling of fractional order PID controllers is also illustrated for control applications.

  13. Adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improves early tendon healing: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behfar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon never restores the complete biological and mechanical properties after healing. Bone marrow and recently adipose tissue have been used as the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, derived from adipose tissue by an enzymatic digestion, represents an alternative source of multipotent cells, which undergo differentiation into multiple lineages to be used in regenerative medicine. In the present study, we investigated potentials of this source on tendon healing. Twenty rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue. The injury model was unilateral complete transection through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected into the suture site in treatments and controls, respectively. Cast immobilization was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed at the third week and tendons underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical evaluations. By histology, improved fibrillar organization and remodeling of neotendon were observed in treatment group. Immunohistochemistry revealed an insignificant increase in collagen type III and I expression in treatments over controls. Mechanical testing showed significant increase in maximum load and energy absorption in SVF treated tendons. The present study showed that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improved structural and mechanical properties of repaired tendon and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon laceration.

  14. Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction improves tendon healing in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Behfar; Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei; Rahim Hobbenaghi; Nowruz Delirezh; Bahram Dalir-Naghadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential effects of uncultured adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction on tendon healing.Methods:Twenty five adult male New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were used.Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue and the rest were divided into control and treatment groups.The injury model was completed by unilateral tenotomy through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon.Immediately after suture repair,either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected at tendon stumps in treatment and control groups,respectively.Immobilization with cast was continued for two weeks after surgery.Animals were sacrificed at eight weeks after surgery and tendons underwent histological,immunohistochemical,and mechanical evaluations.Statistical analyses of quantitative and qualitative data were assessed using one-way analysis of variance and MannWhitney U-test,respectively.Results:Histological evaluations demonstrated superior fibrillar linearity and continuity,and decreased vascularity in treatment group indicated improved organization and remodeling of neotendons.Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in collagen I expression in treatment group.Ultimate load and energy absorption capacity were both significantly increased in cell-treated repairs compared with controls.Conclusion: The present study shows that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction results in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon injury.

  15. Fractional-order integral and derivative controller for temperature profile tracking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hyo-Sung Ahn; Varsha Bhambhani; YangQuan Chen

    2009-10-01

    This paper establishes a new strategy to tune a fractional order integral and derivative (ID) controller satisfying gain and phase margins based on Bode’s ideal transfer function as a reference model, for a temperature profile tracking. A systematic analysis resulting in a non-linear equation relating user-defined gain and phase margins to the fractional order controller is derived. The closed-loop system designed has a feature of robustness to gain variations with step responses exhibiting a nearly iso-damping property. This paper aims to apply the analytical tuning procedure to control the heat flow systems at selected points in Quanser experimental platform. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to examine performances of two different fractional order controllers in temperature profile tracking. From experimental comparisons with the traditional PI/PID controller based on Ziegler–Nichols’ tuning method, it will be shown that the proposed mathodologies are specifically beneficial in controlling temperature in time-delay heat flow systems.

  16. Stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear vibroimpact system with fractional derivative under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Sun, Yahui; Xiao, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the stochastic bifurcations in the nonlinear vibroimpact system with fractional derivative under random excitation. Firstly, the original stochastic vibroimpact system with fractional derivative is transformed into equivalent stochastic vibroimpact system without fractional derivative. Then, the non-smooth transformation and stochastic averaging method are used to obtain the analytical solutions of the equivalent stochastic system. At last, in order to verify the effectiveness of the above mentioned approach, the van der Pol vibroimpact system with fractional derivative is worked out in detail. A very satisfactory agreement can be found between the analytical results and the numerical results. An interesting phenomenon we found in this paper is that the fractional order and fractional coefficient of the stochastic van der Pol vibroimpact system can induce the occurrence of stochastic P-bifurcation. To the best of authors' knowledge, the stochastic P-bifurcation phenomena induced by fractional order and fractional coefficient have not been found in the present available literature which studies the dynamical behaviors of stochastic system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation.

  17. Time fractional capital-induced labor migration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Balcı, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    In this study we present a new model of neoclassical economic growth by considering that workers move from regions with lower density of capital to regions with higher density of capital. Since the labor migration and capital flow involves self-similarities in long range time, we use the fractional order derivatives for the time variable. To solve this model we proposed Variational Iteration Method, and studied numerically labor migration flow data from Turkey along with other countries throughout the period of 1966-2014.

  18. Basic Theory for Differential Equations with Unified Reimann-Liouville and Hadamard Type Fractional Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Karpuz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend the definition of the fractional integral and derivative introduced in [Appl. Math. Comput. 218 (2011] by Katugampola, which exhibits nice properties only for numbers whose real parts lie in [0,1]. We prove some interesting properties of the fractional integrals and derivatives. Based on these properties, the following concepts for the new type fractional differential equations are explored: Existence and uniqueness of solutions; Solutions of autonomous fractional differential equations; Dependence on the initial conditions; Green’s function; Variation of parameters formula.

  19. Hamilton formalism and Noether symmetry for mechanico-electrical systems with fractional derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shi-Hua; Chen Ben-Yong; Fu Jing-Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents extensions to the traditional calculus of variations for mechanico-electrical systems containing fractional derivatives.The Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamilton formalism of the mechanico-electrical systems with fractional derivatives are established.The definition and the criteria for the fractional generalized Noether quasisymmetry are presented. Furthermore,the fractional Noether theorem and conseved quantities of the systems are obtained by virtue of the invariance of the Hamiltonian action under the infinitesimal transformations.An example is presented to illustrate the application of the results.

  20. Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle

    2012-01-01

    Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

  1. Fractional calculus in hydrologic modeling: A numerical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David A; Meerschaert, Mark M; Revielle, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as handy extensions of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Lévy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Lévy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

  2. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2016-01-01

    Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used...

  3. Fractional Partial Differential Equation: Fractional Total Variation and Fractional Steepest Descent Approach-Based Multiscale Denoising Model for Texture Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fei Pu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional integer-order partial differential equation-based image denoising approaches often blur the edge and complex texture detail; thus, their denoising effects for texture image are not very good. To solve the problem, a fractional partial differential equation-based denoising model for texture image is proposed, which applies a novel mathematical method—fractional calculus to image processing from the view of system evolution. We know from previous studies that fractional-order calculus has some unique properties comparing to integer-order differential calculus that it can nonlinearly enhance complex texture detail during the digital image processing. The goal of the proposed model is to overcome the problems mentioned above by using the properties of fractional differential calculus. It extended traditional integer-order equation to a fractional order and proposed the fractional Green’s formula and the fractional Euler-Lagrange formula for two-dimensional image processing, and then a fractional partial differential equation based denoising model was proposed. The experimental results prove that the abilities of the proposed denoising model to preserve the high-frequency edge and complex texture information are obviously superior to those of traditional integral based algorithms, especially for texture detail rich images.

  4. Discrete model of dislocations in fractional nonlocal elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete models of dislocations in fractional nonlocal materials are suggested. The proposed models are based on fractional-order differences instead of finite differences of integer orders that are usually used. The fractional differences allow us to describe long-range interactions in materials. In continuous limit the suggested discrete models give continuum models of dislocations in nonlocal continua. Fractional generalization of the Frenkel–Kontorova model by using long-range interactions is suggested. We also propose a fractional generalization of interacting atomic chains (IAC model of dislocations by considering long-range interacting chains.

  5. Robin-Type Boundary Value Problem of Nonlinear Differential Equation with Fractional Order Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu YANG; Zongmin QIAO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for Robin type boundary value problem of differential equation involving the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative are established.

  6. Intrinsic Kinetic Modeling of Thermal Dimerization of C5 Fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liang; Wang Tiefeng; Li Dongfeng; Wang Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the intrinsic kinetics of thermal dimerization of C5 fraction in the reactive distilla-tion process. Experiments are conducted in an 1000-mL stainless steel autoclave under some selected design conditions. By means of the weighted least squares method, the intrinsic kinetics of thermal dimerization of C5 fraction is established, and the corresponding pre-exponential factor as well as the activation energy are determined. For example, the pre-exponential factor A is equal to 4.39×105 and the activation energy Ea is equal to 6.58×104 J/mol for the cyclopentadiene dimerization re-action. The comparison between the experimental and calculated results shows that the kinetics model derived in this work is accurate and reliable, which can be used in the design of reactive distillation columns.

  7. Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinková, Eva; Chrastný, Vladislav; Francová, Michaela; Šípková, Adéla; Čuřík, Jan; Myška, Oldřich; Mižič, Lukáš

    2016-01-25

    Our study represents ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 values of 1.0±0.2, 0.2±0.2, 1.3±0.1, -2.3±0.2 and -0.1±0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values. The heaviest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of 58.6±0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ(114/110) CdNIST3108 value of -23±2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ(114/110) Cd NIST3108 values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.

  8. Definition of the Riesz derivative and its application to space fractional quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayın, Selçuk Ş.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate and compare different representations of the Riesz derivative, which plays an important role in anomalous diffusion and space fractional quantum mechanics. In particular, we show that a certain representation of the Riesz derivative, Rx α , that is generally given as also valid for α = 1, behaves no differently than the other definition given in terms of its Fourier transform. In the light of this, we discuss the α → 1 limit of the space fractional quantum mechanics and its consistency.

  9. A representation theory for a class of vector autoregressive models for fractional processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Based on an idea of Granger (1986), we analyze a new vector autoregressive model defined from the fractional lag operator 1-(1-L)^{d}. We first derive conditions in terms of the coefficients for the model to generate processes which are fractional of order zero. We then show that if there is a unit...... root, the model generates a fractional process X(t) of order d, d>0, for which there are vectors ß so that ß'X(t) is fractional of order d-b, 0...

  10. Dynamical Analysis on Single Degree-of-Freedom Semiactive Control System by Using Fractional-Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system under the control of three semiactive methods is analytically studied in this paper, where a fractional-order derivative is used in the mathematical model. The three semiactive control methods are on-off control, limited relative displacement (LRD control, and relative control, respectively. The averaging method is adopted to provide an analytical study on the performance of the three different control methods. Based on the comparison between the analytical solutions with the numerical ones, it could be proved that the analytical solutions are accurate enough. The effects of the fractional-order parameters on the control performance, especially the relative and absolute displacement transmissibility, are analyzed. The research results indicate that the steady-state amplitudes of the three semiactive systems with fractional-order derivative in the model could be significantly reduced and the control performance can be greatly improved.

  11. Modeling of Macroeconomics by a Novel Discrete Nonlinear Fractional Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new nonlinear economic system with fractional derivative. According to the Jumarie’s definition of fractional derivative, we obtain a discrete fractional nonlinear economic system. Three variables, the gross domestic production, inflation, and unemployment rate, are considered by this nonlinear system. Based on the concrete macroeconomic data of USA, the coefficients of this nonlinear system are estimated by the method of least squares. The application of discrete fractional economic model with linear and nonlinear structure is shown to illustrate the efficiency of modeling the macroeconomic data with discrete fractional dynamical system. The empirical study suggests that the nonlinear discrete fractional dynamical system can describe the actual economic data accurately and predict the future behavior more reasonably than the linear dynamic system. The method proposed in this paper can be applied to investigate other macroeconomic variables of more states.

  12. Evaluation of Forest Canopy and Understory Gap Fraction Derived from Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. C.; Wang, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    The quantification of forest carbon sequestration is helpful to understand the carbon storage on the Earth. The estimation of forest carbon sequestration can be achieved by the use of leaf area index (LAI), which is derived from forest gap fraction. The hemispherical image-based technique is the most popular non-destructive means for obtaining such information. However, only the gap fraction of the top canopy is derived due to the limitation of imaging technique. The gap fraction information of understory is thus neglected. In this study, we evaluate the use of a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) to obtain the forest canopy and understory gap fraction. The forest TLS data were manually classified as the top canopy and understory layers to facilitate the estimation of top canopy and understory gap fraction, respectively.

  13. Culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells in different media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesiane Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue - derived stromal vascular fraction cells in two different cell culture media. Five adult horses were submitted to bone marrow aspiration from the sternum, and then from the adipose tissue of the gluteal region near the base of the tail. Mononuclear fraction and stromal vascular fraction were isolated from the samples and cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or in AIM-V medium. The cultures were observed once a week with an inverted microscope, to perform a qualitative analysis of the morphology of the cells as well as the general appearance of the cell culture. Colony-forming units (CFU were counted on days 5, 15 and 25 of cell culture. During the first week of culture, differences were observed between the samples from the same source maintained in different culture media. The number of colonies was significantly higher in samples of bone marrow in relation to samples of adipose tissue.

  14. Engaging Students with Multiple Models of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A.; Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of unit fractions, and especially of one-half, one-third, and one-fourth, is crucially important for elementary school children's development of number sense (CCSSI 2010). We describe multimodal activities designed to assist elementary school students in gaining a rich understanding of unit fractions. Research has shown (Zhang,…

  15. Fractional model for heat conduction in polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-fractional differential equations can accurately describe heat conduction in fractal media, such as wool fibers, goose down and polar bear hair. The fractional complex transform is used to convert time-fractional heat conduction equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative into ordinary differential equations, and exact solutions can be easily obtained. The solution process is straightforward and concise.

  16. PLANE SURFACE SUDDENLY SET IN MOTION IN A VISCOELASTIC FLUID WITH FRACTIONAL MAXWELL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文长; 徐明瑜

    2002-01-01

    The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of viscoelastic fluid is introduced. The flow near a wall suddenly set in motion is studied for a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Maxwell model. Exact solutions of velocity and stress are obtained by using the discrete inverse Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives. It is found that the effect of the fractional orders in the constitutive relationship on the flow field is significant. The results show that for small times there are appreciable viscoelastic effects on the shear stress at the plate, for large times the viscoelastic effects become weak.

  17. Plane surface suddenly set in motion in a viscoelastic fluid with fractional Maxwell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchang, Tan; Mingyu, Xu

    2002-08-01

    The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of viscoelastic fluid is introduced. The flow near a wall suddenly set in motion is studied for a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Maxwell model. Exact solutions of velocity and stress are obtained by using the discrete inverse Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives. It is found that the effect of the fractional orders in the constitutive relationship on the flow field is significant. The results show that for small times there are appreciable viscoelastic effects on the shear stress at the plate, for large times the viscoelastic effects become weak.

  18. Likelihood Inference for a Nonstationary Fractional Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    This paper discusses model based inference in an autoregressive model for fractional processes based on the Gaussian likelihood. The model allows for the process to be fractional of order d or d - b; where d = b > 1/2 are parameters to be estimated. We model the data X¿, ..., X¿ given the initial...

  19. Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre

    2016-09-01

    Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional derivative element often called a springpot. On the other hand, the creep compliance of the time-varying Maxwell model is identified as Lomnitz's logarithmic creep law, making this possibly its first direct derivation. In this way both fractional derivatives and Lomnitz's creep law are linked to time-varying viscosity. A mechanism which yields fractional viscoelasticity and logarithmic creep behavior has therefore been found. Further, as a result of this linking, the curve-fitting parameters involved in the fractional viscoelastic modeling, and the Lomnitz law gain physical interpretation.

  20. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, the exact signal attenuation expression including the finite gradient pulse width effect has not been obtained based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional derivative model, both the probability density function (PDF) of a spin in real space and the PDF of the spin's accumulating phase shift in virtual phase space are MLP distributions. The MLP phase distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation, which differs significantly from the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion and from the stretched exponential attenuation for fractional diffusion based on the fractal derivative model. A complete signal attenuation expression Eα(-Dfbα,β * ) including the finite gradient pulse width effect was obtained and it can handle all three types of PFG fractional diffusions. The result was also extended in a straightforward way to give a signal attenuation expression of fractional diffusion in PFG intramolecular multiple quantum coherence experiments, which has an nβ dependence upon the order of coherence which is different from the familiar n2 dependence in normal diffusion. The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the results from the literature. The results in this paper provide a set of new, convenient approximation formalisms to interpret complex PFG fractional diffusion experiments.

  1. Magneto-thermoelasticity with thermoelectric properties and fractional derivative heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzat, Magdy A., E-mail: maezzat2000@yahoo.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a new model of the magneto-thermoelasticity theory has been constructed in the context of a new consideration of heat conduction with fractional derivative. A one-dimensional application for a conducting half-space of thermoelectric elastic material, which is thermally shocked in the presence of a magnetic field, has been solved using Laplace transform and state-space techniques (Ezzat, 2008). According to the numerical results and its graphs, a conclusion about the new theory of magneto-thermoelasticity has been constructed. The theories of coupled magneto-thermoelasticity and of generalized magneto-thermoelasticity with one relaxation time follow as limited cases. The result provides a motivation to investigate conducting thermoelectric materials as a new class of applicable materials.

  2. Numerical Solution of Fractional Neutron Point Kinetics Model in Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Tomasz Karol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results concerning solutions of the fractional neutron point kinetics model for a nuclear reactor. Proposed model consists of a bilinear system of fractional and ordinary differential equations. Three methods to solve the model are presented and compared. The first one entails application of discrete Grünwald-Letnikov definition of the fractional derivative in the model. Second involves building an analog scheme in the FOMCON Toolbox in MATLAB environment. Third is the method proposed by Edwards. The impact of selected parameters on the model’s response was examined. The results for typical input were discussed and compared.

  3. An Approach to Differential Geometry of Fractional Order via Modified Riemann-Liouville Derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guy JUMARIE

    2012-01-01

    In order to cope with some difficulties due to the fact that the derivative of a constant is not zero with the commonly accepted Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative,one (Jumarie)has proposed recently an alternative referred to as (local) modified Riemann-Liouville definition,which directly,provides a Taylor's series of fractional order for non differentiable functions.We examine here in which way this calculus can be used as a framework for a differential geometry of fractional order.One will examine successively implicit function,manifold,length of curves,radius of curvature,Christoffel coefficients,velocity,acceleration.One outlines the application of this framework to Lagrange optimization in mechanics,and one concludes with some considerations on a possible fractional extension of the pseudo-geodesic of thespecial relativity and of the Lorentz transformation.

  4. Characterization of pH-fractionated humic acids derived from Chinese weathered coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiqin; Yuan, Liang; Li, Wei; Lin, Zhian; Li, Yanting; Hu, Shuwen; Zhao, Bingqiang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the compositional and structural heterogeneity of humic acids (HAs) and achieve better use of HA resources, in this study, we report a new sequential dissolution method for HAs derived from Chinese weathered coal. This method was used to separate HAs into seven fractions by adjusting the pH (3-10) of the extraction solution. The results showed that the HA fractions derived from Chinese weathered coal were concentrated up to 90.31% in the lower pH solutions (3-7). The compositional and structural characteristics of the HA fractions were determined by elemental analysis; ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and solid-state (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies; and other techniques. The results showed significant differences among the HA fractions. The concentrations of the total acidic groups and the carboxyl groups decreased with the increasing pH of the extraction solution. However, the HA fractions derived from extraction solutions with pH 3-4 had relatively lower aromaticity but a higher protonated carbon content. The HA fractions derived from extraction solutions with pH 6-7 had the highest aromaticity and the greatest abundance of COO/N-C=O. This study demonstrated that adjusting the pH of the extraction solution is one way to fractionate HAs from Chinese weathered coal and to obtain HA fractions with compositions and structures that could serve as useful material for study and utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuronal spike timing adaptation described with a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondimu Teka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The voltage trace of neuronal activities can follow multiple timescale dynamics that arise from correlated membrane conductances. Such processes can result in power-law behavior in which the membrane voltage cannot be characterized with a single time constant. The emergent effect of these membrane correlations is a non-Markovian process that can be modeled with a fractional derivative. A fractional derivative is a non-local process in which the value of the variable is determined by integrating a temporal weighted voltage trace, also called the memory trace. Here we developed and analyzed a fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model in which the exponent of the fractional derivative can vary from 0 to 1, with 1 representing the normal derivative. As the exponent of the fractional derivative decreases, the weights of the voltage trace increase. Thus, the value of the voltage is increasingly correlated with the trajectory of the voltage in the past. By varying only the fractional exponent, our model can reproduce upward and downward spike adaptations found experimentally in neocortical pyramidal cells and tectal neurons in vitro. The model also produces spikes with longer first-spike latency and high inter-spike variability with power-law distribution. We further analyze spike adaptation and the responses to noisy and oscillatory input. The fractional model generates reliable spike patterns in response to noisy input. Overall, the spiking activity of the fractional leaky integrate-and-fire model deviates from the spiking activity of the Markovian model and reflects the temporal accumulated intrinsic membrane dynamics that affect the response of the neuron to external stimulation.

  6. Modeling Persistence In Hydrological Time Series Using Fractional Differencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, J. R. M.

    1984-12-01

    The class of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series models may be generalized by permitting the degree of differencing d to take fractional values. Models including fractional differencing are capable of representing persistent series (d > 0) or short-memory series (d = 0). The class of fractionally differenced ARIMA processes provides a more flexible way than has hitherto been available of simultaneously modeling the long-term and short-term behavior of a time series. In this paper some fundamental properties of fractionally differenced ARIMA processes are presented. Methods of simulating these processes are described. Estimation of the parameters of fractionally differenced ARIMA models is discussed, and an approximate maximum likelihood method is proposed. The methodology is illustrated by fitting fractionally differenced models to time series of streamflows and annual temperatures.

  7. Fractional CO2 Laser Pretreatment Facilitates Transdermal Delivery of Two Vitamin C Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Hsiao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical vitamin C derivatives have been used to treat melasma and used as a skin whitener. The aim of this study was to compare skin histology and permeation of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt (MAP-1 and magnesium l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (MAP-2 after fractional CO2 laser pretreatment. Methods: The effect of fractional laser treatment on porcine skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. The effect of fractional CO2 laser treatment of different fluencies and pass numbers on transdermal flux of the two vitamin C derivatives through porcine skin was examined in vitro using a Franz diffusion chamber. Results: Fluxes of MAP-1 and MAP-2 across fractional CO2 laser-treated (5 W skin were eight- to 13-fold, and 20- to 22-fold higher, respectively, than the fluxes of these compounds across intact skin. Fluxes of MAP-1 and MAP-2 across fractional CO2 laser-treated (9 W skin were 14- to 19-fold, and 30- to 42-fold higher, respectively, than their fluxes across intact skin. Conclusion: Fractional CO2 laser treatment is an effective way of delivering vitamin C derivatives into the skin.

  8. Likelihood Inference for a Fractionally Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We consider model based inference in a fractionally cointegrated (or cofractional) vector autoregressive model based on the conditional Gaussian likelihood. The model allows the process X(t) to be fractional of order d and cofractional of order d-b; that is, there exist vectors ß for which ß...

  9. The Approximate Solutions of Three-Dimensional Diffusion and Wave Equations within Local Fractional Derivative Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Kamil Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the local fractional variational iteration transform method (LFVITM coupled by the local fractional Laplace transform and variational iteration method to solve three-dimensional diffusion and wave equations with local fractional derivative operator. This method has Lagrange multiplier equal to minus one, which makes the calculations more easily. The obtained results show that the presented method is efficient and yields a solution in a closed form. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the high accuracy and fast convergence of this new method.

  10. Design of quadrature mirror filter bank using Lagrange multiplier method based on fractional derivative constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuldeep

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.

  11. Generalized Taylor Series Method for Solving Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations with Modified Riemann-Liouville Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Öğrekçi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient analytic method for solving nonlinear differential equations of fractional order. The fractional derivative is defined in the sense of modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. A new technique for calculating the generalized Taylor series coefficients (also known as “generalized differential transforms,” GDTs of nonlinear functions and a new approach of the generalized Taylor series method (GTSM are presented. This new method offers a simple algorithm for computing GDTs of nonlinear functions and avoids massive computational work that usually arises in the standard method. Several illustrative examples are demonstrated to show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. The fractional-order modeling and synchronization of electrically coupled neuron systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moaddy, K.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integer-order cable model of the neuron system into the fractional-order domain, where the long memory dependence of the fractional derivative can be a better fit for the neuron response. Furthermore, the chaotic synchronization with a gap junction of two or multi-coupled-neurons of fractional-order are discussed. The circuit model, fractional-order state equations and the numerical technique are introduced in this paper for individual and multiple coupled neuron systems with different fractional-orders. Various examples are introduced with different fractional orders using the non-standard finite difference scheme together with the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization process which is easily implemented and reliably accurate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroviscoelasticity of liquid/liquid interfaces: fractional-order model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Aleksandar M; Lazarevic, Mihailo P

    2005-02-01

    A number of theories that describe the behavior of liquid-liquid interfaces have been developed and applied to various dispersed systems, e.g., Stokes, Reiner-Rivelin, Ericksen, Einstein, Smoluchowski, and Kinch. A new theory of electroviscoelasticity describes the behavior of electrified liquid-liquid interfaces in fine dispersed systems and is based on a new constitutive model of liquids. According to this model liquid-liquid droplet or droplet-film structure (collective of particles) is considered as a macroscopic system with internal structure determined by the way the molecules (ions) are tuned (structured) into the primary components of a cluster configuration. How the tuning/structuring occurs depends on the physical fields involved, both potential (elastic forces) and nonpotential (resistance forces). All these microelements of the primary structure can be considered as electromechanical oscillators assembled into groups, so that excitation by an external physical field may cause oscillations at the resonant/characteristic frequency of the system itself (coupling at the characteristic frequency). Up to now, three possible mathematical formalisms have been discussed related to the theory of electroviscoelasticity. The first is the tension tensor model, where the normal and tangential forces are considered, only in mathematical formalism, regardless of their origin (mechanical and/or electrical). The second is the Van der Pol derivative model, presented by linear and nonlinear differential equations. Finally, the third model presents an effort to generalize the previous Van der Pol equation: the ordinary time derivative and integral are now replaced with the corresponding fractional-order time derivative and integral of order p<1.

  14. Controlling fractional order chaotic systems based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and adaptive adjustment mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Yongai, E-mail: zhengyongai@163.co [Department of Computer, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Nian Yibei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Wang Dejin [Department of Computer, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China)

    2010-12-01

    In this Letter, a kind of novel model, called the generalized Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model, is first developed by extending the conventional T-S fuzzy model. Then, a simple but efficient method to control fractional order chaotic systems is proposed using the generalized T-S fuzzy model and adaptive adjustment mechanism (AAM). Sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee chaos control from the stability criterion of linear fractional order systems. The proposed approach offers a systematic design procedure for stabilizing a large class of fractional order chaotic systems from the literature about chaos research. The effectiveness of the approach is tested on fractional order Roessler system and fractional order Lorenz system.

  15. On the Generalized Mass Transport Equation to the Concept of Variable Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic dispersion equation was generalized using the concept of variational order derivative. The modified equation was numerically solved via the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The stability and convergence of the scheme in this case were presented. The numerical simulations showed that, the modified equation is more reliable in predicting the movement of pollution in the deformable aquifers, than the constant fractional and integer derivatives.

  16. Space-Time Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation with Caputo Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Gómez Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative construction for the space-time fractional diffusion-advection equation for the sedimentation phenomena is presented. The order of the derivative is considered as 0<β, γ≤1 for the space and time domain, respectively. The fractional derivative of Caputo type is considered. In the spatial case we obtain the fractional solution for the underdamped, undamped, and overdamped case. In the temporal case we show that the concentration has amplitude which exhibits an algebraic decay at asymptotically large times and also shows numerical simulations where both derivatives are taken in simultaneous form. In order that the equation preserves the physical units of the system two auxiliary parameters σx and σt are introduced characterizing the existence of fractional space and time components, respectively. A physical relation between these parameters is reported and the solutions in space-time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function depending on the parameters β and γ. The generalization of the fractional diffusion-advection equation in space-time exhibits anomalous behavior.

  17. ANALYTIC SOLUTION AND NUMERICAL SOLUTION TO ENDOLYMPH EQUATION USING FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the solution to the endolymph equation using the fractional derivative of arbitrary orderλ(0<λ<1).The exact analytic solution is given by using Laplace transform in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions.We then evaluate the approximate numerical solution using MATLAB.

  18. A new computational method for fractal heat-diffusion via local fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Geng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal heat-conduction problem via local fractional derivative is investigated in this paper. The solution of the fractal heat-diffusion equation is obtained. The characteristic equation method is proposed to find the analytical solution of the partial differential equation in fractal heat-conduction problem.

  19. A Generalization of the Lamb-Bateman Integral Equation and Fractional Derivatives : A Comment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    In this note a generalization of the Lamb-Bateman integral equation is presented and its solution is given in terms of {\\bf fractional derivatives}. This is a comment one to the paper by Babusci, Dattoli and Sacchetti (arXiv:1006.0184 [math-ph]).

  20. The transversal creeping vibrations of a fractional derivative order constitutive relation of nonhomogeneous beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered the problem on transversal oscillations of two-layer straight bar, which is under the action of the lengthwise random forces. It is assumed that the layers of the bar were made of nonhomogenous continuously creeping material and the corresponding modulus of elasticity and creeping fractional order derivative of constitutive relation of each layer are continuous functions of the length coordinate and thickness coordinates. Partial fractional differential equation and particular solutions for the case of natural vibrations of the beam of creeping material of a fractional derivative order constitutive relation in the case of the influence of rotation inertia are derived. For the case of natural creeping vibrations, eigenfunction and time function, for different examples of boundary conditions, are determined. By using the derived partial fractional differential equation of the beam vibrations, the almost sure stochastic stability of the beam dynamic shapes, corresponding to the n th shape of the beam elastic form, forced by a bounded axially noise excitation, is investigated. By the use of S. T. Ariaratnam's idea, as well as of the averaging method, the top Lyapunov exponent is evaluated asymptotically when the intensity of excitation process is small.

  1. Nonlinear analysis and analog simulation of a piezoelectric buckled beam with fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokem Fokou, I. S.; Buckjohn, C. Nono Dueyou; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, an analog circuit for implementing fractional-order derivative and a harmonic balance method for a vibration energy harvesting system under pure sinusoidal vibration source is proposed in order to predict the system response. The objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of the system with fractional derivative and nonlinear damping (μb). Bifurcation diagram, phase portrait and power spectral density (PSD) are provided to deeply characterize the dynamics of the system. These results are corroborated by the 0-1 test. The appearance of the chaotic vibrations reduces the instantaneous voltage. The pre-experimental investigation is carried out through appropriate software electronic circuit (Multisim). The corresponding electronic circuit is designed, exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior, in accord with numerical simulations. The impact of fractional derivative and nonlinear damping is presented with detail on the output voltage and power of the system. The agreement between numerical and analytical results justifies the efficiency of the analytical technique used. In addition, by combining the harmonic excitation with the random force, the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs and improves the harvested energy. It emerges from these results that the order of fractional derivative μ and nonlinear damping μb play an important role in the response of the system.

  2. A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.

  3. A matrix approach for partial differential equations with Riesz space fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolizio, M.

    2013-09-01

    Fractional partial differential equations are emerging in many scientific fields and their numerical solution is becoming a fundamental topic. In this paper we consider the Riesz fractional derivative operator and its discretization by fractional centered differences. The resulting matrix is studied, with an interesting result on a connection between the decay behavior of its entries and the short memory principle from fractional calculus. The Shift-and-Invert method is then applied to approximate the solution of the partial differential equation as the action of the matrix exponential on a suitable vector which mimics the given initial conditions. The numerical results confirm the good approximation quality and encourage the use of the proposed approach.

  4. Numerical simulation for SI model with variable-order fractional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamed mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper numerical studies for the variable-order fractional delay differential equations are presented. Adams-Bashforth-Moulton algorithm has been extended to study this problem, where the derivative is defined in the Caputo variable-order fractional sense. Special attention is given to prove the error estimate of the proposed method. Numerical test examples are presented to demonstrate utility of the method. Chaotic behaviors are observed in variable-order one dimensional delayed systems.

  5. Research on Modeling of Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Fractional Order

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Zhang; Sizhong Chen; Yuzhuang Zhao; Jianbo Feng; Chang Liu; Ying Fan

    2015-01-01

    With such excellent performance as nonlinear stiffness, adjustable vehicle height, and good vibration resistance, hydropneumatic suspension (HS) has been more and more applied to heavy vehicle and engineering vehicle. Traditional modeling methods are still confined to simple models without taking many factors into consideration. A hydropneumatic suspension model based on fractional order (HSM-FO) is built with the advantage of fractional order (FO) in viscoelastic material modeling considerin...

  6. A Fractional Fokker-Planck Model for Anomalous Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    anderson, Johan; Moradi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality observing the transition from a Gaussian distribution to a L\\'evy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.

  7. Fractional Differencing Modeling and Forecasting of Eurocurrency Deposit Rates

    OpenAIRE

    John Barkoulas; Baum, Christopher F

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the low frequency properties of three- and six- month rates for Eurocurrency deposits denominated in eight major currencies with specific emphasis on fractional dynamics. Using the fractional integration testing procedure suggested by Geweke and Porter-Hudak (1983), we find that several of the Eurocurrency deposit rates are fractionally integrated processes with long memory. These findings have important implications for econometric modeling, forecasting, and cointegration test...

  8. Data derived NARMAX Dst model

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, R J; M. A. Balikhin; S. A. Billings; Sharma, A.S.; Amariutei, O.A

    2011-01-01

    The NARMAX OLS-ERR methodology is applied to identify a mathematical model for the dynamics of the Dst index. The NARMAX OLS-ERR algorithm, which is widely used in the field of system identification, is able to identify a mathematical model for a wide class of nonlinear systems using input and output data. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling functions, derived from analytical or data based methods, are employed as the inputs to such models and the outputs are geomagnetic indices. The newly dedu...

  9. Exact Solution of Unsteady Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in a Pipe with Fractional Maxwell Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The unsteady flow of viscoelastic fluid in a cylindrical pipe was investigated using the fractional Maxwell model. Two special cases of unsteady pipe flow were expressed. The first is start-up flow, and the second is oscillating flow. The exact solution of start-up flow under a constant pressure gradient was obtained by using the theories of Laplace transform and Fourier-Bessel series for fractional derivatives. The exact solution of oscillating flow was obtained by utilizing the separation of variables.

  10. Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-07-06

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.

  11. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  12. The fractional-nonlinear robotic manipulator: Modeling and dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S. A.; Balthazar, J. M.; Julio, B. H. S.; Oliveira, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations in order to obtain the fractional-order nonlinear dynamics equations of a two link robotic manipulator. The aformentioned equations have been simulated for several cases involving: integer and non-integer order analysis, with and without external forcing acting and some different initial conditions. The fractional nonlinear governing equations of motion are coupled and the time evolution of the angular positions and the phase diagrams have been plotted to visualize the effect of fractional order approach. The new contribution of this work arises from the fact that the dynamics equations of a two link robotic manipulator have been modeled with the fractional Euler-Lagrange dynamics approach. The results reveal that the fractional-nonlinear robotic manipulator can exhibit different and curious behavior from those obtained with the standard dynamical system and can be useful for a better understanding and control of such nonlinear systems.

  13. Mapping wildfire susceptibility in Southern California using live and dead fractions of vegetation derived from Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis of MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfire is a significant natural disturbance mechanism in Southern California. Assessing spatial patterns of wildfire susceptibility requires estimates of the live and dead fractions of vegetation. The Fire Potential Index (FPI), which is currently the only operationally computed fire susceptibility index incorporating remote sensing data, estimates such fractions using a relative greenness measure based on time series of vegetation index images. This contribution assesses the potential of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for deriving such fractions from single MODIS images without the need for a long remote sensing time series, and investigates the applicability of such MESMA-derived fractions for mapping dynamic fire susceptibility in Southern California. Endmembers for MESMA were selected from a library of reference endmembers using Constrained Reference Endmember Selection (CRES), which uses field estimates of fractions to guide the selection process. Fraction images of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, soil, and shade were then computed for all available 16-day MODIS composites between 2000 and 2006 using MESMA. Initial results indicate that MESMA of MODIS imagery is capable of providing reliable estimates of live and dead vegetation fraction. Validation against in situ observations in the Santa Ynez Mountains near Santa Barbara, California, shows that the average fraction error for two tested species was around 10%. Further validation of MODIS-derived fractions was performed against fractions from high-resolution hyperspectral data. It was shown that the fractions derived from data of both sensors correlate with R2 values greater than 0.95. MESMA-derived live and dead vegetation fractions were subsequently tested as a substitute to relative greenness in the FPI algorithm. FPI was computed for every day between 2000 and 2006 using the derived fractions. Model performance was then tested by extracting FPI values for

  14. Existence and Uniqueness of Positive and Bounded Solutions of a Discrete Population Model with Fractional Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Macías-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We depart from the well-known one-dimensional Fisher’s equation from population dynamics and consider an extension of this model using Riesz fractional derivatives in space. Positive and bounded initial-boundary data are imposed on a closed and bounded domain, and a fully discrete form of this fractional initial-boundary-value problem is provided next using fractional centered differences. The fully discrete population model is implicit and linear, so a convenient vector representation is readily derived. Under suitable conditions, the matrix representing the implicit problem is an inverse-positive matrix. Using this fact, we establish that the discrete population model is capable of preserving the positivity and the boundedness of the discrete initial-boundary conditions. Moreover, the computational solubility of the discrete model is tackled in the closing remarks.

  15. Spectral data treatments for impervious endmember derivation and fraction mapping from Landsat ETM+ imagery: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xinfeng; Ji, Minhe; Zhang, Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Various spectral data preprocessing approaches have been used to improve endmember extraction for urban landscape decomposition, yet little is known of their comparative adequacy for impervious surface mapping. This study tested four commonly used spectral data treatment strategies for endmember derivation, including original spectra, image fusion via principal component analysis, spectral normalization, and the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation. Land cover endmembers derived using each strategy were used to build a linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) model in order to unmix treated image pixels into fraction maps, and an urban imperviousness map was generated by combining the fraction maps representing imperviousness endmembers. A cross-map comparative analysis was then performed to rank the four data treatment types based on such common evaluation indices as the coefficient of determination ( R 2) and root mean square error (RMSE). A Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral image covering the metropolitan region of Shanghai, China was used as the primary dataset, and the model results were evaluated using high-resolution colorinfrared aerial photographs of roughly the same time period. The test results indicated that, with the highest R 2 (0.812) and the lowest RMSE (0.097) among all four preprocessing treatments, the endmembers in the form of MNF-transformed spectra produced the best model output for characterizing urban impervious surfaces. The outcome of this study may provide useful guidance for future impervious surface mapping using medium-resolution remote sensing data.

  16. Fractional-order in a macroeconomic dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S. A.; Quintino, D. D.; Soliani, J.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach in order to realize the numerical simulations to a set of equations that represent a fractional-order macroeconomic dynamic model. It is a generalization of a dynamic model recently reported in the literature. The aforementioned equations have been simulated for several cases involving integer and non-integer order analysis, with some different values to fractional order. The time histories and the phase diagrams have been plotted to visualize the effect of fractional order approach. The new contribution of this work arises from the fact that the macroeconomic dynamic model proposed here involves the public sector deficit equation, which renders the model more realistic and complete when compared with the ones encountered in the literature. The results reveal that the fractional-order macroeconomic model can exhibit a real reasonable behavior to macroeconomics systems and might offer greater insights towards the understanding of these complex dynamic systems.

  17. Mild solutions for a problem involving fractional derivatives in the nonlinearity and in the non-local conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatar Nasser-eddine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A second-order abstract problem of neutral type with derivatives of non-integer order in the nonlinearity as well as in the nonlocal conditions is investigated. This model covers many of the existing models in the literature. It extends the integer order case to the fractional case in the sense of Caputo. A fixed point theorem is used to prove existence of mild solutions. AMS Subject Classification 26A33, 34K40, 35L90, 35L70, 35L15, 35L07

  18. Fractional-order system identification and proportional-derivative control of a solid-core magnetic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianpeng; Li, Lichuan

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the application of fractional-order system identification (FOSI) and proportional-derivative (PD(µ)) control to a solid-core magnetic bearing (MB). A practical strategy for closed-loop incommensurate FOSI along with a modified error criterion is utilized to model the MB system and a corresponding, verification experiment is carried out. Based on the identified model, integer-order (IO) PD and fractional-order (FO) PD(µ) controllers are designed and compared with the same specifications. Besides, the relation between the two categories of controllers is discussed by their feasible control zones. Final simulation and experimental results show that the FO PD(µ) controller can significantly improve the transient and steady-state performance of the MB system comparing with the IO PD controller. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Well-Posedness of Equations with Fractional Derivative via the Method of Sum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Quan BU

    2012-01-01

    We study the well-posedness of the equations with fractional derivative Dαu(t) =Au(t)+f(t) (0 ≤ t≤ 2π),where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,0 < α < 1 and Dα is the fractional derivative in the sense of Weyl.Although this problem is not always well-posed in Lp(0,2π;(X)) or periodic continuous function spaces Cper([0,2π];(X)),we show by using the method of sum that it is well-posed in some subspaces of Lp(0,2π; X) or Cper([0,2π]; X).

  20. Subharmonic Resonance of Van Der Pol Oscillator with Fractional-Order Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subharmonic resonance of van der Pol (VDP oscillator with fractional-order derivative is studied by the averaging method. At first, the first-order approximate solutions are obtained by the averaging method. Then the definitions of equivalent linear damping coefficient (ELDC and equivalent linear stiffness coefficient (ELSC for subharmonic resonance are established, and the effects of the fractional-order parameters on the ELDC, the ELSC, and the dynamical characteristics of system are also analysed. Moreover, the amplitude-frequency equation and phase-frequency equation of steady-state solution for subharmonic resonance are established. The corresponding stability condition is presented based on Lyapunov theory, and the existence condition for subharmonic resonance (ECSR is also obtained. At last, the comparisons of the fractional-order and the traditional integer-order VDP oscillator are fulfilled by the numerical simulation. The effects of the parameters in fractional-order derivative on the steady-state amplitude, the amplitude-frequency curves, and the system stability are also studied.

  1. Response of Duffing Rayleigh system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冉冉; 徐伟; 杨贵东; 韩群

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the response analysis of Duffing–Rayleigh system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation. A stochastic averaging procedure for this system is developed by using the generalized harmonic functions. First, the system state is approximated by a diffusive Markov process. Then, the stationary probability densities are derived from the averaged Itˆo stochastic differential equation of the system. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by those results from the Monte Carlo simulation of original system. Moreover, the effects of different system parameters and noise intensity on the response of the system are discussed as well.

  2. QUASI-STATIC AND DYNAMICAL ANALYSIS FOR VISCOELASTIC TIMOSHENKO BEAM WITH FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE CONSTITUTIVE RELATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正佑; 李根国; 程昌钧

    2002-01-01

    The equations of motion governing the quasi-static and dynamical behavior of a viscoelastic Timoshenko beam are derived. The viscoelastic material is assumed to obey a three-dimensional fractional derivative constitutive relation. The quasi-static behavior of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam under step loading is analyzed and the analytical solution is obtained. The influence of material parameters on the deflection is investigated. The dynamical response of the viscoelastic Timoshenko beam subjected to a periodic excitation is studied by means of mode shape functions. And the effect of both transverse shear and rotational inertia on the vibration of the beam is discussed.

  3. Mild solutions for nonlocal fractional semilinear functional differential inclusions involving Caputo derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove various existence results of a mild solution for a fractional nonlocal functional semilinear differential inclusion involving Caputo derivative in Banach spaces. We consider the case when the values of the orient field are convex as well as nonconvex. Moreover, we study the topological structure of solution sets. Our results extend or generalize results proved in recent papers.

  4. Positive Solution of a Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equation Involving Caputo Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a nonlinear fractional differential equation involving Caputo derivative. By constructing the upper and lower control functions of the nonlinear term without any monotone requirement and applying the method of upper and lower solutions and the Schauder fixed point theorem, the existence and uniqueness of positive solution for the initial value problem are investigated. Moreover, the existence of maximal and minimal solutions is also obtained.

  5. S-asymptotically -periodic Solutions of R-L Fractional Derivative-Integral Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the S-asymptotically ω-periodic solutions of R-L fractional derivative-integral equation:is a linear densely defined operator of sectorial type on a completed Banach space X, f is a continuous function satisfying a suitable Lipschitz type condition. We will use the contraction mapping theory to prove problem (1) and (2) has a unique S-asymptotically ω-periodic solution if the function f satisfies Lipshcitz condition.

  6. Application of Integer and Fractional Models in Electrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel S. Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of integer and fractional electrical elements, for modelling two electrochemical systems. A first type of system consists of botanical elements and a second type is implemented by electrolyte processes with fractal electrodes. Experimental results are analyzed in the frequency domain, and the pros and cons of adopting fractional-order electrical components for modelling these systems are compared.

  7. Dynamic Prediction of Power Storage and Delivery by Data-Based Fractional Differential Models of a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fractional derivative system identification approach for modeling battery dynamics is presented in this paper, where fractional derivatives are applied to approximate non-linear dynamic behavior of a battery system. The least squares-based state-variable filter (LSSVF method commonly used in the identification of continuous-time models is extended to allow the estimation of fractional derivative coefficents and parameters of the battery models by monitoring a charge/discharge demand signal and a power storage/delivery signal. In particular, the model is combined by individual fractional differential models (FDMs, where the parameters can be estimated by a least-squares algorithm. Based on experimental data, it is illustrated how the fractional derivative model can be utilized to predict the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of a lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO 4 in real-time. The results indicate that a FDM can accurately capture the dynamics of the energy storage and delivery of the battery over a large operating range of the battery. It is also shown that the fractional derivative model exhibits improvements on prediction performance compared to standard integer derivative model, which in beneficial for a battery management system.

  8. Subharmonic Response of Linear Vibroimpact System with Fractional Derivative Damping to a Randomly Disrobed Periodic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwu Rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subharmonic response of single-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact oscillator with fractional derivative damping and one-sided barrier under narrow-band random excitation is investigated. With the help of a special Zhuravlev transformation, the system is reduced to one without impacts, thereby permitting the applications of asymptotic averaging over the period for slowly varying random process. The analytical expression of the response amplitude is obtained in the case without random disorder, while only the approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state moments of the response amplitude are obtained in the case with random disorder. The effects of the fractional order derivative term, damping term, random disorder, and the coefficient of restitution and other system parameters on the system response are discussed. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that fractional derivative makes both the system damping and stiffness coefficients increase, such that it changes the system parameters region at which the response amplitude reaches the maximum. The system energy loss in collision is equivalent to increasing the damping coefficient of the system. System response amplitude will increase when the excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency and will decay rapidly when the excitation frequency gradually deviates from the resonance frequency.

  9. Pressure and specific energy requirements for densification of compost derived from swine solid fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pampuro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compost derived from swine solid fraction is a low density material (bulk density less than 500 kg m-3. This makes it costly to transport from production sites to areas where it could be effectively utilized for value-added applications such as in soil fertilization. Densification is one possible way to enhance the storage and transportation of the compost. This study therefore investigates the effect of pressure (20-110 MPa and pressure application time (5-120 s on the compaction characteristics of compost derived from swine solid fraction. Two different types of material have been used: composted swine solid fraction derived from mechanical separation and compost obtained by mixing the first material with wood chips. Results obtained showed that both the pressure applied and the pressure application time significantly affect the density of the compacted samples; while the specific compression energy is significantly affected only by the pressure. Best predictor equations were developed to predict compact density and the specific compression energy required by the densification process. The specific compression energy values based on the results from this study (6-32 kJ kg-1 were significantly lower than the specific energy required to manufacture pellets from biomass feedstock (typically 19-90 kJ kg-1.

  10. Parameter estimation method for improper fractional models and its application to molecular biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Ping; Liu, Lizhi; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Derived from biochemical principles, molecular biological systems can be described by a group of differential equations. Generally these differential equations contain fractional functions plus polynomials (which we call improper fractional model) as reaction rates. As a result, molecular biological systems are nonlinear in both parameters and states. It is well known that it is challenging to estimate parameters nonlinear in a model. However, in fractional functions both the denominator and numerator are linear in the parameters while polynomials are also linear in parameters. Based on this observation, we develop an iterative linear least squares method for estimating parameters in biological systems modeled by improper fractional functions. The basic idea is to transfer optimizing a nonlinear least squares objective function into iteratively solving a sequence of linear least squares problems. The developed method is applied to the estimation of parameters in a metabolism system. The simulation results show the superior performance of the proposed method for estimating parameters in such molecular biological systems.

  11. Thermoelectric MHD non-Newtonian fluid with fractional derivative heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzat, Magdy A., E-mail: maezzat2000@yahoo.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-10-01

    In this work, a new mathematical model of thermoelectric MHD theory has been constructed in the context of a new consideration of heat conduction with fractional order. This model is applied to Stokes' first problem for a viscoelastic fluid with heat sources. Laplace transforms and state-space techniques will be used to obtain the general solution for any set of boundary conditions. According to the numerical results and its graphs, conclusion about the new theory has been constructed. Some comparisons have been shown in figures to estimate the effects of the fractional order parameter on all the studied fields.

  12. The role of initial values in nonstationary fractional time series models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We consider the nonstationary fractional model $\\Delta^{d}X_{t}=\\varepsilon _{t}$ with $\\varepsilon_{t}$ i.i.d.$(0,\\sigma^{2})$ and $d>1/2$. We derive an analytical expression for the main term of the asymptotic bias of the maximum likelihood estimator of $d$ conditional on initial values, and we...

  13. On an Estimation Method for an Alternative Fractionally Cointegrated Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlini, Federico; Łasak, Katarzyna

    In this paper we consider the Fractional Vector Error Correction model proposed in Avarucci (2007), which is characterized by a richer lag structure than models proposed in Granger (1986) and Johansen (2008, 2009). We discuss the identification issues of the model of Avarucci (2007), following...

  14. Differential effects of Mycobacterium bovis - derived polar and apolar lipid fractions on bovine innate immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirson Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM and trehalose monomycolate (TMM, the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs, triacyl glycerol (TAG, pentacyl trehalose (PAT, phenolic glycolipid (PGL, and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG. Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM, diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG, phenylethanolamine (PE and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs. These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen presenting cells to the polar lipid fraction. Phenotypic characterisation of the cells was performed by flow cytometry and significant decreases in the expression of MHCII, CD86 and CD1b were found after exposure to the polar lipid fraction. Polar lipids also significantly increased the levels of CD40 expressed by monocytes and cultured monocytes but no effect was seen on the constitutively high expression of CD40 on MDDC or on the levels of CD80 expressed by any of the cells. Finally, the capacity of polar fraction treated cells to stimulate alloreactive lymphocytes was assessed. Significant reduction in proliferative activity was seen after stimulation of PBMC by polar fraction treated cultured monocytes whilst no effect was seen after lipid treatment of MDDC. These data demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacterial polar lipids may significantly hamper the ability of the host APCs to induce an appropriate immune response to an invading pathogen.

  15. Numerical Fractional-Calculus Model for Two-Phase Flow in Fractured Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in fractured porous media is an important topic in the subsurface flow, environmental problems, and petroleum reservoir engineering. The conventional model does not work well in many cases since it lacks the memory property of fracture media. In this paper, we develop a new numerical formulation with fractional time derivative for two-phase flow in fractured porous media. In the proposed formulation, the different fractional time derivatives are applied to fracture and matrix regions since they have different memory properties. We further develop a two-level time discrete method, which uses a large time step for the pressure and a small time step size for the saturation. The pressure equation is solved implicitly in each large time step, while the saturation is updated by an explicit fractional time scheme in each time substep. Finally, the numerical tests are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed numerical model.

  16. A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion

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    Liu Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.

  17. Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. C.; Hansson, T. H.; Kivelson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, a field-theory model is derived for the fractional quantum Hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin (1986) is constructed. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density. It is shown that the collective density fluctuations are massive.

  18. Fractionation, structural studies, and immunological characterization of the semi-synthetic Quillaja saponins derivative GPI-0100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Dante J; Reynolds, Robert C; Pathak, Ashish K; Finley-Woodman, Kyra; May, Richard D

    2003-09-08

    Unfractionated GPI-0100 (UFGPI-0100) containing semi-synthetic derivatives of deacylated Quillaja saponins (DS saponins) modified at the glucuronic acid residue was resolved by reverse phase low-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-LPLC) into two fractions, RP18-1 and RP18-2, with different compositions and adjuvanticity. The fraction RP18-1 contained DS saponin adducts of N-dicyclohexylurea, and stimulated Th2 immunity with production of IgG1, while the RP18-2 fraction contained the dodecylamide derivatives of DS saponins and stimulated Th1 immunity with production of IgG2a, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and CTL. The strong immune stimulatory properties of RP18-2, relative to RP18-1, and the formation of RP18-1/RP18-2 mixed micelles may account for the effective stimulation of Th1 immunity by UFGPI-0100. UFGPI-0100 was free of acylated quillaja saponin components, including the more stable QS-7.

  19. Exotic leptoquarks from superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.K.; Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-03-01

    The H1 and ZEUS collaborations have recently reported a significant excess of e{sup +}p {r_arrow} e{sup +} jet events at high Q{sup 2}. While there exists insufficient data to conclusively determine the origin of this excess, one possibility is that it is due to a new leptoquark at mass scale around 200 GeV. We examine the type of leptoquark states that exist in superstring derived standard-like models, and show that, while these models may contain the standard leptoquark states which exist in Grand Unified Theories, they also generically contain new and exotic leptoquark states with fractional lepton number, {+-}1/2. In contrast to the traditional GUT-type leptoquark states, the couplings of the exotic leptoquarks to the Standard Model states are generated after the breaking of U(1){sub B-L}. This important feature of the exotic leptoquark states may result in local discrete symmetries which forbid some of the undesired leptoquark couplings. We examine these couplings in several models and study the phenomenological implications. The flavor symmetries of the superstring models are found to naturally suppress leptoquark flavor changing processes.

  20. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

  1. Capability of Spaceborne Hyperspectral EnMAP Mission for Mapping Fractional Cover for Soil Erosion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion can be linked to relative fractional cover of photosynthetic-active vegetation (PV, non-photosynthetic-active vegetation (NPV and bare soil (BS, which can be integrated into erosion models as the cover-management C-factor. This study investigates the capability of EnMAP imagery to map fractional cover in a region near San Jose, Costa Rica, characterized by spatially extensive coffee plantations and grazing in a mountainous terrain. Simulated EnMAP imagery is based on airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Fractional cover estimates are derived in an automated fashion by extracting image endmembers to be used with a Multiple End-member Spectral Mixture Analysis approach. The C-factor is calculated based on the fractional cover estimates determined independently for EnMAP and HyMap. Results demonstrate that with EnMAP imagery it is possible to extract quality endmember classes with important spectral features related to PV, NPV and soil, and be able to estimate relative cover fractions. This spectral information is critical to separate BS and NPV which greatly can impact the C-factor derivation. From a regional perspective, we can use EnMAP to provide good fractional cover estimates that can be integrated into soil erosion modeling.

  2. Magnetic field effect on blood flow of Casson fluid in axisymmetric cylindrical tube: A fractional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhad; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Khan, Ilyas; Saqib, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The effects of magnetohydrodynamics on the blood flow when blood is represented as a Casson fluid, along with magnetic particles in a horizontal cylinder is studied. The flow is due to an oscillating pressure gradient. The Laplace and finite Hankel transforms are used to obtain the closed form solutions of the fractional partial differential equations. Effects of various parameters on the flow of both blood and magnetic particles are shown graphically. The analysis shows that, the model with fractional order derivatives bring a remarkable changes as compared to the ordinary model. The study highlights that applied magnetic field reduces the velocities of both the blood and magnetic particles.

  3. Integro-differential equations of fractional order with nonlocal fractional boundary conditions associated with financial asset model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the existence of solutions for a boundary-value problem of integro-differential equations of fractional order with nonlocal fractional boundary conditions by means of some standard tools of fixed point theory. Our problem describes a more general form of fractional stochastic dynamic model for financial asset. An illustrative example is also presented.

  4. Fractional order Buck-Boost converter in CCM: modelling, analysis and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faqiang; Ma, Xikui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the modelling, analysis and the power electronics simulator (PSIM) simulations of the fractional order Buck-Boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) operation are investigated. Based on the three-terminal switch device method, the average circuit model of the fractional order Buck-Boost converter is established, and the corresponding DC equivalent circuit model and AC small signal equivalent circuit model are presented. And then, the equilibrium point and the transfer functions are derived. It is found that the equilibrium point is not influenced by the inductor's or the capacitor's order, but both these orders are included in the derived transfer functions. Finally, the comparisons between the theoretical analysis and the PSIM simulations are given for confirmation.

  5. Spectral approximation methods and error estimates for Caputo fractional derivative with applications to initial-value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Beiping; Zheng, Zhoushun; Cao, Wen

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we revisit two spectral approximations, including truncated approximation and interpolation for Caputo fractional derivative. The two approaches have been studied to approximate Riemann-Liouville (R-L) fractional derivative by Chen et al. and Zayernouri et al. respectively in their most recent work. For truncated approximation the reconsideration partly arises from the difference between fractional derivative in R-L sense and Caputo sense: Caputo fractional derivative requires higher regularity of the unknown than R-L version. Another reason for the reconsideration is that we distinguish the differential order of the unknown with the index of Jacobi polynomials, which is not presented in the previous work. Also we provide a way to choose the index when facing multi-order problems. By using generalized Hardy's inequality, the gap between the weighted Sobolev space involving Caputo fractional derivative and the classical weighted space is bridged, then the optimal projection error is derived in the non-uniformly Jacobi-weighted Sobolev space and the maximum absolute error is presented as well. For the interpolation, analysis of interpolation error was not given in their work. In this paper we build the interpolation error in non-uniformly Jacobi-weighted Sobolev space by constructing fractional inverse inequality. With combining collocation method, the approximation technique is applied to solve fractional initial-value problems (FIVPs). Numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  6. Modeling power law absorption and dispersion for acoustic propagation using the fractional Laplacian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treeby, Bradley E; Cox, B T

    2010-05-01

    The efficient simulation of wave propagation through lossy media in which the absorption follows a frequency power law has many important applications in biomedical ultrasonics. Previous wave equations which use time-domain fractional operators require the storage of the complete pressure field at previous time steps (such operators are convolution based). This makes them unsuitable for many three-dimensional problems of interest. Here, a wave equation that utilizes two lossy derivative operators based on the fractional Laplacian is derived. These operators account separately for the required power law absorption and dispersion and can be efficiently incorporated into Fourier based pseudospectral and k-space methods without the increase in memory required by their time-domain fractional counterparts. A framework for encoding the developed wave equation using three coupled first-order constitutive equations is discussed, and the model is demonstrated through several one-, two-, and three-dimensional simulations.

  7. Existence Results for a Michaud Fractional, Nonlocal, and Randomly Position Structured Fragmentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, classical models of clusters’ fission remain unable to fully explain strange phenomena like the phenomenon of shattering (Ziff and McGrady, 1987 and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems having initial finite number of particles. That is why there is a need to extend classical models to models with fractional derivative order and use new and various techniques to analyze them. In this paper, we prove the existence of strongly continuous solution operators for nonlocal fragmentation models with Michaud time derivative of fractional order (Samko et al., 1993. We focus on the case where the splitting rate is dependent on size and position and where new particles generating from fragmentation are distributed in space randomly according to some probability density. In the analysis, we make use of the substochastic semigroup theory, the subordination principle for differential equations of fractional order (Prüss, 1993, Bazhlekova, 2000, the analogy of Hille-Yosida theorem for fractional model (Prüss, 1993, and useful properties of Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, 2005. We are then able to show that the solution operator to the full model is positive and contractive.

  8. Response analysis of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao

    2016-08-01

    The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.

  9. Isotropic model of fractional transport in two-dimensional bounded domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, A; del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Morales, G J; Maggs, J E

    2013-05-01

    A two-dimensional fractional Laplacian operator is derived and used to model nonlocal, nondiffusive transport. This integro-differential operator appears in the long-wavelength, fluid description of quantities undergoing non-Brownian random walks without characteristic length scale. To study bounded domains, a mask function is introduced that modifies the kernel in the fractional Laplacian and removes singularities at the boundary. Green's function solutions to the fractional diffusion equation are presented for the unbounded domain and compared to the one-dimensional Cartesian approximations. A time-implicit numerical integration scheme is presented to study fractional diffusion in a circular disk with azimuthal symmetry. Numerical studies of steady-state reveal temperature profiles in which the heat flux and temperature gradient are in the same direction, i.e., uphill transport. The response to off-axis heating, scaling of confinement time with system size, and propagation of cold pulses are investigated.

  10. Microbially Mediated Kinetic Sulfur Isotope Fractionation: Reactive Transport Modeling Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, C.; Druhan, J. L.; Cheng, Y.; Amos, R. T.; Steefel, C. I.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Microbially mediated sulfate reduction is a ubiquitous process in many subsurface systems. Isotopic fractionation is characteristic of this anaerobic process, since sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) favor the reduction of the lighter sulfate isotopologue (S32O42-) over the heavier isotopologue (S34O42-). Detection of isotopic shifts have been utilized as a proxy for the onset of sulfate reduction in subsurface systems such as oil reservoirs and aquifers undergoing uranium bioremediation. Reactive transport modeling (RTM) of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation has been applied to field and laboratory studies. These RTM approaches employ different mathematical formulations in the representation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation. In order to test the various formulations, we propose a benchmark problem set for the simulation of kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation during microbially mediated sulfate reduction. The benchmark problem set is comprised of four problem levels and is based on a recent laboratory column experimental study of sulfur isotope fractionation. Pertinent processes impacting sulfur isotopic composition such as microbial sulfate reduction and dispersion are included in the problem set. To date, participating RTM codes are: CRUNCHTOPE, TOUGHREACT, MIN3P and THE GEOCHEMIST'S WORKBENCH. Preliminary results from various codes show reasonable agreement for the problem levels simulating sulfur isotope fractionation in 1D.

  11. Human intake fractions of pesticides via greenhouse tomato consumption: comparing model estimates with measurements for Captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraske, R; Antón, A; Castells, F; Huijbregts, M A J

    2007-04-01

    Human intake due to pesticide residues in food commodities can be much higher than those related to water consumption and air inhalation, stressing the importance to correctly estimate pesticide uptake into plants and predict subsequent intake by humans. We calculated the human intake fraction of captan via tomato consumption taking into account the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the absorption of spray deposit on plant surfaces, transfer properties through the cuticle, degradation inside the plant and loss due to food processing. Human population intake fractions due to ingestion were calculated for complete, washed and peeled tomatoes. The calculated intake fractions were compared with measurements derived from an experimental setup in a Mediterranean greenhouse. The fraction of captan applied in the greenhouse as plant treatment that eventually is ingested by the human population is on average 10(-2)-10(-5), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion of tomatoes and the processing step considered. Model and experimentally derived intake fractions deviated less than a factor of 2 for complete and washed tomatoes and a factor of 3 for peeled tomatoes. Intake fractions due to air inhalation and consumption of drinking water are expected to be significantly lower (5-9 orders of magnitude) than those induced by the intake of tomatoes in this case study.

  12. He’s fractional derivative for heat conduction in a fractal medium arising in silkworm cocoon hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fu-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available He’s fractional derivative is adopted in this paper to study the heat conduction in fractal medium. The fractional complex transformation is applied to convert the fractional differential equation to ordinary different equation. Boltzmann transform and wave transform are used to further simplify the governing equation for some special cases. Silkworm cocoon are used as an example to elucidate its natural phenomenon.

  13. Lithium-ion batteries modeling involving fractional differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Jocelyn; Merveillaut, Mathieu; Francisco, Junior Mbala; Guillemard, Franck; Porcelatto, Denis

    2014-09-01

    With hybrid and electric vehicles development, automobile battery monitoring systems (BMS) have to meet the new requirements. These systems have to give information on state of health, state of charge, available power. To get this information, BMS often implement battery models. Accuracy of the information manipulated by the BMS thus depends on the model accuracy. This paper is within this framework and addresses lithium-ion battery modeling. The proposed fractional model is based on simplifications of an electrochemical model and on resolution of some partial differential equations used in its description. Such an approach permits to get a simple model in which electrochemical variables and parameters still appear.

  14. An approximation solution of a nonlinear equation with Riemann-Liouville's fractional derivatives by He's variational iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2007-10-01

    In this article, an application of He's variational iteration method is proposed to approximate the solution of a nonlinear fractional differential equation with Riemann-Liouville's fractional derivatives. Also, the results are compared with those obtained by Adomian's decomposition method and truncated series method. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple.

  15. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  16. Research on Modeling of Hydropneumatic Suspension Based on Fractional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With such excellent performance as nonlinear stiffness, adjustable vehicle height, and good vibration resistance, hydropneumatic suspension (HS has been more and more applied to heavy vehicle and engineering vehicle. Traditional modeling methods are still confined to simple models without taking many factors into consideration. A hydropneumatic suspension model based on fractional order (HSM-FO is built with the advantage of fractional order (FO in viscoelastic material modeling considering the mechanics property of multiphase medium of HS. Then, the detailed calculation method is proposed based on Oustaloup filtering approximation algorithm. The HSM-FO is implemented in Matlab/Simulink, and the results of comparison among the simulation curve of fractional order, integral order, and the curve of real experiment prove the feasibility and validity of HSM-FO. The damping force property of the suspension system under different fractional orders is also studied. In the end of this paper, several conclusions concerning HSM-FO are drawn according to analysis of simulation.

  17. Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjaballah, C.

    2011-08-01

    Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes have been analyzed from the counting and time interval statistics points of view. Based on the criterion of the reduced variance, it is seen that such processes exhibit nonclassical properties. The conditions for these processes to be treated as conditional Poisson processes are examined. Numerical simulations illustrate part of the theoretical calculations.

  18. Estimating and Forecasting Generalized Fractional Long Memory Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Peiris (Shelton); M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years fractionally differenced processes have received a great deal of attention due to its flexibility in financial applications with long memory. This paper considers a class of models generated by Gegenbauer polynomials, incorporating the long memory in stochastic volatility

  19. Fraction Multiplication and Division Models: A Practitioner Reference Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Heather K.

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented in literature that rational number is an important area of understanding in mathematics. Therefore, it follows that teachers and students need to have an understanding of rational number and related concepts such as fraction multiplication and division. This practitioner reference paper examines models that are important to…

  20. A Fractional Differential Kinetic Equation and Applications to Modelling Bursts in Turbulent Nonlinear Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Rosenberg, S.; Sanchez, R.; Chapman, S. C.; Credgington, D.

    2008-12-01

    Since the 1960s Mandelbrot has advocated the use of fractals for the description of the non-Euclidean geometry of many aspects of nature. In particular he proposed two kinds of model to capture persistence in time (his Joseph effect, common in hydrology and with fractional Brownian motion as the prototype) and/or prone to heavy tailed jumps (the Noah effect, typical of economic indices, for which he proposed Lévy flights as an exemplar). Both effects are now well demonstrated in space plasmas, notably in the turbulent solar wind. Models have, however, typically emphasised one of the Noah and Joseph parameters (the Lévy exponent μ and the temporal exponent β) at the other's expense. I will describe recent work in which we studied a simple self-affine stable model-linear fractional stable motion, LFSM, which unifies both effects and present a recently-derived diffusion equation for LFSM. This replaces the second order spatial derivative in the equation of fBm with a fractional derivative of order μ, but retains a diffusion coefficient with a power law time dependence rather than a fractional derivative in time. I will also show work in progress using an LFSM model and simple analytic scaling arguments to study the problem of the area between an LFSM curve and a threshold. This problem relates to the burst size measure introduced by Takalo and Consolini into solar-terrestrial physics and further studied by Freeman et al [PRE, 2000] on solar wind Poynting flux near L1. We test how expressions derived by other authors generalise to the non-Gaussian, constant threshold problem. Ongoing work on extension of these LFSM results to multifractals will also be discussed.

  1. A substantial fraction of phytoplankton-derived DON is resistant to degradation by a metabolically versatile, widely distributed marine bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmance, Susan; McCormack, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of bacteria for degrading dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and remineralising ammonium is of importance for marine ecosystems, as nitrogen availability frequently limits productivity. Here, we assess the capacity of a widely distributed and metabolically versatile marine bacterium to degrade phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen. To achieve this, we lysed exponentially growing diatoms and used the derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) to support an axenic culture of Alteromonas sp.. Bacterial biomass (as particulate carbon and nitrogen) was monitored for 70 days while growth dynamics (cell count), DOM (DOC, DON) and dissolved nutrient concentrations were monitored for up to 208 days. Bacterial biomass increased rapidly within the first 7 days prior to a period of growth/death cycles potentially linked to rapid nutrient recycling. We found that ≈75% of the initial DOC and ≈35% of the initial DON were consumed by bacteria within 40 and 4 days respectively, leaving a significant fraction of DOM resilient to degradation by this bacterial species. The different rates and extents to which DOC and DON were accessed resulted in changes in DOM stoichiometry and the iterative relationship between DOM quality and bacterial growth over time influenced bacterial cell C:N molar ratio. C:N values increased to 10 during the growth phase before decreasing to values of ≈5, indicating a change from relative N-limitation/C-sufficiency to relative C-limitation/N-sufficiency. Consequently, despite its reported metabolic versatility, we demonstrate that Alteromonas sp. was unable to access all phytoplankton derived DOM and that a bacterial community is likely to be required. By making the relatively simple assumption that an experimentally derived fraction of DOM remains resilient to bacterial degradation, these experimental results were corroborated by numerical simulations using a previously published model describing the interaction

  2. Finite-Strain Fractional-Order Viscoelastic (FOV) Material Models and Numerical Methods for Solving Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Diethelm, Kai; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fraction-order viscoelastic (FOV) material models have been proposed and studied in 1D since the 1930's, and were extended into three dimensions in the 1970's under the assumption of infinitesimal straining. It was not until 1997 that Drozdov introduced the first finite-strain FOV constitutive equations. In our presentation, we shall continue in this tradition by extending the standard, FOV, fluid and solid, material models introduced in 1971 by Caputo and Mainardi into 3D constitutive formula applicable for finite-strain analyses. To achieve this, we generalize both the convected and co-rotational derivatives of tensor fields to fractional order. This is accomplished by defining them first as body tensor fields and then mapping them into space as objective Cartesian tensor fields. Constitutive equations are constructed using both variants for fractional rate, and their responses are contrasted in simple shear. After five years of research and development, we now possess a basic suite of numerical tools necessary to study finite-strain FOV constitutive equations and their iterative refinement into a mature collection of material models. Numerical methods still need to be developed for efficiently solving fraction al-order integrals, derivatives, and differential equations in a finite element setting where such constitutive formulae would need to be solved at each Gauss point in each element of a finite model, which can number into the millions in today's analysis.

  3. Fractional modeling of viscoelasticity in 3D cerebral arteries and aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Perdikaris, Paris; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-10-01

    We develop efficient numerical methods for fractional order PDEs, and employ them to investigate viscoelastic constitutive laws for arterial wall mechanics. Recent simulations using one-dimensional models [1] have indicated that fractional order models may offer a more powerful alternative for modeling the arterial wall response, exhibiting reduced sensitivity to parametric uncertainties compared with the integer-calculus-based models. Here, we study three-dimensional (3D) fractional PDEs that naturally model the continuous relaxation properties of soft tissue, and for the first time employ them to simulate flow structure interactions for patient-specific brain aneurysms. To deal with the high memory requirements and in order to accelerate the numerical evaluation of hereditary integrals, we employ a fast convolution method [2] that reduces the memory cost to O (log ⁡ (N)) and the computational complexity to O (Nlog ⁡ (N)). Furthermore, we combine the fast convolution with high-order backward differentiation to achieve third-order time integration accuracy. We confirm that in 3D viscoelastic simulations, the integer order models strongly depends on the relaxation parameters, while the fractional order models are less sensitive. As an application to long-time simulations in complex geometries, we also apply the method to modeling fluid-structure interaction of a 3D patient-specific compliant cerebral artery with an aneurysm. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that fractional calculus can be employed effectively in modeling complex behavior of materials in realistic 3D time-dependent problems if properly designed efficient algorithms are employed to overcome the extra memory requirements and computational complexity associated with the non-local character of fractional derivatives.

  4. Correction to "What is a fractional derivative?" by Ortigueira and Machado [Journal of Computational Physics, Volume 293, 15 July 2015, Pages 4-13. Special issue on Fractional PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katugampola, Udita N.

    2016-09-01

    There is a debate among contemporary mathematicians about what it really means by a fractional derivative. The question arose as a consequence of introducing a 'new' definition of a fractional derivative in [1]. In a reply, Ortigueira and Machado [2] came up with several very important criteria to determine whether a given derivative is a fractional derivative. According to their criterion, the new fractional derivative, called conformable fractional derivative, introduced by Khalil et al. [1] turns out not to be a fractional derivative, but rather a controlled or conformable derivative. In proving the claim the authors in [2] use an example [2, p. 6]. It turns out that the explanation given there needs some corrections and it is the sole purpose of this note.

  5. Analytic solutions of Oldroyd-B fluid with fractional derivatives in a circular duct that applies a constant couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Riaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to analyze the rotational flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid with fractional derivatives, induced by an infinite circular cylinder that applies a constant couple to the fluid. Such kind of problem in the settings of fractional derivatives has not been found in the literature. The solutions are based on an important remark regarding the governing equation for the non-trivial shear stress. The solutions that have been obtained satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and can easily be reduced to the similar solutions corresponding to ordinary Oldroyd-B, fractional/ordinary Maxwell, fractional/ordinary second-grade, and Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. The obtained results are expressed in terms of Newtonian and non-Newtonian contributions. Finally, the influence of fractional parameters on the velocity, shear stress and a comparison between generalized and ordinary fluids is graphically underlined.

  6. Current use of autologous adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Park, Moonhee; Kang, Lin-Woo; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-31

    Autologous adipose stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) containing adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are currently being used in clinical settings for various orthopedic applications for human patients. Due to its potential capability of regenerating cartilage, bone, and tendons, autologous adipose SVFs are being tried in treating patients with osteoarthritis (OA), chondromalacia, meniscus tear, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and tendon injuries. Here, we have reviewed available human clinical studies with regard to patient applications of autologous adipose SVF containing ASCs, specifically assessing effectiveness and safety in the field of orthopedic disorders. All studies reviewed in this article presents potential benefits of autologous adipose SVF in various orthopedic applications without any serious side effects.

  7. Wave propagation in a fractional viscoelastic Andrade medium: diffusive approximation and numerical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Jazia, Abderrahmin Ben; Bellis, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the numerical modeling of wave propagation in fractionally-dissipative media. These viscoelastic models are such that the attenuation is frequency dependent and follows a power law with non-integer exponent. As a prototypical example, the Andrade model is chosen for its simplicity and its satisfactory fits of experimental flow laws in rocks and metals. The corresponding constitutive equation features a fractional derivative in time, a non-local term that can be expressed as a convolution product which direct implementation bears substantial memory cost. To circumvent this limitation, a diffusive representation approach is deployed, replacing the convolution product by an integral of a function satisfying a local time-domain ordinary differential equation. An associated quadrature formula yields a local-in-time system of partial differential equations, which is then proven to be well-posed. The properties of the resulting model are also compared to those of the original Andrade model. The...

  8. Blizzards to hurricanes: computer modeling of hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation across hydroclimatic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard MT Webb; David L. Parkhurst

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) was used to simulate hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation in the Andrews Creek watershed in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado and the Icacos River watershed in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. WEBMOD includes hydrologic modules derived from the USGS...

  9. Mathematical modeling of fish burger baking using fractional calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bainy Eduarda M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis sp. is the most important and abundant fish species in Brazil due to its adaptability to different environments. The development of tilapia-based products could be an alternative in order to aggregate value and increase fish meat consumption. However, there is little information available on fishburger freezing and cooking in the literature. In this work, the mathematical modeling of the fish burger baking was studied. Previously to the baking process, the fishburgers were assembled in cylindrical shape of height equal to 8mm and diameter 100mm and then baked in an electrical oven with forced heat convection at 150ºC. A T-type thermocouple was inserted in the burger to obtain its temperature profile at the central position. In order to describe the temperature of the burger during the baking process, lumped-parameter models of integer and fractional order and also a nonlinear model due to heat capacity temperature dependence were considered. The burger physical properties were obtained from the literature. After proper parameter estimation tasks and statistical validation, the fractional order model could better describe the experimental temperature behavior, a value of 0.91±0.02 was obtained for the fractional order of the system with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Therefore, with the better temperature prediction, process control and economic optimization studies of the baking process can be conducted.

  10. A Fractional Anomalous Diffusion Model and Numerical Simulation for Sodium Ion Transport in the Intestinal Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a fractional anomalous diffusion model to describe the uptake of sodium ions across the epithelium of gastrointestinal mucosa and their subsequent diffusion in the underlying blood capillaries using fractional Fick’s law. A heterogeneous two-phase model of the gastrointestinal mucosa is considered, consisting of a continuous extracellular phase and a dispersed cellular phase. The main mode of uptake is considered to be a fractional anomalous diffusion under concentration gradient and potential gradient. Appropriate partial differential equations describing the variation with time of concentrations of sodium ions in both the two phases across the intestinal wall are obtained using Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivative and are solved by finite difference methods. The concentrations of sodium ions in the interstitial space and in the cells have been studied as a function of time, and the mean concentration of sodium ions available for absorption by the blood capillaries has also been studied. Finally, numerical results are presented graphically for various values of different parameters. This study demonstrates that fractional anomalous diffusion model is appropriate for describing the uptake of sodium ions across the epithelium of gastrointestinal mucosa.

  11. Adsorption behaviors of fungicide-derived copper onto various size fractions of aggregates from orchard soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan-Ying; Hu, Bo; Yu, Hong-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Although the gradual accumulations of Cu in orchard soils due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have been widely reported, limited information is available about the retention characteristics of fungicide-derived Cu in soil, especially in various size soil aggregates. This study described the adsorption characteristics of Cu from commonly used fungicide, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH)2), onto various aggregate fractions (2000-1000, 1000-500, 500-250, 250-106, and orchard soil. The Cu(NO3)2 was selected as a comparison. Two different types of adsorption experiments were conducted as follows: variable pH and variable Cu concentration experiments. The adsorption processes of Bordeaux mixture and Cu(NO3)2 onto the studied soil samples followed well with the Freundlich isotherm, and the adsorption isotherms were the S shaped. The adsorption amounts of Cu from different Cu compounds differed, and Bordeaux mixture can result in more Cu retention in soil than Cu(NO3)2. The adsorption ability of different size soil aggregates varied, and it was mainly governed by soil properties. The findings of this study suggested that both the chemical compositions of Cu compounds and the soil physical structure should be taken into account when performing soil Cu retention experiments with fungicide-derived Cu.

  12. Likelihood inference for a fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We consider model based inference in a fractionally cointegrated (or cofractional) vector autoregressive model based on the conditional Gaussian likelihood. The model allows the process X_{t} to be fractional of order d and cofractional of order d-b; that is, there exist vectors β for which β......′X_{t} is fractional of order d-b. The parameters d and b satisfy either d≥b≥1/2, d=b≥1/2, or d=d_{0}≥b≥1/2. Our main technical contribution is the proof of consistency of the maximum likelihood estimators on the set 1/2≤b≤d≤d_{1} for any d_{1}≥d_{0}. To this end, we consider the conditional likelihood as a stochastic...... process in the parameters, and prove that it converges in distribution when errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and initial values are bounded. We then prove that the estimator of β is asymptotically mixed Gaussian and estimators of the remaining parameters are asymptotically Gaussian. We...

  13. Likelihood Inference for a Fractionally Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We consider model based inference in a fractionally cointegrated (or cofractional) vector autoregressive model based on the conditional Gaussian likelihood. The model allows the process X(t) to be fractional of order d and cofractional of order d-b; that is, there exist vectors ß for which ß......'X(t) is fractional of order d-b. The parameters d and b satisfy either d=b=1/2, d=b=1/2, or d=d0=b=1/2. Our main technical contribution is the proof of consistency of the maximum likelihood estimators on the set 1/2=b=d=d1 for any d1=d0. To this end, we consider the conditional likelihood as a stochastic process...... in the parameters, and prove that it converges in distribution when errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and initial values are bounded. We then prove that the estimator of ß is asymptotically mixed Gaussian and estimators of the remaining parameters are asymptotically Gaussian. We also find...

  14. A model to determine the petroleum pressure in a well using fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Martinez, Beatriz; Brambila Paz, Fernando; Fuentes Ruiz, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A noninvasive method was used to determine the pressure of petroleum leaving a well. The mathematical model is based on nonlinear fractional differential equations. This model comes from the fractal dimension of the porous medium. The problem is solved in three stages. In the first stage the fractal dimension of the porous medium is determined. We show that microwaves reflected and transmitted through soil have a fractal dimension which is correlated with the fractal dimension of the porous medium. The fractal signature of microwave scattering correlates with certain physical and mechanical properties of soils (porosity, permeability, conductivity, etc.). In the second stage we use three partial fractional equations as a mathematical model to study the diffusion inside the porous medium. In this model sub-diffusive phenomenon occurs if fractal derivative is between zero and one and supra-diffusive occurs if the derivative is greater than 1 and less than 2. Finally in the third stage the mathematical model is used to determinate the petroleum pressure output in a Mexican oil field, which contains three partial fractional equations with triple porosity and permeability.

  15. Modular Data and Verlinde Formulae for Fractional Level WZW Models I

    CERN Document Server

    Creutzig, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The modular properties of fractional level affine sl(2)-theories and, in particular, the application of the Verlinde formula, have a long and checkered history in conformal field theory. Recent advances in logarithmic conformal field theory have led to the realisation that problems with fractional level models stem from trying to build the theory with an insufficiently rich category of representations. In particular, the appearance of negative fusion coefficients for admissible highest weight representations is now completely understood. Here, the modular story for certain fractional level theories is completed. Modular transformations are derived for the complete set of admissible irreducible representations when the level is k=-1/2 or k=-4/3. The S-matrix data and Verlinde formula are then checked against the known fusion rules with complete agreement. Finally, an infinite set of modular invariant partition functions is constructed in each case.

  16. Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Ronco, Michele

    2017-05-01

    We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q-derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length ℓ _*. In the q-derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to ℓ _*. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q-derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models.

  17. Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [CSIC, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez Fernandez, David [Universidad de Oviedo, Department of Physics, Oviedo (Spain); Ronco, Michele [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q-derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length l{sub *}. In the q-derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to l{sub *}. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q-derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models. (orig.)

  18. Black holes in multi-fractional and Lorentz-violating models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Ronco, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We study static and radially symmetric black holes in the multi-fractional theories of gravity with q-derivatives and with weighted derivatives, frameworks where the spacetime dimension varies with the probed scale and geometry is characterized by at least one fundamental length [Formula: see text]. In the q-derivatives scenario, one finds a tiny shift of the event horizon. Schwarzschild black holes can present an additional ring singularity, not present in general relativity, whose radius is proportional to [Formula: see text]. In the multi-fractional theory with weighted derivatives, there is no such deformation, but non-trivial geometric features generate a cosmological-constant term, leading to a de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. For both scenarios, we compute the Hawking temperature and comment on the resulting black-hole thermodynamics. In the case with q-derivatives, black holes can be hotter than usual and possess an additional ring singularity, while in the case with weighted derivatives they have a de Sitter hair of purely geometric origin, which may lead to a solution of the cosmological constant problem similar to that in unimodular gravity. Finally, we compare our findings with other Lorentz-violating models.

  19. Fractional-order mathematical model of an irrigation main canal pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomi N. Calderon-Valdez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fractional order model for an irrigation main canal is proposed. It is based on the experiments developed in a laboratory prototype of a hydraulic canal and the application of a direct system identification methodology. The hydraulic processes that take place in this canal are equivalent to those that occur in real main irrigation canals and the results obtained here can therefore be easily extended to real canals. The accuracy of the proposed fractional order model is compared by deriving two other integer-order models of the canal of a complexity similar to that proposed here. The parameters of these three mathematical models have been identified by minimizing the Integral Square Error (ISE performance index existing between the models and the real-time experimental data obtained from the canal prototype. A comparison of the performances of these three models shows that the fractional-order model has the lowest error and therefore the higher accuracy. Experiments showed that our model outperformed the accuracy of the integer-order models by about 25%, which is a significant improvement as regards to capturing the canal dynamics.

  20. A more fundamental approach to the derivation of nonlinear acoustic wave equations with fractional loss operators (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, Fabrice; Vilenskiy, Gregory; Holm, Sverre

    2012-10-01

    A corrected derivation of nonlinear wave propagation equations with fractional loss operators is presented. The fundamental approach is based on fractional formulations of the stress-strain and heat flux definitions but uses the energy equation and thermodynamic identities to link density and pressure instead of an erroneous fractional form of the entropy equation as done in Prieur and Holm ["Nonlinear acoustic wave equations with fractional loss operators," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130(3), 1125-1132 (2011)]. The loss operator of the obtained nonlinear wave equations differs from the previous derivations as well as the dispersion equation, but when approximating for low frequencies the expressions for the frequency dependent attenuation and velocity dispersion remain unchanged.

  1. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a non-Gaussian phase distribution approximation approach by fractional derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoxing

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion exists widely in polymer and biological systems. Pulsed field gradient (PFG) techniques have been increasingly used to study anomalous diffusion in NMR and MRI. However, the interpretation of PFG anomalous diffusion is complicated. Moreover, there is not an exact signal attenuation expression based on fractional derivatives for PFG anomalous diffusion, which includes the finite gradient pulse width effect. In this paper, a new method, a Mainardi-Luchko-Pagnini (MLP) phase distribution approximation, is proposed to describe PFG fractional diffusion. MLP phase distribution is a non-Gaussian phase distribution. From the fractional diffusion equation based on fractional derivatives in both real space and phase space, the obtained probability distribution function is a MLP distribution. The MLP distribution leads to a Mittag-Leffler function based PFG signal attenuation rather than the exponential or stretched exponential attenuation that is obtained from a Gaussian phase distribution (GPD) und...

  2. Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iván Ravelo Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractional calculus is considered when derivatives and integrals of non-integer order are applied over a specific function. In the electrical and electronic domain, the transfer function dependence of a fractional filter not only by the filter order n, but additionally, of the fractional order α is an example of a great number of systems where its input-output behavior could be more exactly modeled by a fractional behavior. Following this aim, the present work shows the experimental ac large-signal frequency response of a family of electrical current sensors based in different spintronic conduction mechanisms. Using an ac characterization set-up the sensor transimpedance function  is obtained considering it as the relationship between sensor output voltage and input sensing current,[PLEASE CHECK FORMULA IN THE PDF]. The study has been extended to various magnetoresistance sensors based in different technologies like anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR, giant magnetoresistance (GMR, spin-valve (GMR-SV and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR. The resulting modeling shows two predominant behaviors, the low-pass and the inverse low-pass with fractional index different from the classical integer response. The TMR technology with internal magnetization offers the best dynamic and sensitivity properties opening the way to develop actual industrial applications.

  3. Gabor-based kernel PCA with fractional power polynomial models for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengjun

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Gabor-based kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method by integrating the Gabor wavelet representation of face images and the kernel PCA method for face recognition. Gabor wavelets first derive desirable facial features characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality, and orientation selectivity to cope with the variations due to illumination and facial expression changes. The kernel PCA method is then extended to include fractional power polynomial models for enhanced face recognition performance. A fractional power polynomial, however, does not necessarily define a kernel function, as it might not define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix. Note that the sigmoid kernels, one of the three classes of widely used kernel functions (polynomial kernels, Gaussian kernels, and sigmoid kernels), do not actually define a positive semidefinite Gram matrix either. Nevertheless, the sigmoid kernels have been successfully used in practice, such as in building support vector machines. In order to derive real kernel PCA features, we apply only those kernel PCA eigenvectors that are associated with positive eigenvalues. The feasibility of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models has been successfully tested on both frontal and pose-angled face recognition, using two data sets from the FERET database and the CMU PIE database, respectively. The FERET data set contains 600 frontal face images of 200 subjects, while the PIE data set consists of 680 images across five poses (left and right profiles, left and right half profiles, and frontal view) with two different facial expressions (neutral and smiling) of 68 subjects. The effectiveness of the Gabor-based kernel PCA method with fractional power polynomial models is shown in terms of both absolute performance indices and comparative performance against the PCA method, the kernel PCA method with polynomial kernels, the kernel PCA method with fractional power

  4. A time fractional model to represent rainfall process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques GOLDER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a stochastic representation of the rainfall process. The analysis of a rainfall time series shows that cumulative representation of a rainfall time series can be modeled as a non-Gaussian random walk with a log-normal jump distribution and a time-waiting distribution following a tempered α-stable probability law. Based on the random walk model, a fractional Fokker-Planck equation (FFPE with tempered α-stable waiting times was obtained. Through the comparison of observed data and simulated results from the random walk model and FFPE model with tempered α-stable waiting times, it can be concluded that the behavior of the rainfall process is globally reproduced, and the FFPE model with tempered α-stable waiting times is more efficient in reproducing the observed behavior.

  5. Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.

  6. Symmetries and exact solutions of the time fractional Harry-Dym equation with Riemann-Liouville derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Zhdanov, Renat

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, group analysis of the time fractional Harry-Dym equation with Riemann-Liouville derivative is performed. Its maximal symmetry group in Lie’s sense and the corresponding optimal system of subgroups are determined. Similarity reductions of the equation under study are performed. As a result, the reduced fractional ordinary differential equations are deduced, and some group invariant solutions in explicit form are obtained as well.

  7. Fractionalized Fermi liquid in a Kondo-Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvelik, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Kondo-Heisenberg model is used as a controllable tool to demonstrate the existence of a peculiar metallic state with unbroken translational symmetry where the Fermi surface volume is not controlled by the total electron density. I use a nonperturbative approach where the strongest interactions are taken into account by means of exact solution, and corrections are controllable. In agreement with the general requirements formulated by T. Senthil et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 216403 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.216403], the resulting metallic state represents a fractionalized Fermi liquid where well defined quasiparticles coexist with gapped fractionalized collective excitations. The system undergoes a phase transition to an ordered phase (charge density wave or superconducting), at the transition temperature which is parametrically small in comparison to the quasiparticle Fermi energy.

  8. Correlations in a generalized elastic model: fractional Langevin equation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloni, Alessandro; Chechkin, Aleksei; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    The generalized elastic model (GEM) provides the evolution equation which governs the stochastic motion of several many-body systems in nature, such as polymers, membranes, and growing interfaces. On the other hand a probe (tracer) particle in these systems performs a fractional Brownian motion due to the spatial interactions with the other system's components. The tracer's anomalous dynamics can be described by a fractional Langevin equation (FLE) with a space-time correlated noise. We demonstrate that the description given in terms of GEM coincides with that furnished by the relative FLE, by showing that the correlation functions of the stochastic field obtained within the FLE framework agree with the corresponding quantities calculated from the GEM. Furthermore we show that the Fox H -function formalism appears to be very convenient to describe the correlation properties within the FLE approach.

  9. Transient heat conduction in a pebble fuel applying fractional model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez A, R.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this paper we presents the equation of thermal diffusion of temporary-fractional order in the one-dimensional space in spherical coordinates, with the objective to analyze the heat transference between the fuel and coolant in a fuel element of a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor. The pebble fuel is the heterogeneous system made by microsphere constitutes by U O, pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide mixed with graphite. To describe the heat transfer phenomena in the pebble fuel we applied a constitutive law fractional (Non-Fourier) in order to analyze the behaviour transient of the temperature distribution in the pebble fuel with anomalous thermal diffusion effects a numerical model is developed. (Author)

  10. Likelihood Inference for a Fractionally Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    2012-01-01

    We consider model based inference in a fractionally cointegrated (or cofractional) vector autoregressive model with a restricted constant term, ¿, based on the Gaussian likelihood conditional on initial values. The model nests the I(d) VAR model. We give conditions on the parameters......likelihood estimators. To this end we prove weak convergence of the conditional likelihood as a continuous stochastic...... process in the parameters when errors are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions and initial values are bounded. When the limit is deterministic this implies uniform convergence in probability of the conditional likelihood function. If the true value b0>1/2, we prove that the limit distribution of (ß...

  11. On fractional order composite model reference adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yiheng; Sun, Zhenyuan; Hu, Yangsheng; Wang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel composite model reference adaptive control approach for a class of fractional order linear systems with unknown constant parameters. The method is extended from the model reference adaptive control. The parameter estimation error of our method depends on both the tracking error and the prediction error, whereas the existing method only depends on the tracking error, which makes our method has better transient performance in the sense of generating smooth system output. By the aid of the continuous frequency distributed model, stability of the proposed approach is established in the Lyapunov sense. Furthermore, the convergence property of the model parameters estimation is presented, on the premise that the closed-loop control system is stable. Finally, numerical simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  12. Fractional Langevin model of memory in financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Sergio; West, Bruce J

    2002-10-01

    The separation of the microscopic and macroscopic time scales is necessary for the validity of ordinary statistical physics and the dynamical description embodied in the Langevin equation. When the microscopic time scale diverges, the differential equations on the macroscopic level are no longer valid and must be replaced with fractional differential equations of motion; in particular, we obtain a fractional-differential stochastic equation of motion. After decades of statistical analysis of financial time series certain "stylized facts" have emerged, including the statistics of stock price fluctuations having "fat tails" and their linear correlations in time being exceedingly short lived. On the other hand, the magnitude of these fluctuations and other such measures of market volatility possess temporal correlations that decay as an inverse power law. One explanation of this long-term memory is that it is a consequence of the time-scale separation between "microscopic" and "macroscopic" economic variables. We propose a fractional Langevin equation as a dynamical model of the observed memory in financial time series.

  13. Computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Jensen, Jesper; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Norling Mathiassen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    June 2016 all patients (N = 774) referred to non-emergent ICA or coronary CTA at Aarhus University Hospital on a suspicion of CAD had frontline CTA performed. Downstream testing and treatment within 3 months and adverse events ≥90 days were registered. Patients were divided into two groups according......Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30...... to the presence of typical angina pectoris, which according to local practice would have resulted in referral to ICA, (low-intermediate-risk, n = 593 [76%]; high-risk, n = 181 [24%]) with mean pre-test probability of CAD of 31 ± 16% and 67 ± 16%, respectively. Coronary CTA was performed in 745 (96%) patients...

  14. Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Osmany; Herzel, F.; Schmalz, K; Winkler, W.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL) with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM) is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter) in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we conside...

  15. On the use of fractional order PK-PD models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Clara; Copot, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying and controlling depth of anesthesia is a challenging process due to lack of measurement technology for direct effects of drug supply into the body. Efforts are being made to develop new sensor techniques and new horizons are explored for modeling this intricate process. This paper introduces emerging tools available on the ‘engineering market’ imported from the area of fractional calculus. A novel interpretation of the classical drug-effect curve is given, enabling linear control. This enables broadening the horizon of signal processing and control techniques and suggests future research lines.

  16. Recoilless fractions calculated with the nearest-neighbour interaction model by Kagan and Maslow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerink, G. J.; Pleiter, F.

    1986-08-01

    The recoilless fraction is calculated for a number of Mössbauer atoms that are natural constituents of HfC, TaC, NdSb, FeO, NiO, EuO, EuS, EuSe, EuTe, SnTe, PbTe and CsF. The calculations are based on a model developed by Kagan and Maslow for binary compounds with rocksalt structure. With the exception of SnTe and, to a lesser extent, PbTe, the results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data and values derived from other models.

  17. Application of fractional calculus to modeling transient combustion of solid propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Vladimir; Horák, Vladimír; Duc, Linh Do; Lukáč, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    It was Zel'dovich, who first considered the transient combustion problem of solid propellants. Some more detailed models of that process have been developed afterwards. However, until today, numerical methods remain the prevailing tool for modeling unsteady combustion processes. In this work, it has been demonstrated that at least one of the problems of the unsteady combustion theory, which previously investigated numerically, can be treated analytically by means of fractional calculus. The solution for the unsteady speed of combustion thus derived is then compared with the solution obtained by numerical means in previous studies. The comparison shows a good agreement between those results, especially for small values of time.

  18. Modeling and performance analysis of the fractional order quadratic Boost converter in discontinuous conduction mode-discontinuous conduction mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Liang, Zhi-Shan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, based on the fact that the inductors and capacitors are of fractional order in nature, the four-order mathematical model of the fractional order quadratic Boost converter in type I and type II discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) — DCM is established by using fractional calculus theory. Direct current (DC) analysis is conducted by using the DC equivalent model and the transfer functions are derived from the corresponding alternating current (AC) equivalent model. The DCM-DCM regions of type I and type II are obtained and the relations between the regions and the orders are found. The influence of the orders on the performance of the quadratic Boost converter in DCM-DCM is verified by numerical and circuit simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the correctness of the fractional order model and the efficiency of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  19. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  20. Seasonal export fluxes of size-fractionated particulate derived from polonium-210: A case study in Xiamen Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weifeng; Huang, Yipu; Chen, Min; Qiu, Yusheng

    2010-03-01

    Size-fractionated 210Po and 210Pb, in the size fractions >0.4 μm, >2 μm and >10 μm, were examined to determine the seasonal variability of particulate fluxes in Xiamen Bay. Good correlations between 210Po and particulate organic carbon (POC) or non-Particulate Organic Matter (nPOM) suggested that 210Po can be used to trace the export fluxes of POC and nPOM. Both steady-state (SS) model and nSS model were used to evaluate fluxes of size-fractionated 210Po, results showed that nSS model was better than the SS model in coastal areas. Based on the nSS model, size-fractionated POC fluxes decreased with increasing particle size. For the particle size studied, maximum POC fluxes occurred in autumn, followed by spring, winter, and summer. Fluxes of nPOM were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding size-fractionated POC fluxes. Differences between size-fractionated nPOM fluxes indicated that hydrodynamic conditions were the main factor regulating transportation of particulate out of the inner Bay. In winter most particulates, including >10 μm particles, were transported under the strongest hydrodynamic conditions. In contrast, only a fraction of the <2 μm particulates were transported from the inner Bay in spring. This study suggested that 210Po is a powerful tracer of seasonal particulate export in coastal seas.

  1. First-principles models of equilibrium tellurium isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; Fornadel, A. P.; Spry, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, equilibrium mass-dependent isotopic fractionation among representative Te-bearing species is estimated with first-principles thermodynamic calculations. Tellurium is a group 16 element (along with O, S, and Se) with eight stable isotopes ranging in mass from 120Te to 130Te, and six commonly-occurring oxidation states: -II, -I, 0, +II, +IV, and +VI. In its reduced form, Te(-II), tellurium has a unique crystal-chemical role as a bond partner for gold and silver in epithermal and orogenic gold deposits, which likely form when oxidized Te species (e.g., H2TeO3, TeO32-) or perhaps polytellurides (e.g., Te22-) interact with precious metals in hydrothermal solution. Te(IV) is the most common oxidation state at the Earth's surface, including surface outcrops of telluride ore deposits, where tellurite and tellurate minerals form by oxidation. In the ocean, dissolved tellurium tends to be scavenged by particulate matter. Te(VI) is more abundant than Te(IV) in the ocean water (1), even though it is thought to be less stable thermodynamically. This variety of valence states in natural systems and range of isotopic masses suggest that tellurium could exhibit geochemically useful isotope abundance variations. Tellurium isotope fractionations were determined for representative molecules and crystals of varying complexity and chemistry. Gas-phase calculations are combined with supermolecular cluster models of aqueous and solid species. These in turn are compared with plane-wave density functional theory calculations with periodic boundary conditions. In general, heavyTe/lightTe is predicted to be higher for more oxidized species, and lower for reduced species, with 130Te/125Te fractionations as large as 4‰ at 100οC between coexisting Te(IV) and Te(-II) or Te(0) compounds. This is a much larger fractionation than has been observed in naturally occurring redox pairs (i.e., Te (0) vs. Te(IV) species) so far, suggesting that disequilibrium processes may control

  2. Non-local problems with integral gluing condition for loaded mixed type equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidjon Kh. Abdullaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to non-local boundary value problems with integral gluing condition. Mixed type equations (parabolic-hyperbolic involving the Caputo fractional derivative have loaded parts in Riemann-Liouville integrals. Thus we use the method of integral energy to prove uniqueness, and the method of integral equations to prove existence.

  3. Certain Fractional Derivative Formulae Involving the Product of a General Class of Polynomials and the Multivariable -Function

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R C Soni; Deepika Singh

    2002-11-01

    In the present paper, we obtain three unified fractional derivative formulae (FDF). The first involves the product of a general class of polynomials and the multivariable -function. The second involves the product of a general class of polynomials and two multivariable -functions and has been obtained with the help of the generalized Leibniz rule for fractional derivatives. The last FDF also involves the product of a general class of polynomials and the multivariable -function but it is obtained by the application of the first FDF twice and it involves two independent variables instead of one. The polynomials and the functions involved in all our fractional derivative formulae as well as their arguments which are of the type $x^ρ\\prod_{i = 1}^s(x^{t_i} + _i)^{_i}$ are quite general in nature. These formulae, besides being of very general character have been put in a compact form avoiding the occurrence of infinite series and thus making them useful in applications. Our findings provide interesting unifications and extensions of a number of (new and known) results. For the sake of illustration, we give here exact references to the results (in essence) of five research papers [2, 3, 10, 12, 13] that follow as particular cases of our findings. In the end, we record a new fractional derivative formula involving the product of the Hermite polynomials, the Laguerre polynomials and the product of different Whittaker functions as a simple special case of our first formula.

  4. The linear-quadratic model is inappropriate to model high dose per fraction effects in radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John P; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Marks, Lawrence B

    2008-10-01

    The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is widely used to model the effect of total dose and dose per fraction in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Much of the data used to generate the model are obtained in vitro at doses well below those used in radiosurgery. Clinically, the LQ model often underestimates tumor control observed at radiosurgical doses. The underlying mechanisms implied by the LQ model do not reflect the vascular and stromal damage produced at the high doses per fraction encountered in radiosurgery and ignore the impact of radioresistant subpopulations of cells. The appropriate modeling of both tumor control and normal tissue toxicity in radiosurgery requires the application of emerging understanding of molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level effects of high-dose/fraction-ionizing radiation and the role of cancer stem cells.

  5. Serodiagnosis of human neurocysticercosis using antigenic components of Taenia solium metacestodes derived from the unbound fraction from jacalin affinity chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Alves Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.

  6. Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Osmany

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO, the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we consider OFDM systems, where the PLL phase noise is reduced by digital signal processing after down-conversion of the RF signal to baseband. The rms phase error is discussed as a function of the loop parameters. Our model drastically simplifies the noise optimization of the PLL loop dynamics.

  7. Modelling heat transfer in heterogeneous media using fractional calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierociuk, Dominik; Dzielinski, Andrzej; Sarwas, Grzegorz; Petras, Ivo; Podlubny, Igor; Skovranek, Tomas

    2013-05-13

    This paper presents the results of modelling the heat transfer process in heterogeneous media with the assumption that part of the heat flux is dispersed in the air around the beam. The heat transfer process in a solid material (beam) can be described by an integer order partial differential equation. However, in heterogeneous media, it can be described by a sub- or hyperdiffusion equation which results in a fractional order partial differential equation. Taking into consideration that part of the heat flux is dispersed into the neighbouring environment we additionally modify the main relation between heat flux and the temperature, and we obtain in this case the heat transfer equation in a new form. This leads to the transfer function that describes the dependency between the heat flux at the beginning of the beam and the temperature at a given distance. This article also presents the experimental results of modelling real plant in the frequency domain based on the obtained transfer function.

  8. Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmany, S. A.; Herzel, F.; Schmalz, K.; Winkler, W.

    2007-06-01

    We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL) with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM) is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter) in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we consider OFDM systems, where the PLL phase noise is reduced by digital signal processing after down-conversion of the RF signal to baseband. The rms phase error is discussed as a function of the loop parameters. Our model drastically simplifies the noise optimization of the PLL loop dynamics.

  9. Modeling the fractional magnetic states of magnetostructural transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Torre, Edward [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute for Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The large inverse magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the off-stoichiometric Heusler alloys occurs at a critical temperature near room temperature. At this temperature, the material is in a mixed-state and can have a variable ratio of two stable magnetic crystallographic-states; a high magnetization state (HM) and a low magnetization state (LM). The field-induced thermal hysteresis in the virgin curve of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} and the virgin first-order reversal curves (VFORC) are presented. A model is introduced to describe the descending branches of these curves based on the different magnetic fields of conversion (from HM to LM). Using limited measurements, the model is used as a tool to determine the fractions of the two crystallographic-states within the mixed-state region.

  10. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Control-Oriented Model of Molar Scavenge Oxygen Fraction for Exhaust Recirculation in Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    therefore focus on deriving and validating a mean-value model of a large two-stroke crosshead diesel engines with EGR. The model introduces a number of amendments and extensions to previous, complex models and shows in theory and practice that a simplified nonlinear model captures all essential dynamics...... the behavior of the scavenge oxygen fraction well over the entire envelope of load and blower speed range that are relevant for EGR. The simplicity of the new model makes it suitable for observer and control design, which are essential steps to meet the emission requirements for marine diesel engines that take......Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced to large marine engines in order to reduce NOx formation. Adequate modelling for control design is one of the bottlenecks to design EGR control that also meets emission requirements during transient loading conditions. This paper...

  12. Impact of Model and Observation Error on Assimilating Snow Cover Fraction Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Kristi R.

    model snow states. These errors were reduced by accounting for neighboring gridcell information through an aggregation quality control technique. When this technique was applied, model snow analysis estimates improved for the DI method, but little improvement was found with the EnKF method. For the EnKF, new observation operators were derived purely from snow observations in order to partly "scale" the model SCF predictions toward the observations. Without further tuning, these EnKF observation operators produced snow analysis estimates with slightly better agreement with snowpack observations versus using a model-based function. From this study, assimilating high resolution snow cover fraction observations and quantifying the error impacts and differences between the two data assimilation methods advances our knowledge of better estimating snowpack conditions for high resolutions mountainous areas. Also, final results showed better snowpack estimates compared with the model or observations alone. This is an important goal for hydrologic and meteorological applications.

  13. Sorption and Fractionation of a Peat Derived Humic Acid by Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, and Goethite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. GHOSH; WANG Zhen-Yu; S. KANG; P. C. BHOWMIK; B. S. XING

    2009-01-01

    Sorption of humic acid (HA) on mineral surfaces has a profound interest regarding the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and carbon sequestration in soils. The objective of our study is to determine the fractionation behavior of HA upon sorption on mineral surfaces with varying surface properties. HA was coated sequentially on kaolinite (1:1 clay), montmorillonite (2:1 clay), and goethite (iron oxide) for four times. The unadsorbed HA fractions were characterized by elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The mineral-HA complexes were characterized by DRIFT. Polarity index [(N+O)/C] revealed higher polarity of the unadsorbed HA fractions after coating on kaolinite, reflecting that relatively higher polarity fractions of HA remain unadsorbed. Sorption of aiiphatic alcohol fraction along with carbohydrate was prominent on kaolinite surface. DRIFT results of the unadsorbed HA fractions indicated more sorption of aiiphatic moieties on both kaolinite and montmorillonite. DRIFT results of the unadsorbed HA fractions after sorption on kaolinite and goethite showed the sorption of the proteinaceous fractions of HA. The HA fractions obtained after coating on goethite showed significant sorption of carboxylic moieties. The results mentioned above comply reasonably well with the DRIFT spectra of the minerai-HA complexes. 13C NMR results showed higher sorption of anomeric C on kaolinite surface. Higher sorption of paraffinic fraction was observed on montmorillonite. NMR data inferred the sorption of carboxylic moieties on goethite surface. Overall, this study showed that aliphatic moieties of HA preferentially sorbed on kaolinite and montmorillonite, while carboxylic functional groups play a significant role in sorption of HA on goethite. The sorbed fractions of HA may modify the mineral surface properties, and thus, the interaction with organic

  14. Likelihood inference for a nonstationary fractional autoregressive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Ørregård Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    the conditional Gaussian likelihood and for the probability analysis we also condition on initial values but assume that the errors in the autoregressive model are i.i.d. with suitable moment conditions. We analyze the conditional likelihood and its derivatives as stochastic processes in the parameters, including...... d and b, and prove that they converge in distribution. We use the results to prove consistency of the maximum likelihood estimator for d,b in a large compact subset of {1/2...

  15. Reduced differential transform method for partial differential equations within local fractional derivative operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.

  16. Nonlinear fractional order proportion-integral-derivative active disturbance rejection control method design for hypersonic vehicle attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Lun; Cai, Guobiao; Qi, Xiaoqiang

    2015-06-01

    Near space hypersonic vehicle model is nonlinear, multivariable and couples in the reentry process, which are challenging for the controller design. In this paper, a nonlinear fractional order proportion integral derivative (NFOPIλDμ) active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy based on a natural selection particle swarm (NSPSO) algorithm is proposed for the hypersonic vehicle flight control. The NFOPIλDμ ADRC method consists of a tracking-differentiator (TD), an NFOPIλDμ controller and an extended state observer (ESO). The NFOPIλDμ controller designed by combining an FOPIλDμ method and a nonlinear states error feedback control law (NLSEF) is to overcome concussion caused by the NLSEF and conversely compensate the insufficiency for relatively simple and rough signal processing caused by the FOPIλDμ method. The TD is applied to coordinate the contradiction between rapidity and overshoot. By attributing all uncertain factors to unknown disturbances, the ESO can achieve dynamic feedback compensation for these disturbances and thus reduce their effects. Simulation results show that the NFOPIλDμ ADRC method can make the hypersonic vehicle six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model track desired nominal signals accurately and fast, has good stability, dynamic properties and strong robustness against external environmental disturbances.

  17. When does 1/2 = 1/3?: Modelling with Wet Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzallen, Noleine

    2015-01-01

    Many fraction activities rely on the use of area models for developing partitioning skills. These models, however, are limited in their ability to assist students to visualise a fraction of an object when the whole changes. This article describes a fraction modelling activity that requires the transfer of water from one container to another. The…

  18. Fat-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells Enhance the Bone-Forming Capacity of Devitalized Engineered Hypertrophic Cartilage Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Atanas; Kreutz, Matthias; Haumer, Alexander; Scotti, Celeste; Barbero, Andrea; Bourgine, Paul E; Scherberich, Arnaud; Jaquiery, Claude; Martin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    : Engineered and devitalized hypertrophic cartilage (HC) has been proposed as bone substitute material, potentially combining the features of osteoinductivity, resistance to hypoxia, capacity to attract blood vessels, and customization potential for specific indications. However, in comparison with vital tissues, devitalized HC grafts have reduced efficiency of bone formation and longer remodeling times. We tested the hypothesis that freshly harvested stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells from human adipose tissue-which include mesenchymal, endothelial, and osteoclastic progenitors-enhance devitalized HC remodeling into bone tissue. Human SVF cells isolated from abdominal lipoaspirates were characterized cytofluorimetrically. HC pellets, previously generated by human bone marrow-derived stromal cells and devitalized by freeze/thaw, were embedded in fibrin gel with or without different amounts of SVF cells and implanted either ectopically in nude mice or in 4-mm-diameter calvarial defects in nude rats. In the ectopic model, SVF cells added to devitalized HC directly contributed to endothelial, osteoblastic, and osteoclastic populations. After 12 weeks, the extent of graft vascularization and amount of bone formation increased in a cell-number-dependent fashion (up to, respectively, 2.0-fold and 2.9-fold using 12 million cells per milliliter of gel). Mineralized tissue volume correlated with the number of implanted, SVF-derived endothelial cells (CD31+ CD34+ CD146+). In the calvarial model, SVF activation of HC using 12 million cells per milliliter of gel induced efficient merging among implanted pellets and strongly enhanced (7.3-fold) de novo bone tissue formation within the defects. Our findings outline a bone augmentation strategy based on off-the-shelf devitalized allogeneic HC, intraoperatively activated with autologous SVF cells. This study validates an innovative bone substitute material based on allogeneic hypertrophic cartilage that is engineered

  19. Nonlethal Fraction of Virus Population in Evolution Models with Lethal Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.

    2017-03-01

    Lethal mutations are very common in asexual evolution, both in RNA viruses and in the clonal evolution of cancer cells. In a special case of lethal mutations (truncated selection), after a critical total number of mutations the replicator (the virus or the cell) has no offspring. We consider the Eigen and Crow-Kimura models with truncated fitness landscapes, and calculate the fraction of viable replicators (that do have offspring) in the population. We derive a formula for the fraction of the population with nonlethal replicators for the case of a uniform distribution of lethal sequences in the sequence space. We assume that our results can be applied to the origin of life and cancer biology.

  20. Dynamical Models to Infer the Core Mass Fraction of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The uncompressed density of Venus is just a few percent lower than Earth's, however the nature of the interior core structure of Venus remains unclear. Employing state-of-the-art dynamical formation models that allow both accretion and collisional fragmentation, we perform hundreds of simulations of terrestrial planet growth around the Sun in the presence of the giant planets. For both Earth and Venus analogs, we quantify the iron-silicate ratios, water/volatile abundances and specific impact energies of all collisions that lead to their formation. Preliminary results suggest that the distributions of core mass fraction and water content are comparable among the Earth and Venus analogs, suggesting that Earth and Venus may indeed have formed with similar structures and compositions.

  1. Deriving Framework Usages Based on Behavioral Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenmyo, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Saeki, Motoshi

    One of the critical issue in framework-based software development is a huge introduction cost caused by technical gap between developers and users of frameworks. This paper proposes a technique for deriving framework usages to implement a given requirements specification. By using the derived usages, the users can use the frameworks without understanding the framework in detail. Requirements specifications which describe definite behavioral requirements cannot be related to frameworks in as-is since the frameworks do not have definite control structure so that the users can customize them to suit given requirements specifications. To cope with this issue, a new technique based on satisfiability problems (SAT) is employed to derive the control structures of the framework model. In the proposed technique, requirements specifications and frameworks are modeled based on Labeled Transition Systems (LTSs) with branch conditions represented by predicates. Truth assignments of the branch conditions in the framework models are not given initially for representing the customizable control structure. The derivation of truth assignments of the branch conditions is regarded as the SAT by assuming relations between termination states of the requirements specification model and ones of the framework model. This derivation technique is incorporated into a technique we have proposed previously for relating actions of requirements specifications to ones of frameworks. Furthermore, this paper discuss a case study of typical use cases in e-commerce systems.

  2. Analytical Solutions of a Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Groundwater Flow Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical Darcy law is generalized by regarding the water flow as a function of a noninteger order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalized law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Two methods including Frobenius and Adomian decomposition method are used to obtain an asymptotic analytical solution to the generalized groundwater flow equation. The solution obtained via Frobenius method is valid in the vicinity of the borehole. This solution is in perfect agreement with the data observed from the pumping test performed by the institute for groundwater study on one of their boreholes settled on the test site of the University of the Free State. The test consisted of the pumping of the borehole at the constant discharge rate Q and monitoring the piezometric head for 350 minutes. Numerical solutions obtained via Adomian method are compared with the Barker generalized radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for the flow is assumed. Proposition for uncertainties in groundwater studies was given.

  3. The Bernstein Operational Matrices for Solving the Fractional Quadratic Riccati Differential Equations with the Riemann-Liouville Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the approximate analytical solution for the fractional quadratic Riccati differential equation with the Riemann-Liouville derivative by using the Bernstein polynomials (BPs operational matrices. In this method, we use the operational matrix for fractional integration in the Riemann-Liouville sense. Then by using this matrix and operational matrix of product, we reduce the problem to a system of algebraic equations that can be solved easily. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are illustrated by several examples.

  4. Synchronous Generator Model with Fractional Order Voltage Regulator PIbDa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Spałek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous generator together with excitation circuit, voltage controller and system stabilizer constitute nonlinear ordinary differential equations set. The nonlinearity of differential equations set results from magnetic circuits saturation. One of the most important, from the electric energy distribution point of view, is the influence of voltage control applied on the generator voltage. There could be applied regulator either classical PID or fractional of type PIbDa which bases on the so-called fractional derivative idea. Numerical solutions of nonlinear differential equations set, that takes into account both magnetic circuits saturation and fractional regulator PIbDa, lead to decisions either to accept or to reject the chosen parameters. The sensibility of generator work on chosen fractional regulator parameters is the main aim of this paper. With the help of C++ program provided the most important states of work (short–circuit, setting voltage change, reactive power rejection can be analyzed basing on the accepted model of synchronous generator such as (1,1, (2,2 or (3,3.

  5. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Derived Fractional Flow Reserve and Plaque Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Leipsic, Jonathon; Koo, Bon-Kwon;

    2016-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic...

  6. Critical exponents of O(N) models in fractional dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Codello, A; D'Odorico, G

    2014-01-01

    We compute critical exponents of O(N) models in fractal dimensions between two and four, and for continuos values of the number of field components N, in this way completing the RG classification of universality classes for these models. In d=2 the N-dependence of the correlation length critical exponent gives us the last piece of information needed to establish a RG derivation of the Mermin-Wagner theorem. We also report critical exponents for multi-critical universality classes in the cases N>1 and N=0. Finally, in the large-N limit our critical exponents correctly approach those of the spherical model, allowing us to set N~100 as threshold for the quantitative validity of leading order large-N estimates.

  7. Unsteady rotating flows of a viscoelastic fluid with the fractional Maxwell model between coaxial cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Qi; Hui Jin

    2006-01-01

    The fractional calculus is used in the constitutive relationship model of viscoelastic fluid.A generalized Maxwell model with fractional calculus is considered.Based on the flow conditions described,two flow cases are solved and the exact solutions are obtained by using the Weber transform and the Laplace transform for fractional calculus.

  8. Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.

  9. Modelling in Primary School: Constructing Conceptual Models and Making Sense of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2017-01-01

    This article describes sixth-grade students' engagement in two model-eliciting activities offering students the opportunity to construct mathematical models. The findings show that students utilized their knowledge of fractions including conceptual and procedural knowledge in constructing mathematical models for the given situations. Some students…

  10. A Stochastic Fractional Dynamics Model of Space-time Variability of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Travis, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Rainfall varies in space and time in a highly irregular manner and is described naturally in terms of a stochastic process. A characteristic feature of rainfall statistics is that they depend strongly on the space-time scales over which rain data are averaged. A spectral model of precipitation has been developed based on a stochastic differential equation of fractional order for the point rain rate, that allows a concise description of the second moment statistics of rain at any prescribed space-time averaging scale. The model is thus capable of providing a unified description of the statistics of both radar and rain gauge data. The underlying dynamical equation can be expressed in terms of space-time derivatives of fractional orders that are adjusted together with other model parameters to fit the data. The form of the resulting spectrum gives the model adequate flexibility to capture the subtle interplay between the spatial and temporal scales of variability of rain but strongly constrains the predicted statistical behavior as a function of the averaging length and times scales. We test the model with radar and gauge data collected contemporaneously at the NASA TRMM ground validation sites located near Melbourne, Florida and in Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in the tropical Pacific. We estimate the parameters by tuning them to the second moment statistics of radar data. The model predictions are then found to fit the second moment statistics of the gauge data reasonably well without any further adjustment.

  11. Characterization of plant-derived carbon and phosphorus in lakes by sequential fractionation and NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Although debris from aquatic macrophytes is one of the most important endogenous sources of organic matter (OM) and nutrients in lakes, its biogeochemical cycling and contribution to internal load of nutrients in eutrophic lakes are still poorly understood. In this study, sequential fractionation by H{sub 2}O, 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M HCl, combined with {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, was developed and used to characterize organic carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in six aquatic plants collected from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China. Organic matter, determined by total organic carbon (TOC), was unequally distributed in H{sub 2}O (21.2%), NaOH (29.9%), HCl (3.5%) and residual (45.3%) fractions. For P in debris of aquatic plants, 53.3% was extracted by H{sub 2}O, 31.9% by NaOH, and 11% by HCl, with 3.8% in residual fractions. Predominant OM components extracted by H{sub 2}O and NaOH were carbohydrates, proteins and aliphatic acids. Inorganic P (P{sub i}) was the primary form of P in H{sub 2}O fractions, whereas organic P (P{sub o}) was the primary form of P in NaOH fractions. The subsequent HCl fractions extracted fewer species of C and P. Some non-extractable carbohydrates, aromatics and metal phytate compounds remained in residual fractions. Based on sequential extraction and NMR analysis, it was proposed that those forms of C (54.7% of TOC) and P (96.2% of TP) in H{sub 2}O, NaOH and HCl fractions are potentially released to overlying water as labile components, while those in residues are stable and likely preserved in sediments of lakes. These results will be helpful in understanding internal loading of nutrients from debris of aquatic macrophytes and their recycling in lakes. - Highlights: • Sequential fractionation combined with NMR analysis was applied on aquatic plants. • Labile and stable C and P forms in aquatic plants were characterized. • 54.7% of OM and 96.2% of P in aquatic plants are potentially available. • 45.3% of OM and 3.8% of P in aquatic

  12. Fractional Moment Bounds and Disorder Relevance for Pinning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, Bernard; Giacomin, Giambattista; Lacoin, Hubert; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2009-05-01

    We study the critical point of directed pinning/wetting models with quenched disorder. The distribution K(·) of the location of the first contact of the (free) polymer with the defect line is assumed to be of the form K( n) = n - α-1 L( n), with α ≥ 0 and L(·) slowly varying. The model undergoes a (de)-localization phase transition: the free energy (per unit length) is zero in the delocalized phase and positive in the localized phase. For α 1, then quenched and annealed critical points differ whenever disorder is present, and we give the scaling form of their difference for small disorder. In agreement with the so-called Harris criterion, disorder is therefore relevant in this case. In the marginal case α = 1/2, under the assumption that L(·) vanishes sufficiently fast at infinity, we prove that the difference between quenched and annealed critical points, which is smaller than any power of the disorder strength, is positive: disorder is marginally relevant. Again, the case considered in [12,17] is out of our analysis and remains open. The results are achieved by setting the parameters of the model so that the annealed system is localized, but close to criticality, and by first considering a quenched system of size that does not exceed the correlation length of the annealed model. In such a regime we can show that the expectation of the partition function raised to a suitably chosen power {γ in (0, 1)} is small. We then exploit such an information to prove that the expectation of the same fractional power of the partition function goes to zero with the size of the system, a fact that immediately entails that the quenched system is delocalized.

  13. A note on fractional linear pure birth and pure death processes in epidemic models

    CERN Document Server

    Garra, Roberto; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.06.005

    2011-01-01

    In this note we highlight the role of fractional linear birth and linear death processes recently studied in \\citet{sakhno} and \\citet{pol}, in relation to epidemic models with empirical power law distribution of the events. Taking inspiration from a formal analogy between the equation of self consistency of the epidemic type aftershock sequences (ETAS) model, and the fractional differential equation describing the mean value of fractional linear growth processes, we show some interesting applications of fractional modelling to study \\textit{ab initio} epidemic processes without the assumption of any empirical distribution. We also show that, in the frame of fractional modelling, subcritical regimes can be linked to linear fractional death processes and supercritical regimes to linear fractional birth processes. Moreover we discuss a simple toy model to underline the possible application of these stochastic growth models to more general epidemic phenomena such as tumoral growth.

  14. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  15. High resolution preparation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM protein fractions for clinical proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Oliviero

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are involved in a number of key physiological processes and complex responses such as inflammatory, immunological, infectious diseases and iron homeostasis. These cells are specialised for iron storage and recycling from senescent erythrocytes so they play a central role in the fine tuning of iron balancing and distribution. The comprehension of the many physiological responses of macrophages implies the study of the related molecular events. To this regard, proteomic analysis, is one of the most powerful tools for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms, in terms of changes in protein expression levels. Results Our aim was to optimize a protocol for protein fractionation and high resolution mapping using human macrophages for clinical studies. We exploited a fractionation protocol based on the neutral detergent Triton X-114. The 2D maps of the fractions obtained showed high resolution and a good level of purity. Western immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis indicated no fraction cross contamination. On 2D-PAGE mini gels (7 × 8 cm we could count more than five hundred protein spots, substantially increasing the resolution and the number of detectable proteins for the macrophage proteome. The fractions were also evaluated, with preliminary experiments, using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS. Conclusion This relatively simple method allows deep investigation into macrophages proteomics producing discrete and accurate protein fractions, especially membrane-associated and integral proteins. The adapted protocol seems highly suitable for further studies of clinical proteomics, especially for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms controlling iron homeostasis in normal and disease conditions.

  16. Reheating in nonminimal derivative coupling model

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, H Mohseni

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model with nonminimal derivative coupling of inflaton to gravity. The reheating process during rapid oscillation of the inflaton is studied and the reheating temperature is obtained. Behaviors of the inflaton and produced radiation in this era are discussed.

  17. Animal models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Conceição; I. Heinonen (Ilkka); A.P. Lourenço; D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); I. Falcão-Pires

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes a clinical syndrome in which the diagnostic criteria of heart failure are not accompanied by gross disturbances of systolic function, as assessed by ejection fraction. In turn, under most circumstances, diastolic function

  18. A discrete model for the apparent viscosity of polydisperse suspensions including maximum packing fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Dörr, Aaron; Mehdizadeh, Amirfarhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the notion of a construction process consisting of the stepwise addition of particles to the pure fluid, a discrete model for the apparent viscosity as well as for the maximum packing fraction of polydisperse suspensions of spherical, non-colloidal particles is derived. The model connects the approaches by Bruggeman and Farris and is valid for large size ratios of consecutive particle classes during the construction process. Furthermore, a new general form of the well-known Krieger equation allowing for the choice of a second-order Taylor coefficient for the volume fraction is proposed and then applied as a monodisperse reference equation in the course of polydisperse modeling. By applying the polydisperse viscosity model to two different particle size distributions (Rosin-Rammler and uniform distribution), the influence of polydispersity on the apparent viscosity is examined. The extension of the model to the case of small size ratios as well as to the inclusion of shear rate effects is left for fut...

  19. Thin stillage fractionation using ultrafiltration: resistance in series model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2009-02-01

    The corn based dry grind process is the most widely used method in the US for fuel ethanol production. Fermentation of corn to ethanol produces whole stillage after ethanol is removed by distillation. It is centrifuged to separate thin stillage from wet grains. Thin stillage contains 5-10% solids. To concentrate solids of thin stillage, it requires evaporation of large amounts of water and maintenance of evaporators. Evaporator maintenance requires excess evaporator capacity at the facility, increasing capital expenses, requiring plant slowdowns or shut downs and results in revenue losses. Membrane filtration is one method that could lead to improved value of thin stillage and may offer an alternative to evaporation. Fractionation of thin stillage using ultrafiltration was conducted to evaluate membranes as an alternative to evaporators in the ethanol industry. Two regenerated cellulose membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 10 and 100 kDa were evaluated. Total solids (suspended and soluble) contents recovered through membrane separation process were similar to those from commercial evaporators. Permeate flux decline of thin stillage using a resistance in series model was determined. Each of the four components of total resistance was evaluated experimentally. Effects of operating variables such as transmembrane pressure and temperature on permeate flux rate and resistances were determined and optimum conditions for maximum flux rates were evaluated. Model equations were developed to evaluate the resistance components that are responsible for fouling and to predict total flux decline with respect to time. Modeling results were in agreement with experimental results (R(2) > 0.98).

  20. Characterization of plant-derived carbon and phosphorus in lakes by sequential fractionation and NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although debris from aquatic macrophytes is one of the most important endogenous sources of organic matter (OM) and nutrients in lakes, its biogeochemical cycling and contribution to internal load of nutrients in eutrophic lakes are still poorly understood. In this study, sequential fractionation by...

  1. Using Fractionalization Indexes: Deriving Methodological Principles for Growth Studies from Time Series Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedderke, Johannes; Luiz, John; de Kadt, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    Recent cross-country growth studies have found that ethnolinguistic fractionalization is an important explanatory variable of long-run growth performance. This paper highlights some limitations of cross-country studies by focusing on the time series evidence for South Africa. In presenting variation over time in a number of social dimensions, this…

  2. A class of traveling wave solutions for space-time fractional biological population model in mathematical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Ghazala; Batool, Fiza

    2017-05-01

    The (G'/G) -expansion method is utilized for a reliable treatment of space-time fractional biological population model. The method has been applied in the sense of the Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. Three classes of exact traveling wave solutions, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational solutions of the associated equation are characterized with some free parameters. A generalized fractional complex transform is applied to convert the fractional equations to ordinary differential equations which subsequently resulted in number of exact solutions. It should be mentioned that the (G'/G) -expansion method is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order whose balancing number is a negative integer.

  3. A class of traveling wave solutions for space-time fractional biological population model in mathematical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Ghazala; Batool, Fiza

    2017-10-01

    The (G'/G)-expansion method is utilized for a reliable treatment of space-time fractional biological population model. The method has been applied in the sense of the Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. Three classes of exact traveling wave solutions, hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational solutions of the associated equation are characterized with some free parameters. A generalized fractional complex transform is applied to convert the fractional equations to ordinary differential equations which subsequently resulted in number of exact solutions. It should be mentioned that the (G'/G)-expansion method is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of fractional order whose balancing number is a negative integer.

  4. Tcp and NTCP radiobiological models: conventional and hypo fractionated treatments in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo V, A.; Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Resendiz G, G.; Posadas V, A. [Hospital Angeles Lomas, Av. Vialidad de la Barranca s/n, Col. Valle de las Palmas, 52763 Huixquilucan de Degallado, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mitsoura, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan, Esq. Jesus Carranza s/n, Col. Moderna de la Cruz, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez L, A.; Flores C, J. M., E-mail: armando.astudillo@inin.gob.mx [Hospital Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 Tlalpan, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The hypo and conventional fractionated schedules performance were compared in terms of the tumor control and the normal tissue complications. From the records of ten patients, treated for adenocarcinoma and without mastectomy, the dose-volume histogram was used. Using radiobiological models the probabilities for tumor control and normal tissue complications were calculated. For both schedules the tumor control was approximately the same. However, the damage in the normal tissue was larger in conventional fractionated schedule. This is important because patients assistance time to their fractions (15 fractions/25 fractions) can be optimized. Thus, the hypo fractionated schedule has suitable characteristics to be implemented. (Author)

  5. SU-E-J-151: Day-To-Day Variations in Fraction-Specific Motion Modeling Using Patient 4DCBCT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhou, S; Cai, W; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Cifter, F; Myronakis, M; Lewis, J [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Ionascu, D [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to quantify the interfraction reproducibility of patient-specific motion models derived from 4DCBCT acquired on the day of treatment of lung cancer stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. Methods: Motion models are derived from patient 4DCBCT images acquired daily over 3–5 fractions of treatment by 1) applying deformable image registration between each 4DCBCT image and a reference phase from that day, resulting in a set of displacement vector fields (DVFs), and 2) performing principal component analysis (PCA) on the DVFs to derive a motion model. The motion model from the first day of treatment is compared to motion models from each successive day of treatment to quantify variability in motion models generated from different days. Four SBRT patient datasets have been acquired thus far in this IRB approved study. Results: Fraction-specific motion models for each fraction and patient were derived and PCA eigenvectors and their associated eigenvalues are compared for each fraction. For the first patient dataset, the average root mean square error between the first two eigenvectors associated with the highest two eigenvalues, in four fractions was 0.1, while it was 0.25 between the last three PCA eigenvectors associated with the lowest three eigenvalues. It was found that the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of PCA motion models for each treatment fraction have variations and the first few eigenvectors are shown to be more stable across treatment fractions than others. Conclusion: Analysis of this dataset showed that the first two eigenvectors of the PCA patient-specific motion models derived from 4DCBCT were stable over the course of several treatment fractions. The third, fourth, and fifth eigenvectors had larger variations.

  6. Portfolio Selection Model with Derivative Securities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春峰; 杨建林; 蒋祥林

    2003-01-01

    Traditional portfolio theory assumes that the return rate of portfolio follows normality. However, this assumption is not true when derivative assets are incorporated. In this paper a portfolio selection model is developed based on utility function which can capture asymmetries in random variable distributions. Other realistic conditions are also considered, such as liabilities and integer decision variables. Since the resulting model is a complex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, simulated annealing algorithm is applied for its solution. A numerical example is given and sensitivity analysis is conducted for the model.

  7. A generic interference model for uplink OFDMA networks with fractional frequency reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2014-03-01

    Fractional frequency reuse (FFR) has emerged as a viable solution to coordinate and mitigate cochannel interference (CCI) in orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based wireless cellular networks. The incurred CCI in cellular networks with FFR is highly uncertain and varies as a function of various design parameters that include the user scheduling schemes, the transmit power distribution among multiple allocated subcarriers, the partitioning of the cellular region into cell-edge and cell-center zones, the allocation of spectrum within each zone, and the channel reuse factors. To this end, this paper derives a generic analytical model for uplink CCI in multicarrier OFDMA networks with FFR. The derived expressions capture several network design parameters and are applicable to any composite fading-channel models. The accuracy of the derivations is verified via Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, their usefulness is demonstrated by obtaining closed-form expressions for the Rayleigh fading-channel model and by evaluating important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity. Numerical results provide useful system design guidelines and highlight the trade-offs associated with the deployment of FFR schemes in OFDMA-based networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Exact solutions for the flow of non-Newtonian fluid with fractional derivative in an annular pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dengke; Wang, Ruihe; Yang, Heshan

    2005-08-01

    This paper deals with some unsteady unidirectional transient flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe. The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model Oldroyd-B fluid is introduced and a generalized Jeffreys model with the fractional calculus has been built. Exact solutions of some unsteady flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe are obtained by using Hankel transform and Laplace transform for fractional calculus. The following four problems have been studied: (1) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient; (2) axial Couette flow in an annulus; (3) axial Couette flow in an annulus due to a longitudinal constant shear; (4) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient and a longitudinal constant shear. The well-known solutions for Navier-Stokes fluid, as well as those corresponding to a Maxwell fluid and a second grade one, appear as limited cases of our solutions.

  9. Exact solutions for the flow of non-Newtonian fluid with fractional derivative in an annular pipe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Dengke; WANG Ruihe; YANG Heshan

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with some unsteady unidirectional transient flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe. The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model Oldroyd-B fluid is introduced and a generalized Jeffreys model with the fractional calculus has been built. Exact solutions of some unsteady flows of Oldroyd-B fluid in an annular pipe are obtained by using Hankel transform and Laplace transform for fractional calculus. The following four problems have been studied: (1) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient; (2) axial Couette flow in an annulus; (3) axial Couette flow in an annulus due to a longitudinal constant shear; (4) Poiseuille flow due to a constant pressure gradient and a longitudinal constant shear. The well-known solutions for Navier-Stokes fluid, as well as those corresponding to a Maxwell fluid and a second grade one, appear as limited cases of our solutions.

  10. Undamped Oscillations Generated by Hopf Bifurcations in Fractional-Order Recurrent Neural Networks With Caputo Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zheng, Wei Xing; Jiang, Guoping; Cao, Jinde

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a fractional-order recurrent neural network is proposed and several topics related to the dynamics of such a network are investigated, such as the stability, Hopf bifurcations, and undamped oscillations. The stability domain of the trivial steady state is completely characterized with respect to network parameters and orders of the commensurate-order neural network. Based on the stability analysis, the critical values of the fractional order are identified, where Hopf bifurcations occur and a family of oscillations bifurcate from the trivial steady state. Then, the parametric range of undamped oscillations is also estimated and the frequency and amplitude of oscillations are determined analytically and numerically for such commensurate-order networks. Meanwhile, it is shown that the incommensurate-order neural network can also exhibit a Hopf bifurcation as the network parameter passes through a critical value which can be determined exactly. The frequency and amplitude of bifurcated oscillations are determined.

  11. Animal models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, G.; Heinonen, I.; Lourenço, A. P.; Duncker, D. J.; Falcão-Pires, I.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes a clinical syndrome in which the diagnostic criteria of heart failure are not accompanied by gross disturbances of systolic function, as assessed by ejection fraction. In turn, under most circumstances, diastolic function is impaired. Although it now represents over 50 % of all patients with heart failure, the mechanisms of HFpEF remain understood, precluding effective therapy. Understanding the pathophysiology of HFpEF has be...

  12. Solid volume fraction estimation of bone:marrow replica models using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Marie-Luise; Langton, Christian M

    2016-02-01

    The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of both ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone and its exact dependence upon the material and structural properties. It has recently been proposed that ultrasound wave propagation in cancellous bone may be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays; the transit time of each ray defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. A Transit Time Spectrum (TTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing the lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface aperture of the receive ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the solid volume fraction (SVF) of simplified bone:marrow replica models may be reliably estimated from the corresponding ultrasound transit time spectrum. Transit time spectra were derived via digital deconvolution of the experimentally measured input and output ultrasonic signals, and compared to predicted TTS based on the parallel sonic ray concept, demonstrating agreement in both position and amplitude of spectral peaks. Solid volume fraction was calculated from the TTS; agreement between true (geometric calculation) with predicted (computer simulation) and experimentally-derived values were R(2)=99.9% and R(2)=97.3% respectively. It is therefore envisaged that ultrasound transit time spectroscopy (UTTS) offers the potential to reliably estimate bone mineral density and hence the established T-score parameter for clinical osteoporosis assessment.

  13. A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and Lévy-fractional Fokker–Planck equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanov, Alexander V. [ENEA National Laboratory, Centro Ricerche Frascati, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Department of Space Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Juul Rasmussen, Jens [Physics Department, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker–Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markov process with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space. The hybrid model observes the Sparre Andersen universality and defines a new universality class of SOC.

  14. Fractional Response Models - A Replication Exercise of Papke and Wooldridge (1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Oberhofer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper replicates the estimates of a fractional response model for share data reported in the seminal paper of Leslie E. Papke and Jeffrey M. Wooldridge published in the Journal of Applied Econometrics 11(6, 1996, pp.619-632. We have been able to replicate all of the reported estimation results concerning the determinants of employee participation rates in 401(k pension plans using the standard routines provided in Stata. As an alternative, we estimate a two-part model that is capable of coping with the excessive number of boundary values equalling one in the data. The estimated marginal effects are similar to those derived in the paper. A small-scale Monte Carlo simulation exercise suggests that the RESET tests proposed by Papke and Wooldridge in their robust form are useful for detecting neglected non-linearities in small samples.

  15. Modeling and Characteristics Analysis for a Buck-Boost Converter in Pseudo-Continuous Conduction Mode Based on Fractional Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent days, fractional calculus (FC) has been accepted as a novel modeling tool that can extend the descriptive power of the traditional calculus. Fractional-order descriptiveness can increase the flexibility and degrees of freedom of the model by means of fractional parameters. Based on the fact that real capacitors and inductors are “intrinsic” fractional order, fractional calculus is introduced into the modeling process to establish a fractional-order state-space averaging model of the...

  16. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  17. Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method for differential equations with local fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: dyangxiaojun@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221008 (China); Institute of Applied Mathematics, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655011 (China); Srivastava, H.M., E-mail: harimsri@math.uvic.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3R4 (Canada); He, Ji-Huan, E-mail: hejihuan@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Baleanu, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr [Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cankaya University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Space Sciences, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    In this Letter, we propose to use the Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method in order to investigate a family of local fractional differential operators on Cantor sets. Some testing examples are given to illustrate the capability of the proposed method for the heat-conduction equation on a Cantor set and the damped wave equation in fractal strings. It is seen to be a powerful tool to convert differential equations on Cantor sets from Cantorian-coordinate systems to Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate systems.

  18. The ALHAMBRA survey: accurate merger fractions derived by PDF analysis of photometrically close pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanjuan, C.; Cenarro, A. J.; Varela, J.; Viironen, K.; Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Ascaso, B.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cepa, J.; Cerviño, M.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: Our goal is to develop and test a novel methodology to compute accurate close-pair fractions with photometric redshifts. Methods: We improved the currently used methodologies to estimate the merger fraction fm from photometric redshifts by (i) using the full probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the sources in redshift space; (ii) including the variation in the luminosity of the sources with z in both the sample selection and the luminosity ratio constrain; and (iii) splitting individual PDFs into red and blue spectral templates to reliably work with colour selections. We tested the performance of our new methodology with the PDFs provided by the ALHAMBRA photometric survey. Results: The merger fractions and rates from the ALHAMBRA survey agree excellently well with those from spectroscopic work for both the general population and red and blue galaxies. With the merger rate of bright (MB ≤ -20-1.1z) galaxies evolving as (1 + z)n, the power-law index n is higher for blue galaxies (n = 2.7 ± 0.5) than for red galaxies (n = 1.3 ± 0.4), confirming previous results. Integrating the merger rate over cosmic time, we find that the average number of mergers per galaxy since z = 1 is Nmred = 0.57 ± 0.05 for red galaxies and Nmblue = 0.26 ± 0.02 for blue galaxies. Conclusions: Our new methodology statistically exploits all the available information provided by photometric redshift codes and yields accurate measurements of the merger fraction by close pairs from using photometric redshifts alone. Current and future photometric surveys will benefit from this new methodology. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) at Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The catalogues, probabilities, and figures of the ALHAMBRA close pairs detected in Sect. 5.1 are available at http://https://cloud.iaa.csic.es/alhambra/catalogues/ClosePairs

  19. Relativistic wave equations with fractional derivatives and pseudo-differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Závada, P

    2000-01-01

    The class of the free relativistic covariant equations generated by the fractional powers of the D'Alambertian operator $(\\Box ^{1/n})$ is studied. Meanwhile the equations corresponding to n=1 and 2 (Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations) are local in their nature, the multicomponent equations for arbitrary n>2 are non-local. It is shown, how the representation of generalized algebra of Pauli and Dirac matrices looks like and how these matrices are related to the algebra of SU(n) group. The corresponding representations of the Poincar\\'e group and further symmetry transformations on the obtained equations are discussed. The construction of the related Green functions is suggested.

  20. Sustainability of a public system for plasma collection, contract fractionation and plasma-derived medicinal product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.

  1. Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Mikelic, Andro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...

  2. Existence of positive solutions for fractional differential equations with Riemann-Liouville left-hand and right-hand fractional derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Zhang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining properties of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and fixed point theorems, we obtain three existence results of one positive solution and of multiple positive solutions for initial value problems with fractional differential equations.

  3. A light Z′ heterotic-string derived model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon E. Faraggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of an extra Z′ inspired from heterotic-string theory at accessible energy scales attracted considerable interest in the particle physics literature. Surprisingly, however, the construction of heterotic-string derived models that allow for an extra Z′ to remain unbroken down to low scales has proven to be very difficult. The main reason being that the U(1 symmetries that are typically discussed in the literature are either anomalous or have to be broken at a high scale to generate light neutrino masses. In this paper we use for that purpose the self-duality property under the spinor vector duality, which was discovered in free fermionic heterotic string models. The chiral massless states in the self-dual models fill complete 27 representations of E6. The anomaly free gauge symmetry in the effective low energy field theory of our string model is SU(4C×SU(2L×SU(2R×U(1ζ, where U(1ζ is the family universal U(1 symmetry that descends from E6, and is typically anomalous in other free fermionic heterotic-string models. Our model therefore allows for the existence of a low scale Z′, which is a combination of B−L, U(1ζ and T3R. The string model is free of exotic fractionally charged states in the massless spectrum. It contains exotic SO(10 singlet states that carry fractional, non-E6 charge, with respect to U(1ζ. These non-E6 string states arise in the model due to the breaking of the E6 symmetry by discrete Wilson lines. They represent a distinct signature of the string vacua. They may provide viable dark matter candidates.

  4. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28212405

  5. A simplified fractional order impedance model and parameter identification method for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxia; Xu, Jun; Cao, Binggang; Li, Xiuqing

    2017-01-01

    Identification of internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries is a useful tool to evaluate battery performance, and requires an effective model and algorithm. Based on the least square genetic algorithm, a simplified fractional order impedance model for lithium-ion batteries and the corresponding parameter identification method were developed. The simplified model was derived from the analysis of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data and the transient response of lithium-ion batteries with different states of charge. In order to identify the parameters of the model, an equivalent tracking system was established, and the method of least square genetic algorithm was applied using the time-domain test data. Experiments and computer simulations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed model and parameter identification method. Compared with a second-order resistance-capacitance (2-RC) model and recursive least squares method, small tracing voltage fluctuations were observed. The maximum battery voltage tracing error for the proposed model and parameter identification method is within 0.5%; this demonstrates the good performance of the model and the efficiency of the least square genetic algorithm to estimate the internal parameters of lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative controller for a novel electro-hydraulic servo system with iso-actuation balancing and positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Gao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at balancing and positioning of a new electro-hydraulic servo system with iso-actuation configuration, an extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative controller is proposed in this study. To meet the lightweight requirements of heavy barrel weapons with large diameters, an electro-hydraulic servo system with a three-chamber hydraulic cylinder is especially designed. In the electro-hydraulic servo system, the balance chamber of the hydraulic cylinder is used to realize active balancing of the unbalanced forces, while the driving chambers consisting of the upper and lower chambers are adopted for barrel positioning and dynamic compensation of external disturbances. Compared with conventional proportional–integral–derivative controllers, the fractional order proportional–integral–derivative possesses another two adjustable parameters by expanding integer order to arbitrary order calculus, resulting in more flexibility and stronger robustness of the control system. To better compensate for strong external disturbances and system nonlinearities, the extended state observer strategy is further introduced to the fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control system. Numerical simulation and bench test indicate that the extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative significantly outperforms proportional–integral–derivative and fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control systems with better control accuracy and higher system robustness, well demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control strategy.

  7. Mechanical Analogies of Fractional Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kai-Xin; ZHU Ke-Qin

    2009-01-01

    A Fractional element model describes a special kind of viscoelastic material.Its stress is proportional to the fractional-order derivative of strain. Physically the mechanical analogies of fractional elements can be represented by spring-dashpot fractal networks. We introduce a constitutive operator in the constitutive equations of viscoelastic materials.To derive constitutive operators for spring-dashpot fractal networks, we use Heaviside operational calculus, which provides explicit answers not otherwise obtainable simply.Then the series-parallel formulas for the constitutive operator are derived. Using these formulas, a constitutive equation of fractional element with 1/2-order derivative is obtained.Finally we find the way to derive the constitutive equations with other fractional-order derivatives and their mechanical analogies.

  8. Biofuel and Methyl Levulinate from Biomass-Derived Fractional Condensed Pyrolysis Oil and Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel J.M.; Oudenhoven, Stijn R.G.; Hu, Xun; Heeres, Hero J.; Li, Chun-Zhu; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential for the stabilization of biomass-derived pyrolysis oils by using acid-catalyzed (Amberlyst 70) reactions with alcohol (T=140–170 °C, P≈20 bar (1 bar=105 Pa)). The alcohol-stabilized oils were further upgraded by catalytic hydrotreatment (T=400

  9. Picard Successive Approximation Method for Solving Differential Equations Arising in Fractal Heat Transfer with Local Fractional Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier law of one-dimensional heat conduction equation in fractal media is investigated in this paper. An approximate solution to one-dimensional local fractional Volterra integral equation of the second kind, which is derived from the transformation of Fourier flux equation in discontinuous media, is considered. The Picard successive approximation method is applied to solve the temperature field based on the given Mittag-Leffler-type Fourier flux distribution in fractal media. The nondifferential approximate solutions are given to show the efficiency of the present method.

  10. Mittag-Leffler function for discrete fractional modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Cheng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the difference equations on discrete time scales, this paper numerically investigates one discrete fractional difference equation in the Caputo delta’s sense which has an explicit solution in form of the discrete Mittag-Leffler function. The exact numerical values of the solutions are given in comparison with the truncated Mittag-Leffler function.

  11. Modelling the Impact of Fractionation on Late Urinary Toxicity After Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorino, Claudio, E-mail: fiorino.claudio@hsr.it [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Rancati, Tiziana [Prostate Cancer Program, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Briganti, Alberto [Department of Urology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Mangili, Paola [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Di Muzio, Nadia Gisella [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Calandrino, Riccardo [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To fit urinary toxicity data of patients treated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy with the linear quadratic (LQ) model with/without introducing a time factor. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2010, 1176 patients were treated with conventional fractionation (1.8 Gy per fraction, median 70.2 Gy, n=929) or hypofractionation (2.35-2.90 Gy per fraction, n=247). Data referred to 2004-2010 (when all schemes were in use, n=563; conventional fractionation: 316; hypofractionation: 247) were fitted as a logit function of biological equivalent dose (BED), according to the LQ model with/without including a time factor γ (fixing α/β = 5 Gy). The 3-year risks of severe urethral stenosis, incontinence, and hematuria were considered as endpoints. Best-fit parameters were derived, and the resulting BEDs were taken in multivariable backward logistic models, including relevant clinical variables, considering the whole population. Results: The 3-year incidences of severe stenosis, incontinence, and hematuria were, respectively, 6.6%, 4.8%, and 3.3% in the group treated in 2004-2010. The best-fitted α/β values were 0.81 Gy and 0.74 Gy for incontinence and hematuria, respectively, with the classic LQ formula. When fixing α/β = 5 Gy, best-fit values for γ were, respectively, 0.66 Gy/d and 0.85 Gy/d. Sensitivity analyses showed reasonable values for γ (0.6-1.0 Gy/d), with comparable goodness of fit for α/β values between 3.5 and 6.5 Gy. Likelihood ratio tests showed that the fits with/without including γ were equivalent. The resulting multivariable backward logistic models in the whole population included BED, pT4, and use of antihypertensives (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72) for incontinence and BED, pT4, and year of surgery (AUC = 0.80) for hematuria. Stenosis data could not be fitted: a 4-variable model including only clinical factors (acute urinary toxicity, pT4, year of surgery, and use of antihypertensives) was suggested (AUC

  12. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  13. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    OpenAIRE

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Edgar G. Hertwich; McKone, Thomas E.; Meent, Dik van de

    2004-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the ...

  14. A proposed fractional-order Gompertz model and its application to tumour growth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Larisse; Cloot, Alain H J J; Schoombie, Schalk W; Slabbert, Jacobus P

    2015-06-01

    A fractional-order Gompertz model of orders between 0 and 2 is proposed. The main purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the ordinary or proposed fractional Gompertz model would best fit our experimental dataset. The solutions for the proposed model are obtained using fundamental concepts from fractional calculus. The closed-form equations of both the proposed model and the ordinary Gompertz model are calibrated using an experimental dataset containing tumour growth volumes of a Rhabdomyosarcoma tumour in a mouse. With regard to the proposed model, the order, within the interval mentioned, that resulted in the best fit to the data was used in a further investigation into the prediction capability of the model. This was compared to the prediction capability of the ordinary Gompertz model. The result of the investigation was that a fractional-order Gompertz model of order 0.68 produced a better fit to our experimental dataset than the well-known ordinary Gompertz model.

  15. Haptic feedback control in medical robots through fractional viscoelastic tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Moreira, Pedro; Liu, Chao; Poignet, Philippe; Zemiti, Nabil; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the design of an adaptive control system for robot-assisted surgery with haptic feedback. Through a haptic device, the surgeon teleoperates the medical instrument in free space, fixed on a remote robot or in contact. In free space, the surgeon feels the motion of the robot. In the present paper, we evaluated the performance of the controller on viscoelastic tissue, modeled by a fractional derivative equation. In addition, we propose a novel controller using an integer formalization process that is suitable for these tissue properties. The simulation results suggested that performance, in terms of force control and telepresence, became poorer when the conventional controller, which was designed for elastic target object, was applied to the viscoelastic tissues. In contrast, the results suggested that our proposed controller maintained its performance on the viscoelastic tissues.

  16. Cognitive Models: The Missing Link to Learning Fraction Multiplication and Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Belinda V.

    2008-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study aims to streamline cognitive models on fraction multiplication and division that contain the most worthwhile features of other existing models. Its exploratory nature and its approach to proof elicitation can be used to help establish its effectiveness in building students' understanding of fractions as compared to…

  17. An Investigation of Fraction Models in Early Elementary Grades: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Cooper, Susan; Gupta, Dittika; Montgomery, Mark; Mechell, Sara; Arterbury, Kristin; Moore, Sherrie; Baker, Betty Ruth; Sharp, Pat T.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect varying models have on student understanding of fractions. The study addressed the question of what students know and understand about fractional concepts through the use of discrete and continuous models. A sample of 54 students in kindergarten and 3rd grade were given an interview pretest, participated in…

  18. Conceptual Mis(understandings) of Fractions: From Area Models to Multiple Embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Clements, M. A.; Ellerton, Nerida F.

    2015-01-01

    Area-model representations seem to have been dominant in the teaching and learning of fractions, especially in primary school mathematics curricula. In this study, we investigated 40 fifth grade children's understandings of the unit fractions, 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4, represented through a variety of different models. Analyses of pre-teaching test and…

  19. [Bacterial vaginosis: efficacy of a local treatment with a gel containing a fraction derived from propinibacterium acnes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Gian B; Marotto, Maria F; Orrù, Marisa M; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; D'Alterio, Maurizio; Paoletti, Anna M

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is favored by a decreased activity of vaginal immune system. The fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes is known to activate the immune system and is used parenterally to treat respiratory and urinary infections. The employ of a fraction derived from Propionibacterium acnes locally, in the context of the vaginal immune system, is made possible by a vaginal gel in which this fraction is associated with hyaluronic acid, well-known for its moisturizing activity, and polycarbophil, capable of miming the function of cervical mucus. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether this preparation is efficacy in the treatment of vulvovaginal symptoms associated to BV. After the diagnosis of BV and the evaluation of a Visual Analogic Score >6 for vulvovaginal itch and burning, 33 women participated in this study on a voluntary basis. They were treated with a vaginal gel (Immunovag®, Depofarma, Italy) for 5 days, with one vulvovaginal application a day. The day following the last application, the subjects reported a significant reduction of vulvovaginal symptoms and a significant reduction of vulvovaginal erythema and leucorrhea. In the vaginal swab performed before the treatment, anaerobic microorganisms were positive in 82% and negative in 18% of cases; when tested the day following the end of treatment, it was positive in 25% and negative in 75% of subjects. Symptom reduction rates did not differ between the groups with positive or negative vaginal swab. The results obtained in the subjects treated with Immunovag® were similar to those obtained in a group of women with BV treated with clindamycin cream (one daily vulvovaginal application of 100 mg, for 5 days). The activation of the vaginal immune system induced by Immunovag® can antagonize the symptoms of BV and counteract the growth of vaginal anaerobic microorganisms.

  20. Fractional Dynamical Model for the Generation of ECG like Signals from Filtered Coupled Van-der Pol Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Saptarshi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an incommensurate fractional order (FO) model has been proposed to generate ECG like waveforms. Earlier investigation of ECG like waveform generation is based on two identical Van-der Pol (VdP) family of oscillators which are coupled by time delays and gains. In this paper, we suitably modify the three state equations corresponding to the nonlinear cross-product of states, time delay coupling of the two oscillators and low-pass filtering, using the concept of fractional derivatives. Our results show that a wide variety of ECG like waveforms can be simulated from the proposed generalized models, characterizing heart conditions under different physiological conditions. Such generalization of the modelling of ECG waveforms may be useful to understand the physiological process behind ECG signal generation in normal and abnormal heart conditions. Along with the proposed FO models, an optimization based approach is also presented to estimate the VdP oscillator parameters for representing a realistic ...

  1. A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and space-fractional Fokker-Planck equation

    CERN Document Server

    Milovanov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markovian process with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space.

  2. SOLVING FRACTIONAL-ORDER COMPETITIVE LOTKA-VOLTERRA MODEL BY NSFD SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ZIBAEI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce fractional-order into a model competitive Lotka- Volterra prey-predator system. We will discuss the stability analysis of this fractional system. The non-standard nite difference (NSFD scheme is implemented to study the dynamic behaviors in the fractional-order Lotka-Volterra system. Proposed non-standard numerical scheme is compared with the forward Euler and fourth order Runge-Kutta methods. Numerical results show that the NSFD approach is easy and accurate for implementing when applied to fractional-order Lotka-Volterra model.

  3. Modelling viscosity and mass fraction of bitumen - diluent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miadonye, A.; Latour, N.; Puttagunta, V.R. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    In recovery of bitumen in oil sands extraction, the reduction of the viscosity is important above and below ground. The addition of liquid diluent breaks down or weakens the intermolecular forces that create a high viscosity in bitumen. The addition of even 5% of diluent can cause a viscosity reduction in excess of 8%, thus facilitating the in situ recovery and pipeline transportation of bitumen. Knowledge of bitumen - diluent viscosity is highly important because without it, determination of upgrading processes, in situ recovery, well simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow and a variety of other engineering problems would be difficult or impossible to solve. The development of a simple correlation to predict the viscosity of binary mixtures of bitumen - diluent in any proportion is described. The developed correlation used to estimate the viscosities and mass fractions of bitumen - diluent mixtures was within acceptable limits of error. For the prediction of mixture viscosities, the developed correlation gave the best results with an overall average absolute deviation of 12% compared to those of Chironis (17%) and Cragoe (23%). Predictions of diluent mass fractions yielded a much better result with an overall average absolute deviation of 5%. The unique features of the correlation include its computational simplicity, its applicability to mixtures at temperatures other than 30 degrees C, and the fact that only the bitumen and diluent viscosities are needed to make predictions. It is the only correlation capable of predicting viscosities of mixtures, as well as diluent mass fractions required to reduce bitumen viscosity to pumping viscosities. The prediction of viscosities at 25, 60.3, and 82.6 degrees C produced excellent results, particularly at high temperatures with an average absolute deviation of below 10%. 11 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. FE FORMULATION FOR THE VISCOELASTIC BODY MODELED BY FRACTIONAL CONSTITUTIVE LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei(张卫); Nobuyuki Shimizu

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents finite element (FE) fornulation of the viscoelastic materials described by fractional constitutive law. The time-domain threedimensional constitutive equation is constructed. The FE equations are set up by treating the fractional operator as a special case of the hereditary integration. The equations are solved by numerical integration method. The numerical algorithm de veloped by the authors for Liouville-Riemann's fractional derivative was adopted to formulate FE procedures and extended to solve the more general case of the hereditary integration. The numerical examples were given to show the correctness and effectiveness of the integration algorithm.

  5. Chaotic convective behavior and stability analysis of a fractional viscoelastic fluids model in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    N'Doye, Ibrahima

    2015-05-25

    In this paper, a dynamical fractional viscoelastic fluids convection model in porous media is proposed and its chaotic behavior is studied. A preformed equilibrium points analysis indicates the conditions where chaotic dynamics can be observed, and show the existence of chaos. The behavior and stability analysis of the integer-order and the fractional commensurate and non-commensurate orders of a fractional viscoelastic fluids system, which exhibits chaos, are presented as well.

  6. Interception modeling with vegetation time series derived from Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, M. J.; Díaz-Gutiérrez, A.; González-Dugo, M. P.

    2011-11-01

    Rainfall interception by the vegetation may constitute a significant fraction in the water budget at local and watershed scales, especially in Mediterranean areas. Different approaches can be found to model locally the interception fraction, but a distributed analysis requires time series of vegetation along the watershed for the study period, which includes both type of vegetation and ground cover fraction. In heterogeneous watersheds, remote sensing is usually the only viable alternative to characterize medium to large size areas, but the high number of scenes necessary to capture the temporal variability during long periods, together with the sometimes extreme scarcity of data during the wet season, make it necessary to deal with a limited number of images and interpolate vegetation maps between consecutive dates. This work presents an interception model for heterogeneous watersheds which combines an interception continuous simulation derived from Gash model and their derivations, and a time series of vegetation cover fraction and type from Landsat TM data and vegetation inventories. A mountainous watershed in Southern Spain where a physical hydrological modelling had been previously calibrated was selected for this study. The dominant species distribution and their relevant characteristics regarding the interception process were analyzed from literature and digital cartography; the evolution of the vegetation cover fraction along the watershed during the study period (2002-2005) was produced by the application of a NDVI analysis on the available scenes of Landsat TM images. This model was further calibrated by field data collected in selected areas in the watershed.

  7. A Fractional Creep Constitutive Model for Frozen Soil in Consideration of the Strengthening and Weakening Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The triaxial creep tests of frozen silty clay mixed with sands were performed under different pressures, and the test results demonstrated that, under the low confining pressure, when the shear stress is lower than the long-term strength, the test specimen exhibits an attenuation creep because the strengthening effect is greater than the weakening effect. When the shear stress is higher than the long-term strength, the test specimen exhibits a nonattenuation creep due to the level of the strengthening and weakening effects change in different stages. As the confining pressure increases, the test specimens only exhibit an attenuation creep because of the enhancing strengthening effect. Both the hardening parameter and the damage variable were introduced to describe the strengthening and weakening effects, respectively, and a new creep constitutive model for frozen soil considering these effects was put forward based on the theory of elastoviscoplastic and the fractional derivative. Finally, the model parameters were analyzed and their determination method was also provided to reveal the trend of parameters according to the triaxial test results. The calculated results of the constitutive model show that the proposed model can describe the whole creep process of frozen soil well.

  8. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  9. The Role of the Mittag-Leffler Function in Fractional Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Rogosin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey paper illuminating the distinguished role of the Mittag-Leffler function and its generalizations in fractional analysis and fractional modeling. The content of the paper is connected to the recently published monograph by Rudolf Gorenflo, Anatoly Kilbas, Francesco Mainardi and Sergei Rogosin.

  10. Representational Flexibility and Problem-Solving Ability in Fraction and Decimal Number Addition: A Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Elia, Iliada; Panaoura, Areti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a structural model in fraction and decimal number addition, which is founded primarily on a synthesis of major theoretical approaches in the field of representations in Mathematics and also on previous research on the learning of fractions and decimals. The study was conducted among 1,701 primary…

  11. Dividing Fractions Using an Area Model: A Look at In-Service Teachers' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberg, Teruni; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports an investigation into how a group of elementary and middle school teachers collectively attempted to solve and understand a fraction division problem using an area model. Solving the word problem required that teachers determine how many two-thirds fit into three-fourths. The teachers struggled to conceptualise fraction division,…

  12. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.

  13. Quantitative comparison of lipoprotein fractions derived from human plasma and serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Lisamarie A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipoproteins are complex, globular molecules which play essential roles in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. Their implication in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, has sustained a great deal of interest in these particles. Their various functions, and their contribution to the development of atherosclerosis, are often attributed to their protein constituents, which vary greatly among the different lipoprotein classes. Recent advances in the field of mass spectrometry have provided insight into the array of proteins associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs and, even more so, with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs. Plasma and serum are the most commonly used samples for the analysis of lipoproteins. Although these lipoprotein sources are unique, it was our goal to determine whether or not their inherent differences would ultimately affect a quantitative analysis of the LDL and HDL proteomes. To this end, we isolated LDL and HDL fractions with fast protein liquid chromatography-size exclusion chromatography (FPLC-SEC from both human plasma and serum samples from the same individuals. After delipidating these samples, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis to compare the lipoprotein-associated proteins derived from both plasma and serum. Results Although the primary differences between the samples are found in fibrinogen proteins which are removed from serum, it of interest to note that, with respect to LDL-associated proteins, apolipoproteinB-100 was found at significantly higher levels in serum samples. Complement component 3 was found at significantly higher levels in serum-derived HDL fractions. Both of these proteins are known LDL- and HDL-associated proteins, respectively. Conclusion Overall, the results from our study indicate that both plasma and serum samples are equally suited for proteomic studies, and provide similar results. These findings are particularly

  14. A Verilog-A Based Fractional Frequency Synthesizer Model for Fast and Accurate Noise Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Gonzalez-Diaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new strategy to simulate fractional frequency synthesizer behavioral models with better performance and reduced simulation time. The models are described in Verilog-A with accurate phase noise predictions and they are based on a time jitter to power spectral density transformation of the principal noise sources in a synthesizer. The results of a fractional frequency synthesizer simulation is compared with state of the art Verilog-A descriptions showing a reduction of nearly 20 times. In addition, experimental results of a fractional frequency synthesizer are compared to the simulation results to validate the proposed model.

  15. Aromatization of light naphtha fractions on zeolites 1: Kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovenskaja Svetlana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing kinetic experimental data performed in laboratory integral reactors a lumping kinetic model of the "Zeoforming" process was developed. A reaction scheme of the lumped components was proposed, that was adapted to the technological requirements. The reaction rate constants and activation energies were estimated, that are valid for certain feed compositions. The model is intended for further modeling and optimization of the process.

  16. Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Bootstrap Inference in Fractional Time Series Models with Heteroskedasticity of Unknown Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, Robert

    We consider the problem of conducting estimation and inference on the parameters of univariate heteroskedastic fractionally integrated time series models. We first extend existing results in the literature, developed for conditional sum-of squares estimators in the context of parametric fractional...... time series models driven by conditionally homoskedastic shocks, to allow for conditional and unconditional heteroskedasticity both of a quite general and unknown form. Global consistency and asymptotic normality are shown to still obtain; however, the covariance matrix of the limiting distribution...... of the estimator now depends on nuisance parameters derived both from the weak dependence and heteroskedasticity present in the shocks. We then investigate classical methods of inference based on the Wald, likelihood ratio and Lagrange multiplier tests for linear hypotheses on either or both of the long and short...

  17. The rheology of hard sphere suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions: An improved differential viscosity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I

    2009-01-28

    We propose a simple and general model accounting for the dependence of the viscosity of a hard sphere suspension at arbitrary volume fractions. The model constitutes a continuum-medium description based on a recursive-differential method where correlations between the spheres are introduced through an effective volume fraction. In contrast to other differential methods, the introduction of the effective volume fraction as the integration variable implicitly considers interactions between the spheres of the same recursive stage. The final expression for the viscosity scales with this effective volume fraction, which allows constructing a master curve that contains all the experimental situations considered. The agreement of our expression for the viscosity with experiments at low- and high-shear rates and in the high-frequency limit is remarkable for all volume fractions.

  18. Classifying CT Image Data Into Material Fractions by a Scale and Rotation Invariant Edge Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, I.W.; Vos, F.M.; Truyen, R.; Post, F.H.; Van Vliet, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    A fully automated method is presented to classify 3-D CT data into material fractions. An analytical scale-invariant description relating the data value to derivatives around Gaussian blurred step edges—arch model—is applied to uniquely combine robustness to noise, global signal fluctuations, anisot

  19. Decomposition of fractional quantum Hall model states: product rule symmetries and approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomale, R.; Estienne, B.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of a product rule structure of the monomial (Slater) expansion coefficients of bosonic (fermionic) fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states derived recently, which we now extend to spin-singlet states. We show that the Haldane-Rezayi spin-singlet state can be obtained

  20. A fractal derivative model for the characterization of anomalous diffusion in magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Ye, Allen Q.; Chen, Wen; Gatto, Rodolfo G.; Colon-Perez, Luis; Mareci, Thomas H.; Magin, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    Non-Gaussian (anomalous) diffusion is wide spread in biological tissues where its effects modulate chemical reactions and membrane transport. When viewed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), anomalous diffusion is characterized by a persistent or 'long tail' behavior in the decay of the diffusion signal. Recent MRI studies have used the fractional derivative to describe diffusion dynamics in normal and post-mortem tissue by connecting the order of the derivative with changes in tissue composition, structure and complexity. In this study we consider an alternative approach by introducing fractal time and space derivatives into Fick's second law of diffusion. This provides a more natural way to link sub-voxel tissue composition with the observed MRI diffusion signal decay following the application of a diffusion-sensitive pulse sequence. Unlike previous studies using fractional order derivatives, here the fractal derivative order is directly connected to the Hausdorff fractal dimension of the diffusion trajectory. The result is a simpler, computationally faster, and more direct way to incorporate tissue complexity and microstructure into the diffusional dynamics. Furthermore, the results are readily expressed in terms of spectral entropy, which provides a quantitative measure of the overall complexity of the heterogeneous and multi-scale structure of biological tissues. As an example, we apply this new model for the characterization of diffusion in fixed samples of the mouse brain. These results are compared with those obtained using the mono-exponential, the stretched exponential, the fractional derivative, and the diffusion kurtosis models. Overall, we find that the order of the fractal time derivative, the diffusion coefficient, and the spectral entropy are potential biomarkers to differentiate between the microstructure of white and gray matter. In addition, we note that the fractal derivative model has practical advantages over the existing models from the

  1. Applicability of 3-Dimensional Quantitative Coronary Angiography-Derived Computed Fractional Flow Reserve for Intermediate Coronary Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Kyoichiro; Otsuka, Masato; Kataoka, Shohei; Kahata, Mitsuru; Kumagai, Asako; Inoue, Koji; Koganei, Hiroshi; Enta, Kenji; Ishii, Yasuhiro

    2017-06-23

    Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a newly developed image-based index for estimating fractional flow reserve (FFR).Methods and Results:We analyzed 151 coronary arteries with intermediate stenosis in 142 patients undergoing wire-based FFR measurement using dedicated software. Predefined contrast flow QFR, which was derived from 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3-D QCA) withThrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) frame counts, was compared with FFR as a reference. QFR had good correlation (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and agreement (mean difference: 0.01±0.05) with FFR. After applying the FFR cut-off ≤0.8, the overall accuracy rate of QFR ≤0.8 was 88.0%. On receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve was 0.93 for QFR. In contrast, 3-D QCA-derived anatomical indices had insufficient correlation with FFR and diagnostic performance compared with QFR. QFR had good correlation and agreement with FFR and high diagnostic performance in the evaluation of intermediate coronary stenosis, suggesting that QFR may be an alternative tool for estimating myocardial ischemia.

  2. A comparative study of Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives to the convective flow of a generalized Casson fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Ali, Farhad; Saqib, Muhammad; Khan, Ilyas; Jan, Syed Aftab Alam

    2017-01-01

    Based on exponential kernel, Caputo and Fabrizio suggested a new definition for fractional order derivatives in 2015. Recently, in 2016, Atangana and Baleanu proposed another version of fractional derivatives, which uses the generalized Mittag-Leffler function as the non-singular and non-local kernel. Moreover, the Atangana-Balaenu (AB) version has all properties of fractional derivatives. Therefore, this articles aims to use the AB fractional derivative idea for the first time to study the free convection flow of a generalized Casson fluid due to the combined gradients of temperature and concentration. Hence, heat and mass transfer are considered together. For the sake of comparison, this problem is also solved via the Caputo-Fabrizio (CF) derivatives technique. Exact solutions in both cases (AB and CF derivatives) are obtained via the Laplace transform and compared graphically as well as in tabular form. In the case of AB approach, the influence of pertinent parameters on velocity field is displayed in plots and discussed. It is found that for unit time, the velocities obtained via AB and CF derivatives are identical. Velocities for time less than 1 show little variation and, for time higher than 1, this variation increases.

  3. Towards a consistent model of the Galaxy; 2, Derivation of the model

    CERN Document Server

    Méra, D; Schäffer, R

    1998-01-01

    We use the calculations derived in a previous paper (Méra, Chabrier and Schaeffer, 1997), based on observational constraints arising from star counts, microlensing experiments and kinematic properties, to determine the amount of dark matter under the form of stellar and sub-stellar objects in the different parts of the Galaxy. This yields the derivation of different mass-models for the Galaxy. In the light of all the afore-mentioned constraints, we discuss two models that correspond to different conclusions about the nature and the location of the Galactic dark matter. In the first model there is a small amount of dark matter in the disk, and a large fraction of the dark matter in the halo is still undetected and likely to be non-baryonic. The second, less conventional model is consistent with entirely, or at least predominantly baryonic dark matter, under the form of brown dwarfs in the disk and white dwarfs in the dark halo. We derive observational predictions for these two models which should be verifiabl...

  4. Numerical Solution of Fractional Diffusion Equation Model for Freezing in Finite Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Damor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change problems play very important role in engineering sciences including casting of nuclear waste materials, vivo freezing of biological tissues, solar collectors and so forth. In present paper, we propose fractional diffusion equation model for alloy solidification. A transient heat transfer analysis is carried out to study the anomalous diffusion. Finite difference method is used to solve the fractional differential equation model. The temperature profiles, the motion of interface, and interface velocity have been evaluated for space fractional diffusion equation.

  5. Rapid fingerprinting of white wine oxidizable fraction and classification of white wines using disposable screen printed sensors and derivative voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugliano, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the application of disposable screen printed carbon paste sensors for the analysis of the main white wine oxidizable compounds as well as for the rapid fingerprinting and classification of white wines from different grape varieties. The response of individual white wine antioxidants such as flavanols, flavanol derivatives, phenolic acids, SO2 and ascorbic acid was first assessed in model wine. Analysis of commercial white wines gave voltammograms featuring two unresolved anodic waves corresponding to the oxidation of different compounds, mostly phenolic antioxidants. Calculation of the first order derivative of measured current vs. applied potential allowed resolving these two waves, highlighting the occurrence of several electrode processes corresponding to the oxidation of individual wine components. Through the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), derivative voltammograms were used to discriminate among wines of different varieties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fractionalization of the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n using Riemann-Liouville derivative. Applications to mathematical finance and stochastic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumarie, Guy [Department of Mathematics, University of Quebec at Montreal, P.O. Box 8888, Downtown Station, Montreal, QC, H3C 3P8 (Canada)]. E-mail: jumarie.guy@uqam.ca

    2006-06-15

    The (complex-valued) Brownian motion of order n is defined as the limit of a random walk on the complex roots of the unity. Real-valued fractional noises are obtained as fractional derivatives of the Gaussian white noise (or order two). Here one combines these two approaches and one considers the new class of fractional noises obtained as fractional derivative of the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n. The key of the approach is the relation between differential and fractional differential provided by the fractional Taylor's series of analytic function f(z+h)=E{sub {alpha}}(h{sup {alpha}}D{sub z}{sup {alpha}}).f(z), where E{sub {alpha}} is the Mittag-Leffler function on the one hand, and the generalized Maruyama's notation, on the other hand. Some questions are revisited such as the definition of fractional Brownian motion as integral w.r.t. (dt){sup {alpha}}, and the exponential growth equation driven by fractional Brownian motion, to which a new solution is proposed. As a first illustrative example of application, in mathematical finance, one proposes a new approach to the optimal management of a stochastic portfolio of fractional order via the Lagrange variational technique applied to the state moment dynamical equations. In the second example, one deals with non-random Lagrangian mechanics of fractional order. The last example proposes a new approach to fractional stochastic mechanics, and the solution so obtained gives rise to the question as to whether physical systems would not have their own internal random times.

  7. Pricing Model of Multiattribute Derivatives Based on Mixed Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By Analyzing the behavior and character of derivative security, the authorsestablished a pricing model of multiattribute derivative security whose underlying asset pricingprocess is a mixed process, and obtained a new model for option pricing of multiattribute derivatives based on mixed process, and improved some original results.

  8. A review of inhalability fraction models: discussion and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millage, Kyle K; Bergman, Josh; Asgharian, Bahman; McClellan, Gene

    2010-02-01

    The first step in mathematically modeling the mechanics of respiratory deposition of particles is to estimate the ability of a particle to enter the head, either through the mouth or nose. Models of the biological effects from inhaled particles are commonly, albeit incorrectly, simplified by making an assumption that the only particles of concern are those that can readily penetrate to the pulmonary region of the lung: typically particles less than 5microm in aerodynamic diameter. Inhalability for particles of this size is effectively 100%, so there is little need to develop a mathematical representation of the phenomenon. However, chemical irritants, biological agents, or radioactive material, in the form of large particles or droplets, can cause adverse biological responses by simply being taken into the head and depositing in the extrathoracic area. As a result, it is important to understand the inhalability of both small and large particles. The concept of particle inhalability received little consideration until the 1970s; since then it has been the subject of many experiments with a fairly wide disparity of results, in part due to the variety of dependent variables and the difficulty in adequate measurement methods. This article describes the currently utilized models of inhalability, recommends specific methods for implementing inhalability into mathematical models of respiratory deposition, and identifies outstanding issues and limitations. In this article, we describe inhalability as it applies to particulate matter and liquid droplets; modeling the inhalability of fibers is a work in progress and is not addressed.

  9. Numerical Solutions of Fractional Boussinesq Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi

    2007-01-01

    Based upon the Adomian decomposition method,a scheme is developed to obtain numerical solutions of a fractional Boussinesq equation with initial condition,which is introduced by replacing some order time and space derivatives by fractional derivatives.The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense.So the traditional Adomian decomposition method for differential equations of integer order is directly extended to derive explicit and numerical solutions of the fractional differential equations.The solutions of our model equation are calculated in the form of convergent series with easily computable components.

  10. Analyzing signal attenuation in PFG anomalous diffusion via a modified Gaussian phase distribution approximation based on fractal derivative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoxing

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) technique is a noninvasive tool, and has been increasingly employed to study anomalous diffusions in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion is much more complicated than normal diffusion. In this paper, a fractal derivative model based modified Gaussian phase distribution method is proposed to describe PFG anomalous diffusion. By using the phase distribution obtained from the effective phase shift diffusion method based on fractal derivatives, and employing some of the traditional Gaussian phase distribution approximation techniques, a general signal attenuation expression for free fractional diffusion is derived. This expression describes a stretched exponential function based attenuation, which is distinct from both the exponential attenuation for normal diffusion obtained from conventional Gaussian phase distribution approximation, and the Mittag-Leffler function based attenuation for anomalous diffusion obtained from fractional derivative. The obtained signal attenuation expression can analyze the finite gradient pulse width (FGPW) effect. Additionally, it can generally be applied to all three types of PFG fractional diffusions classified based on time derivative order α and space derivative order β. These three types of fractional diffusions include time-fractional diffusion with { 0 reported results based on effective phase shift diffusion equation method and instantaneous signal attenuation method. This method provides a new, convenient approximation formalism for analyzing PFG anomalous diffusion experiments. The expression that can simultaneously interpret general fractional diffusion and FGPW effect could be especially important in PFG MRI, where the narrow gradient pulse limit cannot be satisfied.

  11. Magnetization direction in the Heisenberg model exhibiting fractional Brownian motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1993-01-01

    The temporal magnetization-direction fluctuations in the three-dimensional classical ferromagnetic Heisenberg model have been generated by Monte Carlo simulation and analyzed by the rescaled-range method to yield the Hurst exponent H. A value of H congruent-to 1 has been found to apply...

  12. Generalized Fractional Master Equation for Self-Similar Stochastic Processes Modelling Anomalous Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Pagnini

    2012-01-01

    inhomogeneity and nonstationarity properties of the medium. For instance, when this superposition is applied to the time-fractional diffusion process, the resulting Master Equation emerges to be the governing equation of the Erdélyi-Kober fractional diffusion, that describes the evolution of the marginal distribution of the so-called generalized grey Brownian motion. This motion is a parametric class of stochastic processes that provides models for both fast and slow anomalous diffusion: it is made up of self-similar processes with stationary increments and depends on two real parameters. The class includes the fractional Brownian motion, the time-fractional diffusion stochastic processes, and the standard Brownian motion. In this framework, the M-Wright function (known also as Mainardi function emerges as a natural generalization of the Gaussian distribution, recovering the same key role of the Gaussian density for the standard and the fractional Brownian motion.

  13. Influence of vegetation structure on lidar-derived canopy height and fractional cover in forested riparian buffers during leaf-off and leaf-on conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available.

  14. A set for relational reasoning: Facilitation of algebraic modeling by a fraction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has identified correlations between early mastery of fractions and later math achievement, especially in algebra. However, causal connections between aspects of reasoning with fractions and improved algebra performance have yet to be established. The current study investigated whether relational reasoning with fractions facilitates subsequent algebraic reasoning using both pre-algebra students and adult college students. Participants were first given either a relational reasoning fractions task or a fraction algebra procedures control task. Then, all participants solved word problems and constructed algebraic equations in either multiplication or division format. The word problems and the equation construction tasks involved simple multiplicative comparison statements such as "There are 4 times as many students as teachers in a classroom." Performance on the algebraic equation construction task was enhanced for participants who had previously completed the relational fractions task compared with those who completed the fraction algebra procedures task. This finding suggests that relational reasoning with fractions can establish a relational set that promotes students' tendency to model relations using algebraic expressions.

  15. A mixed SOC-turbulence model for nonlocal transport and Lévy-fractional Fokker–Planck equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Milovanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomena of nonlocal transport in magnetically confined plasma are theoretically analyzed. A hybrid model is proposed, which brings together the notion of inverse energy cascade, typical of drift-wave- and two-dimensional fluid turbulence, and the ideas of avalanching behavior, associable...... with self-organized critical (SOC) behavior. Using statistical arguments, it is shown that an amplification mechanism is needed to introduce nonlocality into dynamics. We obtain a consistent derivation of nonlocal Fokker-Planck equation with space-fractional derivatives from a stochastic Markov process...... with the transition probabilities defined in reciprocal space. The hybrid model observes the Sparre Andersen universality and defines a new universality class of SOC. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Limiting Approach to Generalized Gamma Bessel Model via Fractional Calculus and Its Applications in Various Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicy Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The essentials of fractional calculus according to different approaches that can be useful for our applications in the theory of probability and stochastic processes are established. In addition to this, from this fractional integral, one can list out almost all of the extended densities for the pathway parameter q < 1 and q → 1. Here, we bring out the idea of thicker- or thinner-tailed models associated with a gamma-type distribution as a limiting case of the pathway operator. Applications of this extended gamma model in statistical mechanics, input-output models, solar spectral irradiance modeling, etc., are established.

  17. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Reverse Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in Rats by Decreasing Fibrosis and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gallet, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is unclear. Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs are heart-derived cell products with antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study tested whether rat CDCs were sufficient to decrease manifestations of HFpEF in hypertensive rats. Starting at 7 weeks of age, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet for 6 to 7 weeks and randomized to receive intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl rats fed normal chow served as controls. High-salt rats developed hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction, without impairment of ejection fraction. Four weeks after treatment, diastolic dysfunction resolved in CDC-treated rats but not in placebo. The improved LV relaxation was associated with lower LV end-diastolic pressure, decreased lung congestion, and enhanced survival in CDC-treated rats. Histology and echocardiography revealed no decrease in cardiac hypertrophy after CDC treatment, consistent with the finding of sustained, equally-elevated blood pressure in CDC- and placebo-treated rats. Nevertheless, CDC treatment decreased LV fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. Serum inflammatory cytokines were likewise decreased after CDC treatment. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that CDCs reversed changes in numerous transcripts associated with HFpEF, including many involved in inflammation and/or fibrosis. These studies suggest that CDCs normalized LV relaxation and LV diastolic pressure while improving survival in a rat model of HFpEF. The benefits of CDCs occurred despite persistent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. By selectively reversing inflammation and fibrosis, CDCs may be beneficial in the treatment of HFpEF.

  18. Asymptotical stability analysis of linear fractional differential systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-pin; ZHAO Zhen-gang

    2009-01-01

    It has been recently found that many models were established with the aid of fractional derivatives, such as viscoelastic systems, colored noise, electrode-electrolyte polarization, dielectric polarization, boundary layer effects in ducts,electromagnetic waves, quantitative finance, quantum evolution of complex systems, and fractional kinetics. In this paper, the asymptotical stability of higher-dimensional linear fractional differential systems with the Riemann-Liouville fractional order and Caputo fractional order were studied. The asymptotical stability theorems were also derived.

  19. A NEW FRACTIONAL MODEL OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM, BY USING GENERALIZED DIFFERENTIAL TRANSFORM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASHEM SABERI NAJAFI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalized differential transform method (GDTM is a powerful method to solve the fractional differential equations. In this paper, a new fractional model for systems with single degree of freedom (SDOF is presented, by using the GDTM. The advantage of this method compared with some other numerical methods has been shown. The analysis of new approximations, damping and acceleration of systems are also described. Finally, by reducing damping and analysis of the errors, in one of the fractional cases, we have shown that in addition to having a suitable solution for the displacement close to the exact one, the system enjoys acceleration once crossing the equilibrium point.

  20. Fractional supersymmetric Liouville theory and the multi-cut matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Irie, Hirotaka

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the non-critical version of the k-fractional superstring theory can be described with the k-cut critical points of the matrix models. In particular we show that, from the spectrum structure of fractional super-Liouville theory, (p,q) minimal fractional superstrings live in the Z_k-symmetry breaking critical points of the k-cut two-matrix models, and that the operator contents and string susceptibility coincide in both sides. By using this correspondence, we also propose the set of primary operators of the fractional superconformal ghost system which consistently gives the correct gravitational scaling critical exponents of the on-shell vertex operators.

  1. Fractional supersymmetric Liouville theory and the multi-cut matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Hirotaka

    2009-10-01

    We point out that the non-critical version of the k-fractional superstring theory can be described by k-cut critical points of the matrix models. In particular, in comparison with the spectrum structure of fractional super-Liouville theory, we show that (p,q) minimal fractional superstring theories appear in the Z-symmetry breaking critical points of the k-cut two-matrix models and the operator contents and string susceptibility coincide on both sides. By using this correspondence, we also propose a set of primary operators of the fractional superconformal ghost system which consistently produces the correct gravitational scaling critical exponents of the on-shell vertex operators.

  2. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi Ifeoma Chinwude; Kulkarni Roshan; Joshi Swati; Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Emeje Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein. Methods: Chloroform portion of P. niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29. Fractions with IC50 Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active (IC50 Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P. niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside palmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  3. A New Empirical Model for Estimation of sp3 Fraction in Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hai-Yang; WANG Li-Wu; JIANG Hui; HUANG Ning-Kang

    2007-01-01

    A new empirical model to estimate the content of sp3 in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films is presented, based on the conventional Raman spectra excited by 488nm or 514nm visible light for different carbons. It is found that bandwidth of the G peak is related to the sp3 fraction. A wider bandwidth of the G peak shows a higher sp3 fraction in DLC films.

  4. Cure fraction estimation from the mixture cure models for grouped survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C; Cronin, Kathleen A; Feuer, Eric J

    2004-06-15

    Mixture cure models are usually used to model failure time data with long-term survivors. These models have been applied to grouped survival data. The models provide simultaneous estimates of the proportion of the patients cured from disease and the distribution of the survival times for uncured patients (latency distribution). However, a crucial issue with mixture cure models is the identifiability of the cure fraction and parameters of kernel distribution. Cure fraction estimates can be quite sensitive to the choice of latency distributions and length of follow-up time. In this paper, sensitivity of parameter estimates under semi-parametric model and several most commonly used parametric models, namely lognormal, loglogistic, Weibull and generalized Gamma distributions, is explored. The cure fraction estimates from the model with generalized Gamma distribution is found to be quite robust. A simulation study was carried out to examine the effect of follow-up time and latency distribution specification on cure fraction estimation. The cure models with generalized Gamma latency distribution are applied to the population-based survival data for several cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. Several cautions on the general use of cure model are advised.

  5. Deriving minimal models for resource utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brinke, Steven; Bockisch, Christoph; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet; Katz, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    We show how compact Resource Utilization Models (RUMs) can be extracted from concrete overly-detailed models of systems or sub-systems in order to model energy-aware software. Using the Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) approach, along with model-checking tools, abstract models

  6. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R(2) = 0.939-0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R(2) = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fractional-Flow Based Compressible Multiphase Flow Model with Newly Proposed Constitutive Retentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C.; Yeh, G.

    2011-12-01

    In this investigation, newly proposed constitutive retentions are implemented to a fractional-flow based compressible multiphase-phase flow model. With the new model, a compressible three-phase (water, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and air) flow problem is simulated. In fractional-flow approaches, the three mass balance equations written in terms of three phase pressures are transformed to those in terms of the total pressure, saturation of water, and saturation of total liquid. These three governing equations are discretized with the Galerkin finite element method (FEM). The resulted matrix equation is solved with Bi-CGSTAB. Several numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results show the presented fractional-flow based multiphase flow model is feasible and yields physically realistic solutions for compressible three-phase flow problems in porous media.

  8. Fractional calculus in bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2004-01-01

    Fractional calculus (integral and differential operations of noninteger order) is not often used to model biological systems. Although the basic mathematical ideas were developed long ago by the mathematicians Leibniz (1695), Liouville (1834), Riemann (1892), and others and brought to the attention of the engineering world by Oliver Heaviside in the 1890s, it was not until 1974 that the first book on the topic was published by Oldham and Spanier. Recent monographs and symposia proceedings have highlighted the application of fractional calculus in physics, continuum mechanics, signal processing, and electromagnetics, but with few examples of applications in bioengineering. This is surprising because the methods of fractional calculus, when defined as a Laplace or Fourier convolution product, are suitable for solving many problems in biomedical research. For example, early studies by Cole (1933) and Hodgkin (1946) of the electrical properties of nerve cell membranes and the propagation of electrical signals are well characterized by differential equations of fractional order. The solution involves a generalization of the exponential function to the Mittag-Leffler function, which provides a better fit to the observed cell membrane data. A parallel application of fractional derivatives to viscoelastic materials establishes, in a natural way, hereditary integrals and the power law (Nutting/Scott Blair) stress-strain relationship for modeling biomaterials. In this review, I will introduce the idea of fractional operations by following the original approach of Heaviside, demonstrate the basic operations of fractional calculus on well-behaved functions (step, ramp, pulse, sinusoid) of engineering interest, and give specific examples from electrochemistry, physics, bioengineering, and biophysics. The fractional derivative accurately describes natural phenomena that occur in such common engineering problems as heat transfer, electrode/electrolyte behavior, and sub

  9. Finite Time Control for Fractional Order Nonlinear Hydroturbine Governing System via Frequency Distributed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the application of frequency distributed model for finite time control of a fractional order nonlinear hydroturbine governing system (HGS. Firstly, the mathematical model of HGS with external random disturbances is introduced. Secondly, a novel terminal sliding surface is proposed and its stability to origin is proved based on the frequency distributed model and Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, based on finite time stability and sliding mode control theory, a robust control law to ensure the occurrence of the sliding motion in a finite time is designed for stabilization of the fractional order HGS. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  10. A fractional model for time-variant non-Newtonian flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work applies a fractional flow model to describe a time-variant behavior of non-Newtonian substances. Specifically, we model the physical mechanism underlying the thixotropic and anti-thixotropic phenomena of non-Newtonian flow. This study investigates the behaviors of cellulose suspensions and SMS pastes under constant shear rate. The results imply that the presented model with only two parameters is adequate to fit experimental data. Moreover, the parameter of fractional order is an appropriate index to characterize the state of given substances. Its value indicates the extent of thixotropy and anti-thixotropy with positive and negative order respectively.

  11. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

    2004-01-06

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.

  12. Fractional randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  13. Forecasting daily political opinion polls using the fractionally cointegrated VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Shibaev, Sergei S.

    trend from the model follows the vote share of the UKIP very closely, and we thus interpret it as a measure of Euro-skepticism in public opinion rather than an indicator of the more traditional left-right political spectrum. In terms of prediction of vote shares in the election, forecasts generated......We examine forecasting performance of the recent fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive (FCVAR) model. We use daily polling data of political support in the United Kingdom for 2010-2015 and compare with popular competing models at several forecast horizons. Our findings show that the four...... variants of the FCVAR model considered are generally ranked as the top four models in terms of forecast accuracy, and the FCVAR model significantly outperforms both univariate fractional models and the standard cointegrated VAR (CVAR) model at all forecast horizons. The relative forecast improvement...

  14. Unique Solution of a Coupled Fractional Differential System Involving Integral Boundary Conditions from Economic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution for the fractional differential system involving the Riemann-Stieltjes integral boundary conditions , , , , , and , where , , and and are the standard Riemann-Liouville derivatives, and are functions of bounded variation, and and denote the Riemann-Stieltjes integral. Our results are based on a generalized fixed point theorem for weakly contractive mappings in partially ordered sets.

  15. Asymptotics for the Conditional-Sum-of-Squares Estimator in Multivariate Fractional Time-Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørregård Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This article proves consistency and asymptotic normality for the conditional-sum-of-squares estimator, which is equivalent to the conditional maximum likelihood estimator, in multivariate fractional time-series models. The model is parametric and quite general and, in particular, encompasses...

  16. Asymptotics for the conditional-sum-of-squares estimator in multivariate fractional time series models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørregård Nielsen, Morten

    This paper proves consistency and asymptotic normality for the conditional-sum-of-squares estimator, which is equivalent to the conditional maximum likelihood estimator, in multivariate fractional time series models. The model is parametric and quite general, and, in particular, encompasses...

  17. Comparison of Different Fractionation Schedules Toward a Single Fraction in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Using 3-Dimensional Radiobiological Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavroidis, Panayiotis, E-mail: mavroidis@uthscsa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Milickovic, Natasa [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Cruz, Wilbert F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Tselis, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Karabis, Andreas [Pi-Medical Ltd., Athens (Greece); Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Baltas, Dimos [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Strahlenklinik, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was the investigation of different fractionation schemes to estimate their clinical impact. For this purpose, widely applied radiobiological models and dosimetric measures were used to associate their results with clinical findings. Methods and Materials: The dose distributions of 12 clinical high-dose-rate brachytherapy implants for prostate were evaluated in relation to different fractionation schemes. The fractionation schemes compared were: (1) 1 fraction of 20 Gy; (2) 2 fractions of 14 Gy; (3) 3 fractions of 11 Gy; and (4) 4 fractions of 9.5 Gy. The clinical effectiveness of the different fractionation schemes was estimated through the complication-free tumor control probability (P{sub +}), the biologically effective uniform dose, and the generalized equivalent uniform dose index. Results: For the different fractionation schemes, the tumor control probabilities were 98.5% in 1 × 20 Gy, 98.6% in 2 × 14 Gy, 97.5% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 97.8% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. The corresponding P{sub +} values were 88.8% in 1 × 20 Gy, 83.9% in 2 × 14 Gy, 86.0% in 3 × 11 Gy, and 82.3% in 4 × 9.5 Gy. With use of the fractionation scheme 4 × 9.5 Gy as reference, the isoeffective schemes regarding tumor control for 1, 2, and 3 fractions were 1 × 19.68 Gy, 2 × 13.75 Gy, and 3 × 11.05 Gy. The optimum fractionation schemes for 1, 2, 3, and 4 fractions were 1 × 19.16 Gy with a P{sub +} of 91.8%, 2 × 13.2 Gy with a P{sub +} of 89.6%, 3 × 10.6 Gy with a P{sub +} of 88.4%, and 4 × 9.02 Gy with a P{sub +} of 86.9%. Conclusions: Among the fractionation schemes 1 × 20 Gy, 2 × 14 Gy, 3 × 11 Gy, and 4 × 9.5 Gy, the first scheme was more effective in terms of P{sub +}. After performance of a radiobiological optimization, it was shown that a single fraction of 19.2 to 19.7 Gy (average 19.5 Gy) should produce at least the same benefit as that given by the 4 × 9.5 Gy scheme, and it should reduce the expected total complication probability by

  18. Tuning algorithms for fractional order internal model controllers for time delay processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Cristina I.; Dutta, Abhishek; Dulf, Eva H.; Pinar, Zehra; Maxim, Anca; Ionescu, Clara M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents two tuning algorithms for fractional-order internal model control (IMC) controllers for time delay processes. The two tuning algorithms are based on two specific closed-loop control configurations: the IMC control structure and the Smith predictor structure. In the latter, the equivalency between IMC and Smith predictor control structures is used to tune a fractional-order IMC controller as the primary controller of the Smith predictor structure. Fractional-order IMC controllers are designed in both cases in order to enhance the closed-loop performance and robustness of classical integer order IMC controllers. The tuning procedures are exemplified for both single-input-single-output as well as multivariable processes, described by first-order and second-order transfer functions with time delays. Different numerical examples are provided, including a general multivariable time delay process. Integer order IMC controllers are designed in each case, as well as fractional-order IMC controllers. The simulation results show that the proposed fractional-order IMC controller ensures an increased robustness to modelling uncertainties. Experimental results are also provided, for the design of a multivariable fractional-order IMC controller in a Smith predictor structure for a quadruple-tank system.

  19. Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Versus Computed Tomography Angiography-Derived Fractional Flow Reserve Testing in Stable Patients With Intermediate-Range Coronary Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Gormsen, Lars C; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical utility of coronary computed tomography angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) are sparse. In patients with intermediate (40-70%) coronary stenosis determined by coronary computed tomography angiography, we investigated the association of replacing st...

  20. Wall slip and non-integer order derivative effects on the heat transfer flow of Maxwell fluid over an oscillating vertical plate with new definition of fractional Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Madeeha; Imran, M. A.; Raza, N.; Abdullah, M.; Aleem, Maryam

    This article is focused on natural convection of unsteady flow of generalized Maxwell fluid over an oscillating vertical flat plate with constant temperature at the boundary. The Maxwell fluid with classical derivatives, describing one dimensional flow has been generalized to non-integer order derivatives known as fractional derivative with term of buoyancy. A modern definition of fractional derivative, recently introduced by Caputo and Fabrizio has been used to formulate the considered problem. Semi analytical solutions of the dimensionless problem have been obtained by using the Laplace transform. The solutions for temperature, velocity and shear stress are obtained with numerical inversion techniques of Laplace transform namely, Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithms. At the end, graphical illustrations for temperature, velocity, Nusselt number and shear stress are plotted. We have studied especially the influence of fractional parameter on temperature, velocity and shear stress respectively. We have observed that temperature can be enhanced for increasing the fractional parameter α while velocity and shear stress can be increased by decreasing the value of fractional parameter α .

  1. Fractionations of rare earth elements in plants and their conceptive model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) and their mechanisms in soybean were studied through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Significant enrichment of middle REEs (MREEs) and heavy REEs (HREEs) was observed in plant roots and leaves respectively, with slight fractionation between light REEs (LREEs) and HREEs in stems. Moreover, the tetrad effect was observed in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations should be dominated by fixation mechanism in roots caused by cell wall absorption and phosphate precipitation, and by the combined effects of fixation mechanism and transport mechanism in aboveground parts caused by solution complexation by intrinsic organic ligands. A conceptive model was established for REE fractionations in plants based on the above studies.

  2. Analytical model and behavioral simulation approach for a ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer employing a sample-hold element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A previously unknown intrinsic nonlinearity of standard SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers is identified. A general analytical model for SigmaDelta fractional-N phased-locked loops (PLLs) that includes the effect of the nonlinearity is derived and an improvement to the synthesizer topology...... is discussed. Also, a new methodology for behavioral simulation is presented: the proposed methodology is based on an object-oriented event-driven approach and offers the possibility to perform very fast and accurate simulations, and the theoretical models developed validate the simulation results. We show...

  3. A uniform LMI formulation for tuning PID, multi-term fractional-order PID, and Tilt-Integral-Derivative (TID) for integer and fractional-order processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad

    2017-03-15

    In this paper first the Multi-term Fractional-Order PID (MFOPID) whose transfer function is equal to [Formula: see text] , where kj and αj are unknown and known real parameters respectively, is introduced. Without any loss of generality, a special form of MFOPID with transfer function kp+ki/s+kd1s+kd2s(μ) where kp, ki, kd1, and kd2 are unknown real and μ is a known positive real parameter, is considered. Similar to PID and TID, MFOPID is also linear in its parameters which makes it possible to study all of them in a same framework. Tuning the parameters of PID, TID, and MFOPID based on loop shaping using Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) is discussed. For this purpose separate LMIs for closed-loop stability (of sufficient type) and adjusting different aspects of the open-loop frequency response are developed. The proposed LMIs for stability are obtained based on the Nyquist stability theorem and can be applied to both integer and fractional-order (not necessarily commensurate) processes which are either stable or have one unstable pole. Numerical simulations show that the performance of the four-variable MFOPID can compete the trivial five-variable FOPID and often excels PID and TID.

  4. Development and analysis of some versions of the fractional-order point reactor kinetics model for a nuclear reactor with slab geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, Vishwesh A.; Nataraj, P. S. V.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we report the development and analysis of some novel versions and approximations of the fractional-order (FO) point reactor kinetics model for a nuclear reactor with slab geometry. A systematic development of the FO Inhour equation, Inverse FO point reactor kinetics model, and fractional-order versions of the constant delayed neutron rate approximation model and prompt jump approximation model is presented for the first time (for both one delayed group and six delayed groups). These models evolve from the FO point reactor kinetics model, which has been derived from the FO Neutron Telegraph Equation for the neutron transport considering the subdiffusive neutron transport. Various observations and the analysis results are reported and the corresponding justifications are addressed using the subdiffusive framework for the neutron transport. The FO Inhour equation is found out to be a pseudo-polynomial with its degree depending on the order of the fractional derivative in the FO model. The inverse FO point reactor kinetics model is derived and used to find the reactivity variation required to achieve exponential and sinusoidal power variation in the core. The situation of sudden insertion of negative reactivity is analyzed using the FO constant delayed neutron rate approximation. Use of FO model for representing the prompt jump in reactor power is advocated on the basis of subdiffusion. Comparison with the respective integer-order models is carried out for the practical data. Also, it has been shown analytically that integer-order models are a special case of FO models when the order of time-derivative is one. Development of these FO models plays a crucial role in reactor theory and operation as it is the first step towards achieving the FO control-oriented model for a nuclear reactor. The results presented here form an important step in the efforts to establish a step-by-step and systematic theory for the FO modeling of a nuclear reactor.

  5. Sudden spreading of infections in an epidemic model with a finite seed fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Takehisa

    2016-01-01

    We study a simple case of the susceptible-weakened-infected-removed model in regular random graphs in a situation where an epidemic starts from a finite fraction of initially infected nodes (seeds). Previous studies have shown that, assuming a single seed, this model exhibits a kind of discontinuous transition at a certain value of infection rate. Performing Monte Carlo simulations and evaluating approximate master equations, we find that the present model has two critical infection rates with a finite seed fraction. At the first critical rate the system shows a percolation transition of clusters composed of removed nodes, and at the second critical rate, which is larger than the first one, a giant cluster suddenly grows and the order parameter jumps even though it has been already rising. Numerical evaluation of the master equations shows that such sudden epidemic spreading does occur if the degree of the underlying network is large and the seed fraction is small.

  6. Modeling and simulation of equivalent circuits in description of biological systems - a fractional calculus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Gómez Aguilar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the fractional calculus approach, we present the Laplace analysis of an equivalent electrical circuit for a multilayered system, which includes distributed elements of the Cole model type. The Bode graphs are obtained from the numerical simulation of the corresponding transfer functions using arbitrary electrical parameters in order to illustrate the methodology. A numerical Laplace transform is used with respect to the simulation of the fractional differential equations. From the results shown in the analysis, we obtain the formula for the equivalent electrical circuit of a simple spectrum, such as that generated by a real sample of blood tissue, and the corresponding Nyquist diagrams. In addition to maintaining consistency in adjusted electrical parameters, the advantage of using fractional differential equations in the study of the impedance spectra is made clear in the analysis used to determine a compact formula for the equivalent electrical circuit, which includes the Cole model and a simple RC model as special cases.

  7. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  8. Model for computation of solar fraction in a single-slope solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A.; Johnstone, C. [Energy Systems Research Unit, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    A new model that calculates the distribution of solar radiation inside a single-slope solar still has been proposed. In this model, the solar fraction on a vertical surface is divided into beam and diffuse parts and the optical view factors of surfaces inside the still are taken into account. To validate the model, outdoor tests of a conventional solar still were conducted under different weather conditions at the University of Strathclyde. The proposed model is compared with the previous one. It is found that the beam solar fraction is affected by both the geometry of the solar still and position of the sun in the sky. In contrast, the diffuse solar fraction is only dependent on the geometry of the solar distiller. The present model exhibited a lower root mean square error than that of the previous model. It appears that splitting the solar fraction into beam and diffuse parts improves the accuracy of modelling the performance of a single-slope solar still. (author)

  9. Fractional differential equations based modeling of microbial survival and growth curves: model development and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, A; Takhar, P S; Smith, D M; Mann, J E; Brashears, M M

    2008-10-01

    A fractional differential equations (FDEs)-based theory involving 1- and 2-term equations was developed to predict the nonlinear survival and growth curves of foodborne pathogens. It is interesting to note that the solution of 1-term FDE leads to the Weibull model. Nonlinear regression (Gauss-Newton method) was performed to calculate the parameters of the 1-term and 2-term FDEs. The experimental inactivation data of Salmonella cocktail in ground turkey breast, ground turkey thigh, and pork shoulder; and cocktail of Salmonella, E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef exposed at isothermal cooking conditions of 50 to 66 degrees C were used for validation. To evaluate the performance of 2-term FDE in predicting the growth curves-growth of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and background flora in ground pork and boneless pork chops; and E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef in the temperature range of 22.2 to 4.4 degrees C were chosen. A program was written in Matlab to predict the model parameters and survival and growth curves. Two-term FDE was more successful in describing the complex shapes of microbial survival and growth curves as compared to the linear and Weibull models. Predicted curves of 2-term FDE had higher magnitudes of R(2) (0.89 to 0.99) and lower magnitudes of root mean square error (0.0182 to 0.5461) for all experimental cases in comparison to the linear and Weibull models. This model was capable of predicting the tails in survival curves, which was not possible using Weibull and linear models. The developed model can be used for other foodborne pathogens in a variety of food products to study the destruction and growth behavior.

  10. Mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium mutants of the benzene-soluble organic matter derived from air-borne particulate matter and its five fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, K; Hamada, K; Watanabe, H

    1978-01-01

    Air-borne particulate matter was collected on a filter, then extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into 5 fractions, namely acidic, basic, alipathic, polyaromatic and oxygenated fractions. The mutagenic activities of these fractions were examined with a set of Salmonella typhimurium mutants. The 6 mutants were from the TA1535 series, deep rough strains without excision repair, namely TA100 and TA98 (having a resistance-transfer factor) and the standard strain TA1535, TA1536, TA1537 and TA1538. Linear dose-response curves were obtained for the benzene-soluble organic matter, and its acidic, polyaromatic and oxygenated fractions with strain TA98 and a 9000 X g liver supernatant from both phenobarbital(PB)- and dibenz(a,h)anthracene(DBA)-treated rats. Among the 5 fractions tested, 3 fractions, namely the acidic, polyaromatic and oxygenated, played an important role in the mutagenicity of the benzene-soluble organic matter derived from air-borne particulate matter. The 9000 X g rat-liver supernatant was not required to make the acidic fraction mutagenic.

  11. Case Report: Industrial X-Ray Injury Treated With Non-Cultured Autologous Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddins, C J; Cohen, S R; Goans, R E; Wanat, R; Jenkins, M; Christensen, D M; Dainiak, N

    2016-08-01

    Local cutaneous injuries induced by ionizing radiation (IR) are difficult to treat. Many have reported local injection of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), often with additional therapies, as an effective treatment of IR-induced injury even after other local therapies have failed. The authors report a case of a locally recurrent, IR-induced wound that was treated with autologous, non-cultured SVF without other concurrent therapy. A nondestructive testing technician was exposed to 130 kVp x rays to his non-dominant right thumb on 5 October 2011. The wound healed 4 mo after initial conservative therapy with oral/topical α-tocopherol, oral pentoxifylline, naproxen sodium, low-dose oral steroids, topical steroids, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), oral antihistamines, and topical aloe vera. Remission lasted approximately 17 mo with one minor relapse in July 2012 after minimal trauma and subsequent healing. Aggressive wound breakdown during June 2013 required additional therapy with HBOT. An erythematous, annular papule developed over the following 12 mo (during which time the patient was not undergoing prescribed treatment). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) done more than 2 mo after exposure to IR revealed dose estimates of 14 ± 3 Gy and 19 ± 6 Gy from two centers using different EPR techniques. The patient underwent debridement of the 0.5 cm papular area, followed by SVF injection into and around the wound bed and throughout the thumb without complication. Eleven months post SVF injection, the patient has been essentially asymptomatic with an intact integument. These results raise the possibility of prolonged benefit from SVF therapy without the use of cytokines. Since there is currently no consensus on the use of isolated SVF therapy in chronic, local IR-induced injury, assessment of this approach in an appropriately powered, controlled trial in experimental animals with local radiation injury appears to be indicated.

  12. The effect of blood pressure on non-invasive fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Akira [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Nieman, Koen [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Departmenet of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kido, Teruhito; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Yamashita, Natsumi [Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Division of Clinical Biostatistics, Section of Cancer Prevention and Epidemiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Watanabe, Kouki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of blood pressure (BP) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) derived computational fractional flow reserve (CTA-FFR). Twenty-one patients who underwent coronary CTA and invasive FFR were retrospectively identified. Ischemia was defined as invasive FFR ≤0.80. Using a work-in-progress computational fluid dynamics algorithm, CTA-FFR was computed with BP measured before CTA, and simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg respectively. Correlation between CTA-FFR and invasive FFR was assessed using Pearson test. The repeated measuring test was used for multiple comparisons of CTA-FFR values by simulated BP inputs. Twenty-nine vessels (14 with invasive FFR ≤0.80) were assessed. The average CTA-FFR for measured BP (134 ± 20/73 ± 12 mmHg) was 0.77 ± 0.12. Correlation between CTA-FFR by measured BP and invasive FFR was good (r = 0.735, P < 0.001). For simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg, the CTA-FFR increased: 0.69 ± 0.13, 0.73 ± 0.12, 0.75 ± 0.12, 0.77 ± 0.11, 0.79 ± 0.11, and 0.81 ± 0.10 respectively (P < 0.05). Measurement of the BP just before CTA is preferred for accurate CTA-FFR simulation. BP variations in the common range slightly affect CTA-FFR. However, inaccurate BP assumptions differing from the patient-specific BP could cause misinterpretation of borderline significant lesions. (orig.)

  13. HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE SORPTION KINETICS MODELING OF CORN STOVER AND ITS FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Corn stover, a major crop-based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, is required to be at an optimum moisture content for efficient bioconversion processes. Environmental conditions surrounding corn stover, as in storage facilities, affect its moisture due to hygroscopic sorption or desorption. The measurement and modeling of sorption characteristics of corn stover and its leaf, husk, and stalk fractions are useful from utilization and storage standpoints, hence investigated in this article. A benchtop low-temperature humidity chamber provided the test environments of 20 C, 30 C, and 40 C at a constant 95% relative humidity. Measured sorption characteristics with three replications for each fraction were obtained from instantaneous sample masses and initial moisture contents. Observed sorption characteristics were fitted using exponential, Page, and Peleg models. Corn stover fractions displayed a rapid initial moisture uptake followed by a slower sorption rates and eventually becoming almost asymptotic after 25 h. Sorption characteristics of all corn stover fractions were significantly different (P < 0.0001) but not the effect of temperature (P > 0.05) on these fractions. The initial 30 min of sorption was found to be critical due to peak rates of sorption from storage, handling, and processing standpoints. The Page and Peleg models had comparable performance fitting the sorption curves (R2 = 0.995), however the exponential model (R2 = 0.91) was not found suitable because of patterned residuals. The Arrhenius type relationship (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.80) explained the temperature variation of the fitted sorption model parameters. The Peleg model fitted constants, among the sorption models studied, had the best fit (R2 = 0.93) with the Arrhenius relationship. A developed method of mass proportion, involving individual corn stover fraction dry matter ratios, predicted the whole corn stover sorption characteristics from that of its individual fractions. Sorption

  14. Memory in a fractional-order cardiomyocyte model alters properties of alternans and spontaneous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comlekoglu, T.; Weinberg, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac memory is the dependence of electrical activity on the prior history of one or more system state variables, including transmembrane potential (Vm), ionic current gating, and ion concentrations. While prior work has represented memory either phenomenologically or with biophysical detail, in this study, we consider an intermediate approach of a minimal three-variable cardiomyocyte model, modified with fractional-order dynamics, i.e., a differential equation of order between 0 and 1, to account for history-dependence. Memory is represented via both capacitive memory, due to fractional-order Vm dynamics, that arises due to non-ideal behavior of membrane capacitance; and ionic current gating memory, due to fractional-order gating variable dynamics, that arises due to gating history-dependence. We perform simulations for varying Vm and gating variable fractional-orders and pacing cycle length and measure action potential duration (APD) and incidence of alternans, loss of capture, and spontaneous activity. In the absence of ionic current gating memory, we find that capacitive memory, i.e., decreased Vm fractional-order, typically shortens APD, suppresses alternans, and decreases the minimum cycle length (MCL) for loss of capture. However, in the presence of ionic current gating memory, capacitive memory can prolong APD, promote alternans, and increase MCL. Further, we find that reduced Vm fractional order (typically less than 0.75) can drive phase 4 depolarizations that promote spontaneous activity. Collectively, our results demonstrate that memory reproduced by a fractional-order model can play a role in alternans formation and pacemaking, and in general, can greatly increase the range of electrophysiological characteristics exhibited by a minimal model.

  15. A comparative analysis of radiobiological models for cell surviving fractions at high doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andisheh, B; Edgren, M; Belkić, Dž; Mavroidis, P; Brahme, A; Lind, B K

    2013-04-01

    For many years the linear-quadratic (LQ) model has been widely used to describe the effects of total dose and dose per fraction at low-to-intermediate doses in conventional fractionated radiotherapy. Recent advances in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) have increased the interest in finding a reliable cell survival model, which will be accurate at high doses, as well. Different models have been proposed for improving descriptions of high dose survival responses, such as the Universal Survival Curve (USC), the Kavanagh-Newman (KN) and several generalizations of the LQ model, e.g. the Linear-Quadratic-Linear (LQL) model and the Pade Linear Quadratic (PLQ) model. The purpose of the present study is to compare a number of models in order to find the best option(s) which could successfully be used as a fractionation correction method in SRT. In this work, six independent experimental data sets were used: CHOAA8 (Chinese hamster fibroblast), H460 (non-small cell lung cancer, NSLC), NCI-H841 (small cell lung cancer, SCLC), CP3 and DU145 (human prostate carcinoma cell lines) and U1690 (SCLC). By detailed comparisons with these measurements, the performance of nine different radiobiological models was examined for the entire dose range, including high doses beyond the shoulder of the survival curves. Using the computed and measured cell surviving fractions, comparison of the goodness-of-fit for all the models was performed by means of the reduced χ (2)-test with a 95% confidence interval. The obtained results indicate that models with dose-independent final slopes and extrapolation numbers generally represent better choices for SRT. This is especially important at high doses where the final slope and extrapolation numbers are presently found to play a major role. The PLQ, USC and LQL models have the least number of shortcomings at all doses. The extrapolation numbers and final slopes of these models do not depend on dose. Their asymptotes

  16. Differential Isotopic Fractionation during Cr(VI) Reduction by an Aquifer-Derived Bacterium under Aerobic versus Denitrifying Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

    2012-01-27

    We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Finally, despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) cometabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε was ~2‰ aerobically and ~0.4‰ under denitrifying conditions).

  17. Coil fraction-dependent phase behaviour of a model globular protein–polymer diblock copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Carla S. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Olsen, Bradley D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of the model globular protein–polymer block copolymer mCherry-b-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) is explored across a range of polymer coil fractions from 0.21 to 0.82 to produce a phase diagram for these materials as a function of molecular composition. Overall, four types of morphologies were observed: hexagonally packed cylinders, perforated lamellae, lamellae, and disordered nanostructures. Across all coil fractions and morphologies, a lyotropic re-entrant order–disorder transition in water was observed, with disordered structures below 30 wt% and above 70 wt% and well-ordered morphologies at intermediate concentrations. Solid state samples prepared by solvent evaporation show moderately ordered structures similar to those observed in 60 wt% solutions, suggesting that bulk structures result from kinetic trapping of morphologies which appear at lower concentrations. While highly ordered cylindrical nanostructures are observed around a bioconjugate polymer volume fraction of 0.3 and well-ordered lamellae are seen near a volume fraction of 0.6, materials at lower or higher coil fractions become increasingly disordered. Notable differences between the phase behaviour of globular protein–polymer block copolymers and coil–coil diblock copolymers include the lack of spherical nanostructures at either high or low polymer coil fractions as well as shifted phase boundaries between morphologies which result in an asymmetric phase diagram.

  18. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1996-10-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  19. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Alon E.

    1997-02-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  20. Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model I illustrate how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non--Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations.

  1. A physically based framework for modeling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely sensed chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC, a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semilabile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecules. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll a and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  2. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  3. A physically-based framework for modelling the organic fractionation of sea spray aerosol from bubble film Langmuir equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Burrows

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC, a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecules. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll a and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical

  4. Fractionation of Whey Protein Isolate with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide—Process Modeling and Cost Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McAloon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2 as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI containing 20% α-LA and 55% β-LG, through selective precipitation of α-LA. Pilot-scale experiments were performed around the optimal parameter range (T = 60 to 65 °C, P = 8 to 31 MPa, C = 5 to 15% (w/w WPI to quantify the recovery rates of the individual proteins and the compositions of both fractions as a function of processing conditions. Mass balances were calculated in a process flow-sheet to design a large-scale, semi-continuous process model using SuperproDesigner® software. Total startup and production costs were estimated as a function of processing parameters, product yield and purity. Temperature, T, pressure, P, and concentration, C, showed conflicting effects on equipment costs and the individual precipitation rates of the two proteins, affecting the quantity, quality, and production cost of the fractions considerably. The highest α-LA purity, 61%, with 80% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction, was obtained at T = 60 °C, C = 5% WPI, P = 8.3 MPa, with a production cost of $8.65 per kilogram of WPI treated. The most profitable conditions resulted in 57%-pure α-LA, with 71% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction and 89% β-LG recovery in the soluble fraction, and production cost of $5.43 per kilogram of WPI treated at T = 62 °C, C = 10% WPI and P = 5.5 MPa. The two fractions are ready-to-use, new food ingredients with a pH of 6.7 and contain no residual acid or chemical contaminants.

  5. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualtayef, Mazen; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Seif, Ahmed Khaled; Matsubara, Yuhei; Aly, Ahmed M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Sambe, Alioune Nar

    2010-03-01

    A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic.

  6. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi; Ifeoma; Chinwude; Kulkarni; Roshan; Joshi; Swati; Salawu; Oluwakanyinsola; Adeola; Emeje; Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri(P.niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein.Methods:Chloroform portion of P.niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane,ethylacetate and methanol.The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29.Fractions with IC50<10μg/ml.against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity,while cytotoxicity was evaluated using THP-1 cells.Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active(IC50<10 μg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and showed no significant cytotoxicity.Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant(P<0.01) reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice,decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22% respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin(65.22%).From fraction 12,a compound was isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H,13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies.Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P.niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside pahmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  7. Bayesian bivariate generalized Lindley model for survival data with a cure fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Z; Achcar, Jorge A

    2014-11-01

    The cure fraction models have been widely used to analyze survival data in which a proportion of the individuals is not susceptible to the event of interest. In this article, we introduce a bivariate model for survival data with a cure fraction based on the three-parameter generalized Lindley distribution. The joint distribution of the survival times is obtained by using copula functions. We consider three types of copula function models, the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern (FGM), Clayton and Gumbel-Barnett copulas. The model is implemented under a Bayesian framework, where the parameter estimation is based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. To illustrate the utility of the model, we consider an application to a real data set related to an invasive cervical cancer study.

  8. Coronary CT angiography-derived fractional flow reserve correlated with invasive fractional flow reserve measurements - initial experience with a novel physician-driven algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Stefan [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim (UMM), University of Heidelberg, First Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Wang, Rui [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Schoepf, U.J.; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Spearman, James V.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Hamm, Christian W. [Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of a novel fractional flow reserve (FFR) algorithm based on coronary CT angiography (cCTA) that permits point-of-care assessment, without data transfer to core laboratories, for the evaluation of potentially ischemia-causing stenoses. To obtain CT-based FFR, anatomical coronary information and ventricular mass extracted from cCTA datasets were integrated with haemodynamic parameters. CT-based FFR was assessed for 36 coronary artery stenoses in 28 patients in a blinded fashion and compared to catheter-based FFR. Haemodynamically relevant stenoses were defined by an invasive FFR ≤0.80. Time was measured for the processing of each cCTA dataset and CT-based FFR computation. Assessment of cCTA image quality was performed using a 5-point scale. Mean total time for CT-based FFR determination was 51.9 ± 9.0 min. Per-vessel analysis for the identification of lesion-specific myocardial ischemia demonstrated good correlation (Pearson's product-moment r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the prototype CT-based FFR algorithm and invasive FFR. Subjective image quality analysis resulted in a median score of 4 (interquartile ranges, 3-4). Our initial data suggest that the CT-based FFR method for the detection of haemodynamically significant stenoses evaluated in the selected population correlates well with invasive FFR and renders time-efficient point-of-care assessment possible. (orig.)

  9. Mechanism modeling for phase fraction measurement with ultrasound attenuation in oil–water two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qian; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2017-03-01

    When measuring the phase fraction of oil–water two-phase flow with the ultrasound attenuation, the phase distribution and fraction have direct influence on the attenuation coefficient. Therefore, the ultrasound propagation at various phase fractions and distributions were investigated. Mechanism models describing phase fraction with the ultrasound attenuation coefficient were established by analyzing the interaction between ultrasound and two-phase flow by considering the scattering, absorption and diffusion effect. Experiments were performed to verify the theoretical analysis, and the test results gave good agreement with the theoretical analysis. When the dispersed phase fraction is low, the relationship between ultrasound attenuation coefficient and phase fraction is of monotonic linearity; at higher dispersed phase fraction, ultrasound attenuation coefficient presents an irregular response to the dispersed phase fraction. The presented mechanism models give reasonable explanations about the trend of ultrasound attenuation.

  10. Kinetic derivation of a Hamilton-Jacobi traffic flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Borsche, Raul; Kimathi, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic models for vehicular traffic are reviewed and considered from the point of view of deriving macroscopic equations. A derivation of the associated macroscopic traffic flow equations leads to different types of equations: in certain situations modified Aw-Rascle equations are obtained. On the other hand, for several choices of kinetic parameters new Hamilton-Jacobi type traffic equations are found. Associated microscopic models are discussed and numerical experiments are presented discussing several situations for highway traffic and comparing the different models.

  11. Dual equivalence in models with higher-order derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Nascimento, J R S; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a class of higher-order derivative models in (2,1) space-time dimensions. The models are described by a vector field, and contain a Proca-like mass term which prevents gauge invariance. We use the gauge embedding procedure to generate another class of higher-order derivative models, gauge-invariant and dual to the former class. We also show that the gauge embedding approach works appropriately when the vector field couples with fermionic matter.

  12. Cabibbo Mixing in Superstring Derived Standard--like Models

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, A E; Faraggi, Alon E.; Halyo, Edi

    1993-01-01

    We examine the problem of generation mixing in realistic superstring derived standard--like models, constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We study the possible sources of family mixing in these models . In a specific model we estimate the Cabibbo angle. We argue that a Cabibbo angle of the correct order of magnitude can be obtained in these models.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A POPULATION BALANCE MODEL TO SIMULATE FRACTIONATION OF GROUND SWITCHGRASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation; Emami, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Afzal, M [University of New Brunswick

    2011-01-01

    The population balance model represents a time-dependent formulation of mass conservation for a ground biomass that flows through a set of sieves. The model is suitable for predicting the change in size and distribution of ground biomass while taking into account the flow rate processes of particles through a grinder. This article describes the development and application of this model to a switchgrass grinding operation. The mass conservation formulation of the model contains two parameters: breakage rate and breakage ratio. A laboratory knife mill was modified to act as a batch or flow-through grinder. The ground switchgrass was analyzed over a set of six Tyler sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 mm (top sieve) to 1 mm (bottom sieve). The breakage rate was estimated from the sieving tests. For estimating the breakage ratio, each of the six fractions was further ground and sieved to 11 fractions on a set of sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 to 0.25 mm (and pan). These data formed a matrix of values for determining the breakage ratio. Using the two estimated parameters, the transient population balance model was solved numerically. Results indicated that the population balance model generally underpredicted the fractions remaining on sieves with 5.66, 4.00, and 2.83 mm apertures and overpredicted fractions remaining on sieves with 2.00, 1.41, and 1.00 mm apertures. These trends were similar for both the batch and flow-through grinder configurations. The root mean square of residuals (RSE), representing the difference between experimental and simulated mass of fractions, was 0.32 g for batch grinding and 0.1 g for flow-through grinding. The breakage rate exhibited a linear function of the logarithm of particle size, with a regression coefficient of 0.99.

  14. Using Semiotic Resources to Build Images When Teaching the Part-Whole Model of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration into the use of a combination of semiotic resources when teaching the part-whole model of fractions. The study involved a single case study of one class teacher and six students in an Australian primary classroom. Using video as the predominate research tool it was possible to describe how gesture and language…

  15. The Solution of Modified Fractional Bergman’s Minimal Blood Glucose-Insulin Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr S. Alkahtani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we use analytical techniques to solve fractional nonlinear differential equations systems that arise in Bergman’s minimal model, used to describe blood glucose and insulin metabolism, after intravenous tolerance testing. We also discuss the stability and uniqueness of the solution.

  16. Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Longère, Patrice; Dragon, A. André

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of the inelastic heat fraction in the context of microstructure supported dynamic plasticity modelling correspondence: Corresponding author. (Longere, Patrice) (Longere, Patrice) (Dragon, A. Andre) Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique et Materiaux ? Universite de Bretagne Sud ? Rue de Saint-Maude - BP 92116--> , 56321 LORIENT Cedex--> - FRANCE (Longere, Patrice)...

  17. Model Drawing Strategy for Fraction Word Problem Solving of Fourth-Grade Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Emily; Shih Dennis, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    This study used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of a model drawing strategy (MDS) intervention package on fraction comparing and ordering word problem-solving performance of three Grade 4 students. MDS is a form of cognitive strategy instruction for teaching word problem solving that includes explicit instruction…

  18. Phase equilibrium modelling of granite magma petrogenesis: B. An evaluation of the magma compositions that result from fractional crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arias, Marcos; Stevens, Gary

    2017-04-01

    with increasing crystallization, culminating in a haplogranitic melt, and is able to reproduce the compositional trends of the granites, but only if the original magmas already had the composition of the granites. Filter-pressing fractionation produces a mineral assemblage that is 1.5 times more mafic than the magma fraction from which it is derived. However, the mineral assemblages produced by crystallization of an originally pure melt phase are still too felsic to account for the bulk of the granites of the Peninsula pluton. For filter-pressing to produce the most mafic granites of the pluton, the original magmas must already contain an entrained mafic mineral assemblage and have the same composition of the granites, otherwise the modelled trends do not match the maficity (FeO + MgO) or the slope against maficity of the granites. Crystallization of the magma in filter-pressing releases a free water phase, whose amount depends on the amount of water of the original magma, and whose behaviour may be controlled by a water-saturation front. In summary, the main control in the composition of S-type granites is the amount and nature of the entrained mineral assemblage, and filter-pressing fractional crystallization can only modify slightly the compositions of the granitic bodies derived from these magmas.

  19. Silicon Carbide Derived Carbons: Experiments and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Miklos [Georgetown University, Washington DC 20057

    2011-02-28

    The main results of the computational modeling was: 1. Development of a new genealogical algorithm to generate vacancy clusters in diamond starting from monovacancies combined with energy criteria based on TBDFT energetics. The method revealed that for smaller vacancy clusters the energetically optimal shapes are compact but for larger sizes they tend to show graphitized regions. In fact smaller clusters of the size as small as 12 already show signatures of this graphitization. The modeling gives firm basis for the slit-pore modeling of porous carbon materials and explains some of their properties. 2. We discovered small vacancy clusters and their physical characteristics that can be used to spectroscopically identify them. 3. We found low barrier pathways for vacancy migration in diamond-like materials by obtaining for the first time optimized reaction pathways.

  20. Momentum Fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of proton structure functions at small $x$

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, D K; Kalita, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports analysis of momentum fractions carried by quarks and gluons in models of Proton structure functions at small $x$. First, we analyze the model proposed by Lastovicka based on self-similarity sometime back. We then make a similar analysis for a second model based on the same notion which is also free from singularity in $x$ : $0models are then compared with a recent QCD based Froissart bound compatible model of proton structure function at small $x$, suggested by Block, Durand, Ha and McKay. The results are then compared with the corresponding study in perturbative and Lattice QCD.

  1. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  2. Propagation of broadband gaussian Schell-model beams in the apertured fractional Fourier transformation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Haidan; Du, Xinyue; Chen, Linfei; Zhao, Daomu

    2011-06-01

    On the basis of the fact that a hard-edged aperture function can be expressed as finite matrices with different weighting coefficients, we obtain the analytical formula for the propagation of the broadband gaussian Schell-model (BGSM) beam through the apertured fractional Fourier transformation (AFrFT) system. It is shown by numerical examples that the intensity distribution in the plane of a small fractional order is obviously influenced by the bandwidth when the BGSM beams propagate through the AFrFT system. Further extensions are also pointed out.

  3. Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, D; Höhener, P; Hunkeler, D; 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.09.006

    2011-01-01

    Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion, and the equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different source geometries and for different boundary conditions. Model results were compared to experimental data from a one-dimensional laboratory column and a radial-symmetric field experiment, and the comparison yielded a satisfying agreement. The model results clearly illustrate the significant isotope fractionation by gas-phase diffusion under transient state conditions. This leads to an initial depletion of heavy isotopes with increasing distance from the source. The isotope evolution of the source is governed by the combined effects of isotope fractionation due to vaporization, diffusion and biodegradation. The net...

  4. POLYNOMIAL MODEL BASED FAST FRACTIONAL PIXEL SEARCH ALGORITHM FOR H.264/AVC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Yinglai; Hao Chongyang; Lai Changcai

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel fast fractional pixel search algorithm based on polynomial model.With the analysis of distribution characteristics of motion compensation error surface inside fractional pixel searching window, the matching error is fitted with parabola along horizontal and vertical direction respectively. The proposed searching strategy needs to check only 6 points rather than 16 or 24 points, which are used in the Hierarchical Fractional Pel Search algorithm (HFPS) for 1/4-pel and 1/8-pel Motion Estimation (ME). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm shows very good capability in keeping the rate distortion performance while reduces computation load to a large extent compared with HFPS algorithm.

  5. Global Existence of Weak Solutions to a Fractional Model in Magnetoelastic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ellahiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with global existence of weak solutions to a one-dimensional mathematical model describing magnetoelastic interactions. The model is described by a fractional Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization field coupled to an evolution equation for the displacement. We prove global existence by using Faedo-Galerkin/penalty method. Some commutator estimates are used to prove the convergence of nonlinear terms.

  6. Fractional Boundaries for Fluid Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Bayin, S; Krisch, J P; Bayin, Selcuk; Krisch, Jean P.

    2006-01-01

    A single Israel layer can be created when two metrics adjoin with no continuous metric derivative across the boundary. The properties of the layer depend only on the two metrics it separates. By using a fractional derivative match, a family of Israel layers can be created between the same two metrics. The family is indexed by the order of the fractional derivative. The method is applied to Tolman IV and V interiors and a Schwarzschild vacuum exterior. The method creates new ranges of modeling parameters for fluid spheres. A thin shell analysis clarifies pressure/tension in the family of boundary layers.

  7. Modeling and Characteristics Analysis for a Buck-Boost Converter in Pseudo-Continuous Conduction Mode Based on Fractional Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent days, fractional calculus (FC has been accepted as a novel modeling tool that can extend the descriptive power of the traditional calculus. Fractional-order descriptiveness can increase the flexibility and degrees of freedom of the model by means of fractional parameters. Based on the fact that real capacitors and inductors are “intrinsic” fractional order, fractional calculus is introduced into the modeling process to establish a fractional-order state-space averaging model of the Buck-Boost converter in pseudo-continuous conduction mode (PCCM. Orders of the model are considered as extra parameters, and these parameters have significant influences on the performance of the model. The inductor current, the inductor current ripple, the amplitude of the output voltage, and the transfer functions of the fractional-order model are all related to orders. The contrast simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of integer-order and fractional-order Buck-Boost converters in PCCM. Results of numerical and circuit simulations demonstrate that the proposed theoretical analysis is effective; the fractional-order model of the Buck-Boost converter in PCCM has certain theoretical and practical significance for modeling and performance analysis of other electrical or electronic equipment.

  8. Uncertainty in Observed and Modelled Cloud Fraction Over Greenland and its Impact on the Ice Sheet Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, J.; Bamber, J.

    2006-12-01

    Clouds have an important controlling influence on the radiative balance, and as a consequence ablation rates, over the Greenland ice sheet. In addition, to derive reliable estimates of surface albedo, temperature and radiative fluxes from satellite data, it is necessary to adequately identify clouds in imagery. Energy balance models (EBM) for the ice sheet have been developed that use both parameterizations for cloud cover and numerical weather prediction re-analysis data. Little is known, however, about the true cloud cover characteristics over Greenland to assess the quality of these EBM inputs. Here, we attempt to address this knowledge gap by examining cloud characteristics, as determined by three different satellites sensors: AVHRR, ATSR-2 and MODIS. The first provides a multi-decadal time series of clouds, albedo and surface temperature and is available as a homogeneous, consistent data set from 1982. AVHRR data, however, is also the most challenging to cloud clear over snow-covered terrain, due to the limited spectral capabilities of the instrument, while ATSR-2 permits identification and classification using stereo- photogrammetric techniques and MODIS has enhanced spectral sampling in the visible. We compare spatial and seasonal cloud fractions from the three sensors against each other and with synoptic coastal and automatic weather station data. We then assess the cloud fractions, and inferred patterns of accumulation, from the two most commonly used re-analysis data sets: NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40. We find poor agreement between the two re-analysis data sets. In addition, they bear little similarity to the observed cloud fractions derived from the satellite observations. This implies that they likely produce poor accumulation estimates over the ice sheet, but also poor estimates of radiation balance. Using the re-analysis data to force an EBM, without appropriate downscaling and correction for the substantial biases present, would, therefore, produce serious

  9. Determination of oxygen and nitrogen derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fractions of asphalt mixtures using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias

    2015-12-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected.

  10. Effect of Xanthone Derivatives on Animal Models of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Within certain dose ranges, xanthone derivatives 1101 and 1105 have similar effects to venlafaxine hydrochloride in the treatment of depression as suggested by behavioral despair animal models using rats and mice.

  11. A New Definition of Fractional Derivatives Based on Truncated Left-Handed Grünwald-Letnikov Formula with 0<α<1 and Median Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new definition of fractional derivatives based on truncated left-handed Grünwald-Letnikov formula with 0<α<1 and median correction. Analyzing the difficulties to choose the fractional orders and unsatisfied processing results in signal processing using fractional-order partial differential equations and related methods; we think that the nonzero values of the truncated fractional order derivatives in the smooth regions are major causes for these situations. In order to resolve the problem, the absolute values of truncated parts of the G-L formula are estimated by the median of signal values of the remainder parts, and then the truncated G-L formula is modified by replacing each of the original signal value to the differences of the signal value and the median. Since the sum of the coefficients of the G-L formula is zero, the median correction can reduce the truncated errors greatly to proximate G-L formula better. We also present some simulation results and experiments to support our theory analysis.

  12. Fractal Derivative Model for Air Permeability in Hierarchic Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air permeability in hierarchic porous media does not obey Fick's equation or its modification because fractal objects have well-defined geometric properties, which are discrete and discontinuous. We propose a theoretical model dealing with, for the first time, a seemingly complex air permeability process using fractal derivative method. The fractal derivative model has been successfully applied to explain the novel air permeability phenomenon of cocoon. The theoretical analysis was in agreement with experimental results.

  13. Frequency dependence of complex moduli of brain tissue using a fractional Zener model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohandel, M [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sivaloganathan, S [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tenti, G [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Darvish, K [Center for Applied Biomechanics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2005-06-21

    Brain tissue exhibits viscoelastic behaviour. If loading times are substantially short, static tests are not sufficient to determine the complete viscoelastic behaviour of the material, and dynamic test methods are more appropriate. The concept of complex modulus of elasticity is a powerful tool for characterizing the frequency domain behaviour of viscoelastic materials. On the other hand, it is well known that classical viscoelastic models can be generalized by means of fractional calculus to describe more complex viscoelastic behaviour of materials. In this paper, the fractional Zener model is investigated in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of brain tissue. The model is fitted to experimental data of oscillatory shear tests of bovine brain tissue to verify its behaviour and to obtain the material parameters.

  14. Linear Regression Model of the Ash Mass Fraction and Electrical Conductivity for Slovenian Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jamnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass fraction of ash is a quality criterion for determining the botanical origin of honey. At present, this parameter is generally being replaced by the measurement of electrical conductivity (κ. The value κ depends on the ash and acid content of honey; the higher their content, the higher the resulting conductivity. A linear regression model for the relationship between ash and electrical conductivity has been established for Slovenian honey by analysing 290 samples of Slovenian honey (including acacia, lime, chestnut, spruce, fir, multifloral and mixed forest honeydew honey. The obtained model differs from the one proposed by the International Honey Commission (IHC in the slope, but not in the section part of the relation formula. Therefore, the Slovenian model is recommended when calculating the ash mass fraction from the results of electrical conductivity in samples of Slovenian honey.

  15. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  16. Contribution to the modelling of induction machines by fractional order; Contribution a la modelisation dynamique d'ordre non entier de la machine asynchrone a cage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canat, S.

    2005-07-15

    Induction machine is most widespread in industry. Its traditional modeling does not take into account the eddy current in the rotor bars which however induce strong variations as well of the resistance as of the resistance of the rotor. This diffusive phenomenon, called 'skin effect' could be modeled by a compact transfer function using fractional derivative (non integer order). This report theoretically analyzes the electromagnetic phenomenon on a single rotor bar before approaching the rotor as a whole. This analysis is confirmed by the results of finite elements calculations of the magnetic field, exploited to identify a fractional order model of the induction machine (identification method of Levenberg-Marquardt). Then, the model is confronted with an identification of experimental results. Finally, an automatic method is carried out to approximate the dynamic model by integer order transfer function on a frequency band. (author)

  17. Time-varying volatility in Malaysian stock exchange: An empirical study using multiple-volatility-shift fractionally integrated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2008-02-01

    This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.

  18. Saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera leaves elicit no antitrypanosomal activity in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim; Abubakar Babando Aliyu; Kayode Meduteni; Isa Yunusa

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine the in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi ) activity of saponins-rich fraction of Calotropis procera (cpsf) leaves as well as the effect of the fraction on the parasite-induced anemia. Methods:A 60-minutes time course experiment was conducted with various concentrations of the fraction using a 96-well microtiter plate technique, and subsequently used to treat experimentally T. evansi infected rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Index of anemia was analyzed in all animals during the experiment. Results:The cpsf did not demonstrate an in vitro antitrypanosomal activity. Further, the cpsf treatments did not significantly (P>0.05) keep the parasites lower than the infected untreated groups. At the end of the experiment, all T. evansi infected rats developed anemia whose severity was not significantly (P>0.05) ameliorated by the cpsf treatment. Conclusions:It was concluded that saponins derived from Calotropis procera leaves could not elicit in vitro and in vivo activities against T. evansi.

  19. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  20. Fractional Brownian motion, the Matérn process, and stochastic modeling of turbulent dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Jonathan M.; Sykulski, Adam M.; Early, Jeffrey J.; Olhede, Sofia C.

    2017-08-01

    Stochastic processes exhibiting power-law slopes in the frequency domain are frequently well modeled by fractional Brownian motion (fBm), with the spectral slope at high frequencies being associated with the degree of small-scale roughness or fractal dimension. However, a broad class of real-world signals have a high-frequency slope, like fBm, but a plateau in the vicinity of zero frequency. This low-frequency plateau, it is shown, implies that the temporal integral of the process exhibits diffusive behavior, dispersing from its initial location at a constant rate. Such processes are not well modeled by fBm, which has a singularity at zero frequency corresponding to an unbounded rate of dispersion. A more appropriate stochastic model is a much lesser-known random process called the Matérn process, which is shown herein to be a damped version of fractional Brownian motion. This article first provides a thorough introduction to fractional Brownian motion, then examines the details of the Matérn process and its relationship to fBm. An algorithm for the simulation of the Matérn process in O(NlogN) operations is given. Unlike fBm, the Matérn process is found to provide an excellent match to modeling velocities from particle trajectories in an application to two-dimensional fluid turbulence.