WorldWideScience

Sample records for fractal dimension analysis

  1. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

    Bader, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's ``Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece ``Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

  2. Fractal dimension analysis in a highly granular calorimeter

    Ruan, M; Brient, J.C; Jeans, D; Videau, H

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “particle flow” has been developed to optimise the jet energy resolution by distinguishing the different jet components. A highly granular calorimeter designed for the particle flow algorithm provides an unprecedented level of detail for the reconstruction of calorimeter showers and enables new approaches to shower analysis. In this paper the measurement and use of the fractal dimension of showers is described. The fractal dimension is a characteristic number that measures the global compactness of the shower. It is highly dependent on the primary particle type and energy. Its application in identifying particles and estimating their energy is described in the context of a calorimeter designed for the International Linear Collider.

  3. Shower fractal dimension analysis in a highly-granular calorimeter

    Ruan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the self-similar structure of particle showers recorded at a highly-granular calorimeter. On both simulated and experimental data, a strong correlation between the number of hits and the spatial scale of the readout channels is observed, from which we define the shower fractal dimension. The measured fractal dimension turns out to be strongly dependent on particle type, which enables new approaches for particle identification. A logarithmic dependence of the particle energy on the fractal dimension is also observed.

  4. Hyper-Fractal Analysis: A visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of 4D objects

    Grossu, I. V.; Grossu, I.; Felea, D.; Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Stan, E.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a new version of a Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images and 3D objects (Grossu et al. (2010) [1]). The program was extended for working with four-dimensional objects stored in comma separated values files. This might be of interest in biomedicine, for analyzing the evolution in time of three-dimensional images. New version program summaryProgram title: Hyper-Fractal Analysis (Fractal Analysis v03) Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 745761 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12544491 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 100M Classification: 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEG_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 831-832 Does the new version supersede the previous version? Yes Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of 4D images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the 4D box-counting algorithm. Reasons for new version: Inspired by existing applications of 3D fractals in biomedicine [3], we extended the optimized version of the box-counting algorithm [1, 2] to the four-dimensional case. This might be of interest in analyzing the evolution in time of 3D images. The box-counting algorithm was extended in order to support 4D objects, stored in comma separated values files. A new form was added for generating 2D, 3D, and 4D test data. The application was tested on 4D objects with known dimension, e.g. the Sierpinski hypertetrahedron gasket, Df=ln(5)/ln(2) (Fig. 1). The algorithm could be extended, with minimum effort, to

  5. Fractal dimension analysis of malignant and benign endobronchial ultrasound nodes

    Fiz, José Antonio; Monte-Moreno, Enrique; Andreo, Felipe; Auteri, Santiago José; Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Bonet, Gloria; Castellà, Eva; Manzano, Juan Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) has been applied as a routine procedure for the diagnostic of hiliar and mediastinal nodes. The authors assessed the relationship between the echographic appearance of mediastinal nodes, based on endobronchial ultrasound images, and the likelihood of malignancy. The images of twelve malignant and eleven benign nodes were evaluated. A previous processing method was applied to improve the quality of the images and to enhance the details. Texture and morphology parameters analyzed were: the image texture of the echographies and a fractal dimension that expressed the relationship between area and perimeter of the structures that appear in the image, and characterizes the convoluted inner structure of the hiliar and mediastinal nodes. Processed images showed that relationship between log perimeter and log area of hilar nodes was lineal (i.e. perimeter vs. area follow a power law). Fractal dimension was lower in the malignant nodes compared with non-malignant nodes (1.47(0.09), 1.53(0.10) mean(SD), Mann–Whitney U test p < 0.05)). Fractal dimension of ultrasonographic images of mediastinal nodes obtained through endobronchial ultrasound differ in malignant nodes from non-malignant. This parameter could differentiate malignat and non-malignat mediastinic and hiliar nodes

  6. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  7. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Texture Formation of Whey Protein-Based Foods

    Robi Andoyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein in the form of isolate or concentrate is widely used in food industries due to its functionality to form gel under certain condition and its nutritive value. Controlling or manipulating the formation of gel aggregates is used often to evaluate food texture. Many researchers made use of fractal analysis that provides the quantitative data (i.e., fractal dimension for fundamentally and rationally analyzing and designing whey protein-based food texture. This quantitative analysis is also done to better understand how the texture of whey protein-based food is formed. Two methods for fractal analysis were discussed in this review: image analysis (microscopy and rheology. These methods, however, have several limitations which greatly affect the accuracy of both fractal dimension values and types of aggregation obtained. This review therefore also discussed problem encountered and ways to reduce the potential errors during fractal analysis of each method.

  8. Fractal dimension of cantori

    Li, W.; Bak, P.

    1986-01-01

    At a critical point the golden-mean Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory of Chirikov's standard map breaks up into a fractal orbit called a cantorus. The transition describes a pinning of the incommensurate phase of the Frenkel-Kontorowa model. We find that the fractal dimension of the cantorus is D = 0 and that the transition from the Kolmogorov-Arnol'd-Moser trajectory with dimension D = 1 to the cantorus is governed by an exponent ν = 0.98. . . and a universal scaling function. It is argued that the exponent is equal to that of the Lyapunov exponent

  9. Fractal Dimension analysis for seismicity spatial and temporal ...

    23

    The research can further promote the application of fractal theory in the study ... spatial-temporal propagation characteristics of seismic activities, fractal theory is not ... provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of earthquakes. 2. ... random self-similar structure of the earthquake in the time series and the spatial.

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Concept Images on Fractal Dimension

    Karakus, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of pre-service teachers' concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractal dimension. There is limited research on students' understanding of fractal and fractal dimension. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the pre-service teachers' understandings of fractal dimension based on concept image. The…

  11. FONT DISCRIMINATIO USING FRACTAL DIMENSIONS

    S. Mozaffari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the related problems of OCR systems is discrimination of fonts in machine printed document images. This task improves performance of general OCR systems. Proposed methods in this paper are based on various fractal dimensions for font discrimination. First, some predefined fractal dimensions were combined with directional methods to enhance font differentiation. Then, a novel fractal dimension was introduced in this paper for the first time. Our feature extraction methods which consider font recognition as texture identification are independent of document content. Experimental results on different pages written by several font types show that fractal geometry can overcome the complexities of font recognition problem.

  12. A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets

    Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.

    1994-01-01

    Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...

  13. Analysis of fractal dimensions of rat bones from film and digital images

    Pornprasertsuk, S.; Ludlow, J. B.; Webber, R. L.; Tyndall, D. A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the effect of two different intra-oral image receptors on estimates of fractal dimension; and (2) to determine the variations in fractal dimensions between the femur, tibia and humerus of the rat and between their proximal, middle and distal regions. METHODS: The left femur, tibia and humerus from 24 4-6-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were radiographed using intra-oral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Films were digitized at a pixel density comparable to the CCD using a flat-bed scanner. Square regions of interest were selected from proximal, middle, and distal regions of each bone. Fractal dimensions were estimated from the slope of regression lines fitted to plots of log power against log spatial frequency. RESULTS: The fractal dimensions estimates from digitized films were significantly greater than those produced from the CCD (P=0.0008). Estimated fractal dimensions of three types of bone were not significantly different (P=0.0544); however, the three regions of bones were significantly different (P=0.0239). The fractal dimensions estimated from radiographs of the proximal and distal regions of the bones were lower than comparable estimates obtained from the middle region. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of image receptors significantly affect estimates of fractal dimension. There was no difference in the fractal dimensions of the different bones but the three regions differed significantly.

  14. Classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal dimension analysis of eye fundus image

    Safitri, Diah Wahyu; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder when pancreas produce inadequate insulin or a condition when body resist insulin action, so the blood glucose level is high. One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy which can lead to a vision problem. Diabetic retinopathy can be recognized by an abnormality in eye fundus. Those abnormalities are characterized by microaneurysms, hemorrhage, hard exudate, cotton wool spots, and venous's changes. The diabetic retinopathy is classified depends on the conditions of abnormality in eye fundus, that is grade 1 if there is a microaneurysm only in the eye fundus; grade 2, if there are a microaneurysm and a hemorrhage in eye fundus; and grade 3: if there are microaneurysm, hemorrhage, and neovascularization in the eye fundus. This study proposed a method and a process of eye fundus image to classify of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The first phase was image segmentation process using green channel, CLAHE, morphological opening, matched filter, masking, and morphological opening binary image. After segmentation process, its fractal dimension was calculated using box-counting method and the values of fractal dimension were analyzed to make a classification of diabetic retinopathy. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross validation method with k=5. In each test used 10 different grade K of KNN. The accuracy of the result of this method is 89,17% with K=3 or K=4, it was the best results than others K value. Based on this results, it can be concluded that the classification of diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis and KNN had a good performance.

  15. Fractal dimension analysis for robust ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of coarse grained materials

    Li, Minghui; Hayward, Gordon

    2018-04-01

    Over the recent decades, there has been a growing demand on reliable and robust non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of structures and components made from coarse grained materials such as alloys, stainless steels, carbon-reinforced composites and concrete; however, when inspected using ultrasound, the flaw echoes are usually contaminated by high-level, time-invariant, and correlated grain noise originating from the microstructure and grain boundaries, leading to pretty low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the flaw information being obscured or completely hidden by the grain noise. In this paper, the fractal dimension analysis of the A-scan echoes is investigated as a measure of complexity of the time series to distinguish the echoes originating from the real defects and the grain noise, and then the normalized fractal dimension coefficients are applied to the amplitudes as the weighting factor to enhance the SNR and defect detection. Experiments on industrial samples of the mild steel and the stainless steel are conducted and the results confirm the great benefits of the method.

  16. Analysis and classification of commercial ham slice images using directional fractal dimension features.

    Mendoza, Fernando; Valous, Nektarios A; Allen, Paul; Kenny, Tony A; Ward, Paddy; Sun, Da-Wen

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a novel and non-destructive approach to the appearance characterization and classification of commercial pork, turkey and chicken ham slices. Ham slice images were modelled using directional fractal (DF(0°;45°;90°;135°)) dimensions and a minimum distance classifier was adopted to perform the classification task. Also, the role of different colour spaces and the resolution level of the images on DF analysis were investigated. This approach was applied to 480 wafer thin ham slices from four types of hams (120 slices per type): i.e., pork (cooked and smoked), turkey (smoked) and chicken (roasted). DF features were extracted from digitalized intensity images in greyscale, and R, G, B, L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), H, S, and V colour components for three image resolution levels (100%, 50%, and 25%). Simulation results show that in spite of the complexity and high variability in colour and texture appearance, the modelling of ham slice images with DF dimensions allows the capture of differentiating textural features between the four commercial ham types. Independent DF features entail better discrimination than that using the average of four directions. However, DF dimensions reveal a high sensitivity to colour channel, orientation and image resolution for the fractal analysis. The classification accuracy using six DF dimension features (a(90°)(∗),a(135°)(∗),H(0°),H(45°),S(0°),H(90°)) was 93.9% for training data and 82.2% for testing data.

  17. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Manera, Maurizio, E-mail: mmanera@unite.it [Faculty of Biosciences, Food and Environmental Technologies, University of Teramo, Piano d’Accio, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Giari, Luisa [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); De Pasquale, Joseph A. [Morphogenyx Inc., PO Box 717, East Northport, NY 11731 (United States); Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, St. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  18. Local connected fractal dimension analysis in gill of fish experimentally exposed to toxicants

    Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; De Pasquale, Joseph A.; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An objective, operator unbiased method was developed to evaluate gill pathology. • The method relies on the measure of local connected fractal dimension frequency. • Exposure classes were adequately discriminated by linear discriminant analysis. - Abstract: An operator-neutral method was implemented to objectively assess European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) gill pathology after experimental exposure to cadmium (Cd) and terbuthylazine (TBA) for 24 and 48 h. An algorithm-derived local connected fractal dimension (LCFD) frequency measure was used in this comparative analysis. Canonical variates (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to evaluate the discrimination power of the method among exposure classes (unexposed, Cd exposed, TBA exposed). Misclassification, sensitivity and specificity, both with original and cross-validated cases, were determined. LCFDs frequencies enhanced the differences among classes which were visually selected after their means, respective variances and the differences between Cd and TBA exposed means, with respect to unexposed mean, were analyzed by scatter plots. Selected frequencies were then scanned by means of LDA, stepwise analysis, and Mahalanobis distance to detect the most discriminative frequencies out of ten originally selected. Discrimination resulted in 91.7% of cross-validated cases correctly classified (22 out of 24 total cases), with sensitivity and specificity, respectively, of 95.5% (1 false negative with respect to 21 really positive cases) and 75% (1 false positive with respect to 3 really negative cases). CVA with convex hull polygons ensured prompt, visually intuitive discrimination among exposure classes and graphically supported the false positive case. The combined use of semithin sections, which enhanced the visual evaluation of the overall lamellar structure; of LCFD analysis, which objectively detected local variation in complexity, without the possible bias

  19. Detection of architectural distortion in prior screening mammograms using Gabor filters, phase portraits, fractal dimension, and texture analysis

    Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Prajna, Shormistha; Ayres, Fabio J.; Desautels, J.E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is a widely used screening tool for the early detection of breast cancer. One of the commonly missed signs of breast cancer is architectural distortion. The purpose of this study is to explore the application of fractal analysis and texture measures for the detection of architectural distortion in screening mammograms taken prior to the detection of breast cancer. A method based on Gabor filters and phase portrait analysis was used to detect initial candidates for sites of architectural distortion. A total of 386 regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically obtained from 14 ''prior mammograms'', including 21 ROIs related to architectural distortion. From the corresponding set of 14 ''detection mammograms'', 398 ROIs were obtained, including 18 related to breast cancer. For each ROI, the fractal dimension and Haralick's texture features were computed. The fractal dimension of the ROIs was calculated using the circular average power spectrum technique. The average fractal dimension of the normal (false-positive) ROIs was significantly higher than that of the ROIs with architectural distortion (p = 0.006). For the ''prior mammograms'', the best receiver operating characteristics (ROC) performance achieved, in terms of the area under the ROC curve, was 0.80 with a Bayesian classifier using four features including fractal dimension, entropy, sum entropy, and inverse difference moment. Analysis of the performance of the methods with free-response receiver operating characteristics indicated a sensitivity of 0.79 at 8.4 false positives per image in the detection of sites of architectural distortion in the ''prior mammograms''. Fractal dimension offers a promising way to detect the presence of architectural distortion in prior mammograms. (orig.)

  20. Fractal dimensions from a 3-dimensional intermittency analysis in e+e- annihilation

    Behrend, H.J.; Criegee, L.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Jung, H.; Meyer, J.; Podobrin, O.; Schroeder, V.; Winter, G.G.; Bussey, P.J.; Campbell, A.J.; Hendry, D.; Lumsdon, S.J.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Ahme, J.; Blobel, V.; Feindt, M.; Fenner, H.; Harjes, J.; Koehne, J.H.; Peters, J.H.; Spitzer, H.; Weihrich, T.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Scholz, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Veillet, J.J.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Alexander, G.; Beck, A.; Bella, G.; Grunhaus, J.; Klatchko, A.; Levy, A.; Milstene, C.

    1990-10-01

    The intermittency structure of multihadronic e + e - annihilation is analyzed by evaluating the factorial moments F 2 -F 5 in 3-dimensional Lorentz invariant phase space as a function of the resolution scale. We interpret our data in the language of fractal objects. It turns out that the fractal dimension depends on the resolution scale in a way that can be attributed to geometrical resolution effects and dynamical effects, such as the π 0 Dalitz decay. The LUND 7.2 hadronization model provides an excellent description of the data. There is no indication of unexplained multiplicity fluctuations in small phase space regions. (orig.)

  1. The Ndynamics package—Numerical analysis of dynamical systems and the fractal dimension of boundaries

    Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.; de Melo, N.; Skea, J. E. F.

    2012-09-01

    A set of Maple routines is presented, fully compatible with the new releases of Maple (14 and higher). The package deals with the numerical evolution of dynamical systems and provide flexible plotting of the results. The package also brings an initial conditions generator, a numerical solver manager, and a focusing set of routines that allow for better analysis of the graphical display of the results. The novelty that the package presents an optional C interface is maintained. This allows for fast numerical integration, even for the totally inexperienced Maple user, without any C expertise being required. Finally, the package provides the routines to calculate the fractal dimension of boundaries (via box counting). New version program summary Program Title: Ndynamics Catalogue identifier: %Leave blank, supplied by Elsevier. Licensing provisions: no. Programming language: Maple, C. Computer: Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU M330 @ 2.13 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 3.0 GB Keywords: Dynamical systems, Box counting, Fractal dimension, Symbolic computation, Differential equations, Maple. Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADKH_v1_0. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 119 (1999) 256. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. Nature of problem Computation and plotting of numerical solutions of dynamical systems and the determination of the fractal dimension of the boundaries. Solution method The default method of integration is a fifth-order Runge-Kutta scheme, but any method of integration present on the Maple system is available via an argument when calling the routine. A box counting [1] method is used to calculate the fractal dimension [2] of the boundaries. Reasons for the new version The Ndynamics package met a demand of our research community for a flexible and friendly environment for analyzing dynamical systems. All the user has to do is create his/her own Maple session, with the system to

  2. Nanoscale morphological analysis of soft matter aggregates with fractal dimension ranging from 1 to 3.

    Valle, Francesco; Brucale, Marco; Chiodini, Stefano; Bystrenova, Eva; Albonetti, Cristiano

    2017-09-01

    While the widespread emergence of nanoscience and nanotechnology can be dated back to the early eighties, the last decade has witnessed a true coming of age of this research field, with novel nanomaterials constantly finding their way into marketed products. The performance of nanomaterials being dominated by their nanoscale morphology, their quantitative characterization with respect to a number of properties is often crucial. In this context, those imaging techniques able to resolve nanometer scale details are clearly key players. In particular, atomic force microscopy can yield a fully quantitative tridimensional (3D) topography at the nanoscale. Herein, we will review a set of morphological analysis based on the scaling approach, which give access to important quantitative parameters for describing nanomaterial samples. To generalize the use of such morphological analysis on all D-dimensions (1D, 2D and 3D), the review will focus on specific soft matter aggregates with fractal dimension ranging from just above 1 to just below 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SU-D-BRA-04: Fractal Dimension Analysis of Edge-Detected Rectal Cancer CTs for Outcome Prediction

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Hu, W; Shen, L; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To extract the fractal dimension features from edge-detected rectal cancer CTs, and to examine the predictability of fractal dimensions to outcomes of primary rectal cancer patients. Methods: Ninety-seven rectal cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemoradiation were enrolled in this study. CT images were obtained before chemoradiotherapy. The primary lesions of the rectal cancer were delineated by experienced radiation oncologists. These images were extracted and filtered by six different Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (0.5–3.0: from fine to coarse) to achieve primary lesions in different anatomical scales. Edges of the original images were found at zero-crossings of the filtered images. Three different fractal dimensions (box-counting dimension, Minkowski dimension, mass dimension) were calculated upon the image slice with the largest cross-section of the primary lesion. The significance of these fractal dimensions in survival, recurrence and metastasis were examined by Student’s t-test. Results: For a follow-up time of two years, 18 of 97 patients had experienced recurrence, 24 had metastasis, and 18 were dead. Minkowski dimensions under large filter values (2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were significantly larger (p=0.014, 0.006, 0.015) in patients with recurrence than those without. For metastasis, only box-counting dimensions under a single filter value (2.5) showed differences (p=0.016) between patients with and without. For overall survival, box-counting dimensions (filter values = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5), Minkowski dimensions (filter values = 0.5, 1.5, 2.0, 2,5) and mass dimensions (filter values = 1.5, 2.0) were all significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is feasible to extract shape information by edge detection and fractal dimensions analysis in neo-adjuvant rectal cancer patients. This information can be used to prognosis prediction

  4. The fractal dimension of architecture

    Ostwald, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Fractal analysis is a method for measuring, analysing and comparing the formal or geometric properties of complex objects. In this book it is used to investigate eighty-five buildings that have been designed by some of the twentieth-century’s most respected and celebrated architects. Including designs by Le Corbusier, Eileen Gray, Frank Lloyd Wright, Robert Venturi, Frank Gehry, Peter Eisenman, Richard Meier and Kazuyo Sejima amongst others, this book uses mathematics to analyse arguments and theories about some of the world’s most famous designs. Starting with 625 reconstructed architectural plans and elevations, and including more than 200 specially prepared views of famous buildings, this book presents the results of the largest mathematical study ever undertaken into architectural design and the largest single application of fractal analysis presented in any field. The data derived from this study is used to test three overarching hypotheses about social, stylistic and personal trends in design, along...

  5. Fractal dimension of turbulent black holes

    Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan

    2017-11-01

    We present measurements of the fractal dimension of a turbulent asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane reconstructed from simulated boundary fluid data at the perfect fluid order using the fluid-gravity duality. We argue that the boundary fluid energy spectrum scaling as E (k )˜k-2 is a more natural setting for the fluid-gravity duality than the Kraichnan-Kolmogorov scaling of E (k )˜k-5 /3, but we obtain fractal dimensions D for spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in both cases: D =2.584 (1 ) and D =2.645 (4 ), respectively. These results are consistent with the upper bound of D =3 , thereby resolving the tension with the recent claim in Adams et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 151602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151602] that D =3 +1 /3 . We offer a critical examination of the calculation which led to their result, and show that their proposed definition of the fractal dimension performs poorly as a fractal dimension estimator on one-dimensional curves with known fractal dimension. Finally, we describe how to define and in principle calculate the fractal dimension of spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in a covariant manner, and we speculate on assigning a "bootstrapped" value of fractal dimension to the entire horizon H when it is in a statistically quasisteady turbulent state.

  6. Determination of the fractal dimension surface of the fracture from SEM images with assistance of the computer image quantitative analysis system

    Wawszczak, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for quantitative image analysis for determination of the fractal dimension from SEM surface images of the fracture 0H14N5CuNb steel. Investigated quenched and tempered samples of the steel after impact tests (in room and -85 o C temperatures). This method can be useful for analysing local fractal dimension of any surface parts (not oriented) of the fracture with different topography of this surface. (author)

  7. Fractal-dimension analysis detects cerebral changes in preterm infants with and without intrauterine growth restriction.

    Esteban, Francisco J; Padilla, Nelly; Sanz-Cortés, Magdalena; de Miras, Juan Ruiz; Bargalló, Núria; Villoslada, Pablo; Gratacós, Eduard

    2010-12-01

    In the search for a useful parameter to detect and quantify subtle brain abnormalities in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we hypothesised that the analysis of the structural complexity of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using the fractal dimension (FD), a measurement of the topological complexity of an object, could be established as a useful tool for quantitative studies of infant brain morphology. We studied a sample of 18 singleton IUGR premature infants, (12.72 months corrected age (CA), range: 12 months-14 months), 15 preterm infants matched one-to-one for gestational age (GA) at delivery (12.6 months; range: 12 months-14 months), and 15 neonates born at term (12.4 months; range: 11 months-14 months). The neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed in all subjects at 18 months CA according to the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development - Third edition (BSID-III). For MRI acquisition and processing, the infants were scanned at 12 months CA, in a TIM TRIO 3T scanner, sleeping naturally. Images were pre-processed using the SPM5 toolbox, the GM and WM segmented under the VBM5 toolbox, and the box-counting method was applied for FD calculation of normal and skeletonized segmented images. The results showed a significant decrease of the FD of the brain GM and WM in the IUGR group when compared to the preterm or at-term controls. We also identified a significant linear tendency of both GM and WM FD from IUGR to preterm and term groups. Finally, multiple linear analyses between the FD of the GM or WM and the neurodevelopmental scales showed a significant regression of the language and motor scales with the FD of the GM. In conclusion, a decreased FD of the GM and WM in IUGR infants could be a sensitive indicator for the investigation of structural brain abnormalities in the IUGR population at 12 months of age, which can also be related to functional disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contour fractal analysis of grains

    Guida, Giulia; Casini, Francesca; Viggiani, Giulia MB

    2017-06-01

    Fractal analysis has been shown to be useful in image processing to characterise the shape and the grey-scale complexity in different applications spanning from electronic to medical engineering (e.g. [1]). Fractal analysis consists of several methods to assign a dimension and other fractal characteristics to a dataset describing geometric objects. Limited studies have been conducted on the application of fractal analysis to the classification of the shape characteristics of soil grains. The main objective of the work described in this paper is to obtain, from the results of systematic fractal analysis of artificial simple shapes, the characterization of the particle morphology at different scales. The long term objective of the research is to link the microscopic features of granular media with the mechanical behaviour observed in the laboratory and in situ.

  9. Complexity analysis of EEG in patients with schizophrenia using fractal dimension

    Raghavendra, B S; Dutt, D Narayana; Halahalli, Harsha N; John, John P

    2009-01-01

    We computed Higuchi's fractal dimension (FD) of resting, eyes closed EEG recorded from 30 scalp locations in 18 male neuroleptic-naïve, recent-onset schizophrenia (NRS) subjects and 15 male healthy control (HC) subjects, who were group-matched for age. Schizophrenia patients showed a diffuse reduction of FD except in the bilateral temporal and occipital regions, with the reduction being most prominent bifrontally. The positive symptom (PS) schizophrenia subjects showed FD values similar to or even higher than HC in the bilateral temporo-occipital regions, along with a co-existent bifrontal FD reduction as noted in the overall sample of NRS. In contrast, this increase in FD values in the bilateral temporo-occipital region was absent in the negative symptom (NS) subgroup. The regional differences in complexity suggested by these findings may reflect the aberrant brain dynamics underlying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its symptom dimensions. Higuchi's method of measuring FD directly in the time domain provides an alternative for the more computationally intensive nonlinear methods of estimating EEG complexity

  10. Analysis of the fractal dimension of volcano geomorphology through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) amplitude images acquired in C and X band.

    Pepe, S.; Di Martino, G.; Iodice, A.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Riccio, D.; Ruello, G.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Zinno, I.

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades several aspects relevant to volcanic activity have been analyzed in terms of fractal parameters that effectively describe natural objects geometry. More specifically, these researches have been aimed at the identification of (1) the power laws that governed the magma fragmentation processes, (2) the energy of explosive eruptions, and (3) the distribution of the associated earthquakes. In this paper, the study of volcano morphology via satellite images is dealt with; in particular, we use the complete forward model developed by some of the authors (Di Martino et al., 2012) that links the stochastic characterization of amplitude Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images to the fractal dimension of the imaged surfaces, modelled via fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes. Based on the inversion of such a model, a SAR image post-processing has been implemented (Di Martino et al., 2010), that allows retrieving the fractal dimension of the observed surfaces, dictating the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scales. The fractal dimension of volcanic structures has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. Hence, the possibility to estimate the fractal dimension from a single amplitude-only SAR image is of fundamental importance for the characterization of volcano structures and, moreover, can be very helpful for monitoring and crisis management activities in case of eruptions and other similar natural hazards. The implemented SAR image processing performs the extraction of the point-by-point fractal dimension of the scene observed by the sensor, providing - as an output product - the map of the fractal dimension of the area of interest. In this work, such an analysis is performed on Cosmo-SkyMed, ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images relevant to active stratovolcanoes in different geodynamic contexts, such as Mt. Somma-Vesuvio, Mt. Etna, Vulcano and Stromboli in Southern Italy, Shinmoe

  11. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis of mammographic patterns in assessing breast cancer risk related to HRT treated population

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Nielsen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    and 36 HRT treated volunteers for two years. ROIs with same dimension (250*150 pixels) were created behind the nipple region on these radiographs. Box counting method was used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) and the Lacunarity. Paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated...... significantly (Pcorrelated to Lacunarity (-0.74, P

  12. Fractal Dimension and Maximum Sunspot Number in Solar Cycle

    R.-S. Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension is a quantitative parameter describing the characteristics of irregular time series. In this study, we use this parameter to analyze the irregular aspects of solar activity and to predict the maximum sunspot number in the following solar cycle by examining time series of the sunspot number. For this, we considered the daily sunspot number since 1850 from SIDC (Solar Influences Data analysis Center and then estimated cycle variation of the fractal dimension by using Higuchi's method. We examined the relationship between this fractal dimension and the maximum monthly sunspot number in each solar cycle. As a result, we found that there is a strong inverse relationship between the fractal dimension and the maximum monthly sunspot number. By using this relation we predicted the maximum sunspot number in the solar cycle from the fractal dimension of the sunspot numbers during the solar activity increasing phase. The successful prediction is proven by a good correlation (r=0.89 between the observed and predicted maximum sunspot numbers in the solar cycles.

  13. Bone Texture Fractal Dimension Analysis of Ultrasound-Treated Bone around Implant Site: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Elaf Akram Abdulhameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of bone texture fractal dimension (FD analysis method in predicting implant stability from intraoral periapical radiographs using two implant protocols. Materials and Methods. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 22 subjects who needed dental implants. The participants were randomized into two groups, the control group with standard implant protocol treatment and the intervention group with added low-intensity power ultrasound treatment (LIPUS besides the standard implant protocol. The FD values of bone density were carried out on the mesial and distal sides of the implant on digital intraoral radiographs using the box-counting method. Both resonance frequency (RF and fractal dimension (FD were assessed in three time intervals: after surgery and before and after loading. Results. FD on both the mesial and distal sides serve as very good-to-excellent tests with high validity (ROC area exceeding 0.8 in predicting high implant stability (ISQ ≥ 70. The mesial side measurements were consistently better than the distal side among the intervention groups. The optimum cutoff value for the FD-mesial side that predicts a highly stable implant (ISQ ≥ 70 is ≥1.505. At this optimum cutoff value, the mesial side FD is associated with a perfect sensitivity (100% and fairly high specificity (86.5%. Conclusion. The FD analysis could be recommended as an adjunctive quantitative method in prediction of the implant stability with very high sensitivity and specificity. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72648040.

  14. Fractal analysis in oral leukoplakia

    Prashant Bhai Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractal analysis (FA quantifies complex geometric structures by generating a fractal dimension (FD, which can measure the complexity of mucosa. FA is a quantitative tool used to measure the complexity of self-similar or semi-self-similar structures. Aim and Objective: The study was done to perform the FA of oral mucosa with keratotic changes, as it is also made up of self-similar tissues, and thus, its FD can be calculated. Results: In oral leukoplakia, keratinization increases the complexity of mucosa, which denotes fractal geometry. We evaluated and compared pretreated and post-treated oral leukoplakia in 50 patients with clinically proven oral leukoplakia and analyzed the normal oral mucosa and lesional or keratinized mucosa in oral leukoplakia patients through FA using box counting method. Conclusion: FA using the fractal geometry is an efficient, noninvasive prediction tool for early detection of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant conditions in patients.

  15. On the arithmetic of fractal dimension using hyperhelices

    Toledo-Suarez, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    A hyperhelix is a fractal curve generated by coiling a helix around a rect line, then another helix around the first one, a third around the second... an infinite number of times. A way to generate hyperhelices with any desired fractal dimension is presented, leading to the result that they have embedded an algebraic structure that allows making arithmetic with fractal dimensions and to the idea of an infinitesimal of fractal dimension

  16. Tumor cells diagnostic through fractal dimensions

    Timbo, Christiano dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    This method relies on the application of an algorithm for the quantitative and statistic differentiation of a sample of cells stricken by a certain kind of pathology and a sample of healthy cells. This differentiation is made by applying the principles of fractal dimension to digital images of the cells. The algorithm was developed using the the concepts of Object- Oriented Programming, resulting in a simple code, divided in 5 distinct procedures, and a user-friendly interface. To obtain the fractal dimension of the images of the cells, the program processes the image, extracting its border, and uses it to characterize the complexity of the form of the cell in a quantitative way. In order to validate the code, it was used a digitalized image found in an article by W. Bauer, developer of an analog method. The result showed a difference of 6% between the value obtained by Bauer and the value obtained the algorithm developed in this work. (author)

  17. Fractals in DNA sequence analysis

    Yu Zu-Guo(喻祖国); Vo Anh; Gong Zhi-Min(龚志民); Long Shun-Chao(龙顺潮)

    2002-01-01

    Fractal methods have been successfully used to study many problems in physics, mathematics, engineering, finance,and even in biology. There has been an increasing interest in unravelling the mysteries of DNA; for example, how can we distinguish coding and noncoding sequences, and the problems of classification and evolution relationship of organisms are key problems in bioinformatics. Although much research has been carried out by taking into consideration the long-range correlations in DNA sequences, and the global fractal dimension has been used in these works by other people, the models and methods are somewhat rough and the results are not satisfactory. In recent years, our group has introduced a time series model (statistical point of view) and a visual representation (geometrical point of view)to DNA sequence analysis. We have also used fractal dimension, correlation dimension, the Hurst exponent and the dimension spectrum (multifractal analysis) to discuss problems in this field. In this paper, we introduce these fractal models and methods and the results of DNA sequence analysis.

  18. Fractal dimension of microbead assemblies used for protein detection.

    Hecht, Ariel; Commiskey, Patrick; Lazaridis, Filippos; Argyrakis, Panos; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-10

    We use fractal analysis to calculate the protein concentration in a rotating magnetic assembly of microbeads of size 1 μm, which has optimized parameters of sedimentation, binding sites and magnetic volume. We utilize the original Forrest-Witten method, but due to the relatively small number of bead particles, which is of the order of 500, we use a large number of origins and also a large number of algorithm iterations. We find a value of the fractal dimension in the range 1.70-1.90, as a function of the thrombin concentration, which plays the role of binding the microbeads together. This is in good agreement with previous results from magnetorotation studies. The calculation of the fractal dimension using multiple points of reference can be used for any assembly with a relatively small number of particles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fractal dimension analysis in digital periapical radiographs: A diagnostic indicator of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women

    Mathivanan Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the alveolar bone density by fractal dimension (FD analysis in radiovisiograph of postmenopausal women of mandibular posterior region and to correlate FD values with t-scores of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Materials and Methods: This study, approved by the institutional review board, included 40 participants, aged 45–60 years divided into two groups. Twenty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis comprised group 1, and 20 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis comprised group 2 based on bone mineral density assessment of ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Digital dental radiograph of mandibular first molar were obtained and used for assessing alveolar bone density by FD analysis and were correlated with t-scores of ultrasound of calcaneus bone. Results: The mean FD values were evaluated using SPSS 14 version software, and were found to be 1.738 and 1.867 for group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: FD analysis using direct digital periapical radiographs is a novel method, which can be used for early diagnosis of osteoporosis in the alveolar bone.

  20. Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the Fourier transform

    Florindo, J.B.; Bruno, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel fractal dimension concept, based on Fourier spectrum, is proposed. → Computationally simple. Computational time smaller than conventional fractal methods. → Results are closer to Hausdorff-Besicovitch than conventional methods. → The method is more accurate and robustness to geometric operations and noise addition. - Abstract: This work proposes a novel technique for the numerical calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal objects which can be represented as a closed contour. The proposed method maps the fractal contour onto a complex signal and calculates its fractal dimension using the Fourier transform. The Fourier power spectrum is obtained and an exponential relation is verified between the power and the frequency. From the parameter (exponent) of the relation, is obtained the fractal dimension. The method is compared to other classical fractal dimension estimation methods in the literature, e.g., Bouligand-Minkowski, box-counting and classical Fourier. The comparison is achieved by the calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal contours whose dimensions are well-known analytically. The results showed the high precision and robustness of the proposed technique.

  1. Comparative analysis of seismic persistence of Hindu Kush nests (Afghanistan) and Los Santos (Colombia) using fractal dimension

    Prada, D. A.; Sanabria, M. P.; Torres, A. F.; Álvarez, M. A.; Gómez, J.

    2018-04-01

    The study of persistence in time series in seismic events in two of the most important nets such as Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and Los Santos Santander in Colombia generate great interest due to its high presence of telluric activity. The data were taken from the global seismological network. Using the Jarque-Bera test the presence of gaussian distribution was analyzed, and because the distribution in the series was asymmetric, without presence of mesocurtisity, the Hurst coefficient was calculated using the rescaled range method, with which it was found the fractal dimension associated to these time series and under what is possible to determine the persistence, antipersistence and volatility in these phenomena.

  2. Fractal dimension of the fractured surface of materials

    Lung, C.W.; Zhang, S.Z.

    1989-05-01

    Fractal dimension of the fractured surface of materials is discussed to show that the origin of the negative correlation between D F and toughness lies in the method of fractal dimension measurement with perimeter-area relation and also in the physical mechanism of crack propagation. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Evaluation of surface quality by Fractal Dimension and Volume ...

    Experimental and simulation results have enabled to show than the large diameter ball under low loads and medium feed speeds, favors the elimination of peaks and reduction of fractal dimension whence quality improvement of surface. Keywords: burnishing, volume parameters, fractal dimension, experimental designs ...

  4. Variability of fractal dimension of solar radio flux

    Bhatt, Hitaishi; Sharma, Som Kumar; Trivedi, Rupal; Vats, Hari Om

    2018-04-01

    In the present communication, the variation of the fractal dimension of solar radio flux is reported. Solar radio flux observations on a day to day basis at 410, 1415, 2695, 4995, and 8800 MHz are used in this study. The data were recorded at Learmonth Solar Observatory, Australia from 1988 to 2009 covering an epoch of two solar activity cycles (22 yr). The fractal dimension is calculated for the listed frequencies for this period. The fractal dimension, being a measure of randomness, represents variability of solar radio flux at shorter time-scales. The contour plot of fractal dimension on a grid of years versus radio frequency suggests high correlation with solar activity. Fractal dimension increases with increasing frequency suggests randomness increases towards the inner corona. This study also shows that the low frequency is more affected by solar activity (at low frequency fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.42) whereas, the higher frequency is less affected by solar activity (here fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.07). A good positive correlation is found between fractal dimension averaged over all frequencies and yearly averaged sunspot number (Pearson's coefficient is 0.87).

  5. Fractal Dimension Of CT Images Of Normal Parotid Glands

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    This study was to investigate the age and sex differences of the fractal dimension of the normal parotid glands in the digitized CT images. The six groups, which were composed of 42 men and women from 20's, 40's and 60's and over were picked. Each group contained seven people of the same sex. The normal parotid CT images were digitized, and their fractal dimensions were calculated using Scion Image PC program. The mean of fractal dimensions in males was 1.7292 (+/-0.0588) and 1.6329 (+/-0.0425) in females. The mean of fractal dimensions in young males was 1.7617, 1.7328 in middle males, and 1.6933 in old males. The mean of fractal dimensions in young females was 1.6318, 1.6365 in middle females, and 1.6303 in old females. There was no statistical difference in fractal dimension between left and right parotid gland of the same subject (p>0.05). Fractal dimensions in male were decreased in older group (p 0.05). The fractal dimension of parotid glands in the digitized CT images will be useful to evaluate the age and sex differences.

  6. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volume 1 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 2 is filled wit

  7. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 4 is

  8. Fractal dimensions the digital art of Eric Hammel

    Hammel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The concept behind fractal geometry is extremely difficult to explain . . . but easy to see and enjoy. Eric Hammel, a professional author of military history books, is unable to explain fractals in a way that will be clear to anyone else, but most mathematicians can't explain fractals in language most people can understand. The simplest explanation is that fractals are graphic representations of high-order mathematical formulas that repeat patterns to infinity.Don't get hung up on the math. It's really all in the seeing. Like Volumes 1 and 2 of Eric Hammel's Fractal Dimensions, Volume 3 is fil

  9. Dimensional analysis, scaling and fractals

    Timm, L.C.; Reichardt, K.; Oliveira Santos Bacchi, O.

    2004-01-01

    Dimensional analysis refers to the study of the dimensions that characterize physical entities, like mass, force and energy. Classical mechanics is based on three fundamental entities, with dimensions MLT, the mass M, the length L and the time T. The combination of these entities gives rise to derived entities, like volume, speed and force, of dimensions L 3 , LT -1 , MLT -2 , respectively. In other areas of physics, four other fundamental entities are defined, among them the temperature θ and the electrical current I. The parameters that characterize physical phenomena are related among themselves by laws, in general of quantitative nature, in which they appear as measures of the considered physical entities. The measure of an entity is the result of its comparison with another one, of the same type, called unit. Maps are also drawn in scale, for example, in a scale of 1:10,000, 1 cm 2 of paper can represent 10,000 m 2 in the field. Entities that differ in scale cannot be compared in a simple way. Fractal geometry, in contrast to the Euclidean geometry, admits fractional dimensions. The term fractal is defined in Mandelbrot (1982) as coming from the Latin fractus, derived from frangere which signifies to break, to form irregular fragments. The term fractal is opposite to the term algebra (from the Arabic: jabara) which means to join, to put together the parts. For Mandelbrot, fractals are non topologic objects, that is, objects which have as their dimension a real, non integer number, which exceeds the topologic dimension. For the topologic objects, or Euclidean forms, the dimension is an integer (0 for the point, 1 for a line, 2 for a surface, and 3 for a volume). The fractal dimension of Mandelbrot is a measure of the degree of irregularity of the object under consideration. It is related to the speed by which the estimate of the measure of an object increases as the measurement scale decreases. An object normally taken as uni-dimensional, like a piece of a

  10. Monitoring of dry sliding wear using fractal analysis

    Zhang, Jindang; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Korsten, Maarten J.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable online monitoring of wear remains a challenge to tribology research as well as to the industry. This paper presents a new method for monitoring of dry sliding wear using digital imaging and fractal analysis. Fractal values, namely fractal dimension and intercept, computed from the power

  11. Visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of images

    Grossu, I. V.; Besliu, C.; Rusu, M. V.; Jipa, Al.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Felea, D.

    2009-10-01

    This work presents a new Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images, based on an optimized version of the box-counting algorithm. Following the attempt to separate the real information from "noise", we considered also the family of all band-pass filters with the same band-width (specified as parameter). The fractal dimension can be thus represented as a function of the pixel color code. The program was used for the study of paintings cracks, as an additional tool which can help the critic to decide if an artistic work is original or not. Program summaryProgram title: Fractal Analysis v01 Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 29 690 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 967 319 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 30M Classification: 14 Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the box-counting algorithm. Use of a band-pass filter for separating the real information from "noise". User friendly graphical interface. Restrictions: Although various file-types can be used, the application was mainly conceived for the 8-bit grayscale, windows bitmap file format. Running time: In a first approximation, the algorithm is linear.

  12. Characteristics of Pore Structure and Fractal Dimension of Isometamorphic Anthracite

    Di Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The geologic conditions of No. 3 coal seams are similar to Sihe and Zhaozhuang Collieries, however, the gas production is significantly different. To better understand the effect of pores, by means of experimental measurements and quantitative analysis, the pore properties of high-rank isometamorphic anthracite were thoroughly studied. Our study showed that the pore structures were predominantly adsorptive, accounting for more than 88% of the specific surface area. The coal pores showed typical three-stage fractal characteristics at boundary points of 1 nm and 9 nm (7 nm of coal samples from Zhaozhuang Colliery, and the fractal dimension with 1–9 nm (or 1–7 nm, as being significantly larger than those measured outside the given ranges. Pores in samples from Sihe Colliery were mainly open spherical or ellipsoidal pores in shape; conversely, those from Zhaozhuang Colliery were mainly Y-shaped, V-shaped, or ‘ink-bottle’ type.

  13. a New Method for Calculating Fractal Dimensions of Porous Media Based on Pore Size Distribution

    Xia, Yuxuan; Cai, Jianchao; Wei, Wei; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Xin; Ge, Xinmin

    Fractal theory has been widely used in petrophysical properties of porous rocks over several decades and determination of fractal dimensions is always the focus of researches and applications by means of fractal-based methods. In this work, a new method for calculating pore space fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension of porous media is derived based on fractal capillary model assumption. The presented work establishes relationship between fractal dimensions and pore size distribution, which can be directly used to calculate the fractal dimensions. The published pore size distribution data for eight sandstone samples are used to calculate the fractal dimensions and simultaneously compared with prediction results from analytical expression. In addition, the proposed fractal dimension method is also tested through Micro-CT images of three sandstone cores, and are compared with fractal dimensions by box-counting algorithm. The test results also prove a self-similar fractal range in sandstone when excluding smaller pores.

  14. Fractal analysis of sulphidic mineral

    Miklúšová Viera

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of fractal theory in the characterization of fragmented surfaces, as well as the mass-size distributions are discussed. The investigated mineral-chalcopyrite of Slovak provenience is characterised after particle size reduction processes-crushing and grinding. The problem how the different size reduction methods influence the surface irregularities of obtained particles is solved. Mandelbrot (1983, introducing the fractal geometry, offered a new way of characterization of surface irregularities by the fractal dimension. The determination of the surface fractal dimension DS consists in measuring the specific surface by the BET method in several fractions into which the comminuted chalcopyrite is sieved. This investigation shows that the specific surface of individual fractions were higher for the crushed sample than for the short-term (3 min ground sample. The surface fractal dimension can give an information about the adsorption sites accessible to molecules of nitrogen and according to this, the value of the fractal dimension is higher for crushed sample.The effect of comminution processes on the mass distribution of particles crushed and ground in air as well as in polar liquids is also discussed. The estimation of fractal dimensions of particles mass distribution is done on the assumption that the particle size distribution is described by the power-law (1. The value of fractal dimension for the mass distribution in the crushed sample is lower than in the sample ground in air, because it is influenced by the energy required for comminution.The sample of chalcopyrite was ground (10min in ethanol and i-butanol [which according to Ikazaki (1991] are characterized by the parameter µ /V, where µ is its dipole moment and V is the molecular volume. The values of µ /V for the used polar liquids are of the same order. That is why the expressive differences in particle size distributions as well as in the values of

  15. Solar Cycle Phase Dependence of Supergranular Fractal Dimension

    Solar Cycle Phase Dependence of Supergranular Fractal Dimension ... NIE Institute of Technology, Mysore, India. ... This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page ...

  16. A random walk through fractal dimensions

    Kaye, Brian H

    2008-01-01

    Fractal geometry is revolutionizing the descriptive mathematics of applied materials systems. Rather than presenting a mathematical treatise, Brian Kaye demonstrates the power of fractal geometry in describing materials ranging from Swiss cheese to pyrolytic graphite. Written from a practical point of view, the author assiduously avoids the use of equations while introducing the reader to numerous interesting and challenging problems in subject areas ranging from geography to fine particle science. The second edition of this successful book provides up-to-date literature coverage of the use of fractal geometry in all areas of science.From reviews of the first edition:''...no stone is left unturned in the quest for applications of fractal geometry to fine particle problems....This book should provide hours of enjoyable reading to those wishing to become acquainted with the ideas of fractal geometry as applied to practical materials problems.'' MRS Bulletin

  17. Fractal dimension evolution and spatial replacement dynamics of urban growth

    Chen Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fractal dimension growth can be modeled by Boltzmann’s equation. ► Boltzmann’s model suggests urban spatial replacement dynamics. ► If the rate of urban growth is too high, periodic oscillations or chaos will arise. ► Chaos is associated with fractals by the fractal dimension evolution model. ► The fractal dimension of urban form implies the space-filling ratio of a city. - Abstract: This paper presents a new perspective of looking at the relation between fractals and chaos by means of cities. Especially, a principle of space filling and spatial replacement is proposed to interpret the fractal dimension of urban form. The fractal dimension evolution of urban growth can be empirically modeled with Boltzmann’s equation. For the normalized data, Boltzmann’s equation is just equivalent to the logistic function. The logistic equation can be transformed into the well-known 1-dimensional logistic map, which is based on a 2-dimensional map suggesting spatial replacement dynamics of city development. The 2-dimensional recurrence relations can be employed to generate the nonlinear dynamical behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos. A discovery is thus made in this article that, for the fractal dimension growth following the logistic curve, the normalized dimension value is the ratio of space filling. If the rate of spatial replacement (urban growth) is too high, the periodic oscillations and chaos will arise. The spatial replacement dynamics can be extended to general replacement dynamics, and bifurcation and chaos mirror a process of complex replacement.

  18. Some fractal properties of the percolating backbone in two dimensions

    Laidlaw, D.; MacKay, G.; Jan, N.

    1987-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented, based on elements of artificial intelligence theory, to determine the fractal properties of the backbone of the incipient infinite cluster. It is found that fractal dimensionality of the backbone is d/sub f//sup BB/ = 1.61 +/- 0.01, the chemical dimensionality is d/sub t/ = 1.40 +/- 0.01, and the fractal dimension of the minimum path d/sub min/ = 1.15 +/- 0.02 for the two-dimensional triangular lattice

  19. Gap sequence, Lipschitz equivalence and box dimension of fractal sets

    Rao Hui; Yang Yamin; Ruan Huojun

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a notion of gap sequences for compact sets E subset of R d , which is a generalization of the gap sequences of compact sets on the real line. We show that if the gap sequences of two fractal sets are not equivalent, then these two sets cannot be Lipschitz equivalent, where the latter fact is usually very hard to verify. Finally, we show that for some typical fractal sets, the gap sequences characterize the upper box dimension

  20. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF TRABECULAR BONE: A STANDARDISED METHODOLOGY

    Ian Parkinson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A standardised methodology for the fractal analysis of histological sections of trabecular bone has been established. A modified box counting method has been developed for use on a PC based image analyser (Quantimet 500MC, Leica Cambridge. The effect of image analyser settings, magnification, image orientation and threshold levels, was determined. Also, the range of scale over which trabecular bone is effectively fractal was determined and a method formulated to objectively calculate more than one fractal dimension from the modified Richardson plot. The results show that magnification, image orientation and threshold settings have little effect on the estimate of fractal dimension. Trabecular bone has a lower limit below which it is not fractal (λ<25 μm and the upper limit is 4250 μm. There are three distinct fractal dimensions for trabecular bone (sectional fractals, with magnitudes greater than 1.0 and less than 2.0. It has been shown that trabecular bone is effectively fractal over a defined range of scale. Also, within this range, there is more than 1 fractal dimension, describing spatial structural entities. Fractal analysis is a model independent method for describing a complex multifaceted structure, which can be adapted for the study of other biological systems. This may be at the cell, tissue or organ level and compliments conventional histomorphometric and stereological techniques.

  1. Fractal geometry and number theory complex dimensions of fractal strings and zeros of zeta functions

    Lapidus, Michael L

    1999-01-01

    A fractal drum is a bounded open subset of R. m with a fractal boundary. A difficult problem is to describe the relationship between the shape (geo­ metry) of the drum and its sound (its spectrum). In this book, we restrict ourselves to the one-dimensional case of fractal strings, and their higher dimensional analogues, fractal sprays. We develop a theory of complex di­ mensions of a fractal string, and we study how these complex dimensions relate the geometry with the spectrum of the fractal string. We refer the reader to [Berrl-2, Lapl-4, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2] and the ref­ erences therein for further physical and mathematical motivations of this work. (Also see, in particular, Sections 7. 1, 10. 3 and 10. 4, along with Ap­ pendix B. ) In Chapter 1, we introduce the basic object of our research, fractal strings (see [Lapl-3, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2]). A 'standard fractal string' is a bounded open subset of the real line. Such a set is a disjoint union of open intervals, the lengths of which ...

  2. Fractal Analysis of Mobile Social Networks

    Zheng Wei; Pan Qian; Sun Chen; Deng Yu-Fan; Zhao Xiao-Kang; Kang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Fractal and self similarity of complex networks have attracted much attention in recent years. The fractal dimension is a useful method to describe the fractal property of networks. However, the fractal features of mobile social networks (MSNs) are inadequately investigated. In this work, a box-covering method based on the ratio of excluded mass to closeness centrality is presented to investigate the fractal feature of MSNs. Using this method, we find that some MSNs are fractal at different time intervals. Our simulation results indicate that the proposed method is available for analyzing the fractal property of MSNs. (paper)

  3. Effect of exposure time and image resolution on fractal dimension

    An, Byung Mo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Seung Pyo; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Dae

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of exposure time and image resolution on fractal dimension calculations for determining the optimal range of these two variances. Thirty-one radiographs of the mandibular angle area of sixteen human dry mandibles were taken at different exposure times (0.01, 0.08, 0.16, 0.25, 0.40, 0.64, and 0.80 s). Each radiograph was digitized at 1200 dpi, 8 bit, 256 gray level using a film scanner. We selected an Region of Interest (ROI) that corresponded to the same region as in each radiograph, but the resolution of ROI was degraded to 1000, 800, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, and 100 dpi. The fractal dimension was calculated by using the tile-counting method for each image, and the calculated values were then compared statistically. As the exposure time and the image resolution increased, the mean value of the fractal dimension decreased, except the case where exposure time was set at 0.01 seconds (alpha = 0.05). The exposure time and image resolution affected the fractal dimension by interaction (p<0.001). When the exposure time was set to either 0.64 seconds or 0.80 seconds, the resulting fractal dimensions were lower, irrespective of image resolution, than at shorter exposure times (alpha = 0.05). The optimal range for exposure time and resolution was determined to be 0.08-0.40 seconds and from 400-1000 dpi, respectively. Adequate exposure time and image resolution is essential for acquiring the fractal dimension using tile-counting method for evaluation of the mandible.

  4. Hydrophobicity classification of polymeric materials based on fractal dimension

    Daniel Thomazini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method to obtain hydrophobicity classification (HC in high voltage polymer insulators. In the method mentioned, the HC was analyzed by fractal dimension (fd and its processing time was evaluated having as a goal the application in mobile devices. Texture images were created from spraying solutions produced of mixtures of isopropyl alcohol and distilled water in proportions, which ranged from 0 to 100% volume of alcohol (%AIA. Based on these solutions, the contact angles of the drops were measured and the textures were used as patterns for fractal dimension calculations.

  5. Usefulness of fractal analysis for the diagnosis of periodontitis

    Cha, Sang Yun; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of fractal analysis for diagnosis of periodontitis. Each 30 cases of periapical films of male mandibular molar were selected in normal group and patient group which had complete furcation involvement. They were digitized at 300 dpi, 256 gray levels and saved with gif format. Rectangular ROIs (10 X 20 pixel) were selected at furcation, interdental crest, and interdental middle 1/3 area. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by mass radius method and were determined using a mean of three measurements. We computed fractal dimensions at furcation and interdental crest area of normal group with those of patient group. And then we compared ratio of fractal dimensions at furcation area, interdental crest area to interdental middle 1/3 area. Fractal dimension at interdental crest area of normal group was 1.979{+-}0.018 (p<0.05). The radio of fractal dimension at furcation area to interdental middle 1/3 of normal group was 1.006{+-}0.018 and that of patient group 0.9940.018 (p<0.05). The radio of fractal dimension at interdental crest and furcation area to interdental middle 1/3 area showed a statistically significant difference between normal and patient group. In conclusion, it is thought that fractal analysis might be useful for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  6. Linear correlation between fractal dimension of surface EMG signal from Rectus Femoris and height of vertical jump

    Ancillao, Andrea; Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimension was demonstrated to be able to characterize the complexity of biological signals. The EMG time series are well known to have a complex behavior and some other studies already tried to characterize these signals by their fractal dimension. This paper is aimed at studying the correlation between the fractal dimension of surface EMG signal recorded over Rectus Femoris muscles during a vertical jump and the height reached in that jump. Healthy subjects performed vertical jumps at different heights. Surface EMG from Rectus Femoris was recorded and the height of each jump was measured by an optoelectronic motion capture system. Fractal dimension of sEMG was computed and the correlation between fractal dimension and eight of the jump was studied. Linear regression analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient between the fractal dimension and the height of the jump for all the subjects. The results of this study show that the fractal dimension is able to characterize the EMG signal and it can be related to the performance of the jump. Fractal dimension is therefore an useful tool for EMG interpretation

  7. Fractal-Based Image Analysis In Radiological Applications

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S. B.; Vernazza, G.; Viviani, R.

    1987-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of a study aimed to assess the actual effectiveness of fractal theory and to define its limitations in the area of medical image analysis for texture description, in particular, in radiological applications. A general analysis to select appropriate parameters (mask size, tolerance on fractal dimension estimation, etc.) has been performed on synthetically generated images of known fractal dimensions. Moreover, we analyzed some radiological images of human organs in which pathological areas can be observed. Input images were subdivided into blocks of 6x6 pixels; then, for each block, the fractal dimension was computed in order to create fractal images whose intensity was related to the D value, i.e., texture behaviour. Results revealed that the fractal images could point out the differences between normal and pathological tissues. By applying histogram-splitting segmentation to the fractal images, pathological areas were isolated. Two different techniques (i.e., the method developed by Pentland and the "blanket" method) were employed to obtain fractal dimension values, and the results were compared; in both cases, the appropriateness of the fractal description of the original images was verified.

  8. Insulator Contamination Forecasting Based on Fractal Analysis of Leakage Current

    Bing Luo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial pollution test is carried out to study the leakage current of porcelain insulators. Fractal theory is adopted to extract the characteristics hidden in leakage current waveforms. Fractal dimensions of the leakage current for the security, forecast and danger zones are analyzed under four types of degrees of contamination. The mean value and the standard deviation of the fractal dimension in the forecast zone are calculated to characterize the differences. The analysis reveals large differences in the fractal dimension of leakage current under different contamination discharge stages and degrees. The experimental and calculation results suggest that the fractal dimension of a leakage current waveform can be used as a new indicator of the discharge process and contamination degree of insulators. The results provide new methods and valid indicators for forecasting contamination flashovers.

  9. Divergence, spacetime dimension and fractal structure

    Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    With a Cantor spacetime in mind, we assume the dimension of spacetime to be slightly smaller than four. Within the framework of QED, this dimension can be determined by calculating Feynman diagrams. We infer that the dimension of spacetime may be influenced by holes in space. (author)

  10. Fractal zeta functions and fractal drums higher-dimensional theory of complex dimensions

    Lapidus, Michel L; Žubrinić, Darko

    2017-01-01

    This monograph gives a state-of-the-art and accessible treatment of a new general higher-dimensional theory of complex dimensions, valid for arbitrary bounded subsets of Euclidean spaces, as well as for their natural generalization, relative fractal drums. It provides a significant extension of the existing theory of zeta functions for fractal strings to fractal sets and arbitrary bounded sets in Euclidean spaces of any dimension. Two new classes of fractal zeta functions are introduced, namely, the distance and tube zeta functions of bounded sets, and their key properties are investigated. The theory is developed step-by-step at a slow pace, and every step is well motivated by numerous examples, historical remarks and comments, relating the objects under investigation to other concepts. Special emphasis is placed on the study of complex dimensions of bounded sets and their connections with the notions of Minkowski content and Minkowski measurability, as well as on fractal tube formulas. It is shown for the f...

  11. Arctic sea ice melt pond fractal dimension - explained

    Popovic, Predrag

    As Arctic sea ice starts to melt in the summer, pools of melt water quickly form on its surface, significantly changing its albedo, and impacting its subsequent evolution. These melt ponds often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, when plotted as a function of pond size, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. Namely, while ice is impermeable, maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. We provide a possible explanation for this length scale by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness.

  12. Using Dimension Theory to Analyze and Classify the Generation of Fractal Sets

    Casey, Stephen D

    1996-01-01

    ... of) fractal sets and the underlying dimension theory. The computer is ideally suited to implement the recursive algorithms needed to create these sets, thus giving researchers a laboratory for studying fractals and their corresponding dimensions...

  13. Fractal-like dimension of nanometer Diesel soot particles

    Skillas, G.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegmann, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Measurements with a low-pressure impactor and a differential mobility analyser were conducted for Diesel soot at various engine loads. By means of these measurements a fractal-like dimension of Diesel soot particles, with diameters ranging from 55 up to 260 nm, was established. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  14. Fractal dimension at the phase transition of inhomogeneous cellular automata

    da Silva, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    For random binary mixtures of cellular automata in the square lattice, calculations are made of the fractal dimensions associated with the damage spreading and the propagation time of damage at the transition to chaos. Two rules are mixed and universalities of these quantities are sought with respect to change of the rules

  15. Determination of fish gender using fractal analysis of ultrasound images

    McEvoy, Fintan J.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Støttrup, Josianne

    2009-01-01

    The gender of cod Gadus morhua can be determined by considering the complexity in their gonadal ultrasonographic appearance. The fractal dimension (DB) can be used to describe this feature in images. B-mode gonadal ultrasound images in 32 cod, where gender was known, were collected. Fractal...... by subjective analysis alone. The mean (and standard deviation) of the fractal dimension DB for male fish was 1.554 (0.073) while for female fish it was 1.468 (0.061); the difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.84 indicating the value of fractal analysis in gender...... result. Fractal analysis is useful for gender determination in cod. This or a similar form of analysis may have wide application in veterinary imaging as a tool for quantification of complexity in images...

  16. Fractal Dimension Analysis of MDCT Images for Quantifying the Morphological Changes of the Pulmonary Artery Tree in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Sun, Haitao; Li, Ning; Guo, Lijun; Gao, Fei; Liu, Cheng [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to use fractal dimension (FD) analysis on multidetector CT (MDCT) images for quantifying the morphological changes of the pulmonary artery tree in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Fourteen patients with PH and 17 patients without PH as controls were studied. All of the patients underwent contrast-enhanced helical CT and transthoracic echocardiography. The pulmonary artery trees were generated using post-processing software, and the FD and projected image area of the pulmonary artery trees were determined with Image J software in a personal computer. The FD, the projected image area and the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were statistically evaluated in the two groups. The FD, the projected image area and the PAP of the patients with PH were higher than those values of the patients without PH (p < 0.05, t-test). There was a high correlation of FD with the PAP (r = 0.82, p < 0.05, partial correlation analysis). There was a moderate correlation of FD with the projected image area (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, partial correlation analysis). There was a correlation of the PAP with the projected image area (r = 0.65, p < 0.05, Pearson correlation analysis). The FD of the pulmonary arteries in the PH patients was significantly higher than that of the controls. There is a high correlation of FD with the PAP.

  17. Fractal Dimension Analysis of MDCT Images for Quantifying the Morphological Changes of the Pulmonary Artery Tree in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    Sun, Haitao; Li, Ning; Guo, Lijun; Gao, Fei; Liu, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use fractal dimension (FD) analysis on multidetector CT (MDCT) images for quantifying the morphological changes of the pulmonary artery tree in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Fourteen patients with PH and 17 patients without PH as controls were studied. All of the patients underwent contrast-enhanced helical CT and transthoracic echocardiography. The pulmonary artery trees were generated using post-processing software, and the FD and projected image area of the pulmonary artery trees were determined with Image J software in a personal computer. The FD, the projected image area and the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were statistically evaluated in the two groups. The FD, the projected image area and the PAP of the patients with PH were higher than those values of the patients without PH (p < 0.05, t-test). There was a high correlation of FD with the PAP (r = 0.82, p < 0.05, partial correlation analysis). There was a moderate correlation of FD with the projected image area (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, partial correlation analysis). There was a correlation of the PAP with the projected image area (r = 0.65, p < 0.05, Pearson correlation analysis). The FD of the pulmonary arteries in the PH patients was significantly higher than that of the controls. There is a high correlation of FD with the PAP.

  18. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis.

    Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023-1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02-7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21-1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage.

  19. Assessment of textural differentiations in forest resources in Romania using fractal analysis

    Andronache, Ion; Fensholt, Rasmus; Ahammer, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    regions in Romania affected by both deforestation and reforestation using a non-Euclidean method based on fractal analysis.We calculated four fractal dimensions of forest areas: the fractal box-counting dimension of the forest areas, the fractal box-counting dimension of the dilated forest areas......, the fractal dilation dimension and the box-counting dimension of the border of the dilated forest areas. Fractal analysis revealed morpho-structural and textural differentiations of forested, deforested and reforested areas in development regions with dominant mountain relief and high hills (more forested...... and compact organization) in comparison to the development regions dominated by plains or low hills (less forested, more fragmented with small and isolated clusters). Our analysis used the fractal analysis that has the advantage of analyzing the entire image, rather than studying local information, thereby...

  20. Fractal Dimension and the Cantor Set

    IAS Admin

    S Smith. dimension'). We now give two examples of such objects to show that this notion is not vacuous. Cantor Set. Start with the unit interval [0, 1]. Delete the open mid- dle third of the segment, leaving behind two closed seg- ments: [0, 1/3] and [2/3, 1]. Note that, each has length. 1/3. Repeat the same construction for each ...

  1. Predicting beauty: fractal dimension and visual complexity in art.

    Forsythe, A; Nadal, M; Sheehy, N; Cela-Conde, C J; Sawey, M

    2011-02-01

    Visual complexity has been known to be a significant predictor of preference for artistic works for some time. The first study reported here examines the extent to which perceived visual complexity in art can be successfully predicted using automated measures of complexity. Contrary to previous findings the most successful predictor of visual complexity was Gif compression. The second study examined the extent to which fractal dimension could account for judgments of perceived beauty. The fractal dimension measure accounts for more of the variance in judgments of perceived beauty in visual art than measures of visual complexity alone, particularly for abstract and natural images. Results also suggest that when colour is removed from an artistic image observers are unable to make meaningful judgments as to its beauty. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Measurement of DEM roughness using the local fractal dimension

    Taud, Hind; Parrot, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Les relations entre les traits géomorphologiques et la rugosité de surface des Modèles Numériques de Terrain (MNT) ont été étudiées par l’intermédiaire de la géométrie fractale. La dimension fractale dans l’espace à trois dimensions est estimée localement sur la surface du MNT. Cette mesure se fait à l’aide d’une procédure dérivée de la technique du « comptage de boîtes ». Ce traitement a été appliqué sur deux zones tests choisies pour leurs différences lithologiques et tectoniques. La premiè...

  3. Weighted radial dimension: an improved fractal measurement for highway transportation networks distribution

    Feng, Yongjiu; Liu, Miaolong; Tong, Xiaohua

    2007-06-01

    An improved fractal measurement, the weighted radial dimension, is put forward for highway transportation networks distribution. The radial dimension (DL), originated from subway investigation in Stuttgart, is a fractal measurement for transportation systems under ideal assumption considering all the network lines to be homogeneous curves, ignoring the difference on spatial structure, quality and level, especially the highway networks. Considering these defects of radial dimension, an improved fractal measurement called weighted radial dimension (D WL) is introduced and the transportation system in Guangdong province is studied in detail using this novel method. Weighted radial dimensions are measured and calculated, and the spatial structure, intensity and connectivity of transportation networks are discussed in Guangdong province and the four sub-areas: the Pearl River Delta area, the East Costal area, the West Costal area and the Northern Guangdong area. In Guangdong province, the fractal spatial pattern characteristics of transportation system vary remarkably: it is the highest in the Pearl River Delta area, moderate in Costal area and lowest in the Northern Guangdong area. With the Pearl River Delta area as the centre, the weighted radial dimensions decrease with the distance increasing, while the decline level is smaller in the costal area and greater in the Northern Guangdong province. By analysis of the conic of highway density, it is recognized that the density decrease with the distance increasing from the calculation centre (Guangzhou), demonstrating the same trend as weighted radial dimensions shown. Evidently, the improved fractal measurement, weighted radial dimension, is an indictor describing the characteristics of highway transportation system more effectively and accurately.

  4. Feasibility of cone beam computed tomography radiomorphometric analysis and fractal dimension in assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in correlation with dual X-ray absorptiometry.

    Mostafa, Raghdaa A; Arnout, Eman A; Abo El-Fotouh, Mona M

    The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of using mandibular CBCT radiomorphometric indices and box-counting fractal dimension (FD) to detect osteoporosis in post-menopausal females, compare them with the healthy control group and to correlate the findings with the bone mineral density measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This study consisted of 50 post-menopausal females, with age ranging from 55 to 70 years. Based on their DXA results, they were classified into osteoporotic and control groups. Mandibular CBCT radiomorphomertic indices and FD analysis were measured. Significant differences were found for the CT cortical index scores (CTCI), CT mental index (CTMI) and CT mandibular index (CTI) between the control and osteoporotic groups. The control group showed higher mean values than the osteoporotic group. For FD values, no significant differences were found between the two groups. CBCT radiomorphometric indices could be used as an adjuvant tool to refer patients at risk of osteoporosis for further assessment.

  5. Fractal dimension and turbulence in Giant HII Regions

    Caicedo-Ortiz, H E; Santiago-Cortes, E; López-Bonilla, J; er piso, CP 07738, México D.F (Mexico))" data-affiliation=" (ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edif. 9, 1er piso, CP 07738, México D.F (Mexico))" >Castañeda, H O

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the fractal dimensions of the Giant HII Regions Hubble X and Hubble V in NGC6822 using images obtained with the Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). These measures are associated with the turbulence observed in these regions, which is quantified through the velocity dispersion of emission lines in the visible. Our results suggest low turbulence behaviour

  6. Fractal dimension and image statistics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia

    Ahammer, H.; Kroepfl, J.M.; Hackl, Ch.; Sedivy, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Human papillomaviruses cause anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). → Digital image processing was carried out to classify the grades of AIN quantitatively. → The fractal dimension as well as grey value statistics was calculated. → Higher grades of AIN yielded higher values of the fractal dimension. → An automatic detection system is feasible. - Abstract: It is well known that human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce a variety of tumorous lesions of the skin. HPV-subtypes also cause premalignant lesions which are termed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The clinical classification of AIN is of growing interest in clinical practice, due to increasing HPV infection rates throughout human population. The common classification approach is based on subjective inspections of histological slices of anal tissues with all the drawbacks of depending on the status and individual variances of the trained pathologists. Therefore, a nonlinear quantitative classification method including the calculation of the fractal dimension and first order as well as second order image statistical parameters was developed. The absolute values of these quantitative parameters reflected the distinct grades of AIN very well. The quantitative approach has the potential to decrease classification errors significantly and it could be used as a widely applied screening technique.

  7. A fractal analysis of the public transportation system of Paris

    L Benguigui

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the railway networks of the public transportation system of Paris, based on the notion of fractals, is presented. The two basic networks, (metropolitan and suburban) which have different functions, have also a different fractal dimension: 1.8 for the metropolitan network, and 1.5 for the suburban network. By means of computer simulation, it is concluded that the true dimension of the metro network is probably 2.0. A fractal model of the suburban network, with the same features ...

  8. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of chromizing coating and P110 steel for corrosion resistance estimation

    Lin, Naiming, E-mail: lnmlz33@163.com [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Junwen [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Xie, Faqin [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zou, Jiaojuan; Tian, Wei [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yao, Xiaofei [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Zhang, Hongyan; Tang, Bin [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Continuous chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel by pack cementation. • The chromizing coating showed better corrosion resistance. • Comparison of surface fractal dimensions can estimate corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In the field of corrosion research, mass gain/loss, electrochemical tests and comparing the surface elemental distributions, phase constitutions as well as surface morphologies before and after corrosion are extensively applied to investigate the corrosion behavior or estimate the corrosion resistance of materials that operated in various environments. Most of the above methods are problem oriented, complex and longer-period time-consuming. However from an object oriented point of view, the corroded surfaces of materials often have self-similar characterization: fractal property which can be employed to efficiently achieve damaged surface analysis. The present work describes a strategy of comparison of the surface fractal dimensions for corrosion resistance estimation: chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel surface to improve its performance via pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the original and corroded samples. Surface fractal dimensions of the detected samples were calculated by binary images related to SEM images of surface morphologies with box counting algorithm method. The results showed that both surface morphologies and surface fractal dimensions of P110 steel varied greatly before and after corrosion test, but the chromizing coating changed slightly. The chromizing coating indicated better corrosion resistance than P110 steel. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of original and corroded samples can rapidly and exactly realize the estimation of corrosion resistance.

  9. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of chromizing coating and P110 steel for corrosion resistance estimation

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Xie, Faqin; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tian, Wei; Yao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hongyan; Tang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel by pack cementation. • The chromizing coating showed better corrosion resistance. • Comparison of surface fractal dimensions can estimate corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In the field of corrosion research, mass gain/loss, electrochemical tests and comparing the surface elemental distributions, phase constitutions as well as surface morphologies before and after corrosion are extensively applied to investigate the corrosion behavior or estimate the corrosion resistance of materials that operated in various environments. Most of the above methods are problem oriented, complex and longer-period time-consuming. However from an object oriented point of view, the corroded surfaces of materials often have self-similar characterization: fractal property which can be employed to efficiently achieve damaged surface analysis. The present work describes a strategy of comparison of the surface fractal dimensions for corrosion resistance estimation: chromizing coating was synthesized on P110 steel surface to improve its performance via pack cementation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the original and corroded samples. Surface fractal dimensions of the detected samples were calculated by binary images related to SEM images of surface morphologies with box counting algorithm method. The results showed that both surface morphologies and surface fractal dimensions of P110 steel varied greatly before and after corrosion test, but the chromizing coating changed slightly. The chromizing coating indicated better corrosion resistance than P110 steel. Comparison of surface fractal dimensions of original and corroded samples can rapidly and exactly realize the estimation of corrosion resistance

  10. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  11. The Extraction of Vegetation Points from LiDAR Using 3D Fractal Dimension Analyses

    Haiquan Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, a high-precision technique used for acquiring three-dimensional (3D surface information, is widely used to study surface vegetation information. Moreover, the extraction of a vegetation point set from the LiDAR point cloud is a basic starting-point for vegetation information analysis, and an important part of its further processing. To extract the vegetation point set completely and to describe the different spatial morphological characteristics of various features in a LiDAR point cloud, we have used 3D fractal dimensions. We discovered that every feature has its own distinctive 3D fractal dimension interval. Based on the 3D fractal dimensions of tall trees, we propose a new method for the extraction of vegetation using airborne LiDAR. According to this method, target features can be distinguished based on their morphological characteristics. The non-ground points acquired by filtering are processed by region growing segmentation and the morphological characteristics are evaluated by 3D fractal dimensions to determine the features required for the determination of the point set for tall trees. Avon, New York, USA was selected as the study area to test the method and the result proves the method’s efficiency. Thus, this approach is feasible. Additionally, the method uses the 3D coordinate properties of the LiDAR point cloud and does not require additional information, such as return intensity, giving it a larger scope of application.

  12. The influence of the growth conditions of the plague microbe vaccine strain colonies on the fractal dimension of biospeckles

    Ul'yanov, A S; Lyapina, A M; Ulianova, O V; Fedorova, V A; Uianov, S S

    2011-01-01

    Specific statistical characteristics of biospeckles, emerging under the diffraction of coherent beams on the bacterial colonies, are studied. The dependence of the fractal dimensions of biospeckles on the conditions of both illumination and growth of the colonies is studied theoretically and experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the fractal properties of biospeckles, emerging under the scattering of light by the colonies of the vaccinal strain of the plague microbe. The possibility in principle to classify the colonies of Yersinia pestis EV NIIEG using the fractal dimension analysis is demonstrated. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  13. Effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity as manifested by fractal dimension changes

    Grbić G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of camphor essential oil on rat cerebral cortex activity by fractal analysis. Fractal dimension (FD values of the parietal electrocortical activity were calculated before and after intra-peritoneal administration of camphor essential oil (450-675 μl/kg in anesthetized rats. Camphor oil induced seizure-like activity with single and multiple spiking of high amplitudes in the parietal electrocorticogram and occasional clonic limb convulsions. The FD values of cortical activity after camphor oil administration increased on the average. Only FD values of cortical ECoG sequences were lower than those before camphor oil administration.

  14. Balance failure in single limb stance due to ankle sprain injury: an analysis of center of pressure using the fractal dimension method.

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Instrumented postural control analysis plays an important role in evaluating the effects of injury on dynamic stability during balance tasks, and is often conveyed with measures based on the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) assessed with a force platform. However, the desired outcome of the task is frequently characterized by a loss of dynamic stability, secondary to injury. Typically, these failed trials are discarded during research investigations, with the potential loss of informative data pertaining to task success. The novelty of the present study is that COP characteristics of failed trials in injured participants are compared to successful trial data in another injured group, and a control group of participants, using the fractal dimension (FD) method. Three groups of participants attempted a task of eyes closed single limb stance (SLS): twenty-nine participants with acute ankle sprain successfully completed the task on their non-injured limb (successful injury group); twenty eight participants with acute ankle sprain failed their attempt on their injured limb (failed injury group); sixteen participants with no current injury successfully completed the task on their non-dominant limb (successful non-injured group). Between trial analyses of these groups revealed significant differences in COP trajectory FD (successful injury group: 1.58±0.06; failed injury group: 1.54±0.07; successful non-injured group: 1.64±0.06) with a large effect size (0.27). These findings demonstrate that successful eyes-closed SLS is characterized by a larger FD of the COP path when compared to failed trials, and that injury causes a decrease in COP path FD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractal Dimension of Fracture Surface in Rock Material after High Temperature

    Z. Z. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on granite specimens after different high temperature under uniaxial compression were conducted and the fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces with increasing temperature were calculated, respectively. The fractal dimension of fracture surface is between 1.44 and 1.63. Its value approximately goes up exponentially with the increase of temperature. There is a quadratic polynomial relationship between the rockburst tendency and fractal dimension of fracture surface; namely, a fractal dimension threshold can be obtained. Below the threshold value, a positive correlativity shows between rockburst tendency and fractal dimension; when the fractal dimension is greater than the threshold value, it shows an inverse correlativity.

  16. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  17. Fractal Dimension of Particle Showers Measured in a Highly Granular Calorimeter

    Ruan, Manqi; Bourdy, Vincent; Brients, Jean-Claude; Videau, Henri

    2014-01-01

    fractal dimension of showers measured in a high granularity calorimeter designed for a future lepton collider. The shower fractal dimension reveals detailed information of the spatial configuration of the shower. It is found to be characteristic of the type of interaction and highly sensitive to the nature of the incident particle. Using the shower fractal dimension, we demonstrate a particle identification algorithm that can efficiently separate electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers and non-showering tracks. We also find a logarithmic dependence of the shower fractal dimension on the particle energy.

  18. Passenger flow analysis of Beijing urban rail transit network using fractal approach

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Peiwen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger flow and the characteristics of an urban rail transit network, we introduce four radius fractal dimensions and two branch fractal dimensions by combining a fractal approach with passenger flow assignment model. These fractal dimensions can numerically describe the complexity of passenger flow in the urban rail transit network and its change characteristics. Based on it, we establish a fractal quantification method to measure the fractal characteristics of passenger follow in the rail transit network. Finally, we validate the reasonability of our proposed method by using the actual data of Beijing subway network. It has been shown that our proposed method can effectively measure the scale-free range of the urban rail transit network, network development and the fractal characteristics of time-varying passenger flow, which further provides a reference for network planning and analysis of passenger flow.

  19. Fractal dimension and vessel complexity in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension (FD can be used as a measure for morphological complexity in biological systems. The aim of this study was to test the usefulness of this quantitative parameter in the context of cerebral vascular complexity. Fractal analysis was applied on ten patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM and ten healthy controls. Maximum intensity projections from Time-of-Flight MRI scans were analyzed using different measurements of FD, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and generalized dimensions evaluated by means of multifractal analysis. The physiological significance of this parameter was investigated by comparing values of FD first, with the maximum slope of contrast media transit obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data and second, with the nidus size obtained from X-ray angiography data. We found that for all methods, the Box-counting dimension, the Minkowski dimension and the generalized dimensions FD was significantly higher in the hemisphere with AVM compared to the hemisphere without AVM indicating that FD is a sensitive parameter to capture vascular complexity. Furthermore we found a high correlation between FD and the maximum slope of contrast media transit and between FD and the size of the central nidus pointing out the physiological relevance of FD. The proposed method may therefore serve as an additional objective parameter, which can be assessed automatically and might assist in the complex workup of AVMs.

  20. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

    Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

  1. Zone specific fractal dimension of retinal images as predictor of stroke incidence.

    Aliahmad, Behzad; Kumar, Dinesh Kant; Hao, Hao; Unnikrishnan, Premith; Che Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal; Kawasaki, Ryo; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimensions (FDs) are frequently used for summarizing the complexity of retinal vascular. However, previous techniques on this topic were not zone specific. A new methodology to measure FD of a specific zone in retinal images has been developed and tested as a marker for stroke prediction. Higuchi's fractal dimension was measured in circumferential direction (FDC) with respect to optic disk (OD), in three concentric regions between OD boundary and 1.5 OD diameter from its margin. The significance of its association with future episode of stroke event was tested using the Blue Mountain Eye Study (BMES) database and compared against spectrum fractal dimension (SFD) and box-counting (BC) dimension. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed FDC as a better predictor of stroke (H = 5.80, P = 0.016, α = 0.05) compared with SFD (H = 0.51, P = 0.475, α = 0.05) and BC (H = 0.41, P = 0.520, α = 0.05) with overall lower median value for the cases compared to the control group. This work has shown that there is a significant association between zone specific FDC of eye fundus images with future episode of stroke while this difference is not significant when other FD methods are employed.

  2. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    V. Torres-Argüelles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  3. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  4. Evaluation de la Qualité de surface par la Dimension Fractale et les ...

    Evaluation of surface quality by Fractal Dimension and Volume. Parameters .... du microscope électronique à balayage la. FEG.SUPRA 40. ... telle configuration le rapport (L/Dp), est tel que : L0 ,75 ..... du contrôle par la dimension fractale ;.

  5. The fractal dimension of cell membrane correlates with its capacitance: A new fractal single-shell model

    Wang, Xujing; Becker, Frederick F.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.

    2010-01-01

    The scale-invariant property of the cytoplasmic membrane of biological cells is examined by applying the Minkowski–Bouligand method to digitized scanning electron microscopy images of the cell surface. The membrane is found to exhibit fractal behavior, and the derived fractal dimension gives a good description of its morphological complexity. Furthermore, we found that this fractal dimension correlates well with the specific membrane dielectric capacitance derived from the electrorotation measurements. Based on these findings, we propose a new fractal single-shell model to describe the dielectrics of mammalian cells, and compare it with the conventional single-shell model (SSM). We found that while both models fit with experimental data well, the new model is able to eliminate the discrepancy between the measured dielectric property of cells and that predicted by the SSM. PMID:21198103

  6. FRACTAL DIMENSION OF URBAN EXPANSION BASED ON REMOTE SENSING IMAGES

    IACOB I. CIPRIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fractal Dimension of Urban Expansion Based on Remote Sensing Images: In Cluj-Napoca city the process of urbanization has been accelerated during the years and implication of local authorities reflects a relevant planning policy. A good urban planning framework should take into account the society demands and also it should satisfy the natural conditions of local environment. The expansion of antropic areas it can be approached by implication of 5D variables (time as a sequence of stages, space: with x, y, z and magnitude of phenomena into the process, which will allow us to analyse and extract the roughness of city shape. Thus, to improve the decision factor we take a different approach in this paper, looking at geometry and scale composition. Using the remote sensing (RS and GIS techniques we manage to extract a sequence of built-up areas (from 1980 to 2012 and used the result as an input for modelling the spatialtemporal changes of urban expansion and fractal theory to analysed the geometric features. Taking the time as a parameter we can observe behaviour and changes in urban landscape, this condition have been known as self-organized – a condition which in first stage the system was without any turbulence (before the antropic factor and during the time tend to approach chaotic behaviour (entropy state without causing an disequilibrium in the main system.

  7. Pulmonary vasculature in dogs assessed by three-dimensional fractal analysis and chemometrics

    Müller, Anna V; Marschner, Clara B; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2017-01-01

    Fractal analysis of canine pulmonary vessels could allow quantification of their space-filling properties. Aims of this prospective, analytical, cross-sectional study were to describe methods for reconstructing three dimensional pulmonary arterial vascular trees from computed tomographic pulmonary...... angiogram, applying fractal analyses of these vascular trees in dogs with and without diseases that are known to predispose to thromboembolism, and testing the hypothesis that diseased dogs would have a different fractal dimension than healthy dogs. A total of 34 dogs were sampled. Based on computed...... for each dog using a semiautomated segmentation technique. Vascular three-dimensional reconstructions were then evaluated using fractal analysis. Fractal dimensions were analyzed, by group, using analysis of variance and principal component analysis. Fractal dimensions were significantly different among...

  8. Fractal dimension algorithms and their application to time series associated with natural phenomena

    La Torre, F Cervantes-De; González-Trejo, J I; Real-Ramírez, C A; Hoyos-Reyes, L F

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic invariants like the fractal dimensions are used to characterize non-linear time series. The fractal dimension is an important characteristic of systems, because it contains information about their geometrical structure at multiple scales. In this work, three algorithms are applied to non-linear time series: spectral analysis, rescaled range analysis and Higuchi's algorithm. The analyzed time series are associated with natural phenomena. The disturbance storm time (Dst) is a global indicator of the state of the Earth's geomagnetic activity. The time series used in this work show a self-similar behavior, which depends on the time scale of measurements. It is also observed that fractal dimensions, D, calculated with Higuchi's method may not be constant over-all time scales. This work shows that during 2001, D reaches its lowest values in March and November. The possibility that D recovers a change pattern arising from self-organized critical phenomena is also discussed

  9. Plot-slope soil erosion using 7Be measurement and rill fractal dimension

    Zhang Fengbao; Yang Mingyi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intended to use 7 Be measurement and fractal theory to quantify soil erosion process on slope. The results showed that contribution rate of inter rill erosion was more than that of rill erosion during early stage of rainfall. When it rained, contribution rate of rill erosion began to be higher than inter rill erosion and become the main part of erosion during medium stage of rainfall. The trend of contribution rate of inter rill erosion was growing and the rill erosion was lowering during late stage of rainfall. Rill fractal dimension on the plot slope was almost growing larger during rainfall,growing quickly during early stage of rainfall and slowly during the late stage. Correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension and total erosion amount, also positive between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion. The correlations was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and total erosion amount, also was positive between rill fractal dimension variation and rill erosion amount. The best correlation was observed between rill fractal dimension and rill erosion amount. These results indicated that the rill fractal dimension on the plot slope could represent the development process of rill,the complex degree of rill and the variation of soil erosion intensity on the entire slope. (authors)

  10. Texture segmentation of non-cooperative spacecrafts images based on wavelet and fractal dimension

    Wu, Kanzhi; Yue, Xiaokui

    2011-06-01

    With the increase of on-orbit manipulations and space conflictions, missions such as tracking and capturing the target spacecrafts are aroused. Unlike cooperative spacecrafts, fixing beacons or any other marks on the targets is impossible. Due to the unknown shape and geometry features of non-cooperative spacecraft, in order to localize the target and obtain the latitude, we need to segment the target image and recognize the target from the background. The data and errors during the following procedures such as feature extraction and matching can also be reduced. Multi-resolution analysis of wavelet theory reflects human beings' recognition towards images from low resolution to high resolution. In addition, spacecraft is the only man-made object in the image compared to the natural background and the differences will be certainly observed between the fractal dimensions of target and background. Combined wavelet transform and fractal dimension, in this paper, we proposed a new segmentation algorithm for the images which contains complicated background such as the universe and planet surfaces. At first, Daubechies wavelet basis is applied to decompose the image in both x axis and y axis, thus obtain four sub-images. Then, calculate the fractal dimensions in four sub-images using different methods; after analyzed the results of fractal dimensions in sub-images, we choose Differential Box Counting in low resolution image as the principle to segment the texture which has the greatest divergences between different sub-images. This paper also presents the results of experiments by using the algorithm above. It is demonstrated that an accurate texture segmentation result can be obtained using the proposed technique.

  11. Navigation performance in virtual environments varies with fractal dimension of landscape

    Juliani, Arthur W.; Bies, Alexander J.; Boydston, Cooper R.; Taylor, Richard P.; Sereno, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry has been used to describe natural and built environments, but has yet to be studied in navigational research. In order to establish a relationship between the fractal dimension (D) of a natural environment and humans’ ability to navigate such spaces, we conducted two experiments using virtual environments that simulate the fractal properties of nature. In Experiment 1, participants completed a goal-driven search task either with or without a map in landscapes that varied in D...

  12. Use of sEMG in identification of low level muscle activities: features based on ICA and fractal dimension.

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    This paper has experimentally verified and compared features of sEMG (Surface Electromyogram) such as ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and Fractal Dimension (FD) for identification of low level forearm muscle activities. The fractal dimension was used as a feature as reported in the literature. The normalized feature values were used as training and testing vectors for an Artificial neural network (ANN), in order to reduce inter-experimental variations. The identification accuracy using FD of four channels sEMG was 58%, and increased to 96% when the signals are separated to their independent components using ICA.

  13. Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius

    Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass. (author)

  14. Brief communication: age and fractal dimensions of human sagittal and coronal sutures

    Lynnerup, Niels; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2003-01-01

    The fractal dimensions of human sagittal and coronal sutures were calculated on 31 complete skulls from the Terry Collection. The aim was to investigate whether the fractal dimension, relying on the whole sutural length, might yield a better description of age-related changes in sutural morphology......, as opposed to other methods of quantification, which generally rely on more arbitrary scoring systems. However, the fractal dimension did not yield better age correlations than other previously described methods. At best, the results reflected the general observation that young adults below age 40 years...

  15. Helicalised fractals

    Saw, Vee-Liem; Chew, Lock Yue

    2013-01-01

    We formulate the helicaliser, which replaces a given smooth curve by another curve that winds around it. In our analysis, we relate this formulation to the geometrical properties of the self-similar circular fractal (the discrete version of the curved helical fractal). Iterative applications of the helicaliser to a given curve yields a set of helicalisations, with the infinitely helicalised object being a fractal. We derive the Hausdorff dimension for the infinitely helicalised straight line ...

  16. Biomaterial porosity determined by fractal dimensions, succolarity and lacunarity on microcomputed tomographic images

    N'Diaye, Mambaye; Degeratu, Cristinel; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Chappard, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Porous structures are becoming more and more important in biology and material science because they help in reducing the density of the grafted material. For biomaterials, porosity also increases the accessibility of cells and vessels inside the grafted area. However, descriptors of porosity are scanty. We have used a series of biomaterials with different types of porosity (created by various porogens: fibers, beads …). Blocks were studied by microcomputed tomography for the measurement of 3D porosity. 2D sections were re-sliced to analyze the microarchitecture of the pores and were transferred to image analysis programs: star volumes, interconnectivity index, Minkowski–Bouligand and Kolmogorov fractal dimensions were determined. Lacunarity and succolarity, two recently described fractal dimensions, were also computed. These parameters provided a precise description of porosity and pores' characteristics. Non-linear relationships were found between several descriptors e.g. succolarity and star volume of the material. A linear correlation was found between lacunarity and succolarity. These techniques appear suitable in the study of biomaterials usable as bone substitutes. Highlights: ► Interconnected porosity is important in the development of bone substitutes. ► Porosity was evaluated by 2D and 3D morphometry on microCT images. ► Euclidean and fractal descriptors measure interconnectivity on 2D microCT images. ► Lacunarity and succolarity were evaluated on a series of porous biomaterials

  17. Application Of Fractal Dimension On Atmospheric Corrosion Of Galvanized Iron Roofing Material

    Issa A.K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corrosion rates of galvanized iron roofing sheet In yola north eastern part of Nigeria were assessed and determined by weight loss method and scanner fractal analysis method. Scanning electronic machine SEM was used to transform corrosion coupons to electronic form for image j processing and analysing software The result of corrosion rates for these two methods after six months of the samples exposure in industrial. Coastal market and urban areas in the region are 1.51 1.079 1.051 0.779 and 1.9941 1.9585 1.9565 1.9059 for weight loss and scanner fractal dimension methods respectively. and the results from the two methods were in agreement This establish the reliability of fractal dimension in measuring atmospheric corrosion this research also provides alternative method of measuring atmospheric corrosion and overcome the limitation of conventional weight loss technique in its inability to measure corrosion rate which is not significantly change over a long period of time moreover weight loss cannot demonstrate the area of concentration of corrosion on the surface of the coupon it rather gives the weight loss value and this will aid in determining the real level or extent of corrosion damage in the material and this can be obtained when measuring the material through fractal analysis these results clearly indicate that corrosion is heavier on locations close to the industrial areas. This also shows the negative impact of industrial activities on the corrodible materials and consequently on the plants and environment.

  18. Fractal analysis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Markus Fabrizii

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. METHODS: Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. RESULTS: Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. CONCLUSION: Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  19. Fractal analysis for studying the evolution of forests

    Andronache, Ion C.; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Peptenatu, Daniel; Ciobotaru, Ana-M.; Draghici, Cristian C.; Pintilii, Radu D.; Simion, Adrian G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Legal and illegal deforestation is investigated by fractal analysis. • A new fractal fragmentation index FFI is proposed. • Differences in shapes of forest areas indicate the type of deforestation. • Support of ecological management. - Abstract: Deforestation is an important phenomenon that may create major imbalances in ecosystems. In this study we propose a new mathematical analysis of the forest area dynamic, enabling qualitative as well as quantitative statements and results. Fractal dimensions of the area and the perimeter of a forest were determined using digital images. The difference between fractal dimensions of the area and the perimeter images turned out to be a crucial quantitative parameter. Accordingly, we propose a new fractal fragmentation index, FFI, which is based on this difference and which highlights the degree of compaction or non-compaction of the forest area in order to interpret geographic features. Particularly, this method was applied to forests, where large areas have been legally or illegally deforested. However, these methods can easily be used for other ecological or geographical investigations based on digital images, including deforestation of rainforests.

  20. Iris Recognition Using Feature Extraction of Box Counting Fractal Dimension

    Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.

  1. Some new developments in experimental mechanics using random particles and fractal dimension

    Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2001-06-01

    Recent developments of SIEM for micro/nano measurements are presented including applications to composite interphase, crack tip deformation, heart mechanics, and electronic packaging. A new technique FDS which uses fractal dimensions to assess composite damage is also described.

  2. The effects of voltage of x-ray tube on fractal dimension and anisotropy of diagnostic image

    Baik, Jee Seon; Lee, Sam Sun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Kwan Soo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the kV on fractal dimension of trabecular bone in digital radiographs. 16 bone cores were obtained from patients who had taken partial resection of tibia due to accidents. Each bone core along with an aluminum step wedge was radiographed with an occlusal film at 0.08 sec and with the constant film-focus distance (32 cm). All radiographs were acquired at 60, 75, and 90 kV. A rectangular ROI was drawn at medial part, distal part, and the bone defect area of each bone core image according to each kV. The directional fractal dimension was measured using Fourier Transform spectrum, and the anisotropy was obtained using directional fractal dimension. The values were compared by the repeated measures ANOVA. The fractal dimensions increased along with kV increase (p<0.05). The anisotropy measurements did not show statistically significant difference according to kV change. The fractal dimensions of the bone defect areas of the bone cores have low values contrast to the non-defect areas of the bone cores. The anisotropy measurements of the bone defect areas were lower than those of the non-defect areas of the bone cores, but not statistically significant. Fractal analysis can notice a difference of a change of voltage of x-ray tube and bone defect or not. And anisotropy of a trabecular bone is coherent even with change of the voltage of x-ray tube or defecting off a part of bone

  3. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    Zborovský, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fractal self-similarity of hadron interactions demonstrated by the z-scaling of inclusive spectra is studied. The scaling regularity reflects fractal structure of the colliding hadrons (or nuclei) and takes into account general features of fragmentation processes expressed by fractal dimensions. The self-similarity variable z is a function of the momentum fractions x1 and x2 of the colliding objects carried by the interacting hadron constituents and depends on the momentum fractions ya and yb of the scattered and recoil constituents carried by the inclusive particle and its recoil counterpart, respectively. Based on entropy principle, new properties of the z-scaling concept are found. They are conservation of fractal cumulativity in hadron interactions and quantization of fractal dimensions characterizing hadron structure and fragmentation processes at a constituent level.

  4. Fractal Bread.

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  5. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    Quodbach, J.; Moussavi, A.; Tammer, R.; Frahm, J.; Kleinebudde, P.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this c...

  6. Quantitative evaluation of fluctuation error in X-ray diffraction profiles with fractal analysis

    Kurose, Masashi; Hirose, Yukio; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    A method of the fractal analysis was applied to the diffraction profiles for its quantitative evaluation. The fractal dimension was analyzed according to both Box counting method and FFT method. The relationship between the fractal dimension and the measurement criteria in X-ray diffraction analysis was discussed with diffraction data obtained under various conditions of the measurement. It was concluded that the fractal analysis is effective for the quantitative evaluation of diffraction data. Box counting method is suitable for evaluation of a whole profile, and FFT method is for that of a fundamental profile. The range of desirable condition of measurement is 1.0≤D≤1.2, where D is a fractal dimension. The appropriate range of measurement becomes 0.01≤Sw/HVB≤0.03, where Sw is the step width and the HVB is the half-value breadth. Stresses with higher precision were obtained from measurements under this new criteria. (author)

  7. Approximating the Ising model on fractal lattices of dimension less than two

    Codello, Alessandro; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We construct periodic approximations to the free energies of Ising models on fractal lattices of dimension smaller than two, in the case of a zero external magnetic field, based on the combinatorial method of Feynman and Vdovichenko. We show that the procedure is applicable to any fractal obtained...... with, possibly, arbitrary accuracy and paves the way for determination Tc of any fractal of dimension less than two. Critical exponents are more diffcult to determine since the free energy of any periodic approximation still has a logarithmic singularity at the critical point implying α = 0. We also...

  8. Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue

    Flueraru, C; Mao, Y; Chang, S; Popescu, D P; Sowa, M G

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of left-descending coronary tissues harvested from three porcine specimens were acquired with a home-build swept-source OCT setup. Despite the fact that OCT is capable of acquiring high resolution circumferential images of vessels, many distinct histological features of a vessel have comparable optical properties leading to poor contrast in OCT images. Two classification methods were tested in this report for the purpose of enhancing contrast between soft-tissue components of porcine coronary vessels. One method involved analyzing the attenuation of the OCT signal as a function of light penetration into the tissue. We demonstrated that by analyzing the signal attenuation in this manner we were able to differentiate two media sub-layers with different orientations of the smooth muscle cells. The other classification method used in our study was fractal analysis. Fractal analysis was implemented in a box-counting (fractal dimension) image-processing code and was used as a tool to differentiate and quantify variations in tissue texture at various locations in the OCT images. The calculated average fractal dimensions had different values in distinct regions of interest (ROI) within the imaged coronary samples. When compared to the results obtained by using the attenuation of the OCT signal, the method of fractal analysis demonstrated better classification potential for distinguishing amongst the tissue ROI.

  9. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-20

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...

  11. Applying Fractal Dimensions and Energy-Budget Analysis to Characterize Fracturing Processes During Magma Migration and Eruption: 2011-2012 El Hierro (Canary Islands) Submarine Eruption

    López, Carmen; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Tarraga, Marta

    2014-07-01

    The impossibility of observing magma migration inside the crust obliges us to rely on geophysical data and mathematical modelling to interpret precursors and to forecast volcanic eruptions. Of the geophysical signals that may be recorded before and during an eruption, deformation and seismicity are two of the most relevant as they are directly related to its dynamic. The final phase of the unrest episode that preceded the 2011-2012 eruption on El Hierro (Canary Islands) was characterized by local and accelerated deformation and seismic energy release indicating an increasing fracturing and a migration of the magma. Application of time varying fractal analysis to the seismic data and the characterization of the seismicity pattern and the strain and the stress rates allow us to identify different stages in the source mechanism and to infer the geometry of the path used by the magma and associated fluids to reach the Earth's surface. The results obtained illustrate the relevance of such studies to understanding volcanic unrest and the causes that govern the initiation of volcanic eruptions.

  12. Fractal dimensions of silica gels generated using reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    Bhattacharya, Sudin; Kieffer, John

    2005-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations based on a three-body potential with charge transfer to generate nanoporous silica aerogels. Care was taken to reproduce the sol-gel condensation reaction that forms the gel backbone as realistically as possible and to thereby produce credible gel structures. The self-similarity of aerogel structures was investigated by evaluating their fractal dimension from geometric correlations. For comparison, we have also generated porous silica glasses by rupturing dense silica and computed their fractal dimension. The fractal dimension of the porous silica structures was found to be process dependent. Finally, we have determined that the effect of supercritical drying on the fractal nature of condensed silica gels is not appreciable

  13. Mathematical diagnosis of pediatric echocardiograms with fractal dimension measures evaluated through intrinsic mathematical harmony

    Rodriguez V, Javier O; Prieto, Signed E; Ortiz, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    Geometry allows the objective mathematical characterization of forms. Fractal geometry characterizes irregular objects. The left ventricle dynamical states form observed through echocardiography can be objectively evaluated through fractal dimension measures. Methods: A measurement of fractal dimension was performed using the Box-counting method of three defined objects in 28 echocardiographic images, 16 from normal children (group A) and 12 ill children (group B), in order to establish differences between health and illness from its comparison with the fractal dimensions of 2 normality prototypes and 2 disease prototypes. Results: A new diagnostic, clinical application methodology was developed based in the intrinsic mathematical harmony (IMH) concept, and it was observed that the fractal dimensions of the defined objects for an abnormal echocardiogram show similarity to its fourth significant number, thus demonstrating the possibility of following up the evolution from normality towards disease. According to the performed calculations, 68.75% of the cases in group A could be better evaluated with the developed diagnostic methodology, and the ill ones could be diagnosed more effectively. Conclusions: The pediatric echocardiography images can be objectively characterized with fractal dimension measurements, thus enabling the development of a clinical diagnostic methodology of echocardiography in children from the IMH concept.

  14. The Role of Resolution in the Estimation of Fractal Dimension Maps From SAR Data

    Gerardo Di Martino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at investigating the role of resolution in fractal dimension map estimation, analyzing the role of the different surface spatial scales involved in the considered estimation process. The study is performed using a data set of actual Cosmo/SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images relevant to two different areas, the region of Bidi in Burkina Faso and the city of Naples in Italy, acquired in stripmap and enhanced spotlight modes. The behavior of fractal dimension maps in the presence of areas with distinctive characteristics from the viewpoint of land-cover and surface features is discussed. Significant differences among the estimated maps are obtained in the presence of fine textural details, which significantly affect the fractal dimension estimation for the higher resolution spotlight images. The obtained results show that if we are interested in obtaining a reliable estimate of the fractal dimension of the observed natural scene, stripmap images should be chosen in view of both economic and computational considerations. In turn, the combination of fractal dimension maps obtained from stripmap and spotlight images can be used to identify areas on the scene presenting non-fractal behavior (e.g., urban areas. Along this guideline, a simple example of stripmap-spotlight data fusion is also presented.

  15. Assessment of Textural Differentiations in Forest Resources in Romania Using Fractal Analysis

    Ion Andronache

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and forest degradation have several negative effects on the environment including a loss of species habitats, disturbance of the water cycle and reduced ability to retain CO2, with consequences for global warming. We investigated the evolution of forest resources from development regions in Romania affected by both deforestation and reforestation using a non-Euclidean method based on fractal analysis. We calculated four fractal dimensions of forest areas: the fractal box-counting dimension of the forest areas, the fractal box-counting dimension of the dilated forest areas, the fractal dilation dimension and the box-counting dimension of the border of the dilated forest areas. Fractal analysis revealed morpho-structural and textural differentiations of forested, deforested and reforested areas in development regions with dominant mountain relief and high hills (more forested and compact organization in comparison to the development regions dominated by plains or low hills (less forested, more fragmented with small and isolated clusters. Our analysis used the fractal analysis that has the advantage of analyzing the entire image, rather than studying local information, thereby enabling quantification of the uniformity, fragmentation, heterogeneity and homogeneity of forests.

  16. Navigation performance in virtual environments varies with fractal dimension of landscape.

    Juliani, Arthur W; Bies, Alexander J; Boydston, Cooper R; Taylor, Richard P; Sereno, Margaret E

    2016-09-01

    Fractal geometry has been used to describe natural and built environments, but has yet to be studied in navigational research. In order to establish a relationship between the fractal dimension (D) of a natural environment and humans' ability to navigate such spaces, we conducted two experiments using virtual environments that simulate the fractal properties of nature. In Experiment 1, participants completed a goal-driven search task either with or without a map in landscapes that varied in D. In Experiment 2, participants completed a map-reading and location-judgment task in separate sets of fractal landscapes. In both experiments, task performance was highest at the low-to-mid range of D, which was previously reported as most preferred and discriminable in studies of fractal aesthetics and discrimination, respectively, supporting a theory of visual fluency. The applicability of these findings to architecture, urban planning, and the general design of constructed spaces is discussed.

  17. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L 0 ) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N 0 ) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p 1 ) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N 1 ) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p 2 ) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N 2 ) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  18. The number of elementary particles in a fractal M-theory of 11.2360667977 dimensions

    He, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that there are 60 experimentally found particles. The standard model strongly predicts two more hypothetical particles, the Higgs and the graviton. This paper reveals other possible scenario for predicting 69 particles at different energy scales in 11+φ 3 fractal dimensions of a fractal M theory, where φ=(5-1)/2. A modified Newton's law is suggested to experimentally verify our predictions at extremely small quantum scales. The modified Newton's law is in harmony with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

  19. Fractal analysis of power spectra

    Johnston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A general argument is presented concerning the Hausdorff dimension D of the power spectrum curve for a system of N weakly-coupled oscillators. Explicit upper and lower bounds for D are derived in terms of the number N of interacting modes. The mathematical reasoning relies upon the celebrated KAM theorem concerning the perturbation of Hamiltonian systems and the finite measure of the set of destroyed tori in phase space; this set can be related to Hausdorff dimension by certain mathematical theorems. An important consequence of these results is a simple empirical test for the applicability of Hamiltonian perturbation theory in the analysis of an experimentally observed spectrum. As an illustration, the theory is applied to the interpretation of a recent numerical analysis of both the power spectrum of the Sun and certain laboratory spectra of hydrodynamic turbulence. (Auth.)

  20. Analysis of a Model for the Morphological Structure of Renal Arterial Tree: Fractal Structure

    Aurora Espinoza-Valdez

    2013-01-01

    experimental data measurements of the rat kidneys. The fractal dimension depends on the probability of sprouting angiogenesis in the development of the arterial vascular tree of the kidney, that is, of the distribution of blood vessels in the morphology generated by the analytical model. The fractal dimension might determine whether a suitable renal vascular structure is capable of performing physiological functions under appropriate conditions. The analysis can describe the complex structures of the development vasculature in kidney.

  1. Model to estimate fractal dimension for ion-bombarded materials

    Hu, A., E-mail: hu77@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A.

    2014-03-15

    Comprehensive fractal Monte Carlo model ITMC-F (Hu and Hassanein, 2012 [1]) is developed based on the Monte Carlo ion bombardment simulation code, i.e., Ion Transport in Materials and Compounds (ITMC) code (Hassanein, 1985 [2]). The ITMC-F studies the impact of surface roughness on the angular dependence of sputtering yield. Instead of assuming material surfaces to be flat or composed of exact self-similar fractals in simulation, we developed a new method to describe the surface shapes. Random fractal surfaces which are generated by midpoint displacement algorithm and support vector machine algorithm are combined with ITMC. With this new fractal version of ITMC-F, we successfully simulated the angular dependence of sputtering yield for various ion-target combinations, with the input surface roughness exponent directly depicted from experimental data (Hu and Hassanein, 2012 [1]). The ITMC-F code showed good agreement with the experimental data. In advanced, we compare other experimental sputtering yield with the results from ITMC-F to estimate the surface roughness exponent for ion-bombarded material in this research.

  2. Estimation of soil water retention curve using fractal dimension ...

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is a fundamental hydraulic property majorly used to study flow transport in soils and calculate plant-available water. Since, direct measurement of SWRC is time-consuming and expensive, different models have been developed to estimate SWRC. In this study, a fractal-based model ...

  3. Investigation of changes in fractal dimension from layered retinal structures of healthy and diabetic eyes with optical coherence tomography

    Gao, Wei; Zakharov, Valery P.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Artemyev, Dmitry N.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is usually employed for the measurement of retinal thickness characterizing the structural changes of tissue. However, fractal dimension (FD) could also character the structural changes of tissue. Therefore, fractal dimension changes may provide further information regarding cellular layers and early damage in ocular diseases. We investigated the possibility of OCT in detecting changes in fractal dimension from layered retinal structures. OCT images were obtained from diabetic patients without retinopathy (DM, n = 38 eyes) or mild diabetic retinopathy (MDR, n = 43 eyes) and normal healthy subjects (Controls, n = 74 eyes). Fractal dimension was calculated using the differentiate box counting methodology. We evaluated the usefulness of quantifying fractal dimension of layered structures in the detection of retinal damage. Generalized estimating equations considering within-subject intereye relations were used to test for differences between the groups. A modified p value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to describe the ability of fractal dimension to discriminate between the eyes of DM, MDR and healthy eyes. Significant decreases of fractal dimension were observed in all layers in the MDR eyes compared with controls except in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Significant decreases of fractal dimension were also observed in all layers in the MDR eyes compared with DM eyes. The highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values estimated for fractal dimension were observed for the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and outer segment photoreceptors (OS) when comparing MDR eyes with controls. The highest AUROC value estimated for fractal dimension were also observed for the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and OS when comparing MDR eyes with DM eyes. Our results suggest that fractal dimension of the intraretinal layers may provide useful

  4. Variability of the fractal dimension of the left coronary tree in-patient with disease arterial severe occlusive

    Rodriguez, Javier; Alvarez, Luisa F; Marino, Martha E and others

    2004-01-01

    Fractal geometry is a chapter of mathematics that allows the measurement of irregularity in natural objects. The adequate measures in order to characterize the forms of the human body are the fractal dimensions. Coronary ramification is a fractal object, which enables the diagnosis of occlusive arterial disease by the measurement of an arterial segment obtained by coronary angiography, without measuring the impact of the obstruction in the whole ramification. Fractal dimension evaluates the irregularity of the whole coronary ramification. The right anterior oblique projection (RAO) of the left coronary ramifications (LCR) obtained through arteriography is evaluated with fractal dimensions, using the box counting method. Images of the ramification between systole and diastole were measured in 14 patients, 7 of them without occlusive arterial disease, group 1, and 7 with severe occlusive arterial disease, group 2. Patients without occlusive arterial disease showed a greater variability in the fractal dimensions sequence evaluated with the net difference, being in general this difference other than zero

  5. A family of fractal sets with Hausdorff dimension 0.618

    Zhong Ting [Information Management and Engineering Institute, Jishou University, Zhangjiajie 427000, Hunan (China)], E-mail: zhongting_2005@126.com

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we introduce a class of fractal sets, which can be recursively constructed by two sequences {l_brace}n{sub k}{r_brace}{sub k{>=}}{sub 1} and {l_brace}c{sub k}{r_brace}{sub k{>=}}{sub 1}. We obtain the exact Hausdorff dimensions of these types of fractal sets using the continued fraction map. Connection of continued fraction with El Naschie's fractal spacetime is also illustrated. Furthermore, we restrict one sequence {l_brace}c{sub k}{r_brace}{sub k{>=}}{sub 1} to make every irrational number {alpha} element of (0, 1) correspond to only one of the above fractal sets called {alpha}-Cantor sets, and we found that almost all {alpha}-Cantor sets possess a common Hausdorff dimension of 0.618, which is also the Hausdorff dimension of the one-dimensional random recursive Cantor set and it is the foundation stone of E-infinity fractal spacetime theory.

  6. Evaluation of surface fractal dimension of carbon for plasma-facing material damaged by hydrogen plasma

    Nishino, Nobuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The surface structure of the plasma facing materials (PFM) changes due to plasma-surface interaction in a nuclear fusion reactor. Usually B 4 C coated graphite block are used as PFM. In this report, the surface fractal was applied to study the surface structure of plasma-damaged PFM carbon. A convenient flow-type adsorption apparatus was developed to evaluate the surface fractal dimension of materials. Four branched alkanol molecules with different apparent areas were used as the probe adsorbates. The samples used here were B 4 C coated isotopic graphite which were subjected to hydrogen plasma for various periods of exposure. The monolayer capacities of these samples for alkanols were determined by applying BET theory. The surface fractal dimension was calculated using the monolayer capacities and molecular areas for probe molecules and was found to increase from 2 to 3 with the plasma exposure time. (author)

  7. Effect of 3D fractal dimension on contact area and asperity interactions in elastoplastic contact

    Abdeljalil Jourani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Few models are devoted to investigate the effect of 3D fractal dimension Ds on contact area and asperity interactions. These models used statistical approaches or two-dimensional deterministic simulations without considering the asperity interactions and elastic–plastic transition regime. In this study, a complete 3D deterministic model is adopted to simulate the contact between fractal surfaces which are generated using a modified two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot function. This model incorporates the asperity interactions and considers the different deformation modes of surface asperities which range from entirely elastic through elastic-plastic to entirely plastic contact. The simulations reveal that the elastoplastic model is more appropriate to calculate the contact area ratio and pressure field. It is also shown that the influence of the asperity interactions cannot be neglected, especially at lower fractal dimension Ds and higher load.

  8. Measurement of heterogeneous distribution on technegas SPECT images by three-dimensional fractal analysis

    Nagao, Michinobu; Murase, Kenya

    2002-01-01

    This review article describes a method for quantifying heterogeneous distribution on Technegas ( 99m Tc-carbon particle radioaerosol) SPECT images by three-dimensional fractal analysis (3D-FA). Technegas SPECT was performed to quantify the severity of pulmonary emphysema. We delineated the SPECT images by using five cut-offs (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35% of the maximal voxel radioactivity), and measured the total number of voxels in the areas surrounded by the contours obtained with each cut-off level. We calculated fractal dimensions from the relationship between the total number of voxels and the cut-off levels transformed into natural logarithms. The fractal dimension derived from 3D-FA is the relative and objective measurement, which can assess the heterogeneous distribution on Technegas SPECT images. The fractal dimension strongly correlate pulmonary function in patients with emphysema and well documented the overall and regional severity of emphysema. (author)

  9. Investigation of diamond wheel topography in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire using fractal analysis method.

    Wang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xibin; Zhou, Tianfeng; Wu, Yongbo; Jiao, Li

    2018-03-01

    The wear behaviors of grinding wheel have significant influence on the work-surface topography. However, a comprehensive and quantitative method is lacking for evaluating the wear conditions of grinding wheel. In this paper, a fractal analysis method is used to investigate the wear behavior of resin-bonded diamond wheel in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire, and a series of experiments on EUAG and conventional grinding (CG) are performed. The results show that the fractal dimension of grinding wheel topography is highly correlated to the wear behavior, i.e., grain fracture, grain pullout, and wheel loading. An increase in cutting edge density on the wheel surface results in an increase of the fractal dimension, but an increase in the grain pullout and wheel loading results in a decrease in the fractal dimension. The wheel topography in EUAG has a higher fractal dimension than that in CG before 60 passes due to better self-sharpening behavior, and then has a smaller fractal dimension because of more serious wheel loadings after 60 passes. By angle-dependent distribution analysis of profile fractal dimensions, the wheel surface topography is transformed from isotropic to anisotropic. These indicated that the fractal analysis method could be further used in monitoring of a grinding wheel performance in EUAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fractal analysis of fractures and microstructures in rocks

    Merceron, T.; Nakashima, S.; Velde, B.; Badri, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal geometry was used to characterize the distribution of fracture fields in rocks, which represent main pathways for material migration such as groundwater flow. Fractal investigations of fracture distribution were performed on granite along Auriat and Shikoku boreholes. Fractal dimensions range between 0.3 and 0.5 according to the different sets of fracture planes selected for the analyses. Shear, tension and compressional modes exhibit different fractal values while the composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value. These observations indicate that the fractal method can be used to distinguish fracture types of different origins in a complex system. Fractal results for Shikoku borehole also correlate with geophysical parameters recorded along, drill-holes such as resistivity and possibly permeability. These results represent the first steps of the fractal investigation along drill-holes. Future studies will be conducted to verify relationships between fractal dimensions and permeability by using available geophysical data. Microstructures and microcracks were analysed in the Inada granite. Microcrack patterns are fractal but fractal dimensions values vary according to both mineral type and orientations of measurement within the mineral. Microcracks in quartz are characterized by more irregular distribution (average D = 0.40) than those in feldspars (D = 0.50) suggesting a different mode of rupture. Highest values of D are reported along main cleavage planes for feldspars or C axis for quartz. Further fractal investigations of microstructure in granite will be used to characterize the potential pathways for fluid migration and diffusion in the rock matrix. (author)

  11. Comparison of solidity and fractal dimension of plasma sprayed splat with different spreading morphologies

    Chen, Shu-ying; Ma, Guo-zheng, E-mail: magz0209@163.com; Wang, Hai-dou, E-mail: wanghaidou@aliyun.com.cn; He, Peng-fei; Liu, Ming; Wang, Hai-jun; Xu, Bin-shi

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The solidification mechanism of the plasma sprayed droplets deposited on substrate preheated with different temperature was discussed. • The solidified morphology of individual splat was detected by image analysis method. • The fractal dimension, solidity, area and perimeter, were employed to characterize the morphology of the splat. • The typical solidification modes of Fe-based alloy droplet could be divided into three types, namely, flower-like splat, splashed splat and disk-like splat, which may be attributed the differences of solidification rate of the droplets and adsorption on the substrates. - Abstract: The paper deals with the quantitative characterization of spreading morphologies of plasma sprayed Fe-based alloy droplets deposited on mirror polished steels with different preheated temperature. The plasma torch was utilized as heat producer. The influence of substrate temperature on the solidification mechanism of molten droplets was investigated. The image analysis method (IMA) was employed to identify single splat from the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) morphology. The result shows that the substrate preheated temperature has a significant effect on the flattening behavior of molten droplets. With the increment of substrate temperature, the solidification mode of splat changes from flower-like and splashed splat to disk-like splat due to the modification of wettability and cooling velocity between molten droplet and substrate. Compared with area and perimeter, both fractal dimension (FD) and solidity could separately detect the solidification mode of splat to a certain extent, while the FD seems to be more excellent in characterizing irregular morphology of splat in contrast with solidity. However, the combination of FD and solidity is more efficient in classifying solidification mode of splat.

  12. Reliability of using retinal vascular fractal dimension as a biomarker in the diabetic retinopathy detection

    Huang, F.; Dashtbozorg, B.; Zhang, J.; Bekkers, E.J.; Abbasi-Sureshjani, S.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; ter Haar Romenij, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The retinal fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of vasculature branching pattern complexity. FD has been considered as a potential biomarker for the detection of several diseases like diabetes and hypertension. However, conflicting findings were found in the reported literature regarding the

  13. The fractal spatial distribution of pancreatic islets in three dimensions: a self-avoiding growth model

    Jo, Junghyo; Periwal, Vipul; Hörnblad, Andreas; Ahlgren, Ulf; Kilimnik, German; Hara, Manami

    2013-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans, responsible for controlling blood glucose levels, are dispersed within the pancreas. A universal power law governing the fractal spatial distribution of islets in two-dimensional pancreatic sections has been reported. However, the fractal geometry in the actual three-dimensional pancreas volume, and the developmental process that gives rise to such a self-similar structure, has not been investigated. Here, we examined the three-dimensional spatial distribution of islets in intact mouse pancreata using optical projection tomography and found a power law with a fractal dimension of 2.1. Furthermore, based on two-dimensional pancreatic sections of human autopsies, we found that the distribution of human islets also follows a universal power law with a fractal dimension of 1.5 in adult pancreata, which agrees with the value previously reported in smaller mammalian pancreas sections. Finally, we developed a self-avoiding growth model for the development of the islet distribution and found that the fractal nature of the spatial islet distribution may be associated with the self-avoidance in the branching process of vascularization in the pancreas. (paper)

  14. Time Series Analysis OF SAR Image Fractal Maps: The Somma-Vesuvio Volcanic Complex Case Study

    Pepe, Antonio; De Luca, Claudio; Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Susi; Riccio, Daniele; Ruello, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    The fractal dimension is a significant geophysical parameter describing natural surfaces representing the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scale; in case of volcanic structures, it has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. In this work, we present the analysis of the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension estimates generated from multi-pass SAR images relevant to the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex (South Italy). To this aim, we consider a Cosmo-SkyMed data-set of 42 stripmap images acquired from ascending orbits between October 2009 and December 2012. Starting from these images, we generate a three-dimensional stack composed by the corresponding fractal maps (ordered according to the acquisition dates), after a proper co-registration. The time-series of the pixel-by-pixel estimated fractal dimension values show that, over invariant natural areas, the fractal dimension values do not reveal significant changes; on the contrary, over urban areas, it correctly assumes values outside the natural surfaces fractality range and show strong fluctuations. As a final result of our analysis, we generate a fractal map that includes only the areas where the fractal dimension is considered reliable and stable (i.e., whose standard deviation computed over the time series is reasonably small). The so-obtained fractal dimension map is then used to identify areas that are homogeneous from a fractal viewpoint. Indeed, the analysis of this map reveals the presence of two distinctive landscape units corresponding to the Mt. Vesuvio and Gran Cono. The comparison with the (simplified) geological map clearly shows the presence in these two areas of volcanic products of different age. The presented fractal dimension map analysis demonstrates the ability to get a figure about the evolution degree of the monitored volcanic edifice and can be profitably extended in the future to other volcanic systems with

  15. The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals

    Victor Bakhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.

  16. Fractal dimension determined through optical and scanning electron microscopy on FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes

    Guzman-Castaneda, J.I.; Garcia-Borquez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arizabalo-Salas, R.D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM and SEM) are techniques that are normally used for 2D-analysis of surface features. By fractal dimension analysis of the gray-scale OM and SEM images, it is possible to get quantitative topographical measurements. In this work, three different surface topographies (polished, eroded, and oxidized) were analyzed on FeCrAl alloy by OM and SEM. Clear surface topographical changes can be qualitatively observed. In order to quantify such changes, two steps were followed: (i) a gray-scale digitalization from each image was used to reproduce topographical features on the analyzed surface, and (ii) from this information, the fractal dimension (D) was determined using fractal3e software. The fractal dimension determined in this form follows coherently the topographical changes produced on the FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes. The variations of fractal dimension values against the temperature of the oxidizing processes reflect well the oxide growth changes. Moreover, a minimum D-value is registered at 750 C, which corresponds to the {delta}-{theta} alumina phase transition temperature as determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) on the same alloy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A simpler and elegant algorithm for computing fractal dimension in ...

    Chaotic systems are now frequently encountered in almost all branches of sciences. Dimension of such systems provides an important measure for easy characterization of dynamics of the systems. Conventional algorithms for computing dimension of such systems in higher dimensional state space face an unavoidable ...

  18. Characterisation of human non-proliferativediabetic retinopathy using the fractal analysis

    Carmen Alina Lupaşcu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate and quantify changes in the branching patterns of the retina vascular network in diabetes using the fractal analysis method.METHODS:This was a clinic-based prospective study of 172 participants managed at the Ophthalmological Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and December 2013. A set of 172 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (24 images and pathological (148 images states of the retina were examined. An automatic unsupervised method for retinal vessel segmentation was applied before fractal analysis. The fractal analyses of the retinal digital images were performed using the fractal analysis software ImageJ. Statistical analyses were performed for these groups using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and GraphPad InStat software.RESULTS:It was found that subtle changes in the vascular network geometry of the human retina are influenced by diabetic retinopathy (DR and can be estimated using the fractal geometry. The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions is slightly lower than the corresponding values of mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions. The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions is higher than the corresponding values of moderate NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions. The lowest values were found for the corresponding values of severe NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions.CONCLUSION:The fractal analysis of fundus photographs may be used for a more complete undeTrstanding of the early and basic pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes. The architecture of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes can be quantitative quantified by means of the fractal dimension. Microvascular abnormalities on retinal imaging may elucidate early mechanistic pathways for microvascular complications and distinguish patients with

  19. FRACTAL ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ADSORPTION ON SURFACES OF ACID ACTIVATED BENTONITES FROM SERBIA

    Ljiljana Rožić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid surfaces are neither ideally regular, that is, morphological and energeticcally homogeneous, nor are they fully irregular or fractal. Instead, real solid surfaces exhibit a limited degree of organization quantified by the fractal dimension, D. Fractal analysis was applied to investigate the effect of concentrations of HCl solutions on the structural and textural properties of chemically activated bentonite from southern Serbia. Acid treatment of bentonites is applied in order to remove impurities and various exchangeable cations from bentonite clay. Important physical changes in acid-activated smectite are the increase of the specific surface area and of the average pore volume, depending on acid strength, time and temperature of a treatment. On the basis of the sorption-structure analysis, the fractal dimension of the bentonite surfaces was determined by Mahnke and Mögel method. The fractal dimension evaluated by this method was 2.11 for the AB3 and 1.94 for the AB4.5 sample. The estimation of the values of the fractal dimension of activated bentonites was performed in the region of small pores, 0.5 nm < rp < 2 nm.

  20. Dimensions of Fractals Generated by Bi-Lipschitz Maps

    Qi-Rong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the class of iterated function systems of bi-Lipschitz mappings that are contractions with respect to some metrics, we introduce a logarithmic distortion property, which is weaker than the well-known bounded distortion property. By assuming this property, we prove the equality of the Hausdorff and box dimensions of the attractor. We also obtain a formula for the dimension of the attractor in terms of certain modified topological pressure functions, without imposing any separation condition. As an application, we prove the equality of Hausdorff and box dimensions for certain iterated function systems consisting of affine maps and nonsmooth maps.

  1. [A method to estimate the short-term fractal dimension of heart rate variability based on wavelet transform].

    Zhonggang, Liang; Hong, Yan

    2006-10-01

    A new method of calculating fractal dimension of short-term heart rate variability signals is presented. The method is based on wavelet transform and filter banks. The implementation of the method is: First of all we pick-up the fractal component from HRV signals using wavelet transform. Next, we estimate the power spectrum distribution of fractal component using auto-regressive model, and we estimate parameter 7 using the least square method. Finally according to formula D = 2- (gamma-1)/2 estimate fractal dimension of HRV signal. To validate the stability and reliability of the proposed method, using fractional brown movement simulate 24 fractal signals that fractal value is 1.6 to validate, the result shows that the method has stability and reliability.

  2. Study of the fractal dimension of the wind and its relationships with turbulent and stability parameters

    Tijera, Manuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Cano, José L.; López, Pilar; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The wind velocity series of the atmospheric turbulent flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), in spite of being highly erratic, present a self-similarity structure (Frisch, 1995; Peitgen et., 2004; Falkovich et., 2006). So, the wind velocity can be seen as a fractal magnitude. We calculate the fractal dimension (Komolgorov capacity or box-counting dimension) of the wind perturbation series (u' = u- ) in the physical spaces (namely velocity-time). It has been studied the time evolution of the fractal dimension along different days and at three levels above the ground (5.8 m, 13.5 m, 32 m). The data analysed was recorded in the experimental campaign SABLES-98 (Cuxart et al., 2000) at the Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere (CIBA) located in Valladolid (Spain). In this work the u, v and w components of wind velocity series have been measured by sonic anemometers (20 Hz sampling rate). The fractal dimension versus the integral length scales of the mean wind series have been studied, as well as the influence of different turbulent parameters. A method for estimating these integral scales is developed using the normalized autocorrelation function and a Gaussian fit. Finally, it will be analysed the variation of the fractal dimension versus stability parameters (as Richardson number) in order to explain some of the dominant features which are likely immersed in the fractal nature of these turbulent flows. References - Cuxart J, Yagüe C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler MR, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen HE, Rees JM, Vilá J, Redondo JM, Cantalapiedra IR and Conangla L (2000) Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (SABLES98): a report. Boundary- Layer Meteorol 96:337-370 - Falkovich G and Kattepalli R. Sreenivasan (2006) Lessons from Hidrodynamic Turbulence. Physics Today 59: 43-49 - Frisch U (1995) Turbulence the legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov Cambridge University Press 269pp - Peitgen H, Jürgens H and

  3. A TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION TO ADAPTIVE FRACTAL ANALYSIS

    Michael A Riley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a tutorial description of adaptive fractal analysis (AFA. AFA utilizes an adaptive detrending algorithm to extract globally smooth trend signals from the data and then analyzes the scaling of the residuals to the fit as a function of the time scale at which the fit is computed. The authors present applications to synthetic mathematical signals to verify the accuracy of AFA and demonstrate the basic steps of the analysis. The authors then present results from applying AFA to time series from a cognitive psychology experiment on repeated estimation of durations of time to illustrate some of the complexities of real-world data. AFA shows promise in dealing with many types of signals, but like any fractal analysis method there are special challenges and considerations to take into account, such as determining the presence of linear scaling regions.

  4. Effects of microstructures and creep conditions on the fractal dimension of grain boundary fracture in high-temperature creep of heat-resistant alloys

    Tanaka, Manabu

    1993-01-01

    The effects of microstructural aspects, such as grain size and grain boundary configuration, and creep conditions on the fractal dimension of the grain boundary fracture were examined using several heat-resistant alloys, principally in an analysis scale range between one grain boundary length and specimen size. Grain boundary fracture surface profiles in the heat-resistant alloys exhibited a fractal nature in the scale range between one grain boundary length and specimen size as well as in the scale range below one grain boundary length. The fractal dimension of the grain boundary fracture slightly increased with decreasing grain size and was generally a little larger in the specimens with serrated grain boundaries than in those with straight grain boundaries. The fractal dimension of the grain boundary and the number of grain boundary microcracks which affected the grain boundary fracture patterns were a little larger in the specimen with the smaller grain size, and were also larger in the specimen with serrated grain boundaries. The fractal dimension of the grain boundary fracture increased with decreasing creep stress in the temperature range from 973 to 1422 K in these alloys, since more grain boundary microcracks existed in the specimens ruptured under the lower stresses at the higher temperatures. (orig.) [de

  5. Fractal analysis for heat extraction in geothermal system

    Shang Xiaoji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat conduction and convection play a key role in geothermal development. These two processes are coupled and influenced by fluid seepage in hot porous rock. A number of integer dimension thermal fluid models have been proposed to describe this coupling mechanism. However, fluid flow, heat conduction and convection in porous rock are usually non-linear, tortuous and fractal, thus the integer dimension thermal fluid flow models can not well describe these phenomena. In this study, a fractal thermal fluid coupling model is proposed to describe the heat conduction and flow behaviors in fractal hot porous rock in terms of local fractional time and space derivatives. This coupling equation is analytically solved through the fractal travelling wave transformation method. Analytical solutions of Darcy’s velocity, fluid temperature with fractal time and space are obtained. The solutions show that the introduction of fractional parameters is essential to describe the mechanism of heat conduction and convection.

  6. Transition of fractal dimension in a latticed dynamical system

    Duong-van, M.

    1986-03-01

    We study a recursion relation that manifests two distinct routes to turbulence, both of which reproduce commonly observed phenomena: the Feigenbaum route, with period-doubling frequencies; and a much more general route with noncommensurate frequencies and frequency entrainment, and locking. Intermittency and large-scale aperiodic spatial patterns are reproduced in this new route. In the oscillatory instability regime the fracal dimension saturates at D/sub F/ approx. = 2.6 with imbedding dimensions while in the turbulent regime D/sub F/ saturates at 6.0. 19 refs., 3 figs

  7. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  8. Fractal analysis reveals reduced complexity of retinal vessels in CADASIL.

    Michele Cavallari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL affects mainly small cerebral arteries and leads to disability and dementia. The relationship between clinical expression of the disease and progression of the microvessel pathology is, however, uncertain as we lack tools for imaging brain vessels in vivo. Ophthalmoscopy is regarded as a window into the cerebral microcirculation. In this study we carried out an ophthalmoscopic examination in subjects with CADASIL. Specifically, we performed fractal analysis of digital retinal photographs. Data are expressed as mean fractal dimension (mean-D, a parameter that reflects complexity of the retinal vessel branching. Ten subjects with genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL and 10 sex and age-matched control subjects were enrolled. Fractal analysis of retinal digital images was performed by means of a computer-based program, and the data expressed as mean-D. Brain MRI lesion volume in FLAIR and T1-weighted images was assessed using MIPAV software. Paired t-test was used to disclose differences in mean-D between CADASIL and control groups. Spearman rank analysis was performed to evaluate potential associations between mean-D values and both disease duration and disease severity, the latter expressed as brain MRI lesion volumes, in the subjects with CADASIL. The results showed that mean-D value of patients (1.42±0.05; mean±SD was lower than control (1.50±0.04; p = 0.002. Mean-D did not correlate with disease duration nor with MRI lesion volumes of the subjects with CADASIL. The findings suggest that fractal analysis is a sensitive tool to assess changes of retinal vessel branching, likely reflecting early brain microvessel alterations, in CADASIL patients.

  9. Phase transitions in 3D gravity and fractal dimension

    Dong, Xi; Maguire, Shaun; Maloney, Alexander; Maxfield, Henry

    2018-05-01

    We show that for three dimensional gravity with higher genus boundary conditions, if the theory possesses a sufficiently light scalar, there is a second order phase transition where the scalar field condenses. This three dimensional version of the holographic superconducting phase transition occurs even though the pure gravity solutions are locally AdS3. This is in addition to the first order Hawking-Page-like phase transitions between different locally AdS3 handlebodies. This implies that the Rényi entropies of holographic CFTs will undergo phase transitions as the Rényi parameter is varied, as long as the theory possesses a scalar operator which is lighter than a certain critical dimension. We show that this critical dimension has an elegant mathematical interpretation as the Hausdorff dimension of the limit set of a quotient group of AdS3, and use this to compute it, analytically near the boundary of moduli space and numerically in the interior of moduli space. We compare this to a CFT computation generalizing recent work of Belin, Keller and Zadeh, bounding the critical dimension using higher genus conformal blocks, and find a surprisingly good match.

  10. Identify the Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Compressors by Fractal Dimension in Reconstructed Phase Space

    Le Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on phase space reconstruction and fractal dynamics in nonlinear dynamics, a method is proposed to extract and analyze the dynamics of the rotating stall in the impeller of centrifugal compressor, and some numerical examples are given to verify the results as well. First, the rotating stall of an existing low speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC is numerically simulated, and the time series of pressure in the rotating stall is obtained at various locations near the impeller outlet. Then, the phase space reconstruction is applied to these pressure time series, and a low-dimensional dynamical system, which the dynamics properties are included in, is reconstructed. In phase space reconstruction, C–C method is used to obtain the key parameters, such as time delay and the embedding dimension of the reconstructed phase space. Further, the fractal characteristics of the rotating stall are analyzed in detail, and the fractal dimensions are given for some examples to measure the complexity of the flow in the post-rotating stall. The results show that the fractal structures could reveal the intrinsic dynamics of the rotating stall flow and could be considered as a characteristic to identify the rotating stall.

  11. Fractal analysis of granular activated carbons using isotherm data

    Khalili, N.R.; Pan, M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Sandi, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Utilization of adsorption on solid surfaces was exercised for the first time in 1785. Practical application of unactivated carbon filters, and powdered carbon were first demonstrated in the American water treatment plant, and a municipal treatment plant in New Jersey, in 1883 and 1930, respectively. The use of activated carbon became widespread in the next few decades. At present, adsorption on carbons has a wide spread application in water treatment and removal of taste, odor, removal of synthetic organic chemicals, color-forming organics, and desinfection by-products and their naturally occurring precursors. This paper presents an analysis of the surface fractal dimension and adsorption capacity of a group of carbons.

  12. Fractal Analysis of Stealthy Pathfinding Aesthetics

    Ron Coleman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a fractal model to analyze aesthetic values of a new class of obstacle-prone or “stealthy” pathfinding which seeks to avoid detection, exposure, openness, and so forth in videogames. This study is important since in general the artificial intelligence literature has given relatively little attention to aesthetic outcomes in pathfinding. The data we report, according to the fractal model, suggests that stealthy paths are statistically significantly unique in relative aesthetic value when compared to control paths. We show furthermore that paths generated with different stealth regimes are also statistically significantly unique. These conclusions are supported by statistical analysis of model results on experimental trials involving pathfinding in randomly generated, multiroom virtual worlds.

  13. Fractals and spectra related to fourier analysis and function spaces

    Triebel, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Fractals and Spectra Hans Triebel This book deals with the symbiotic relationship between the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, and spectral theory of (fractal) pseudodifferential operators as it has emerged quite recently. Atomic and quarkonial (subatomic) decompositions in scalar and vector valued function spaces on the euclidean n-space pave the way to study properties (compact embeddings, entropy numbers) of function spaces on and of fractals. On this basis, distributions of eigenvalues of fractal (pseudo)differential operators are investigated. Diverse versions of fractal drums are played. The book is directed to mathematicians interested in functional analysis, the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, partial and pseudodifferential operators, and, in particular, in how these domains are interrelated. ------ It is worth mentioning that there is virtually no literature on this topic and hence the most of the presented material is published here the first time. - Zentralblatt MATH (…) ...

  14. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  15. Tumor cells diagnostic through fractal dimensions; Diagnostico de celulas tumorais atraves de dimensoes fractais

    Timbo, Christiano dos Santos

    2004-07-01

    This method relies on the application of an algorithm for the quantitative and statistic differentiation of a sample of cells stricken by a certain kind of pathology and a sample of healthy cells. This differentiation is made by applying the principles of fractal dimension to digital images of the cells. The algorithm was developed using the the concepts of Object- Oriented Programming, resulting in a simple code, divided in 5 distinct procedures, and a user-friendly interface. To obtain the fractal dimension of the images of the cells, the program processes the image, extracting its border, and uses it to characterize the complexity of the form of the cell in a quantitative way. In order to validate the code, it was used a digitalized image found in an article by W. Bauer, developer of an analog method. The result showed a difference of 6% between the value obtained by Bauer and the value obtained the algorithm developed in this work. (author)

  16. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A.; Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P.; Karhu, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([ 123 I]β-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15±0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19±0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Fractal analysis of striatal dopamine re-uptake sites

    Kuikka, J.T.; Bergstroem, K.A. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Tiihonen, J.; Raesaenen, P. [Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland); Karhu, J. [Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-01

    Spatial variation in regional blood flow, metabolism and receptor density within the brain and in other organs is measurable even with a low spatial resolution technique such as emission tomography. It has been previously shown that the observed variance increases with increasing number of subregions in the organ/tissue studied. This resolution-dependent variance can be described by fractal analysis. We studied striatal dopamine re-uptake sites in 39 healthy volunteers with high-resolution single-photon emission tomography using iodine-123 labelled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT). The mean fractal dimension was 1.15{+-}0.07. The results indicate that regional striatal dopamine re-uptake sites involve considerable spatial heterogeneity which is higher than the uniform density (dimension=1.00) but much lower than complete randomness (dimension=1.50). There was a gender difference, with females having a higher heterogeneity in both the left and the right striatum. In addition, we found striatal asymmetry (left-to-right heterogeneity ratio of 1.19{+-}0.15; P<0.001), suggesting functional hemispheric lateralization consistent with the control of motor behaviour and integrative functions. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A novel method for human age group classification based on Correlation Fractal Dimension of facial edges

    Yarlagadda, Anuradha; Murthy, J.V.R.; Krishna Prasad, M.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the computer vision community, easy categorization of a person’s facial image into various age groups is often quite precise and is not pursued effectively. To address this problem, which is an important area of research, the present paper proposes an innovative method of age group classification system based on the Correlation Fractal Dimension of complex facial image. Wrinkles appear on the face with aging thereby changing the facial edges of the image. The proposed method is rotation an...

  19. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  20. Application of Higuchi's fractal dimension from basic to clinical neurophysiology: A review.

    Kesić, Srdjan; Spasić, Sladjana Z

    2016-09-01

    For more than 20 years, Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), as a nonlinear method, has occupied an important place in the analysis of biological signals. The use of HFD has evolved from EEG and single neuron activity analysis to the most recent application in automated assessments of different clinical conditions. Our objective is to provide an updated review of the HFD method applied in basic and clinical neurophysiological research. This article summarizes and critically reviews a broad literature and major findings concerning the applications of HFD for measuring the complexity of neuronal activity during different neurophysiological conditions. The source of information used in this review comes from the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and IEEE Xplore Digital Library databases. The review process substantiated the significance, advantages and shortcomings of HFD application within all key areas of basic and clinical neurophysiology. Therefore, the paper discusses HFD application alone, combined with other linear or nonlinear measures, or as a part of automated methods for analyzing neurophysiological signals. The speed, accuracy and cost of applying the HFD method for research and medical diagnosis make it stand out from the widely used linear methods. However, only a combination of HFD with other nonlinear methods ensures reliable and accurate analysis of a wide range of neurophysiological signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface fractal dimensions and textural properties of mesoporous alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites

    Vilchis-Granados, J.; Granados-Correa, F.; Barrera-Díaz, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the surface fractal dimensions (D f ) and textural properties of three different alkaline-earth hydroxyapatites. Calcium, strontium and barium hydroxyapatite compounds were successfully synthesized via chemical precipitation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and N 2 -physisorption measurements. Surface fractal dimensions were determined using single N 2 -adsorption/desorption isotherms method to quantify the irregular surface of as-prepared compounds. The obtained materials were also characterized through their surface hydroxyl group content, determined by the mass titration method. It was found that the D f values for the three materials covered the range of 0.77 ± 0.04–2.33 ± 0.11; these results indicated that the materials tend to have smooth surfaces, except the irregular surface of barium hydroxyapatite. Moreover, regarding the synthesized calcium hydroxyapatite exhibited better textural properties compared with the synthesized strontium and barium hydroxyapatites for adsorbent purposes. However, barium hydroxyapatite shows irregular surface, indicating a high population of active sites across the surface, in comparison with the others studied hydroxyapatites. Finally, the results showed a linear correlation between the surface hydroxyl group content at the external surface of materials and their surface fractal dimensions.

  2. Stochastic and fractal analysis of fracture trajectories

    Bessendorf, Michael H.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of fracture trajectories are used to investigate structures that fall between 'micro' and 'macro' scales. It was shown that fracture trajectories belong to the class of nonstationary processes. It was also found that correlation distance, which may be related to a characteristic size of a fracture process, increases with crack length. An assemblage of crack trajectory processes may be considered as a diffusive process. Chudnovsky (1981-1985) introduced a 'crack diffusion coefficient' d which reflects the ability of the material to deviate the crack trajectory from the most energetically efficient path and thus links the material toughness to its structure. For the set of fracture trajectories in AISI 304 steel, d was found to be equal to 1.04 microns. The fractal dimension D for the same set of trajectories was found to be 1.133.

  3. Fractal analysis and nonlinear forecasting of indoor 222Rn time series

    Pausch, G.; Bossew, P.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.

    1998-01-01

    Fractal analyses of indoor 222 Rn time series were performed using different chaos theory based measurements such as time delay method, Hurst's rescaled range analysis, capacity (fractal) dimension, and Lyapunov exponent. For all time series we calculated only positive Lyapunov exponents which is a hint to chaos, while the Hurst exponents were well below 0.5, indicating antipersistent behaviour (past trends tend to reverse in the future). These time series were also analyzed with a nonlinear prediction method which allowed an estimation of the embedding dimensions with some restrictions, limiting the prediction to about three relative time steps. (orig.)

  4. Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve Using Fractal Dimension ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... such as particle size distribution and bulk density by applying multiple linear regression analysis. The measured .... apparatus (Model 1500, Soil moisture Equipment, ... and intercept of the fitted line on the two points for.

  5. Development of Fractal Dimension and Characteristic Roughness Models for Turned Surface of Carbon Steels

    Zuo, Xue; Zhu, Hua; Zhou, Yuankai; Ding, Cong; Sun, Guodong

    2016-08-01

    Relationships between material hardness, turning parameters (spindle speed and feed rate) and surface parameters (surface roughness Ra, fractal dimension D and characteristic roughness τ∗) are studied and modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). The experiments are carried out on a CNC lathe for six carbon steel material AISI 1010, AISI 1020, AISI 1030, AISI 1045, AISI 1050 and AISI 1060. The profile of turned surface and the surface roughness value are measured by a JB-5C profilometer. Based on the profile data, D and τ∗ are computed through the root-mean-square method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals that spindle speed is the most significant factors affecting Ra, while material hardness is the most dominant parameter affecting τ∗. Material hardness and spindle speed have the same influence on D. Feed rate has less effect on three surface parameters than spindle speed and material hardness. The second-order models of RSM are established for estimating Ra, D and τ∗. The validity of the developed models is approximately 80%. The response surfaces show that a surface with small Ra and large D and τ∗ can be obtained by selecting a high speed and a large hardness material. According to the established models, Ra, D and τ∗ of six carbon steels surfaces can be predicted under cutting conditions studied in this paper. The results have an instructive meaning to estimate the surface quality before turning.

  6. A fractal model of effective stress of porous media and the analysis of influence factors

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Li, Siqi; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Bing

    2018-03-01

    The basic concept of effective stress describes the characteristics of fluid and solid interaction in porous media. In this paper, based on the theory of fractal geometry, a fractal model was built to analyze the relationship between the microstructure and the effective stress of porous media. From the microscopic point of view, the influence of effective stress on pore structure of porous media was demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that: (i) the fractal model of effective stress can be used to describe the relationship between effective stress and the microstructure of porous media; (ii) a linear increase in the effective stress leads to exponential increases in fractal dimension, porosity and pore number of the porous media, and causes a decreasing trend in the average pore radius.

  7. Fractal dimension and energetic heterogeneity of gold-modified Al-Fe-Ce pilc's

    Carriazo, J.G.; Molina, R.; Moreno, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the energetic and topographical changes that occur on the surface of a series of clays pillared with the mixed Al-Fe-Ce system and on the surface of solids synthesized by the deposition of gold nanoparticles over these pillared clays. The energetic heterogeneity of the solids was analyzed by means of the distribution of the adsorption potential, while the variations in the fractal dimension were determined from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K, using the equation proposed by Avnir-Jaroniec. Results show the generation of microporous structures with important topographical modifications indicating an increase in the roughness (fractal geometry) of the surface of the solids as a consequence of the pillaring, revealing a positive effect of cerium addition in the synthesis process and the possible formation of nanoparticles of iron species and gold on the surface of pillared clays. The solids were also analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirming the formation of nanoparticles on the surface.

  8. Evaluation of peri-implant bone using fractal analysis

    Jung, Yun Hoa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the fractal dimension of successive panoramic radiographs of bone after implant placement is useful in the characterization of structural change in alveolar bone. Twelve subjects with thirty-five implants were retrospectively followed-up from one week to six months after implantation. Thirty-six panoramic radiographs from twelve patients were classified into 1 week. 1-2 months and 3-6 months after implantation and digitized. The windows of bone apical and mesial or distal to the implant were defined as peri apical region of interest (ROI) and inter dental ROI; the fractal dimension of the image was calculated. There was not a statistically significant difference in fractal dimensions during the period up to 6 months after implantation. The fractal dimensions were higher in 13 and 15 mm than 10 and 11.5 mm implant length at inter dental ROIs in 3-6 months after implantation (p<0.01). Longer fixtures showed the higher fractal dimension of bone around implant. This investigation needs further exploration with large numbers of implants for longer follow-up periods.

  9. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 ± 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 ± 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 ± 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  10. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  11. Fractal dimension estimations of drainage network in the Carpathian-Pannonian system.

    Dombradi, E.; Timar, G.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2007-01-01

    The development of drainage network in the intra-Carpathian realm is influenced by a complex Quaternary tectonic evolution manifested with differential vertical motions. The present-day configuration of the left-hand side tributary system of the Tisza river was studied by means of fractal analysis.

  12. ENCAINIDE REDUCES HEART RATE VARIABILITY FRACTAL DIMENSION AMONG ARRHYTHMIC PATIENTS WHO SUFFERED ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCT

    Luis García Domínguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Autoregressive Dimensional Index (ARDI was measured in a subset of R-R recordings corresponding to 257 patients from the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST-study, both before, and during treatment with the anti-arrhythmic drug Encainide (E. Encainide induced an average ARDI increase of 47% (PA similar analysis with 127 patients treated with Flecainide (F did not reveal statistical differences related to treatment. Since ARDI is negatively correlated to the Fractal Dimension (FD of HRV data (Hernandez et al, Electron J Biomed 2004;1:4-15 we conclude that E exerts a reduction in FD among these patients. Since changes suggesting FD reduction are predictive of health worsening and sudden death, our results may provide an explanation for the reported increase in mortality induced by E among CAST patients. The lack of effect from F may be in agreement with recent reports suggesting that this drug does not increase the risk of sudden death.RESUMENEl Índice Dimensional Autorregresivo (Autoregressive Dimensional Index ARDI fue evaluado sobre un subconjunto de registros de intervalos R-R correspondientes a 257 pacientes incluidos en el estudio "CAST", un conocido ensayo de supresión de arritmia en pacientes que sufrieron infarto agudo del miocardio. Los registros fueron obtenidos tanto antes como durante el tratamiento con el medicamento antiarrítmico Encainida (E. La Encainida inducía un incremento en el valor de ARDI de aproximadamente un 47% (P<0.001, prueba de la "t" pareada.Un análisis similar realizado con 127 pacientes tratados con Flecainida (F no mostró ningún cambio significativa asociada al tratamiento. Por cuanto ARDI se correlaciona negativamente con la Dimensión Fractal (FD de los datos de variabilidad de la frecuencia cardiaca (Hernández et al, Electrón J Biomed 2004;1:4-15, concluimos que E ejerce una acción reductora de la FD en ese grupo de pacientes. Por cuanto la reducción de la FD predice acerca del

  13. Fractal analysis of rainfall occurrence observed in the synoptic ...

    Fractal analysis is important for characterizing and modeling rainfall's space-time variations in hydrology. The purpose of this study consists on determining, in a mono-fractal framework, the scale invariance of rainfall series in Benin synopticstations located in two main geographical area: Cotonou, Bohicon , Savè in a sub ...

  14. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of two-dimensional neovascular network complexity: the surface fractal dimension

    Grizzi, Fabio; Russo, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Franceschini, Barbara; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Modeling the complex development and growth of tumor angiogenesis using mathematics and biological data is a burgeoning area of cancer research. Architectural complexity is the main feature of every anatomical system, including organs, tissues, cells and sub-cellular entities. The vascular system is a complex network whose geometrical characteristics cannot be properly defined using the principles of Euclidean geometry, which is only capable of interpreting regular and smooth objects that are almost impossible to find in Nature. However, fractal geometry is a more powerful means of quantifying the spatial complexity of real objects. This paper introduces the surface fractal dimension (D s ) as a numerical index of the two-dimensional (2-D) geometrical complexity of tumor vascular networks, and their behavior during computer-simulated changes in vessel density and distribution. We show that D s significantly depends on the number of vessels and their pattern of distribution. This demonstrates that the quantitative evaluation of the 2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular systems can be useful not only to measure its complex architecture, but also to model its development and growth. Studying the fractal properties of neovascularity induces reflections upon the real significance of the complex form of branched anatomical structures, in an attempt to define more appropriate methods of describing them quantitatively. This knowledge can be used to predict the aggressiveness of malignant tumors and design compounds that can halt the process of angiogenesis and influence tumor growth

  15. Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique and Fractal Dimension for Identifying Multiple Sclerosis

    Zhang, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Yin; Phillips, Preetha; Dong, Zhengchao; Wang, Shuihua

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe brain disease. Early detection can provide timely treatment. Fractal dimension can provide statistical index of pattern changes with scale at a given brain image. In this study, our team used susceptibility weighted imaging technique to obtain 676 MS slices and 880 healthy slices. We used synthetic minority oversampling technique to process the unbalanced dataset. Then, we used Canny edge detector to extract distinguishing edges. The Minkowski-Bouligand dimension was a fractal dimension estimation method and used to extract features from edges. Single hidden layer neural network was used as the classifier. Finally, we proposed a three-segment representation biogeography-based optimization to train the classifier. Our method achieved a sensitivity of 97.78±1.29%, a specificity of 97.82±1.60% and an accuracy of 97.80±1.40%. The proposed method is superior to seven state-of-the-art methods in terms of sensitivity and accuracy.

  16. The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms.

    West, G B; Brown, J H; Enquist, B J

    1999-06-04

    Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.

  17. Measuring capital market efficiency: long-term memory, fractal dimension and approximate entropy

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2014), "162-1"-"162-9" ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) FP7/2007-2013 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Statistical and Nonlinear Physics * fractal dimension * stock market efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0431151.pdf

  18. Quantitative characteristics of the Indian Ocean seafloor relief using fractal dimension

    Chakraborty, B.; Mahale, V.; Shashikumar, K.; Srinivas, K.

    on the basis that the topographic profiles are self- affine and concluded that different depth profiles may be characterized by different fractal dimension (D). Using regression technique4, the power law on a logarithmic scale can be written as: log10 PH...-S profiles (J and K) are situated along west and eastern end. It has been observed that, the western region of the site C is comparatively shallower than the eastern side and the seafioor morphology varies from medium to large scale and has E-W trending...

  19. Fractal and spectroscopic analysis of soot from internal combustion engines

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Raj, Vimal; Sankararaman, S.

    2018-03-01

    Today diesel engines are used worldwide for various applications and very importantly in transportation. Hydrocarbons are the most widespread precursors among carbon sources employed in the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The aging of internal combustion engine is an important parameter in deciding the carbon emission and particulate matter due to incomplete combustion of fuel. In the present work, an attempt has been made for the effective utilization of the aged engines for potential applicationapplications in fuel cells and nanoelectronics. To analyze the impact of aging, the particulate matter rich in carbon content areis collected from diesel engines of different ages. The soot with CNTs is purified by the liquid phase oxidation method and analyzed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis. The SEM image contains self-similar patterns probing fractal analysis. The fractal dimensions of the samples are determined by the box counting method. We could find a greater amount of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the particulate matter emitted by aged diesel engines and thereby giving information about the combustion efficiency of the engine. The SWCNT rich sample finds a wide range of applicationapplications in nanoelectronics and thereby pointing a potential use of these aged engines.

  20. Fractal cosmology

    Dickau, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of fractals and fractal-like forms to describe or model the universe has had a long and varied history, which begins long before the word fractal was actually coined. Since the introduction of mathematical rigor to the subject of fractals, by Mandelbrot and others, there have been numerous cosmological theories and analyses of astronomical observations which suggest that the universe exhibits fractality or is by nature fractal. In recent years, the term fractal cosmology has come into usage, as a description for those theories and methods of analysis whereby a fractal nature of the cosmos is shown.

  1. Study of heart rate variability in driving situation by fractal analysis; Fractal kaiseki ni yoru untenchu no shinpaku hendo no bunseki

    Hirata, Y; Nagaoka, M [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper will explain method of fractal analysis for heart rate variability, as measuring method of mental stress in vehicle driving. In the previous, although there was a measuring method of mental stress by RSA, a issue arise such as reliability of analysis, because driver`s heart rate affect by respiration and muscle motion as well. We have established a method to measure mental stress by fractal dimension. And tried it is the proving ground and public road driving. We have confident that it is more reliable than RSA to quantify driver`s mental stress and fatigue. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Appraisal of long term groundwater quality of peninsular India using water quality index and fractal dimension

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Jacintha, T. German Amali; Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    A review has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical behaviour of groundwater through statistical analysis of long term water quality data (year 2005-2013). Water Quality Index ( WQI), descriptive statistics, Hurst exponent, fractal dimension and predictability index were estimated for each water parameter. WQI results showed that majority of samples fall in moderate category during 2005-2013, but monitoring site four falls under severe category (water unfit for domestic use). Brownian time series behaviour (a true random walk nature) exists between calcium (Ca^{2+}) and electric conductivity (EC); magnesium (Mg^{2+}) with EC; sodium (Na+) with EC; sulphate (SO4^{2-}) with EC; total dissolved solids (TDS) with chloride (Cl-) during pre- (2005-2013) and post- (2006-2013) monsoon season. These parameters have a closer value of Hurst exponent ( H) with Brownian time series behaviour condition (H=0.5). The result of times series analysis of water quality data shows a persistent behaviour (a positive autocorrelation) that has played a role between Cl- and Mg^{2+}, Cl- and Ca^{2+}, TDS and Na+, TDS and SO4^{2-}, TDS and Ca^{2+} in pre- and post-monsoon time series because of the higher value of H (>1). Whereas an anti-persistent behaviour (or negative autocorrelation) was found between Cl- and EC, TDS and EC during pre- and post-monsoon due to low value of H. The work outline shows that the groundwater of few areas needs treatment before direct consumption, and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  3. Fractal Analysis of Radiologists Visual Scanning Pattern in Screening Mammography

    Alamudun, Folami T [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators have investigated radiologists visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the derived scanpaths using the box counting method. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist s scanpath was estimated using fractal dimension. The association between gaze complexity, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using 3 factor fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that case pathology, breast density, and experience level are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases as well as when breast parenchyma density changes.

  4. Radiologic assessment of bone healing after orthognathic surgery using fractal analysis

    Park, Kwang Soo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, In Seong [Department of Dentistry, Inje University Sanggyepaik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Dae [Division of Information and Communication Engineering, Hallym university, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To evaluate the radiographic change of operation sites after orthognathic surgery using the digital image processing and fractal analysis. A series of panoramic radiographs of thirty-five randomly selected patients who had undergone mandibular orthognathic surgery (bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy) without clinical complication for osseous healing, were taken. The panoramic radiographs of each selected patient were taken at pre-operation (stage 0), 1 or 2 days after operation (stage 1), 1 month after operation (stage 2), 6 months after operation (stage 3), and 12 months after operation (stage 4). The radiographs were digitized at 600 dpi, 8 bit, and 256 gray levels. The region of interest, centered on the bony gap area of the operation site, was selected and the fractal dimension was calculated by using the tile-counting method. The mean values and standard deviations of fractal dimension for each stage were calculated and the differences among stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were evaluated through repeated measures of the ANOVA and paired t-test. The mean values and standard deviations of the fractal dimensions obtained from stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1.658 {+-} 0.048, 1.580 {+-} 0.050, 1.607 {+-} 0.046, 1.624 {+-} 0.049, and 1.641 {+-} 0.061, respectively. The fractal dimensions from stage 1 to stage 4 were shown to have a tendency to increase (p<0.05). The tendency of the fractal dimesion to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating post-operative bony healing of the osteotomy site.

  5. Radiologic assessment of bone healing after orthognathic surgery using fractal analysis

    Park, Kwang Soo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Jeon, In Seong; Kim, Jong Dae

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the radiographic change of operation sites after orthognathic surgery using the digital image processing and fractal analysis. A series of panoramic radiographs of thirty-five randomly selected patients who had undergone mandibular orthognathic surgery (bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy) without clinical complication for osseous healing, were taken. The panoramic radiographs of each selected patient were taken at pre-operation (stage 0), 1 or 2 days after operation (stage 1), 1 month after operation (stage 2), 6 months after operation (stage 3), and 12 months after operation (stage 4). The radiographs were digitized at 600 dpi, 8 bit, and 256 gray levels. The region of interest, centered on the bony gap area of the operation site, was selected and the fractal dimension was calculated by using the tile-counting method. The mean values and standard deviations of fractal dimension for each stage were calculated and the differences among stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were evaluated through repeated measures of the ANOVA and paired t-test. The mean values and standard deviations of the fractal dimensions obtained from stage 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1.658 ± 0.048, 1.580 ± 0.050, 1.607 ± 0.046, 1.624 ± 0.049, and 1.641 ± 0.061, respectively. The fractal dimensions from stage 1 to stage 4 were shown to have a tendency to increase (p<0.05). The tendency of the fractal dimesion to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating post-operative bony healing of the osteotomy site.

  6. Objective Auscultation of TCM Based on Wavelet Packet Fractal Dimension and Support Vector Machine

    Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yi-Qin; Liu, Guo-Ping; Yan, Hai-Xia; Xia, Chun-Ming; Shen, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to illustrate that auscultation features based on the fractal dimension combined with wavelet packet transform (WPT) were conducive to the identification the pattern of syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The WPT and the fractal dimension were employed to extract features of auscultation signals of 137 patients with lung Qi-deficient pattern, 49 patients with lung Yin-deficient pattern, and 43 healthy subjects. With these features, the classification model was constructed based on multiclass support vector machine (SVM). When all auscultation signals were trained by SVM to decide the patterns of TCM syndromes, the overall recognition rate of model was 79.49%; when male and female auscultation signals were trained, respectively, to decide the patterns, the overall recognition rate of model reached 86.05%. The results showed that the methods proposed in this paper were effective to analyze auscultation signals, and the performance of model can be greatly improved when the distinction of gender was considered. PMID:24883068

  7. Morphometrical differences between resectable and non-resectable pancreatic cancer: a fractal analysis.

    Vasilescu, Catalin; Giza, Dana Elena; Petrisor, Petre; Dobrescu, Radu; Popescu, Irinel; Herlea, Vlad

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive cancer with a rising incidence and poor prognosis despite active surgical treatment. Candidates for surgical resection should be carefully selected. In order to avoid unnecessary laparotomy it is useful to identify reliable factors that may predict resectability. Nuclear morphometry and fractal dimension of pancreatic nuclear features could provide important preoperative information in assessing pancreas resectability. Sixty-one patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this retrospective study between 2003 and 2005. Patients were divided into two groups: one resectable cancer group and one with non-resectable pancreatic cancer. Morphometric parameters measured were: nuclear area, length of minor axis and length of major axis. Nuclear shape and chromatin distribution of the pancreatic tumor cells were both estimated using fractal dimension. Morphometric measurements have shown significant differences between the nuclear area of the resectable group and the non-resectable group (61.9 ± 19.8µm vs. 42.2 ± 15.6µm). Fractal dimension of the nuclear outlines and chromatin distribution was found to have a higher value in the non-resectable group (p<0.05). Objective measurements should be performed to improve risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in pancreatic cancer. Nuclear morphometry of the pancreatic nuclear features can provide important pre-operative information in resectability assessment. The fractal dimension of the nuclear shape and chromatin distribution may be considered a new promising adjunctive tool for conventional pathological analysis.

  8. Estimating the level of dynamical noise in time series by using fractal dimensions

    Sase, Takumi; Ramírez, Jonatán Peña; Kitajo, Keiichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for estimating the dynamical noise level of a ‘short’ time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the level of dynamical noise by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the level of dynamical noise. - Highlights: • A dynamical noise level estimator for time series is proposed. • The estimator does not need any information about the dynamics generating the time series. • The estimator is based on a novel definition of time series dimension (TSD). • It is demonstrated that there exists a monotonic relationship between the • TSD and the level of dynamical noise. • We apply the proposed method to human electroencephalographic data.

  9. Nonlinear random resistor diode networks and fractal dimensions of directed percolation clusters.

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K

    2001-07-01

    We study nonlinear random resistor diode networks at the transition from the nonpercolating to the directed percolating phase. The resistor-like bonds and the diode-like bonds under forward bias voltage obey a generalized Ohm's law V approximately I(r). Based on general grounds such as symmetries and relevance we develop a field theoretic model. We focus on the average two-port resistance, which is governed at the transition by the resistance exponent straight phi(r). By employing renormalization group methods we calculate straight phi(r) for arbitrary r to one-loop order. Then we address the fractal dimensions characterizing directed percolation clusters. Via considering distinct values of the nonlinearity r, we determine the dimension of the red bonds, the chemical path, and the backbone to two-loop order.

  10. Estimating the level of dynamical noise in time series by using fractal dimensions

    Sase, Takumi, E-mail: sase@sat.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ramírez, Jonatán Peña [CONACYT Research Fellow, Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education at Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Kitajo, Keiichi [BSI-Toyota Collaboration Center, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2016-03-11

    We present a method for estimating the dynamical noise level of a ‘short’ time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the level of dynamical noise by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the level of dynamical noise. - Highlights: • A dynamical noise level estimator for time series is proposed. • The estimator does not need any information about the dynamics generating the time series. • The estimator is based on a novel definition of time series dimension (TSD). • It is demonstrated that there exists a monotonic relationship between the • TSD and the level of dynamical noise. • We apply the proposed method to human electroencephalographic data.

  11. Fractal dimension of the middle meningeal vessels: variation and evolution in Homo erectus, Neanderthals, and modern humans.

    Bruner, Emiliano; Mantini, Simone; Perna, Agostino; Maffei, Carlotta; Manzi, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The middle meningeal vascular network leaves its traces on the endocranial surface because of the tight relationship between neurocranial development and brain growth. Analysing the endocast of fossil specimens, it is therefore possible to describe the morphology of these structures, leading inferences on the cerebral physiology and metabolism in extinct human groups. In this paper, general features of the meningeal vascular traces are described for specimens included in the Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens hypodigms. The complexity of the arterial network is quantified by its fractal dimension, calculated through the box-counting method. Modern humans show significant differences from the other two taxa because of the anterior vascular dominance and the larger fractal dimension. Neither the fractal dimension nor the anterior development are merely associated with cranial size increase. Considering the differences between Neanderthals and modern humans, these results may be interpreted in terms of phylogeny, cerebral functions, or cranial structural network.

  12. Influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emission characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions of coal under uniaxial compression

    Jia Zheqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soaking time affects the physical and mechanical properties of coals, and the temporal and spatial evolution of acoustic emissions reflects the fracture damage process of rock. This study conducted uniaxial compression acoustic emissions tests of coal samples with different water-soaking times to investigate the influence of water-soaking time on the acoustic emissions characteristics and spatial fractal dimensions during the deformation and failure process of coals. The results demonstrate that the acoustic emissions characteristics decrease with increases in the water-soaking time. The acoustic emissions spatial fractal dimension changes from a single dimensionality reduction model to a fluctuation dimensionality reduction model, and the stress level of the initial descending point of the fractal dimension increases. With increases in the water-soaking time, the destruction of coal transitions from continuous intense failure throughout the process to a lower release of energy concentrated near the peak strength.

  13. Fractal-Based Analysis of the Influence of Music on Human Respiration

    Reza Namazi, H.

    An important challenge in respiration related studies is to investigate the influence of external stimuli on human respiration. Auditory stimulus is an important type of stimuli that influences human respiration. However, no one discovered any trend, which relates the characteristics of the auditory stimuli to the characteristics of the respiratory signal. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between auditory stimuli and respiratory signal from fractal point of view. We found out that the fractal structure of respiratory signal is correlated with the fractal structure of the applied music. Based on the obtained results, the music with greater fractal dimension will result in respiratory signal with smaller fractal dimension. In order to verify this result, we benefit from approximate entropy. The results show the respiratory signal will have smaller approximate entropy by choosing the music with smaller approximate entropy. The method of analysis could be further investigated to analyze the variations of different physiological time series due to the various types of stimuli when the complexity is the main concern.

  14. TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURFACE FRACTAL DIMENSION AND MORPHOLOGY OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA USING DYNAMIC FLOW ADSORPTION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    Silvester Tursiloadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique to determine the surface fractal dimension of mesoporous TiO­2 using a dynamic flow adsorption instrument is described. Fractal dimension is an additional technique to characterize surface morphology. Surface fractal dimension, a quantitative measurement of surface ruggedness, can be determined by adsorbing a homologous series of adsorbates onto an adsorbent sample of mesoporous TiO­2. Titania wet gel prepared by hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide was immersed in the flow of supercritical CO2 at 60 °C and the solvent was extracted.  Mesoporous TiO­2 consists of anatase nano-particles, about 5nm in diameter, have been obtained. After calcination at 600 °C, the average pore size of the extracted gel, about 20nm in diameter, and the pore volume, about 0.35cm3g-1, and the specific surface area, about 58 m2g-1. Using the N2 adsorption isotherm, the surface fractal dimension, DS, has been estimated according to the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH theory. The N2 adsorption isotherm for the as-extracted aerogel indicates the mesoporous structure. Two linear regions are found for the FHH plot of the as-extracted aerogel. The estimated surface fractal dimensions are about 2.49 and 2.68. Both of the DS  values indicate rather complex surface morphology. The TEM observation shows that there are amorphous and crystalline particles. Two values of DS may be attributed to these two kinds of particles. The two regions are in near length scales, and the smaller DS, DS =2.49, for the smaller region. This result indicates that there are two kinds of particles, probably amorphous and anatase particles as shown by the TEM observation.     Keywords: surface fractal dimensions, CO2 supercritically extraction, sol-gel, aerogel, titania

  15. Topological Hausdorff dimension and level sets of generic continuous functions on fractals

    Balka, Richárd; Buczolich, Zoltán; Elekes, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine a new fractal dimension, the so called topological Hausdorff dimension. ► The generic continuous function has a level set of maximal Hausdorff dimension. ► This maximal dimension is the topological Hausdorff dimension minus one. ► Homogeneity implies that “most” level sets are of this dimension. ► We calculate the various dimensions of the graph of the generic function. - Abstract: In an earlier paper we introduced a new concept of dimension for metric spaces, the so called topological Hausdorff dimension. For a compact metric space K let dim H K and dim tH K denote its Hausdorff and topological Hausdorff dimension, respectively. We proved that this new dimension describes the Hausdorff dimension of the level sets of the generic continuous function on K, namely sup{ dim H f -1 (y):y∈R} =dim tH K-1 for the generic f ∈ C(K), provided that K is not totally disconnected, otherwise every non-empty level set is a singleton. We also proved that if K is not totally disconnected and sufficiently homogeneous then dim H f −1 (y) = dim tH K − 1 for the generic f ∈ C(K) and the generic y ∈ f(K). The most important goal of this paper is to make these theorems more precise. As for the first result, we prove that the supremum is actually attained on the left hand side of the first equation above, and also show that there may only be a unique level set of maximal Hausdorff dimension. As for the second result, we characterize those compact metric spaces for which for the generic f ∈ C(K) and the generic y ∈ f(K) we have dim H f −1 (y) = dim tH K − 1. We also generalize a result of B. Kirchheim by showing that if K is self-similar then for the generic f ∈ C(K) for every y∈intf(K) we have dim H f −1 (y) = dim tH K − 1. Finally, we prove that the graph of the generic f ∈ C(K) has the same Hausdorff and topological Hausdorff dimension as K.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute and Séminaire de mathématiques supérieures on Fractal Geometry and Analysis

    Dubuc, Serge

    1991-01-01

    This ASI- which was also the 28th session of the Seminaire de mathematiques superieures of the Universite de Montreal - was devoted to Fractal Geometry and Analysis. The present volume is the fruit of the work of this Advanced Study Institute. We were fortunate to have with us Prof. Benoit Mandelbrot - the creator of numerous concepts in Fractal Geometry - who gave a series of lectures on multifractals, iteration of analytic functions, and various kinds of fractal stochastic processes. Different foundational contributions for Fractal Geometry like measure theory, dy­ namical systems, iteration theory, branching processes are recognized. The geometry of fractal sets and the analytical tools used to investigate them provide a unifying theme of this book. The main topics that are covered are then as follows. Dimension Theory. Many definitions of fractional dimension have been proposed, all of which coincide on "regular" objects, but often take different values for a given fractal set. There is ample discussion ...

  17. Evaluación de la dimensión fractal reactiva de los glicinatos de magnesio, manganeso y zinc Evaluation of the reactive fractal dimension of magnesium, manganese and zinc glycinates

    Julie Fernanda Benavides Arevalo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: complejos de glicina con los cationes magnesio, manganeso y zinc podrían ser parte de una formulación de un suplemento nutricional que proporcione una adecuada absorción de los metales en el organismo sin generar molestias gastrointestinales. Objetivo: realizar una aproximación a la solubilidad de los complejos de glicina con los cationes magnesio, manganeso y zinc. Métodos: se efectuaron estudios de disolución y análisis de imagen. Se realizó la síntesis y la verificación de formación de los complejos por espectroscopia infrarroja, calorimetría de barrido diferencial, análisis termogravimétrico y difracción de rayos X de polvos. Resultados: se obtuvieron por análisis de imagen los descriptores: circularidad, diámetro de Feret y dimensión fractal; esta última se relacionó con el proceso de disolución en agua, para obtener dos propiedades relacionadas: la dimensión fractal superficial y la dimensión fractal reactiva. Conclusiones: los resultados muestran que el proceso de disolución de los glicinatos, se realiza a través de los poros o grietas de la superficie de las partículas de estos y que son aptos para su empleo en formulaciones nutricionales como fuentes de magnesio, manganeso y zinc.Introduction: Complexes of glycine and cations magnesium, manganese and zinc, could be included in the formulation of a nutritional supplement that provides adequate absorption of these metals into the body without gastrointestinal disturbances. Objective: to study the solubility of complexes of glycine and cations manganese, zinc and magnesium. Methods: dissolution and image analysis studies were performed. The synthesis and verification of the formation of complexes were carried out by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction of dust. Results: the image analysis showed some descriptors such as circularity, the Ferret diameter and the fractal dimension

  18. L-system fractals

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  19. AFM imaging and fractal analysis of surface roughness of AlN epilayers on sapphire substrates

    Dallaeva, Dinara, E-mail: dinara.dallaeva@yandex.ru [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Physics Department, Technická 8, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Ţălu, Ştefan [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of AET, Discipline of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics, 103-105 B-dul Muncii Street, Cluj-Napoca 400641, Cluj (Romania); Stach, Sebastian [University of Silesia, Faculty of Computer Science and Materials Science, Institute of Informatics, Department of Biomedical Computer Systems, ul. Będzińska 39, 41-205 Sosnowiec (Poland); Škarvada, Pavel; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Physics Department, Technická 8, 616 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We determined the complexity of 3D surface roughness of aluminum nitride layers. • We used atomic force microscopy and analyzed their fractal geometry. • We determined the fractal dimension of surface roughness of aluminum nitride layers. • We determined the dependence of layer morphology on substrate temperature. - Abstract: The paper deals with AFM imaging and characterization of 3D surface morphology of aluminum nitride (AlN) epilayers on sapphire substrates prepared by magnetron sputtering. Due to the effect of temperature changes on epilayer's surface during the fabrication, a surface morphology is studied by combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fractal analysis methods. Both methods are useful tools that may assist manufacturers in developing and fabricating AlN thin films with optimal surface characteristics. Furthermore, they provide different yet complementary information to that offered by traditional surface statistical parameters. This combination is used for the first time for measurement on AlN epilayers on sapphire substrates, and provides the overall 3D morphology of the sample surfaces (by AFM imaging), and reveals fractal characteristics in the surface morphology (fractal analysis)

  20. Topological Vulnerability Evaluation Model Based on Fractal Dimension of Complex Networks.

    Li Gou

    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on network security, much more attentions have been attracted to the vulnerability of complex networks. In this paper, the fractal dimension, which can reflect space-filling capacity of networks, is redefined as the origin moment of the edge betweenness to obtain a more reasonable evaluation of vulnerability. The proposed model combining multiple evaluation indexes not only overcomes the shortage of average edge betweenness's failing to evaluate vulnerability of some special networks, but also characterizes the topological structure and highlights the space-filling capacity of networks. The applications to six US airline networks illustrate the practicality and effectiveness of our proposed method, and the comparisons with three other commonly used methods further validate the superiority of our proposed method.

  1. Reliability of Using Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension as a Biomarker in the Diabetic Retinopathy Detection.

    Huang, Fan; Dashtbozorg, Behdad; Zhang, Jiong; Bekkers, Erik; Abbasi-Sureshjani, Samaneh; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Ter Haar Romeny, Bart M

    2016-01-01

    The retinal fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of vasculature branching pattern complexity. FD has been considered as a potential biomarker for the detection of several diseases like diabetes and hypertension. However, conflicting findings were found in the reported literature regarding the association between this biomarker and diseases. In this paper, we examine the stability of the FD measurement with respect to (1) different vessel annotations obtained from human observers, (2) automatic segmentation methods, (3) various regions of interest, (4) accuracy of vessel segmentation methods, and (5) different imaging modalities. Our results demonstrate that the relative errors for the measurement of FD are significant and FD varies considerably according to the image quality, modality, and the technique used for measuring it. Automated and semiautomated methods for the measurement of FD are not stable enough, which makes FD a deceptive biomarker in quantitative clinical applications.

  2. Analog simulations of josephson junction in a microwave field. Devil's staircase, fractal dimension, and decay constants

    Kuznik, V.; Odehnal, M.

    1986-01-01

    The RSJ model of the Josephson junction in the presence of a microwave field is studied using an analog computer, with special attention to the behavior of this system near or at the critical line, where the set of substeps forms a complete devil's staircase on the I-V characteristic. A value of fractal dimension D = 0.868 +/- 0.002 is determined from 240 substeps between the winding numbers W = 0 and W = 1. Four values of decay constants are determined. The results agree very well with the prediction obtained from the one-dimensional circle map. A self-similarity graph is shown confirming that the staircase is very near the critical line. Results confirm the universal and global character of D and decay constants on the critical line, as was suggested by Jensen et al

  3. Impulse exchange at the surface of the ocean and the fractal dimension of drifter trajectories

    D. M. Summers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An impulse-based model is developed to represent a coupling between turbulent flow in the atmosphere and turbulent flow in the ocean. In particular, it is argued that the atmosphere flowing horizontally over the ocean surface generates a velocity fluctuation field in the latter's near-surface flow. The mechanism for this can be understood kinematically in terms of an exchange of tangentially-oriented fluid impulse at the air-sea interface. We represent this exchange numerically through the creation of Lagrangian elements of impulse density. An indication of the efficacy of such a model would lie in its ability to predict the observed fractal dimension of lateral trajectories of submerged floats set adrift in the ocean. To this end, we examine the geometry of lateral tracer-paths determined from the present model.

  4. Fractal dimension to classify the heart sound recordings with KNN and fuzzy c-mean clustering methods

    Juniati, D.; Khotimah, C.; Wardani, D. E. K.; Budayasa, K.

    2018-01-01

    The heart abnormalities can be detected from heart sound. A heart sound can be heard directly with a stethoscope or indirectly by a phonocardiograph, a machine of the heart sound recording. This paper presents the implementation of fractal dimension theory to make a classification of phonocardiograms into a normal heart sound, a murmur, or an extrasystole. The main algorithm used to calculate the fractal dimension was Higuchi’s Algorithm. There were two steps to make a classification of phonocardiograms, feature extraction, and classification. For feature extraction, we used Discrete Wavelet Transform to decompose the signal of heart sound into several sub-bands depending on the selected level. After the decomposition process, the signal was processed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the spectral frequency. The fractal dimension of the FFT output was calculated using Higuchi Algorithm. The classification of fractal dimension of all phonocardiograms was done with KNN and Fuzzy c-mean clustering methods. Based on the research results, the best accuracy obtained was 86.17%, the feature extraction by DWT decomposition level 3 with the value of kmax 50, using 5-fold cross validation and the number of neighbors was 5 at K-NN algorithm. Meanwhile, for fuzzy c-mean clustering, the accuracy was 78.56%.

  5. Electroencephalographic Fractal Dimension in Healthy Ageing and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Cottone, Carlo; Cancelli, Andrea; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Tecchio, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity is complex; a reflection of its structural and functional organization. Among other measures of complexity, the fractal dimension is emerging as being sensitive to neuronal damage secondary to neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we calculated Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) in resting-state eyes-closed electroencephalography (EEG) recordings from 41 healthy controls (age: 20–89 years) and 67 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients (age: 50–88 years), to investigate whether HFD is sensitive to brain activity changes typical in healthy aging and in AD. Additionally, we considered whether AD-accelerating effects of the copper fraction not bound to ceruloplasmin (also called “free” copper) are reflected in HFD fluctuations. The HFD measure showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with age in healthy people (R2 = .575, p < .001). Onset of HFD decline appeared around the age of 60, and was most evident in central-parietal regions. In this region, HFD decreased with aging stronger in the right than in the left hemisphere (p = .006). AD patients demonstrated reduced HFD compared to age- and education-matched healthy controls, especially in temporal-occipital regions. This was associated with decreasing cognitive status as assessed by mini-mental state examination, and with higher levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper. Taken together, our findings show that resting-state EEG complexity increases from youth to maturity and declines in healthy, aging individuals. In AD, brain activity complexity is further reduced in correlation with cognitive impairment. In addition, elevated levels of non-ceruloplasmin copper appear to accelerate the reduction of neural activity complexity. Overall, HDF appears to be a proper indicator for monitoring EEG-derived brain activity complexity in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26872349

  6. Fractal analysis of the ULF geomagnetic data obtained at Izu Peninsula, Japan in relation to the nearby earthquake swarm of June–August 2000

    K. Gotoh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In our recent papers we applied fractal methods to extract the earthquake precursory signatures from scaling characteristics of the ULF geomagnetic data, obtained in a seismic active region of Guam Island during the large earthquake of 8 August 1993. We found specific dynamics of their fractal characteristics (spectral exponents and fractal dimensions before the earthquake: appearance of the flicker-noise signatures and increase of the time series fractal dimension. Here we analyze ULF geomagnetic data obtained in a seismic active region of Izu Peninsula, Japan during a swarm of the strong nearby earthquakes of June–August 2000 and compare the results obtained in both regions. We apply the same methodology of data processing using the FFT procedure, Higuchi method and Burlaga-Klein approach to calculate the spectral exponents and fractal dimensions of the ULF time series. We found the common features and specific peculiarities in the behavior of fractal characteristics of the ULF time series before Izu and Guam earthquakes. As a common feature, we obtained the same increase of the ULF time series fractal dimension before the earthquakes, and as specific peculiarity – this increase appears to be sharp for Izu earthquake in comparison with gradual increase of the ULF time series fractal dimension for Guam earthquake. The results obtained in both regions are discussed on the basis of the SOC (self-organized criticality concept taking into account the differences in the depths of the earthquake focuses. On the basis of the peculiarities revealed, we advance methodology for extraction of the earthquake precursory signatures. As an adjacent step, we suggest the combined analysis of the ULF time series in the parametric space polarization ratio – fractal dimension. We reason also upon the advantage of the multifractal approach with respect to the mono-fractal analysis for study of the earthquake preparation dynamics.

  7. The Effect of Morphological Characteristic of Coarse Aggregates Measured with Fractal Dimension on Asphalt Mixture’s High-Temperature Performance

    Hainian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological properties of coarse aggregates, such as shape, angularity, and surface texture, have a great influence on the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures. This study aims to investigate the effect of coarse aggregate morphological properties on the high-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. A modified Los Angeles (LA abrasion test was employed to produce aggregates with various morphological properties by applying abrasion cycles of 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 on crushed angular aggregates. Based on a laboratory-developed Morphology Analysis System for Coarse Aggregates (MASCA, the morphological properties of the coarse aggregate particles were quantified using the index of fractal dimension. The high-temperature performances of the dense-graded asphalt mixture (AC-16, gap-graded stone asphalt mixture (SAC-16, and stone mastic asphalt (SMA-16 mixtures containing aggregates with different fractal dimensions were evaluated through the dynamic stability (DS test and the penetration shear test in laboratory. Good linear correlations between the fractal dimension and high-temperature indexes were obtained for all three types of mixtures. Moreover, the results also indicated that higher coarse aggregate angularity leads to stronger high-temperature shear resistance of asphalt mixtures.

  8. Fractal analysis of visual search activity for mass detection during mammographic screening.

    Alamudun, Folami; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Hudson, Kathleen B; Morin-Ducote, Garnetta; Hammond, Tracy; Tourassi, Georgia D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) from 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven Radiology residents), formed the corpus for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers' visual scanning pattern was computed with the Minkowski-Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the complexity of visual scanning pattern when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening is dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. A fractal analysis of protein to DNA binding kinetics using biosensors.

    Sadana, Ajit

    2003-08-01

    A fractal analysis of a confirmative nature only is presented for the binding of estrogen receptor (ER) in solution to its corresponding DNA (estrogen response element, ERE) immobilized on a sensor chip surface [J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 11384], and for the cooperative binding of human 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) to DNA with the 9-cis-retinoic acid receptor (RXR) [Biochemistry 35 (1996) 3309]. Ligands were also used to modulate the first reaction. Data taken from the literature may be modeled by using a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. Relationships are presented for the binding rate coefficient as a function of either the analyte concentration in solution or the fractal dimension that exists on the biosensor surface. The binding rate expressions developed exhibit a wide range of dependence on the degree of heterogeneity that exists on the surface, ranging from sensitive (order of dependence equal to 1.202) to very sensitive (order of dependence equal to 12.239). In general, the binding rate coefficient increases as the degree of heterogeneity or the fractal dimension of the surface increases. The predictive relationships presented provide further physical insights into the reactions occurring on the biosensor surface. Even though these reactions are occurring on the biosensor surface, the relationships presented should assist in understanding and in possibly manipulating the reactions occurring on cellular surfaces.

  10. Application Of Fractal Dimension On Atmospheric Corrosion Of Galvanized Iron Roofing Material

    Issa A.K; Abba. M. Aji

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Corrosion rates of galvanized iron roofing sheet In yola north eastern part of Nigeria were assessed and determined by weight loss method and scanner fractal analysis method. Scanning electronic machine SEM was used to transform corrosion coupons to electronic form for image j processing and analysing software The result of corrosion rates for these two methods after six months of the samples exposure in industrial. Coastal market and urban areas in the region are 1.51 1.079 1.051 0....

  11. Inter-Eye Agreement in Measurement of Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Pedersen, Knud B; Broe, Rebecca; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate inter-eye agreement in retinal vascular fractal dimension (FD) in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, both eyes were exained in 178 patients with type 1 diabetes. All vessels in a zone 0.5-2.0 disc diameters from the optic disc were traced...... and FD calculated with the box-counting method using SIVA-Fractal semiautomatic software. The modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale was used to grade diabetic retinopathy (DR). Pitman's test of difference in variance was used to calculated inter-eye agreement in FD according...

  12. Fractal analysis as a potential tool for surface morphology of thin films

    Soumya, S.; Swapna, M. S.; Raj, Vimal; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fractal geometry developed by Mandelbrot has emerged as a potential tool for analyzing complex systems in the diversified fields of science, social science, and technology. Self-similar objects having the same details in different scales are referred to as fractals and are analyzed using the mathematics of non-Euclidean geometry. The present work is an attempt to correlate fractal dimension for surface characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Taking the AFM images of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, under different annealing temperatures, the effect of annealing temperature and surface roughness on fractal dimension is studied. The annealing temperature and surface roughness show a strong correlation with fractal dimension. From the regression equation set, the surface roughness at a given annealing temperature can be calculated from the fractal dimension. The AFM images are processed using Photoshop and fractal dimension is calculated by box-counting method. The fractal dimension decreases from 1.986 to 1.633 while the surface roughness increases from 1.110 to 3.427, for a change of annealing temperature 30 ° C to 600 ° C. The images are also analyzed by power spectrum method to find the fractal dimension. The study reveals that the box-counting method gives better results compared to the power spectrum method.

  13. Quantum mechanical analysis of fractal conductance fluctuations: a picture using self-similar periodic orbits

    Ogura, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masanori; Budiyono, Agung; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Fractal magnetoconductance fluctuations are often observed in experiments on ballistic quantum dots. Although the analysis of the exact self-affine fractal has been given by the semiclassical theory using self-similar periodic orbits in systems with a soft-walled potential with a saddle, there has been no corresponding quantum mechanical investigation. We numerically calculate the quantum conductance with use of the recursive Green's function method applied to open cavities characterized by a Henon-Heiles type potential. The conductance fluctuations show exact self-affinity just as in some of the experimental observations. The enlargement factor for the horizontal axis can be explained by the scaling factor of the area of self-similar periodic orbits, and therefore be attributed to the curvature of the saddle in the cavity potential. The fractal dimension obtained through the box counting method agrees with those evaluated with use of the Hurst exponent, and coincides with the semiclassical prediction. We further investigate the variation of the fractal dimension by changing the control parameters between the classical and quantum domains. (fast track communication)

  14. Fusion of multiscale wavelet-based fractal analysis on retina image for stroke prediction.

    Che Azemin, M Z; Kumar, Dinesh K; Wong, T Y; Wang, J J; Kawasaki, R; Mitchell, P; Arjunan, Sridhar P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of analyzing retinal vasculature using Fourier Fractal Dimension to extract the complexity of the retinal vasculature enhanced at different wavelet scales. Logistic regression was used as a fusion method to model the classifier for 5-year stroke prediction. The efficacy of this technique has been tested using standard pattern recognition performance evaluation, Receivers Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and medical prediction statistics, odds ratio. Stroke prediction model was developed using the proposed system.

  15. Dynamics of metamorphism processes by the fractal textures analysis of garnets, amphiboles and pyroxenes of Lapland Granulite Belt, Kola Peninsula

    Miłosz A. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available About thousand analyzes of garnet, amphibole and pyroxene crystals from selected samples of amphibolite and granulite rocks from Lapland Granulite Belt in Kandalaksha region (Kola Peninsula has been made. Indicated fractal-box dimension of studied minerals has a good correlation with tectonic zones, lead to a new insight in the dynamics of processes, which has modified the examined region. Fractal-box dimension makes the textural analysis more precise, because it consents for the mathematic and repeated review of crystals topology depending directly on processes which had created them.

  16. Fractal analysis of the hydraulic conductivity on a sandy porous media reproduced in a laboratory facility.

    de Bartolo, S.; Fallico, C.; Straface, S.; Troisi, S.; Veltri, M.

    2009-04-01

    The complexity characterization of the porous media structure, in terms of the "pore" phase and the "solid" phase, can be carried out by means of the fractal geometry which is able to put in relationship the soil structural properties and the water content. It is particularly complicated to describe analytically the hydraulic conductivity for the irregularity of the porous media structure. However these can be described by many fractal models considering the soil structure as the distribution of particles dimensions, the distribution of the solid aggregates, the surface of the pore-solid interface and the fractal mass of the "pore" and "solid" phases. In this paper the fractal model of Yu and Cheng (2002) and Yu and Liu (2004), for a saturated bidispersed porous media, was considered. This model, using the Sierpinsky-type gasket scheme, doesn't contain empiric constants and furnishes a well accord with the experimental data. For this study an unconfined aquifer was reproduced by means of a tank with a volume of 10 Ã- 7 Ã- 3 m3, filled with a homogeneous sand (95% of SiO2), with a high percentage (86.4%) of grains between 0.063mm and 0.125mm and a medium-high permeability. From the hydraulic point of view, 17 boreholes, a pumping well and a drainage ring around its edge were placed. The permeability was measured utilizing three different methods, consisting respectively in pumping test, slug test and laboratory analysis of an undisturbed soil cores, each of that involving in the measurement a different support volume. The temporal series of the drawdown obtained by the pumping test were analyzed by the Neuman-type Curve method (1972), because the saturated part above the bottom of the facility represents an unconfined aquifer. The data analysis of the slug test were performed by the Bouwer & Rice (1976) method and the laboratory analysis were performed on undisturbed saturated soil samples utilizing a falling head permeameter. The obtained values either of the

  17. Fractal analysis of urban environment: land use and sewer system

    Gires, A.; Ochoa Rodriguez, S.; Van Assel, J.; Bruni, G.; Murla Tulys, D.; Wang, L.; Pina, R.; Richard, J.; Ichiba, A.; Willems, P.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land use distribution are usually obtained by automatic processing of satellite and airborne pictures. The complexity of the obtained patterns which are furthermore scale dependent is enhanced in urban environment. This scale dependency is even more visible in a rasterized representation where only a unique class is affected to each pixel. A parameter commonly analysed in urban hydrology is the coefficient of imperviousness, which reflects the proportion of rainfall that will be immediately active in the catchment response. This coefficient is strongly scale dependent with a rasterized representation. This complex behaviour is well grasped with the help of the scale invariant notion of fractal dimension which enables to quantify the space occupied by a geometrical set (here the impervious areas) not only at a single scale but across all scales. This fractal dimension is also compared to the ones computed on the representation of the catchments with the help of operational semi-distributed models. Fractal dimensions of the corresponding sewer systems are also computed and compared with values found in the literature for natural river networks. This methodology is tested on 7 pilot sites of the European NWE Interreg IV RainGain project located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, United-Kingdom and Portugal. Results are compared between all the case study which exhibit different physical features (slope, level of urbanisation, population density...).

  18. Geometrical study of astrocytomas through fractals and scaling analysis

    Torres H, F.; Baena N, R.; Vergara V, J.; Guerrero M, M.

    2017-10-01

    The tumor growth is a complex process characterized by the proliferation of uncontrollable cells which invade neighbor tissues. The understanding process of this type of phenomena is very relevant in order to establish diagnosis and proper therapy strategies and to start the valorization of its complexity with proper descriptors produced by the scaling analysis, which define the tumor growth geometry. In this work, obtained results through the scaling analysis for pilocytic astrocytomas, anaplastic and diffuse, are shown, which tumors of primary origin are. On them, it is calculated the fractal dimension and critic exponents of local roughness to characterize in vivo three-dimensional tumor growth. The acquisition of the images for this type of injuries was carried out according to the standard protocol used for brain radiotherapy and radiosurgery, i.e., axial, coronal and sagittal magnetic resonance T1 weighted images and comprising the brain volume for image registration. Image segmentation was performed by the application the K-means procedure upon contrasted images. The results show significant variations of the parameters depending on the tumor stage and its histological origin. (Author)

  19. Multicrack Localization in Rotors Based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Using Fractal Dimension and Gapped Smoothing Method

    Zhiwen Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicrack localization in operating rotor systems is still a challenge today. Focusing on this challenge, a new approach based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD is proposed for multicrack localization in rotors. A two-disc rotor-bearing system with breathing cracks is established by the finite element method and simulated sensors are distributed along the rotor to obtain the steady-state transverse responses required by POD. Based on the discontinuities introduced in the proper orthogonal modes (POMs at the locations of cracks, the characteristic POM (CPOM, which is sensitive to crack locations and robust to noise, is selected for cracks localization. Instead of using the CPOM directly, due to its difficulty to localize incipient cracks, damage indexes using fractal dimension (FD and gapped smoothing method (GSM are adopted, in order to extract the locations more efficiently. The method proposed in this work is validated to be effective for multicrack localization in rotors by numerical experiments on rotors in different crack configuration cases considering the effects of noise. In addition, the feasibility of using fewer sensors is also investigated.

  20. Tidal volume estimation using the blanket fractal dimension of the tracheal sounds acquired by smartphone.

    Reljin, Natasa; Reyes, Bersain A; Chon, Ki H

    2015-04-27

    In this paper, we propose the use of blanket fractal dimension (BFD) to estimate the tidal volume from smartphone-acquired tracheal sounds. We collected tracheal sounds with a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone, from five (N = 5) healthy volunteers. Each volunteer performed the experiment six times; first to obtain linear and exponential fitting models, and then to fit new data onto the existing models. Thus, the total number of recordings was 30. The estimated volumes were compared to the true values, obtained with a Respitrace system, which was considered as a reference. Since Shannon entropy (SE) is frequently used as a feature in tracheal sound analyses, we estimated the tidal volume from the same sounds by using SE as well. The evaluation of the performed estimation, using BFD and SE methods, was quantified by the normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE). The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained). The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation) was obtained with the BFD and exponential model. In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

  1. Tidal Volume Estimation Using the Blanket Fractal Dimension of the Tracheal Sounds Acquired by Smartphone

    Natasa Reljin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the use of blanket fractal dimension (BFD to estimate the tidal volume from smartphone-acquired tracheal sounds. We collected tracheal sounds with a Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphone, from five (N = 5 healthy volunteers. Each volunteer performed the experiment six times; first to obtain linear and exponential fitting models, and then to fit new data onto the existing models. Thus, the total number of recordings was 30. The estimated volumes were compared to the true values, obtained with a Respitrace system, which was considered as a reference. Since Shannon entropy (SE is frequently used as a feature in tracheal sound analyses, we estimated the tidal volume from the same sounds by using SE as well. The evaluation of the performed estimation, using BFD and SE methods, was quantified by the normalized root-mean-squared error (NRMSE. The results show that the BFD outperformed the SE (at least twice smaller NRMSE was obtained. The smallest NRMSE error of 15.877% ± 9.246% (mean ± standard deviation was obtained with the BFD and exponential model. In addition, it was shown that the fitting curves calculated during the first day of experiments could be successfully used for at least the five following days.

  2. Fractal dimension as an index of brain cortical changes throughout life.

    Kalmanti, Elina; Maris, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    The fractal dimension (FD) of the cerebral cortex was measured in 93 individuals, aged from 3 months to 78 years, with normal brain MRI's in order to compare the convolutions of the cerebral cortex between genders and age groups. Image J, an image processing program, was used to skeletonize cerebral cortex and the box counting method applied. FDs on slices taken from left and right hemispheres were calculated. Our results showed a significant degree of lateralization in the left hemisphere. It appears that basal ganglia development, mainly in the left hemisphere, is heavily dependent upon age until puberty. In addition, both left and right cortex development equally depends on age until puberty, while the corresponding right hemisphere convolutions continue to develop until a later stage. An increased developmental activity appears between the ages of 1 and 15 years, indicating a significant brain remodelling during childhood and adolescence. In infancy, only changes in basal ganglia are observed, while the right hemisphere continues to remodel in adulthood.

  3. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  4. EEG machine learning with Higuchi fractal dimension and Sample Entropy as features for successful detection of depression

    Cukic, Milena; Pokrajac, David; Stokic, Miodrag; Simic, slobodan; Radivojevic, Vlada; Ljubisavljevic, Milos

    2018-01-01

    Reliable diagnosis of depressive disorder is essential for both optimal treatment and prevention of fatal outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effectiveness of two non-linear measures, Higuchi Fractal Dimension (HFD) and Sample Entropy (SampEn), in detecting depressive disorders when applied on EEG. HFD and SampEn of EEG signals were used as features for seven machine learning algorithms including Multilayer Perceptron, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machines with the linea...

  5. An Investigation of Fractal Characteristics of Marine Shales in the Southern China from Nitrogen Adsorption Data

    Jian Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly focus on the Permian, Lower Cambrian, Lower Silurian, and Upper Ordovician Formation; the fractal dimensions of marine shales in southern China were calculated using the FHH fractal model based on the low-pressure nitrogen adsorption analysis. The results show that the marine shales in southern China have the dual fractal characteristics. The fractal dimension D1 at low relative pressure represents the pore surface fractal characteristics, whereas the fractal dimension D2 at higher relative pressure describes the pore structure fractal characteristics. The fractal dimensions D1 range from 2.0918 to 2.718 with a mean value of 2.4762, and the fractal dimensions D2 range from 2.5842 to 2.9399 with a mean value of 2.8015. There are positive relationships between fractal dimension D1 and specific surface area and total pore volume, whereas the fractal dimensions D2 have negative correlation with average pore size. The larger the value of the fractal dimension D1 is, the rougher the pore surface is, which could provide more adsorption sites, leading to higher adsorption capacity for gas. The larger the value of the fractal dimension D2 is, the more complicated the pore structure is, resulting in the lower flow capacity for gas.

  6. Fractal analysis: A new tool in transient volcanic ash plume characterization.

    Tournigand, Pierre-Yves; Peña Fernandez, Juan Jose; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Perugini, Diego; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Transient volcanic plumes are time-dependent features generated by unstable eruptive sources. They represent a threat to human health and infrastructures, and a challenge to characterize due to their intrinsic instability. Plumes have been investigated through physical (e.g. visible, thermal, UV, radar imagery), experimental and numerical studies in order to provide new insights about their dynamics and better anticipate their behavior. It has been shown experimentally that plume dynamics is strongly dependent to source conditions and that plume shape evolution holds key to retrieve these conditions. In this study, a shape evolution analysis is performed on thermal high-speed videos of volcanic plumes from three different volcanoes Sakurajima (Japan), Stromboli (Italy) and Fuego (Guatemala), recorded with a FLIR SC655 thermal camera during several field campaigns between 2012 and 2016. To complete this dataset, three numerical gas-jet simulations at different Reynolds number (2000, 5000 and 10000) have been used in order to set reference values to the natural cases. Turbulent flow shapes are well known to feature scale-invariant structures and a high degree of complexity. For this reason we characterized the bi-dimensional shape of natural and synthetic plumes by using a fractal descriptor. Such method has been applied in other studies on experimental turbulent jets as well as on atmospheric clouds and have shown promising results. At each time-step plume contour has been manually outlined and measured using the box-counting method. This method consists in covering the image with squares of variable sizes and counting the number of squares containing the plume outline. The negative slope of the number of squares in function of their size in a log-log plot gives the fractal dimension of the plume at a given time. Preliminary results show an increase over time of the fractal dimension for natural volcanic plume as well as for the numerically simulated ones, but at

  7. Constructing and applying the fractal pied de poule (houndstooth)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Toeters, M.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Time is ready for a fractal version of pied de poule; it is almost "in the air". Taking inspiration from the Cantor set, and using the analysis of the classical pattern, we obtain a family of elegant new fractal Pied de Poules. We calculate the fractal dimension and develop an attractive fashion

  8. Fractal nature of hydrocarbon deposits. 2. Spatial distribution

    Barton, C.C.; Schutter, T.A; Herring, P.R.; Thomas, W.J.; Scholz, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are unevenly distributed within reservoirs and are found in patches whose size distribution is a fractal over a wide range of scales. The spatial distribution of the patches is also fractal and this can be used to constrain the design of drilling strategies also defined by a fractal dimension. Fractal distributions are scale independent and are characterized by a power-law scaling exponent termed the fractal dimension. The authors have performed fractal analyses on the spatial distribution of producing and showing wells combined and of dry wells in 1,600-mi 2 portions of the Denver and Powder River basins that were nearly completely drilled on quarter-mile square-grid spacings. They have limited their analyses to wells drilled to single stratigraphic intervals so that the map pattern revealed by drilling is representative of the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons at depth. The fractal dimensions for the spatial patchiness of hydrocarbons in the two basins are 1.5 and 1.4, respectively. The fractal dimension for the pattern of all wells drilled is 1.8 for both basins, which suggests a drilling strategy with a fractal dimension significantly higher than the dimensions 1.5 and 1.4 sufficient to efficiently and economically explore these reservoirs. In fact, the fractal analysis reveals that the drilling strategy used in these basins approaches a fractal dimension of 2.0, which is equivalent to random drilling with no geologic input. Knowledge of the fractal dimension of a reservoir prior to drilling would provide a basis for selecting and a criterion for halting a drilling strategy for exploration whose fractal dimension closely matches that of the spatial fractal dimension of the reservoir, such a strategy should prove more efficient and economical than current practice

  9. A Robust Algorithm for Optimisation and Customisation of Fractal Dimensions of Time Series Modified by Nonlinearly Scaling Their Time Derivatives: Mathematical Theory and Practical Applications

    Franz Konstantin Fuss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal’s time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals.

  10. A robust algorithm for optimisation and customisation of fractal dimensions of time series modified by nonlinearly scaling their time derivatives: mathematical theory and practical applications.

    Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Standard methods for computing the fractal dimensions of time series are usually tested with continuous nowhere differentiable functions, but not benchmarked with actual signals. Therefore they can produce opposite results in extreme signals. These methods also use different scaling methods, that is, different amplitude multipliers, which makes it difficult to compare fractal dimensions obtained from different methods. The purpose of this research was to develop an optimisation method that computes the fractal dimension of a normalised (dimensionless) and modified time series signal with a robust algorithm and a running average method, and that maximises the difference between two fractal dimensions, for example, a minimum and a maximum one. The signal is modified by transforming its amplitude by a multiplier, which has a non-linear effect on the signal's time derivative. The optimisation method identifies the optimal multiplier of the normalised amplitude for targeted decision making based on fractal dimensions. The optimisation method provides an additional filter effect and makes the fractal dimensions less noisy. The method is exemplified by, and explained with, different signals, such as human movement, EEG, and acoustic signals.

  11. FDG uptake heterogeneity evaluated by fractal analysis improves the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    Miwa, Kenta, E-mail: kenta5710@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inubushi, Masayuki, E-mail: inubushi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kei, E-mail: kei1192@hotmail.co.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Taisuke, E-mail: taisuke113@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koyama, Masamichi, E-mail: masamichi.koyama@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki, E-mail: msasaki@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether fractal analysis of morphological complexity and intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 54 patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were examined by FDG PET/CT. Pathological assessments of biopsy specimens confirmed 35 and 19 nodules as NSCLC and inflammatory lesions, respectively. The morphological fractal dimension (m-FD), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and density fractal dimension (d-FD) of target nodules were calculated from CT and PET images. Fractal dimension is a quantitative index of morphological complexity and tracer uptake heterogeneity; higher values indicate increased complexity and heterogeneity. Results: The m-FD, SUV{sub max} and d-FD significantly differed between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.05). Although the diagnostic ability was better for d-FD than m-FD and SUV{sub max}, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tumor size correlated significantly with SUV{sub max} (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), but not with either m-FD or d-FD. Furthermore, m-FD combined with either SUV{sub max} or d-FD improved diagnostic accuracy to 92.6% and 94.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The d-FD of intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentially diagnose malignant and benign pulmonary nodules. The SUV{sub max} and d-FD obtained from FDG-PET images provide different types of information that are equally useful for differential diagnoses. Furthermore, the morphological complexity determined by CT combined with heterogeneous FDG uptake determined by PET improved diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Fractal analysis of SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry data for the microstructural characterization of microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets

    Gomez-Carracedo, A.; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C.; Coca, R.; Martinez-Pacheco, R.; Concheiro, A.; Gomez-Amoza, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of theophylline pellets prepared from microcrystalline cellulose, carbopol and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, according to a mixture design, was characterized using textural analysis of gray-level scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and thermodynamic analysis of the cumulative pore volume distribution obtained by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Surface roughness evaluated in terms of gray-level non-uniformity and fractal dimension of pellet surface depended on agglomeration phenomena during extrusion/spheronization. Pores at the surface, mainly 1-15 μm in diameter, determined both the mechanism and the rate of theophylline release, and a strong negative correlation between the fractal geometry and the b parameter of the Weibull function was found for pellets containing >60% carbopol. Theophylline mean dissolution time from these pellets was about two to four times greater. Textural analysis of SEM micrographs and fractal analysis of mercury intrusion data are complementary techniques that enable complete characterization of multiparticulate drug dosage forms

  13. Trabecular morphometry by fractal signature analysis is a novel marker of osteoarthritis progression.

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Feng, Sheng; Wang, ShengChu; White, Scott; Ainslie, Maureen; Brett, Alan; Holmes, Anthony; Charles, H Cecil

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of using subchondral bone texture observed on a radiograph taken at baseline to predict progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over a 3-year period. A total of 138 participants in the Prediction of Osteoarthritis Progression study were evaluated at baseline and after 3 years. Fractal signature analysis (FSA) of the medial subchondral tibial plateau was performed on fixed flexion radiographs of 248 nonreplaced knees, using a commercially available software tool. OA progression was defined as a change in joint space narrowing (JSN) or osteophyte formation of 1 grade according to a standardized knee atlas. Statistical analysis of fractal signatures was performed using a new model based on correlating the overall shape of a fractal dimension curve with radius. Fractal signature of the medial tibial plateau at baseline was predictive of medial knee JSN progression (area under the curve [AUC] 0.75, of a receiver operating characteristic curve) but was not predictive of osteophyte formation or progression of JSN in the lateral compartment. Traditional covariates (age, sex, body mass index, knee pain), general bone mineral content, and joint space width at baseline were no more effective than random variables for predicting OA progression (AUC 0.52-0.58). The predictive model with maximum effectiveness combined fractal signature at baseline, knee alignment, traditional covariates, and bone mineral content (AUC 0.79). We identified a prognostic marker of OA that is readily extracted from a plain radiograph using FSA. Although the method needs to be validated in a second cohort, our results indicate that the global shape approach to analyzing these data is a potentially efficient means of identifying individuals at risk of knee OA progression.

  14. Computation of complexity measures of morphologically significant zones decomposed from binary fractal sets via multiscale convexity analysis

    Lim, Sin Liang; Koo, Voon Chet; Daya Sagar, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Multiscale convexity analysis of certain fractal binary objects-like 8-segment Koch quadric, Koch triadic, and random Koch quadric and triadic islands-is performed via (i) morphologic openings with respect to recursively changing the size of a template, and (ii) construction of convex hulls through half-plane closings. Based on scale vs convexity measure relationship, transition levels between the morphologic regimes are determined as crossover scales. These crossover scales are taken as the basis to segment binary fractal objects into various morphologically prominent zones. Each segmented zone is characterized through normalized morphologic complexity measures. Despite the fact that there is no notably significant relationship between the zone-wise complexity measures and fractal dimensions computed by conventional box counting method, fractal objects-whether they are generated deterministically or by introducing randomness-possess morphologically significant sub-zones with varied degrees of spatial complexities. Classification of realistic fractal sets and/or fields according to sub-zones possessing varied degrees of spatial complexities provides insight to explore links with the physical processes involved in the formation of fractal-like phenomena.

  15. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw2015@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cai, Jianchao, E-mail: caijc@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Xiangyun, E-mail: xyhu@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Qi, E-mail: hanqi426@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: lius@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Yingfang, E-mail: yingfang.zhou@abdn.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, FN 264, King' s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-26

    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. - Highlights: • A thermal conductivity model is derived based on fractal aggregation distribution. • The relationship between aggregation shape and fractal dimension is analyzed. • Predictions of the proposed model show good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Application of Entropy and Fractal Dimension Analyses to the Pattern Recognition of Contaminated Fish Responses in Aquaculture

    Harkaitz Eguiraun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to develop a non-invasive methodology for image acquisition, processing and nonlinear trajectory analysis of the collective fish response to a stochastic event. Object detection and motion estimation were performed by an optical flow algorithm in order to detect moving fish and simultaneously eliminate background, noise and artifacts. The Entropy and the Fractal Dimension (FD of the trajectory followed by the centroids of the groups of fish were calculated using Shannon and permutation Entropy and the Katz, Higuchi and Katz-Castiglioni’s FD algorithms respectively. The methodology was tested on three case groups of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, two of which were similar (C1 control and C2 tagged fish and very different from the third (C3, tagged fish submerged in methylmercury contaminated water. The results indicate that Shannon entropy and Katz-Castiglioni were the most sensitive algorithms and proved to be promising tools for the non-invasive identification and quantification of differences in fish responses. In conclusion, we believe that this methodology has the potential to be embedded in online/real time architecture for contaminant monitoring programs in the aquaculture industry.

  17. Partially ordered sets, transfinite topology and the dimension of Cantorian-fractal spacetime

    Marek-Crnjac, L. [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Maribor (Slovenia)], E-mail: leila.marek@guest.arnes.si

    2009-11-15

    We introduce partially ordered sets and relate them to random Cantor sets of E-infinity theory. Subsequently we derive the dimensionality of Cantorian-fractal spacetime using posets and E-infinity transfinite Cantor sets.

  18. An approach to study of methods for urban analysis and urban fabric renewal in observation of a city as a multiple fractal structure

    Bogdanov Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban forms and processes can be observed as fractal structures since in their seemingly chaotic development and complexity it can be noticed an internal order and regularity, which could be quantified and described by the methods of fractal analysis. With determination of fractal dimension it is possible to quantify the level of irregularity, the complexity and hierarchy of the urban structures, as well as the level of urban transformations in various time intersections. The fractal geometry method has been used in analyses of spatial distribution of population, networks and utilities because it corresponds more than deterministic methods to the nature of urban settlements as open, non-linear and dynamic systems. In that sense, fractal geometry becomes the means to grasp a complex morphological urban structure of urban settlements in general, the interrelationships between the inner spatial elements, and to predict future development possibilities. Moreover on the basis of urban pattern analysis by means of fractal geometry, it is possible to evaluate the growth and development process and to perform a comparative analysis of development in spatially and temporarily different settlement settings. Having in view that complex urban fabric presumes tight connections and diversity, which is in contrast to sprawl and monotony which increasingly characterize urban growth and development, this paper is a contribution to research of potential for modern urban settlements to regain the spirit of spontaneity and human dimension through application of development models that are fractal geometry based.

  19. Association of the Fractal Dimension of Retinal Arteries and Veins with Quantitative Brain MRI Measures in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women.

    Howard A Crystal

    Full Text Available The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women.Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study.Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS; 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included. Fractal dimension was determined using the SIVA software program on skeletonized retinal images. The relationship between predictors (retinal vascular measures and outcomes (quantitative MRI measures were analyzed with linear regression models. All models included age, intracranial volume, and both arterial and venous fractal dimension. Some models were adjusted for blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and HIV-infection.The women were 45.6 ± 7.3 years of age. Higher arterial dimension was associated with larger cortical volumes, but higher venous dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes. In fully adjusted models, venous dimension was significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (standardized β = -0.41, p = 0.009 and total gray matter volume (β = -0.24, p = 0.03, and arterial dimension with mean diffusivity (β = -0.33,.p = 0.04 and fractional anisotropy (β = 0.34, p = 0.03. HIV-infection was not associated with any retinal or MRI measure.Higher venous fractal dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes and lower fractional anisotropy, whereas higher arterial fractal dimension was associated with the opposite patterns. Longitudinal studies are needed to validate this finding.

  20. Association of the Fractal Dimension of Retinal Arteries and Veins with Quantitative Brain MRI Measures in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women.

    Crystal, Howard A; Holman, Susan; Lui, Yvonne W; Baird, Alison E; Yu, Hua; Klein, Ronald; Rojas-Soto, Diana Marcella; Gustafson, Deborah R; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2016-01-01

    The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women. Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study. Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS); 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included. Fractal dimension was determined using the SIVA software program on skeletonized retinal images. The relationship between predictors (retinal vascular measures) and outcomes (quantitative MRI measures) were analyzed with linear regression models. All models included age, intracranial volume, and both arterial and venous fractal dimension. Some models were adjusted for blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and HIV-infection. The women were 45.6 ± 7.3 years of age. Higher arterial dimension was associated with larger cortical volumes, but higher venous dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes. In fully adjusted models, venous dimension was significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (standardized β = -0.41, p = 0.009) and total gray matter volume (β = -0.24, p = 0.03), and arterial dimension with mean diffusivity (β = -0.33,.p = 0.04) and fractional anisotropy (β = 0.34, p = 0.03). HIV-infection was not associated with any retinal or MRI measure. Higher venous fractal dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes and lower fractional anisotropy, whereas higher arterial fractal dimension was associated with the opposite patterns. Longitudinal studies are needed to validate this finding.

  1. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR

  2. A Pointwise Dimension Analysis of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey

    Best, J. S.

    1999-12-01

    The modern motivation for fractal geometry may best be summed up by this quote of Benoit Mandelbrot: ``Mountains are not cones, clouds are not spheres, coastlines are not circles, and bark is not smooth, nor does lightning travel in a straight line.'' Fractals are, in simplest terms, ``objects which are (approximately) self-similar on all scales.'' The renewed modern interest in fractals has found as one of its applications the study of large-scale structure, giving a quantitative descriptive scheme to ideas that had been expressed qualitatively as early as the 1920s. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis of the structure of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey, or LCRS. LCRS is an approximately 26000 galaxy survey (surveyed as six declination slices) that has been studied extensively over the past few years, with an eye towards understanding large-scale structure. For this analysis, I have used the pointwise dimension, an easy-to-apply fractal statistic which has been previously used to study cluster interiors, galactic distributions, and cluster distributions. The present analysis has been performed to serve as a guide for the study of future large redshift surveys. This research has been funded by National Science Foundation grant AST-9808608.

  3. Definition of a temporal distribution index for high temporal resolution precipitation data over Peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands: the fractal dimension; and its synoptic implications

    Meseguer-Ruiz, Oliver; Osborn, Timothy J.; Sarricolea, Pablo; Jones, Philip D.; Cantos, Jorge Olcina; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Martin-Vide, Javier

    2018-03-01

    Precipitation on the Spanish mainland and in the Balearic archipelago exhibits a high degree of spatial and temporal variability, regardless of the temporal resolution of the data considered. The fractal dimension indicates the property of self-similarity, and in the case of this study, wherein it is applied to the temporal behaviour of rainfall at a fine (10-min) resolution from a total of 48 observatories, it provides insights into its more or less convective nature. The methodology of Jenkinson & Collison which automatically classifies synoptic situations at the surface, as well as an adaptation of this methodology at 500 hPa, was applied in order to gain insights into the synoptic implications of extreme values of the fractal dimension. The highest fractal dimension values in the study area were observed in places with precipitation that has a more random behaviour over time with generally high totals. Four different regions in which the atmospheric mechanisms giving rise to precipitation at the surface differ from the corresponding above-ground mechanisms have been identified in the study area based on the fractal dimension. In the north of the Iberian Peninsula, high fractal dimension values are linked to a lower frequency of anticyclonic situations, whereas the opposite occurs in the central region. In the Mediterranean, higher fractal dimension values are associated with a higher frequency of the anticyclonic type and a lower frequency of the advective type from the east. In the south, lower fractal dimension values indicate higher frequency with respect to the anticyclonic type from the east and lower frequency with respect to the cyclonic type.

  4. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method.

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm.

  5. Fractal and multifractal analysis of LiF thin film surface

    Yadav, R.P.; Dwivedi, S.; Mittal, A.K.; Kumar, M.; Pandey, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fractal and multifractal analysis of surface morphologies of the LiF thin films. ► Complexity and roughness of the LiF thin films increases as thickness increases. ► LiF thin films are multifractal in nature. ► Strength of the multifractality increases with thickness of the film. - Abstract: Fractal and multifractal analysis is performed on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the surface morphologies of the LiF thin films of thickness 10 nm, 20 nm, and 40 nm, respectively. Autocorrelation function, height–height correlation function, and two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) are used for characterizing the surface. It is found that the interface width, average roughness, lateral correlation length, and fractal dimension of the LiF thin film increase with the thickness of the film, whereas the roughness exponent decreases with thickness. Thus, the complexity and roughness of the LiF thin films increases as thickness increases. It is also demonstrated that the LiF thin films are multifractal in nature. Strength of the multifractality increases with thickness of the film.

  6. Fractals in Power Reactor Noise

    Aguilar Martinez, O.

    1994-01-01

    In this work the non- lineal dynamic problem of power reactor is analyzed using classic concepts of fractal analysis as: attractors, Hausdorff-Besikovics dimension, phase space, etc. A new non-linear problem is also analyzed: the discrimination of chaotic signals from random neutron noise signals and processing for diagnosis purposes. The advantages of a fractal analysis approach in the power reactor noise are commented in details

  7. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes.

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2018-04-01

    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  8. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  9. Fractal network dimension and viscoelastic powerlaw behavior: II. An experimental study of structure-mimicking phantoms by magnetic resonance elastography

    Guo Jing; Posnansky, Oleg; Hirsch, Sebastian; Scheel, Michael; Taupitz, Matthias; Sack, Ingolf; Braun, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the complex shear modulus, G*, of soft biological tissue is governed by the rigidity and topology of multiscale mechanical networks. Multifrequency elastography can measure the frequency dependence of G* in soft biological tissue, providing information about the structure of tissue networks at multiple scales. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of structure-mimicking phantoms containing tangled paper stripes embedded in agarose gel are investigated by multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography within the dynamic range of 40–120 Hz. The effective media viscoelastic properties are analyzed in terms of the storage modulus (the real part of G*), the loss modulus (the imaginary part of G*) and the viscoelastic powerlaw given by the two-parameter springpot model. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging is used for investigating the effect of network structures on water mobility. The following observations were made: the random paper networks with fractal dimensions between 2.481 and 2.755 had no or minor effects on the storage modulus, whereas the loss modulus was significantly increased about 2.2 kPa per fractal dimension unit (R = 0.962, P < 0.01). This structural sensitivity of the loss modulus was significantly correlated with the springpot powerlaw exponent (0.965, P < 0.01), while for the springpot elasticity modulus, a trend was discernable (0.895, P < 0.05). No effect of the paper network on water diffusion was observed. The gel phantoms with embedded paper stripes presented here are a feasible way for experimentally studying the effect of network topology on soft-tissue viscoelastic parameters. In the dynamic range of in vivo elastography, the fractal network dimension primarily correlates to the loss behavior of soft tissue as can be seen from the loss modulus or the powerlaw exponent of the springpot model. These findings represent the experimental underpinning of structure-sensitive elastography for an improved characterization of

  10. Experimental Study and Fractal Analysis on the Anisotropic Performance of Explosively Welded Interfaces of 304 Stainless Steel/245 Carbon Steel

    Fu, Yanshu; Qiu, Yaohui; Li, Yulong

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical anisotropy of an explosive welding composite plate made of 304 stainless steel/245 steel was studied through shear experiments performed on explosively welded wavy interfaces along several orientation angles. The results indicated that the strength and the fracture energy of samples significantly varied with the orientation angles. The fracture surfaces of all samples were observed using a scanning electron microscope and through three-dimensional structure microscopy. The periodic features of all the fracture surfaces were clearly shown in different fracture modes. The fractal dimension of the fracture surfaces was calculated based on the fractal geometry by the box-counting method in MATLAB. The cohesive element model was used to analyze the fracture energy according to the physical dependence of the fractal dimension on thermodynamic entropy and interface separation energy. The fracture energy was an exponential function of the fractal dimension value, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. All results were validated for effective use in the application of anisotropy analysis to the welded interface and structural optimization of explosively welded composite plates.

  11. An investigation of fractal characteristics of mesoporous carbon electrodes with various pore structures

    Pyun, Su-Il; Rhee, Chang-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    Fractal characteristics of mesoporous carbon electrodes were investigated with various pore structures using the N 2 gas adsorption method and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis method. The mesoporous carbons with various pore structures were prepared by imprinting mesophase pitch used as a carbonaceous precursor with different colloidal silica particles. All imprinted mesoporous carbons were composed of two groups of pores produced from the carbonisation of mesophase pitch and from the silica imprinting. The overall surface fractal dimensions of the carbon specimens were determined from the analyses of the N 2 gas adsorption isotherms. In order to distinguish the surface fractal dimension of the carbonisation-induced pore surface from that fractal dimension of the silica-imprinted pore surface, the individual surface fractal dimensions were determined from the image analyses of the TEM images. From the comparison of the overall surface fractal dimension with the individual surface fractal dimensions, it was recognised that the overall surface fractal dimension is crucially influenced by the individual surface fractal dimension of the silica-imprinted pore surface. Moreover, from the fact that the silica-imprinted pore surface with broad relative pore size distribution (PSD) gave lower value of the individual surface fractal dimension than that pore surface with narrow relative PSD, it is concluded that as the silica-imprinted pores comprising the carbon specimen agglomerate, the individual surface fractal dimension of that pore surface decreases

  12. Phase transitions in tumor growth: IV relationship between metabolic rate and fractal dimension of human tumor cells

    Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Martin, R. R.; Montero, S.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    By the use of thermodynamics formalism of irreversible processes, complex systems theory and systems biology, it is derived a relationship between the production of entropy per unit time, the fractal dimension and the tumor growth rate for human tumors cells. The thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates that, the dissipation function is a Landau potential and also the Lyapunov function of the dynamical behavior of tumor growth, which indicate the directional character, stability and robustness of the phenomenon. The entropy production rate may be used as a quantitative index of the metastatic potential of tumors. The current theoretical framework will hopefully provide a better understanding of cancer and contribute to improvements in cancer treatment.

  13. Assessment of Land Surface Complexity In Relation To Information Capacity and the Fractal Dimension in Different Landform Regions Using Landsat Data

    Hong, Wang Xu; Huijie, Qin; Zhe, Zhang; Fei, Li

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing images are highly structured, and contiguous pixels of space domain have strong correlations that contain abundant information on land surface structure features and land surface electromagnetic radiation features. The information capacity model, which is a quality evaluation model based on a multi-dimensional histogram, includes local correlations within different pixels. Thus, the information capacity can illustrate land surface structural information more objectively and effectively than other single-pixel calculation models. Our results reveal that the information capacity value correlates well with the meaningful grey level of remote sensing imagery. This high correlation is related to the complexity of terrestrial surface landscapes. Therefore, information capacity, as applied to geoscience, is introduced in this study to demonstrate the spatial differentiation of information capacity of different landform regions. Generally, the information capacity of a mountain is large and is followed in decreasing order by those of the hills and the plains. Moreover, the correlation between information capacity and the fractal dimension is analysed. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the level of correlation for information capacity and the fractal dimension is high, and the correlation coefficient for the basic landform areas and the loess landform areas is 0.874 and 0.825, respectively. Finally, this paper proposes that information capacity be used as a new reference index for geoscientific analysis in quantitative research on the characteristics of land surface complexity

  14. Fractal analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the Hellenic Subduction Zone

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the most seismically active region in Europe. Many destructive earthquakes have taken place along the HSZ in the past. The evolution of such active regions is expressed through seismicity and is characterized by complex phenomenology. The understanding of the tectonic evolution process and the physical state of subducting regimes is crucial in earthquake prediction. In recent years, there is a growing interest concerning an approach to seismicity based on the science of complex systems (Papadakis et al., 2013; Vallianatos et al., 2012). In this study we calculate the fractal dimension of the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the HSZ and we aim to understand the significance of the obtained values to the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this area. We use the external seismic sources provided by Papaioannou and Papazachos (2000) to create a dataset regarding the subduction zone. According to the aforementioned authors, we define five seismic zones. Then, we structure an earthquake dataset which is based on the updated and extended earthquake catalogue for Greece and the adjacent areas by Makropoulos et al. (2012), covering the period 1976-2009. The fractal dimension of the spatial distribution of earthquakes is calculated for each seismic zone and for the HSZ as a unified system using the box-counting method (Turcotte, 1997; Robertson et al., 1995; Caneva and Smirnov, 2004). Moreover, the variation of the fractal dimension is demonstrated in different time windows. These spatiotemporal variations could be used as an additional index to inform us about the physical state of each seismic zone. As a precursor in earthquake forecasting, the use of the fractal dimension appears to be a very interesting future work. Acknowledgements Giorgos Papadakis wish to acknowledge the Greek State Scholarships Foundation (IKY). References Caneva, A., Smirnov, V., 2004. Using the fractal dimension of earthquake distributions and the

  15. Comparison of two fractal interpolation methods

    Fu, Yang; Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    As a tool for studying complex shapes and structures in nature, fractal theory plays a critical role in revealing the organizational structure of the complex phenomenon. Numerous fractal interpolation methods have been proposed over the past few decades, but they differ substantially in the form features and statistical properties. In this study, we simulated one- and two-dimensional fractal surfaces by using the midpoint displacement method and the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method, and observed great differences between the two methods in the statistical characteristics and autocorrelation features. From the aspect of form features, the simulations of the midpoint displacement method showed a relatively flat surface which appears to have peaks with different height as the fractal dimension increases. While the simulations of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method showed a rough surface which appears to have dense and highly similar peaks as the fractal dimension increases. From the aspect of statistical properties, the peak heights from the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot simulations are greater than those of the middle point displacement method with the same fractal dimension, and the variances are approximately two times larger. When the fractal dimension equals to 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8, the skewness is positive with the midpoint displacement method and the peaks are all convex, but for the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method the skewness is both positive and negative with values fluctuating in the vicinity of zero. The kurtosis is less than one with the midpoint displacement method, and generally less than that of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method. The autocorrelation analysis indicated that the simulation of the midpoint displacement method is not periodic with prominent randomness, which is suitable for simulating aperiodic surface. While the simulation of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method has

  16. Fractal characterization of brain lesions in CT images

    Jauhari, Rajnish K.; Trivedi, Rashmi; Munshi, Prabhat; Sahni, Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Fractal Dimension (FD) is a parameter used widely for classification, analysis, and pattern recognition of images. In this work we explore the quantification of CT (computed tomography) lesions of the brain by using fractal theory. Five brain lesions, which are portions of CT images of diseased brains, are used for the study. These lesions exhibit self-similarity over a chosen range of scales, and are broadly characterized by their fractal dimensions

  17. Fractal analysis of fracture increasing spontaneous imbibition in porous media with gas-saturated

    Cai, Jianchao; Sun, Shuyu

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous imbibition (SI) of wetting liquid into matrix blocks due to capillary pressure is regarded as an important recovery mechanism in low permeability fractured reservoir. In this paper, an analytical model is proposed for characterizing SI horizontally from a single plane fracture into gas-saturated matrix blocks. The presented model is based on the fractal character of pores in porous matrix, with gravity force included in the entire imbibition process. The accumulated mass of wetting liquid imbibed into matrix blocks is related to a number of factors such as contact area, pore fractal dimension, tortuosity, maximum pore size, porosity, liquid density and viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, as well as height and tilt angle of the fracture. The mechanism of fracture-enhanced SI is analyzed accordingly. Because of the effect of fracture, the gravity force is positive to imbibition process. Additionally, the farther away from the fracture top of the pore, the more influential the hydrostatic pressure is upon the imbibition action. The presented fractal analysis of horizontal spontaneous imbibition from a single fracture could also shed light on the scaling study of the mass transfer function between matrix and fracture system of fractured reservoirs. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. Fractal analysis of fracture increasing spontaneous imbibition in porous media with gas-saturated

    Cai, Jianchao

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous imbibition (SI) of wetting liquid into matrix blocks due to capillary pressure is regarded as an important recovery mechanism in low permeability fractured reservoir. In this paper, an analytical model is proposed for characterizing SI horizontally from a single plane fracture into gas-saturated matrix blocks. The presented model is based on the fractal character of pores in porous matrix, with gravity force included in the entire imbibition process. The accumulated mass of wetting liquid imbibed into matrix blocks is related to a number of factors such as contact area, pore fractal dimension, tortuosity, maximum pore size, porosity, liquid density and viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, as well as height and tilt angle of the fracture. The mechanism of fracture-enhanced SI is analyzed accordingly. Because of the effect of fracture, the gravity force is positive to imbibition process. Additionally, the farther away from the fracture top of the pore, the more influential the hydrostatic pressure is upon the imbibition action. The presented fractal analysis of horizontal spontaneous imbibition from a single fracture could also shed light on the scaling study of the mass transfer function between matrix and fracture system of fractured reservoirs. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  19. Fractal based modelling and analysis of electromyography (EMG) to identify subtle actions.

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the use of fractal theory and fractal dimension to study the non-linear properties of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and to use these properties to classify subtle hand actions. The paper reports identifying a new feature of the fractal dimension, the bias that has been found to be useful in modelling the muscle activity and of sEMG. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature set consisting of bias values and fractal dimension of the recordings is suitable for classification of sEMG against the different hand gestures. The scatter plots demonstrate the presence of simple relationships of these features against the four hand gestures. The results indicate that there is small inter-experimental variation but large inter-subject variation. This may be due to differences in the size and shape of muscles for different subjects. The possible applications of this research include use in developing prosthetic hands, controlling machines and computers.

  20. Quality Evaluation Focusing on Tissue Fractal Dimension and Chemical Changes for Frozen Tilapia with Treatment by Tangerine Peel Extract

    He, Qi; Yang, Zhao; Gong, Bin; Wang, Jingjing; Xiao, Kaijun; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-02-01

    This work aimed to establish an effective approach to evaluate the quality of frozen fish, focusing on changes in fish tissue structure and chemical composition during storage. Fresh tilapia samples were treated by coating with tangerine peel (TP) extract and then stored at -4, -8 and -18 °C, respectively, for 40 days. The frozen fish tissues were analyzed for structural and chemical changes. Fractal dimension, which quantifies the porous structure formed in the tissue samples, texture properties including hardness and springiness, and moisture content and water activity all decreased during the storage, while the extents of lipid oxidation, measured as peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid concentration, and protein degradation, monitored with total volatile basic nitrogen and trichloroacetic acid soluble peptides, increased. The change rates of these parameters decreased with decreasing the storage temperature and by applying TP extract. A model was developed for predicting fractal dimension, which indicated the quality of preserved tilapia and thus can be used to predict the shelf life under different storage temperatures. The results demonstrated that TP extract could extend the shelf life of frozen tilapia by 35-45% by inhibiting changes in tissue structure, moisture loss, lipid oxidation and protein degradation during frozen storage.

  1. A new surface fractal dimension for displacement mode shape-based damage identification of plate-type structures

    Shi, Binkai; Qiao, Pizhong

    2018-03-01

    Vibration-based nondestructive testing is an area of growing interest and worthy of exploring new and innovative approaches. The displacement mode shape is often chosen to identify damage due to its local detailed characteristic and less sensitivity to surrounding noise. Requirement for baseline mode shape in most vibration-based damage identification limits application of such a strategy. In this study, a new surface fractal dimension called edge perimeter dimension (EPD) is formulated, from which an EPD-based window dimension locus (EPD-WDL) algorithm for irregularity or damage identification of plate-type structures is established. An analytical notch-type damage model of simply-supported plates is proposed to evaluate notch effect on plate vibration performance; while a sub-domain of notch cases with less effect is selected to investigate robustness of the proposed damage identification algorithm. Then, fundamental aspects of EPD-WDL algorithm in term of notch localization, notch quantification, and noise immunity are assessed. A mathematical solution called isomorphism is implemented to remove false peaks caused by inflexions of mode shapes when applying the EPD-WDL algorithm to higher mode shapes. The effectiveness and practicability of the EPD-WDL algorithm are demonstrated by an experimental procedure on damage identification of an artificially-induced notched aluminum cantilever plate using a measurement system of piezoelectric lead-zirconate (PZT) actuator and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV). As demonstrated in both the analytical and experimental evaluations, the new surface fractal dimension technique developed is capable of effectively identifying damage in plate-type structures.

  2. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    Zborovský, Imrich

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2018), č. článku 1850057. ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hadron interactions * self-similarity * fractality * conservation laws * quanta Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2016

  3. Ga-doped ZnO thin film surface characterization by wavelet and fractal analysis

    Jing, Chenlei; Tang, Wu, E-mail: tang@uestc.edu.cn

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multi-resolution signal decomposition of wavelet transform is applied to Ga-doped ZnO thin films with various thicknesses. • Fractal properties of GZO thin films are investigated by box counting method. • Fractal dimension is not in conformity with original RMS roughness. • Fractal dimension mainly depends on the underside diameter (grain size) and distance between adjacent grains. - Abstract: The change in roughness of various thicknesses Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering on glass substrates at room temperature was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Multi-resolution signal decomposition based on wavelet transform and fractal geometry was applied to process surface profiles, to evaluate the roughness trend of relevant frequency resolution. The results give a six-level decomposition and the results change with deposited time and surface morphology. Also, it is found that fractal dimension is closely connected to the underside diameter (grain size) and the distance between adjacent grains that affect the change rate of surface and the increase of the defects such as abrupt changes lead to a larger value of fractal dimension.

  4. Fractal analysis of MRI data for the characterization of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Bertoldo, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.

  5. Fractal analysis of MRI data for the characterization of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Squarcina, Letizia; Bellani, Marcella; De Luca, Alberto; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2015-01-01

    Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders. (paper)

  6. Fractal analytical approach of urban form based on spatial correlation function

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Many fractal parameter relations of cities can be derived by scaling analysis. ► The area-radius scaling of cities suggests a spatial correlation function. ► Spectral analysis can be used to estimate fractal dimension values of urban form. ► The valid range of fractal dimension of urban form comes between 1.5 and 2. ► The traditional scale concept will be replaced by scaling concept in geography. -- Abstract: Urban form has been empirically demonstrated to be of scaling invariance and can be described with fractal geometry. However, the rational range of fractal dimension value and the relationships between various fractal indicators of cities are not yet revealed in theory. By mathematical deduction and transform (e.g., Fourier transform), I find that scaling analysis, spectral analysis, and spatial correlation analysis are all associated with fractal concepts and can be integrated into a new approach to fractal analysis of cities. This method can be termed ‘3S analyses’ of urban form. Using the 3S analysis, I derived a set of fractal parameter equations, by which different fractal parameters of cities can be linked up with one another. Each fractal parameter has its own reasonable extent of values. According to the fractal parameter equations, the intersection of the rational ranges of different fractal parameters suggests the proper scale of the fractal dimension of urban patterns, which varies from 1.5 to 2. The fractal dimension equations based on the 3S analysis and the numerical relationships between different fractal parameters are useful for geographers to understand urban evolution and potentially helpful for future city planning

  7. On uses, misuses and potential abuses of fractal analysis in zooplankton behavioral studies: A review, a critique and a few recommendations

    Seuront, Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Fractal analysis is increasingly used to describe, and provide further understanding to, zooplankton swimming behavior. This may be related to the fact that fractal analysis and the related fractal dimension D have the desirable properties to be independent of measurement scale and to be very sensitive to even subtle behavioral changes that may be undetectable to other behavioral variables. As early claimed by Coughlin et al. (1992), this creates "the need for fractal analysis" in behavioral studies, which has hence the potential to become a valuable tool in zooplankton behavioral ecology. However, this paper stresses that fractal analysis, as well as the more elaborated multifractal analysis, is also a risky business that may lead to irrelevant results, without paying extreme attention to a series of both conceptual and practical steps that are all likely to bias the results of any analysis. These biases are reviewed and exemplified on the basis of the published literature, and remedial procedures are provided not only for geometric and stochastic fractal analyses, but also for the more complicated multifractal analysis. The concept of multifractals is finally introduced as a direct, objective and quantitative tool to identify models of motion behavior, such as Brownian motion, fractional Brownian motion, ballistic motion, Lévy flight/walk and multifractal random walk. I finally briefly review the state of this emerging field in zooplankton behavioral research.

  8. Classification of mammographic masses using geometric symmetry and fractal analysis

    Guo Qi; Ruiz, V.F. [Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering, Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Shao Jiaqing [Dept. of Electronics, Univ. of Kent (United Kingdom); Guo Falei [WanDe Industrial Engineering Co. (China)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a fuzzy symmetry measure based on geometrical operations to characterise shape irregularity of mammographic mass lesion. Group theory, a powerful tool in the investigation of geometric transformation, is employed in our work to define and describe the underlying mathematical relations. We investigate the usefulness of fuzzy symmetry measure in combination with fractal analysis for classification of masses. Comparative studies show that fuzzy symmetry measure is useful for shape characterisation of mass lesions and is a good complementary feature for benign-versus-malignant classification of masses. (orig.)

  9. The Effects of Betaine on the Nuclear Fractal Dimension, Chromatin Texture, and Proliferative Activity in Hepatocytes in Mouse Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Vesković, Milena; Labudović-Borović, Milica; Zaletel, Ivan; Rakočević, Jelena; Mladenović, Dušan; Jorgačević, Bojan; Vučević, Danijela; Radosavljević, Tatjana

    2018-04-01

    The effects of betaine on hepatocytes chromatin architecture changes were examined by using fractal and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into groups: (1) Control: standard diet; (2) BET: standard diet and betaine supplementation through drinking water (solution 1.5%); (3) MCD group: MCD diet for 6 weeks; (4) MCD+BET: fed with MCD diet + betaine for 6 weeks. Liver tissue was collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and determination of fractal dimension and GLCM parameters. MCD diet induced diffuse micro- and macrovesicular steatosis accompanied with increased Ki67-positive hepatocyte nuclei. Steatosis and Ki67 immunopositivity were less prominent in the MCD+BET group compared with the MCD group. Angular second moment (ASM) and inverse difference moment (IDM) (textural homogeneity markers) were significantly increased in the MCD+BET group versus the MCD group (pMCD and the control group was evident. Heterogeneity parameters, contrast, and correlation were significantly increased in the MCD group versus the control (pMCD group (pMCD diet-induced NAFLD by reducing fat accumulation and inhibiting hepatocyte proliferation. Betaine supplementation increased nuclear homogeneity and chromatin complexity with reduction of entropy, contrast, and correlation.

  10. Retinal vascular fractals predict long-term microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Broe, Rebecca; Rasmussen, Malin L; Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    : We included 180 patients with type 1 diabetes in a 16 year follow-up study. In baseline retinal photographs (from 1995), all vessels in a zone 0.5-2.0 disc diameters from the disc margin were traced using Singapore Institute Vessel Assessment-Fractal image analysis software. Artefacts were removed......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fractal analysis of the retinal vasculature provides a global measure of the complexity and density of retinal vessels summarised as a single variable: the fractal dimension. We investigated fractal dimensions as long-term predictors of microvasculopathy in type 1 diabetes. METHODS....... Retinal fractal analysis therefore is a potential tool for risk stratification in type 1 diabetes....

  11. Fractal description of fractures

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  12. Fractal and probability analysis of creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses

    Xu, Mengjia; Xu, Jijin, E-mail: xujijin_1979@sjtu.edu.cn; Lu, Hao; Chen, Jieshi; Chen, Junmei; Wei, Xiao

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical and fractal analysis is applied to study the creep fracture surface. • The tensile residual stresses promote the initiation of creep crack. • The fractal dimension of a mixed mode fracture surface shows a wavy variation. • The fractal dimension increases with increasing intergranular fracture percentage. • Height coordinates of intergranular fracture surface fit Gaussian distribution. - Abstract: In order to clarify creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses, creep crack tests were carried out on the tension creep specimens, in which the residual stresses were generated by local remelting and cooling. Residual stresses in the specimens were measured using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The fracture surface of the creep specimen was analyzed using statistical methods and fractal analysis. The relation between fractal dimension of the fracture surface and fracture mode of the creep specimen was discussed. Due to different fracture mechanisms, the probability density functions of the height coordinates vary with the intergranular crack percentage. Good fitting was found between Gaussian distribution and the probability function of height coordinates of the high percentage intergranular crack surface.

  13. Fractal and probability analysis of creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses

    Xu, Mengjia; Xu, Jijin; Lu, Hao; Chen, Jieshi; Chen, Junmei; Wei, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical and fractal analysis is applied to study the creep fracture surface. • The tensile residual stresses promote the initiation of creep crack. • The fractal dimension of a mixed mode fracture surface shows a wavy variation. • The fractal dimension increases with increasing intergranular fracture percentage. • Height coordinates of intergranular fracture surface fit Gaussian distribution. - Abstract: In order to clarify creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses, creep crack tests were carried out on the tension creep specimens, in which the residual stresses were generated by local remelting and cooling. Residual stresses in the specimens were measured using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The fracture surface of the creep specimen was analyzed using statistical methods and fractal analysis. The relation between fractal dimension of the fracture surface and fracture mode of the creep specimen was discussed. Due to different fracture mechanisms, the probability density functions of the height coordinates vary with the intergranular crack percentage. Good fitting was found between Gaussian distribution and the probability function of height coordinates of the high percentage intergranular crack surface.

  14. Using fractal analysis of thermal signatures for thyroid disease evaluation

    Gavriloaia, Gheorghe; Sofron, Emil; Gavriloaia, Mariuca-Roxana; Ghemigean, Adina-Mariana

    2010-11-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and it protects against heat, light, injury and infection. Skin temperature is an important parameter for diagnosing diseases. Thermal analysis is non-invasive, painless, and relatively inexpensive, showing a great potential research. Since the thyroid regulates metabolic rate it is intimately connected to body temperature, more than, any modification of its function generates a specific thermal image on the neck skin. The shapes of thermal signatures are often irregular in size and shape. Euclidean geometry is not able to evaluate their shape for different thyroid diseases, and fractal geometry is used in this paper. Different thyroid diseases generate different shapes, and their complexity are evaluated by specific mathematical approaches, fractal analysis, in order to the evaluate selfsimilarity and lacunarity. Two kinds of thyroid diseases, hyperthyroidism and papillary cancer are analyzed in this paper. The results are encouraging and show the ability to continue research for thermal signature to be used in early diagnosis of thyroid diseases.

  15. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0.......0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, P = 0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, dominant genetic effects explained 54% of the variation and 46% was individually environmentally determined. Conclusions: In young adult twins...

  16. Connotations of pixel-based scale effect in remote sensing and the modified fractal-based analysis method

    Feng, Guixiang; Ming, Dongping; Wang, Min; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-06-01

    Scale problems are a major source of concern in the field of remote sensing. Since the remote sensing is a complex technology system, there is a lack of enough cognition on the connotation of scale and scale effect in remote sensing. Thus, this paper first introduces the connotations of pixel-based scale and summarizes the general understanding of pixel-based scale effect. Pixel-based scale effect analysis is essentially important for choosing the appropriate remote sensing data and the proper processing parameters. Fractal dimension is a useful measurement to analysis pixel-based scale. However in traditional fractal dimension calculation, the impact of spatial resolution is not considered, which leads that the scale effect change with spatial resolution can't be clearly reflected. Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial resolution as the modified scale parameter of two fractal methods to further analyze the pixel-based scale effect. To verify the results of two modified methods (MFBM (Modified Windowed Fractal Brownian Motion Based on the Surface Area) and MDBM (Modified Windowed Double Blanket Method)); the existing scale effect analysis method (information entropy method) is used to evaluate. And six sub-regions of building areas and farmland areas were cut out from QuickBird images to be used as the experimental data. The results of the experiment show that both the fractal dimension and information entropy present the same trend with the decrease of spatial resolution, and some inflection points appear at the same feature scales. Further analysis shows that these feature scales (corresponding to the inflection points) are related to the actual sizes of the geo-object, which results in fewer mixed pixels in the image, and these inflection points are significantly indicative of the observed features. Therefore, the experiment results indicate that the modified fractal methods are effective to reflect the pixel-based scale effect existing in remote sensing

  17. Fractal Analysis of Elastographic Images for Automatic Detection of Diffuse Diseases of Salivary Glands: Preliminary Results

    Alexandru Florin Badea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of some medical images of tissues, obtained by elastography and ultrasonography, is characterized in terms of complexity parameters such as the fractal dimension (FD. It is well known that in any image there are very subtle details that are not easily detectable by the human eye. However, in many cases like medical imaging diagnosis, these details are very important since they might contain some hidden information about the possible existence of certain pathological lesions like tissue degeneration, inflammation, or tumors. Therefore, an automatic method of analysis could be an expedient tool for physicians to give a faultless diagnosis. The fractal analysis is of great importance in relation to a quantitative evaluation of “real-time” elastography, a procedure considered to be operator dependent in the current clinical practice. Mathematical analysis reveals significant discrepancies among normal and pathological image patterns. The main objective of our work is to demonstrate the clinical utility of this procedure on an ultrasound image corresponding to a submandibular diffuse pathology.

  18. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...

  19. Pore Structure and Fractal Characteristics of Niutitang Shale from China

    Zhaodong Xi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A suite of shale samples from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in northwestern Hunan Province, China, were investigated to better understand the pore structure and fractal characteristics of marine shale. Organic geochemistry, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, porosity, permeability, mercury intrusion and nitrogen adsorption and methane adsorption experiments were conducted for each sample. Fractal dimension D was obtained from the nitrogen adsorption data using the fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH model. The relationships between total organic carbon (TOC content, mineral compositions, pore structure parameters and fractal dimension are discussed, along with the contributions of fractal dimension to shale gas reservoir evaluation. Analysis of the results showed that Niutitang shale samples featured high TOC content (2.51% on average, high thermal maturity (3.0% on average, low permeability and complex pore structures, which are highly fractal. TOC content and mineral compositions are two major factors affecting pore structure but they have different impacts on the fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher TOC content had a larger specific surface area (SSA, pore volume (PV and fractal dimension, which enhanced the heterogeneity of the pore structure. Quartz content had a relatively weak influence on shale pore structure, whereas SSA, PV and fractal dimension decreased with increasing clay mineral content. Shale with a higher clay content weakened pore structure heterogeneity. The permeability and Langmuir volume of methane adsorption were affected by fractal dimension. Shale samples with higher fractal dimension had higher adsorption capacity but lower permeability, which is favorable for shale gas adsorption but adverse to shale gas seepage and diffusion.

  20. Fractal apertures in waveguides, conducting screens and cavities analysis and design

    Ghosh, Basudeb; Kartikeyan, M V

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the design and analysis of fractal apertures in waveguides, conducting screens and cavities using numerical electromagnetics and field-solvers. The aim is to obtain design solutions with improved accuracy for a wide range of applications. To achieve this goal, a few diverse problems are considered. The book is organized with adequate space dedicated for the design and analysis of fractal apertures in waveguides, conducting screens, and cavities, microwave/millimeter wave applications followed by detailed case-study problems to infuse better insight and understanding of the subject. Finally, summaries and suggestions are given for future work. Fractal geometries were widely used in electromagnetics, specifically for antennas and frequency selective surfaces (FSS). The self-similarity of fractal geometry gives rise to a multiband response, whereas the  space-filling nature of the fractal geometries makes it an efficient element in antenna and FSS unit cell miniaturization. Until now, no e...

  1. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Buividovich, P.V.; Kalaydzhyan, T.; Polikarpov, M.I.

    2011-11-01

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  2. Fractal dimension of the topological charge density distribution in SU(2) lattice gluodynamics

    Buividovich, P.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalaydzhyan, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    We study the effect of cooling on the spatial distribution of the topological charge density in quenched SU(2) lattice gauge theory with overlap fermions. We show that as the gauge field configurations are cooled, the Hausdorff dimension of regions where the topological charge is localized gradually changes from d=2/3 towards the total space dimension. Hence the cooling procedure destroys some of the essential properties of the topological charge distribution. (orig.)

  3. A holistic approach to determine tree structural complexity based on laser scanning data and fractal analysis.

    Seidel, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional forest structure affects many ecosystem functions and services provided by forests. As forests are made of trees it seems reasonable to approach their structure by investigating individual tree structure. Based on three-dimensional point clouds from laser scanning, a newly developed holistic approach is presented that enables to calculate the box dimension as a measure of structural complexity of individual trees using fractal analysis. It was found that the box dimension of trees was significantly different among the tested species, among trees belonging to the same species but exposed to different growing conditions (at gap vs. forest interior) or to different kinds of competition (intraspecific vs. interspecific). Furthermore, it was shown that the box dimension is positively related to the trees' growth rate. The box dimension was identified as an easy to calculate measure that integrates the effect of several external drivers of tree structure, such as competition strength and type, while simultaneously providing information on structure-related properties, like tree growth.

  4. [Soil particle size distribution and its fractal dimension among degradation sequences of the alpine meadow in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow River, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China].

    Wei, Mao-Hong; Lin, Hui-Long

    2014-03-01

    The alpine meadow in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow River is suffering serious deterioration. Though great efforts have been put into, the restoration for the degraded grassland is far from being effective, mainly due to poor understanding of the degradation mechanism of alpine meadow in this region. In order to clarify the formation mechanism of degradation grassland and provide the new ideas for restoration, degradation sequences of the alpine meadow in the source region of the Yangtze and Yellow River were taken as target systems to analyze the soil particle size distribution, the fractal dimension of the soil particle size, and the relationship between soil erosion modulus and fractal dimension. The results showed that, with increasing grassland degradation, the percentage contents of clay increased while the percentage contents of silt sand and very fine sand showed a decreasing trend. The fractal dimension presented a positive correlation with clay among the degradation sequences while negative correlations were found with very fine sand and silt sand. The curvilinear regression of fractal dimension and erosion modulus fitted a quadratic function. Judged by the function, fractal dimension 2.81 was the threshold value of soil erosion. The threshold value has an indicative meaning on predicting the breakout of grazing-induced erosion and on restoration of the degraded grassland. Taking fractal dimension of 2.81 as the restoration indicator, adoption of corresponding measures to make fractal dimension less than 2.81, would an effective way to restore the degradation grassland.

  5. Bouguer correction density determination from fractal analysis using ...

    In this work, Bouguer density is determined using the fractal approach. This technique was applied to the gravity data of the Kwello area of the Basement Complex, north-western Nigeria. The density obtained using the fractal approach is 2500 kgm which is lower than the conventional value of 2670 kgm used for average ...

  6. Landslide displacement analysis based on fractal theory, in Wanzhou District, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    Lei Gui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Slow moving landslide is a major disaster in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It is difficult to compare the deformation among different parts of this kind of landslide through GPS measurements when the displacement of different monitoring points is similar in values. So far, studies have been seldom carried out to find out the information hidden behind those GPS monitoring data to solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, three landslides were chosen to perform landslide displacement analysis based on fractal theory. The major advantage of this study is that it has not only considered the values of the displacement of those GPS monitoring points, but also considered the moving traces of them. This allows to reveal more information from GPS measurements and to obtain a broader understanding of the deformation history on different parts of a unique landslide, especially for slow moving landslides. The results proved that using the fractal dimension as an indicator is reliable to estimate the deformation of each landslide and to represent landslide deformation on both spatial and temporal scales. The results of this study could make sense to those working on landslide hazard and risk assessment and land use planning.

  7. Evaluation of 3D Printer Accuracy in Producing Fractal Structure.

    Kikegawa, Kana; Takamatsu, Kyuuichirou; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical structures, also known as fractal structures, exhibit advantageous material properties, such as water- and oil-repellency as well as other useful optical characteristics, owing to its self-similarity. Various methods have been developed for producing hierarchical geometrical structures. Recently, fractal structures have been manufactured using a 3D printing technique that involves computer-aided design data. In this study, we confirmed the accuracy of geometrical structures when Koch curve-like fractal structures with zero to three generations were printed using a 3D printer. The fractal dimension was analyzed using a box-counting method. This analysis indicated that the fractal dimension of the third generation hierarchical structure was approximately the same as that of the ideal Koch curve. These findings demonstrate that the design and production of fractal structures can be controlled using a 3D printer. Although the interior angle deviated from the ideal value, the side length could be precisely controlled.

  8. Fractal analysis on a classical hard-wall billiard with openings using a two-dimensional set of initial conditions

    Ree, Suhan

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis is performed to measure the chaoticity of a classical hard-wall billiard with openings. We use the circular billiard with a straight cut with two openings, and a two-dimensional (2D) set of initial conditions that produce all possible trajectories of a particle injected from one opening. We numerically compute the fractal dimension of singular points of the function that maps an initial condition to the number of collisions with the wall before the exit, using the box-counting algorithm that uses uniformly distributed points inside the 2D set of initial conditions. Finally, the classical chaotic properties are observed while the parameters of the billiard are varied, and the results are compared with those with the one-dimensional set of initial conditions

  9. Fractal dimension and fuzzy logic systems for broken rotor bar detection in induction motors at start-up and steady-state regimes

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P.; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Perez-Ramirez, Carlos A.; Camarena-Martinez, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2017-07-01

    Squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs) are key machines in many industrial applications. In this regard, the monitoring of their operating condition aiming at avoiding damage and reducing economical losses has become a demanding task for industry. In the literature, several techniques and methodologies to detect faults that affect the integrity and performance of SCIMs have been proposed. However, they have only been focused on analyzing either the start-up transient or the steady-state operation regimes, two common operating scenarios in real practice. In this work, a novel methodology for broken rotor bar (BRB) detection in SCIMs during both start-up and steady-state operation regimes is proposed. It consists of two main steps. In the first one, the analysis of three-axis vibration signals using fractal dimension (FD) theory is carried out. Since different FD-based algorithms can give different results, three algorithms named Katz’ FD, Higuchi’s FD, and box dimension, are tested. In the second step, a fuzzy logic system for each regime is presented for automatic diagnosis. To validate the proposal, a motor with different damage levels has been tested: one with a partially BRB, a second with one fully BRB, and the third with two BRBs. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed effectiveness.

  10. Fractal dimension and fuzzy logic systems for broken rotor bar detection in induction motors at start-up and steady-state regimes

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Perez-Ramirez, Carlos A; Camarena-Martinez, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J

    2017-01-01

    Squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs) are key machines in many industrial applications. In this regard, the monitoring of their operating condition aiming at avoiding damage and reducing economical losses has become a demanding task for industry. In the literature, several techniques and methodologies to detect faults that affect the integrity and performance of SCIMs have been proposed. However, they have only been focused on analyzing either the start-up transient or the steady-state operation regimes, two common operating scenarios in real practice. In this work, a novel methodology for broken rotor bar (BRB) detection in SCIMs during both start-up and steady-state operation regimes is proposed. It consists of two main steps. In the first one, the analysis of three-axis vibration signals using fractal dimension (FD) theory is carried out. Since different FD-based algorithms can give different results, three algorithms named Katz’ FD, Higuchi’s FD, and box dimension, are tested. In the second step, a fuzzy logic system for each regime is presented for automatic diagnosis. To validate the proposal, a motor with different damage levels has been tested: one with a partially BRB, a second with one fully BRB, and the third with two BRBs. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed effectiveness. (paper)

  11. (Multi)fractality of Earthquakes by use of Wavelet Analysis

    Enescu, B.; Ito, K.; Struzik, Z. R.

    2002-12-01

    The fractal character of earthquakes' occurrence, in time, space or energy, has by now been established beyond doubt and is in agreement with modern models of seismicity. Moreover, the cascade-like generation process of earthquakes -with one "main" shock followed by many aftershocks, having their own aftershocks- may well be described through multifractal analysis, well suited for dealing with such multiplicative processes. The (multi)fractal character of seismicity has been analysed so far by using traditional techniques, like the box-counting and correlation function algorithms. This work introduces a new approach for characterising the multifractal patterns of seismicity. The use of wavelet analysis, in particular of the wavelet transform modulus maxima, to multifractal analysis was pioneered by Arneodo et al. (1991, 1995) and applied successfully in diverse fields, such as the study of turbulence, the DNA sequences or the heart rate dynamics. The wavelets act like a microscope, revealing details about the analysed data at different times and scales. We introduce and perform such an analysis on the occurrence time of earthquakes and show its advantages. In particular, we analyse shallow seismicity, characterised by a high aftershock "productivity", as well as intermediate and deep seismic activity, known for its scarcity of aftershocks. We examine as well declustered (aftershocks removed) versions of seismic catalogues. Our preliminary results show some degree of multifractality for the undeclustered, shallow seismicity. On the other hand, at large scales, we detect a monofractal scaling behaviour, clearly put in evidence for the declustered, shallow seismic activity. Moreover, some of the declustered sequences show a long-range dependent (LRD) behaviour, characterised by a Hurst exponent, H > 0.5, in contrast with the memory-less, Poissonian model. We demonstrate that the LRD is a genuine characteristic and is not an effect of the time series probability

  12. Fractal characteristics of fracture morphology of steels irradiated with high-energy ions

    Xian, Yongqiang; Liu, Juan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Chonghong, E-mail: c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jiachao [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Liqing; Song, Yin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces of steels before and after irradiation were calculated. • Fractal dimension can effectively describe change of fracture surfaces induced by irradiation. • Correlation of change of fractal dimension with embrittlement of irradiated steels is discussed. - Abstract: A fractal analysis of fracture surfaces of steels (a ferritic/martensitic steel and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel) before and after the irradiation with high-energy ions is presented. Fracture surfaces were acquired from a tensile test and a small-ball punch test (SP). Digital images of the fracture surfaces obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) by using the pixel covering method. Boundary of binary image and fractal dimension were determined with a MATLAB program. The results indicate that fractal dimension can be an effective parameter to describe the characteristics of fracture surfaces before and after irradiation. The rougher the fracture surface, the larger the fractal dimension. Correlation of the change of fractal dimension with the embrittlement of the irradiated steels is discussed.

  13. Surface morphology analysis of nanostructured (Ba sub x , Sr sub 1 sub - sub x)TiO sub 3 thin films using fractal method

    Hong, K J; Choi, W K; Cho, J C

    2003-01-01

    Based on the fractal theory, this paper uses scanning electron microscopy images to investigate the roughness characteristics of nanostructured (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films by sol-gel methods. The percentage grain area, surface fractal dimensions and 3D image are evaluated using image analysis methods. The thickness of the (Ba Sr)TiO sub 3 thin films was 260-280 nm. The surface fractal dimensions were increased with strontium doping, and grain area, were decreased with it. The fractal dimension and the grain areas of the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films were 1.81 and 81%. Based on the image analysis, the roughness height of 3D images as 256 levels was about 3 nm and its distribution was about 35-40% for the (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 2)TiO sub 3 and (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3)TiO sub 3 thin films. The roughness height of the BST thin films was distributed from 35% to 40% ranging from 3 nm to 4 nm. By increasing the strontium doping, the roughness hei...

  14. Boundary Fractal Analysis of Two Cube-oriented Grains in Partly Recrystallized Copper

    Sun, Jun; Zhang, Yubin; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    The protrusions and retrusions observed on the recrystallizing boundaries affect the migration kinetics during recrystallization. Characterization of the boundary roughness is necessary in order to evaluate their effects. This roughness has a structure that can be characterized by fractal analysis...

  15. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  16. Evaluation of central and peripheral fatigue in the quadriceps using fractal dimension and conduction velocity in young females.

    Matteo Beretta-Piccoli

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD and conduction velocity (CV as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans.A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years performed two knee extensions: (1 at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC for 30 s, and (2 at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays.Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, p<0.01 was found during the sustained 60% MVC, probably as a result of simultaneous motor unit synchronization and a decrease in muscle fiber CV during the fatiguing task.Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions.

  17. Evaluation of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in the Quadriceps Using Fractal Dimension and Conduction Velocity in Young Females

    Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; D’Antona, Giuseppe; Barbero, Marco; Fisher, Beth; Dieli-Conwright, Christina M.; Clijsen, Ron; Cescon, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Over the past decade, linear and non-linear surface electromyography descriptors for central and peripheral components of fatigue have been developed. In the current study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) as myoelectric descriptors of central and peripheral fatigue, respectively. To this aim, we analyzed FD and CV slopes during sustained fatiguing contractions of the quadriceps femoris in healthy humans. Methods A total of 29 recreationally active women (mean age±standard deviation: 24±4 years) and two female elite athletes (one power athlete, age 24 and one endurance athlete, age 30 years) performed two knee extensions: (1) at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 30 s, and (2) at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis using bidimensional arrays. Results Central and peripheral fatigue were described as decreases in FD and CV, respectively. A positive correlation between FD and CV (R=0.51, pfatiguing task. Conclusions Central and peripheral fatigue can be described as changes in FD and CV, at least in young, healthy women. The significant correlation between FD and CV observed at 60% MVC suggests that a mutual interaction between central and peripheral fatigue can arise during submaximal isometric contractions. PMID:25880369

  18. Random walk through fractal environments

    Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze random walk through fractal environments, embedded in 3-dimensional, permeable space. Particles travel freely and are scattered off into random directions when they hit the fractal. The statistical distribution of the flight increments (i.e. of the displacements between two consecutive hittings) is analytically derived from a common, practical definition of fractal dimension, and it turns out to approximate quite well a power-law in the case where the dimension D of the fractal is ...

  19. Spectral Analysis and Dirichlet Forms on Barlow-Evans Fractals

    Steinhurst, Benjamin; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We show that if a Barlow-Evans Markov process on a vermiculated space is symmetric, then one can study the spectral properties of the corresponding Laplacian using projective limits. For some examples, such as the Laakso spaces and a Spierpinski P\\^ate \\`a Choux, one can develop a complete spectral theory, including the eigenfunction expansions that are analogous to Fourier series. Also, one can construct connected fractal spaces isospectral to the fractal strings of Lapidus and van Frankenhu...

  20. Factorial moment and fractal analysis of γ families

    Kalmakhelidze, M.Eh.; Roinishvili, N.N.; Svanidze, M.S.; Khizanishvili, L.A.; Chadranyan, L.Kh.

    1997-01-01

    Factorial and fractal methods were applied to nuclear-electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere (γ families) to find sensitivity of these methods to multiparticle fluctuations in γ families. Averaged parameters of factorial and fractal methods of the real families were compared with the same quantities for the statistical set of random families. The correlations between the same parameters for families divided into sectors and into rings are studied. The correlations between different parameters for the same families divided into sectors are investigated

  1. Use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory to determine particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands

    Georgia S. Araujo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The particle morphology and surface texture play a major role in influencing mechanical and hydraulic behaviors of sandy soils. This paper presents the use of digital image analysis combined with fractal theory as a tool to quantify the particle morphology and surface texture of two types of quartz sands widely used in the region of Vitória, Espírito Santo, southeast of Brazil. The two investigated sands are sampled from different locations. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple, straightforward, reliable and reproducible methodology that can identify representative sandy soil texture parameters. The test results of the soil samples of the two sands separated by sieving into six size fractions are presented and discussed. The main advantages of the adopted methodology are its simplicity, reliability of the results, and relatively low cost. The results show that sands from the coastal spit (BS have a greater degree of roundness and a smoother surface texture than river sands (RS. The values obtained in the test are statistically analyzed, and again it is confirmed that the BS sand has a slightly greater degree of sphericity than that of the RS sand. Moreover, the RS sand with rough surface texture has larger specific surface area values than the similar BS sand, which agree with the obtained roughness fractal dimensions. The consistent experimental results demonstrate that image analysis combined with fractal theory is an accurate and efficient method to quantify the differences in particle morphology and surface texture of quartz sands.

  2. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  3. Fractal analysis in radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion imaging: a systematic review

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc

    2014-01-01

    To provide an overview of recent research in fractal analysis of tissue perfusion imaging, using standard radiological and nuclear medicine imaging techniques including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to discuss implications for different fields of application. A systematic review of fractal analysis for tissue perfusion imaging was performed by searching the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and ISI Web of Science. Thirty-seven eligible studies were identified. Fractal analysis was performed on perfusion imaging of tumours, lung, myocardium, kidney, skeletal muscle and cerebral diseases. Clinically, different aspects of tumour perfusion and cerebral diseases were successfully evaluated including detection and classification. In physiological settings, it was shown that perfusion under different conditions and in various organs can be properly described using fractal analysis. Fractal analysis is a suitable method for quantifying heterogeneity from radiological and nuclear medicine perfusion images under a variety of conditions and in different organs. Further research is required to exploit physiologically proven fractal behaviour in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  4. Automatic localization of cerebral cortical malformations using fractal analysis.

    De Luca, A; Arrigoni, F; Romaniello, R; Triulzi, F M; Peruzzo, D; Bertoldo, A

    2016-08-21

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) encompass a variety of brain disorders affecting the normal development and organization of the brain cortex. The relatively low incidence and the extreme heterogeneity of these disorders hamper the application of classical group level approaches for the detection of lesions. Here, we present a geometrical descriptor for a voxel level analysis based on fractal geometry, then define two similarity measures to detect the lesions at single subject level. The pipeline was applied to 15 normal children and nine pediatric patients affected by MCDs following two criteria, maximum accuracy (WACC) and minimization of false positives (FPR), and proved that our lesion detection algorithm is able to detect and locate abnormalities of the brain cortex with high specificity (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  96%), sensitivity (WACC  =  83%, FPR  =  63%) and accuracy (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  90%). The combination of global and local features proves to be effective, making the algorithm suitable for the detection of both focal and diffused malformations. Compared to other existing algorithms, this method shows higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  5. Automatic localization of cerebral cortical malformations using fractal analysis

    De Luca, A.; Arrigoni, F.; Romaniello, R.; Triulzi, F. M.; Peruzzo, D.; Bertoldo, A.

    2016-08-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) encompass a variety of brain disorders affecting the normal development and organization of the brain cortex. The relatively low incidence and the extreme heterogeneity of these disorders hamper the application of classical group level approaches for the detection of lesions. Here, we present a geometrical descriptor for a voxel level analysis based on fractal geometry, then define two similarity measures to detect the lesions at single subject level. The pipeline was applied to 15 normal children and nine pediatric patients affected by MCDs following two criteria, maximum accuracy (WACC) and minimization of false positives (FPR), and proved that our lesion detection algorithm is able to detect and locate abnormalities of the brain cortex with high specificity (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  96%), sensitivity (WACC  =  83%, FPR  =  63%) and accuracy (WACC  =  85%, FPR  =  90%). The combination of global and local features proves to be effective, making the algorithm suitable for the detection of both focal and diffused malformations. Compared to other existing algorithms, this method shows higher accuracy and sensitivity.

  6. Fractal and mechanical micro- and nanorange properties of sylvite and halite crystals

    Valery N. Aptukov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article involves the treatment of micro- and nanorange scanning and indentation data for salt rock crystals obtained with help of the scanning microscope Dimension Icon using the mathematical models. It also describes the basic methods of fractal analysis. It shows the effectiveness of the method of minimal covering which is chosen to research the fractal properties of salt rock crystal surfaces. The article includes the algorithm of this method and the description of its generalization for the two-dimensional case. The values of fractal index and multifractal parameters have been calculated on the basis of the minimal covering method. The article also involves the anisotropy effects for fractal properties, comparison of fractal behavior on different scale levels. It gives the values of hardness for different parts of the crystals and studies the correlation between hardness and fractal index and describes the character of the influence of fractal dimension on roughness.

  7. Fractal analysis of heart rate variability and mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Tapanainen, Jari M; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed fractal analysis of heart rate (HR) variability has been suggested to provide prognostic information about patients with heart failure. This prospective multicenter study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of fractal and traditional HR variability parameters...... in a large, consecutive series of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A consecutive series of 697 patients were recruited to participate 2 to 7 days after an AMI in 3 Nordic university hospitals. The conventional time-domain and spectral parameters and the newer fractal scaling indexes of HR...... variability were analyzed from 24-hour RR interval recordings. During the mean follow-up of 18.4 +/- 6.5 months, 49 patients (7.0%) died. Of all the risk variables, a reduced short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1)

  8. Pore surface fractal analysis of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane using Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model.

    Ahmad, A L; Mustafa, N N N

    2006-09-15

    The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.

  9. FRACTAL IMAGE FEATURE VECTORS WITH APPLICATIONS IN FRACTOGRAPHY

    Hynek Lauschmann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of fatigue fracture surface (caused by constant cycle loading is strictly related to crack growth rate. This relation may be expressed, among other methods, by means of fractal analysis. Fractal dimension as a single numerical value is not sufficient. Two types of fractal feature vectors are discussed: multifractal and multiparametric. For analysis of images, the box-counting method for 3D is applied with respect to the non-homogeneity of dimensions (two in space, one in brightness. Examples of application are shown: images of several fracture surfaces are analyzed and related to crack growth rate.

  10. Changes in the fractal dimension, feret diameter, and lacunarity of mandibular alveolar bone during initial healing of dental implants.

    Önem, Erinç; Baksı, B Güniz; Sogur, Elif

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the combination of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity, and Feret diameter (FeD) to quantitatively characterize structural changes of mandibular alveolar bone around dental implants during initial healing. Three standard-sized regions of interest (ROIs) (mesial and distal crest and apical area) around implants and three ROIs of the same size in the alveolar bone on the contralateral side were analyzed on digital panoramic images. FD was calculated using the box-counting method, and lacunarity was calculated using the FracLac plugin of Image J software. FeD was measured in the same ROIs. Comparisons of the groups were done with the Dunnett test. Forty-two implants in the posterior mandibles of 21 patients were used for FD measurements. A total of 189 ROIs was segmented into binary images. Mean FD values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 1.26, 1.36, and 1.4, respectively. The mean FD of alveolar bone around premolars/molars was 1.39 for all ROIs. The mean FeD for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants was 7.63, 7.86, and 8.02, respectively, whereas it ranged between 7.88 and 8.13 for premolar teeth. Mean lacunarity values for mesial, distal, and apical ROIs around implants were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.48, respectively. Lacunarity values for ROIs around premolars ranged between 0.45 and 0.50. No significant differences were observed in FD, FeD, or lacunarity measurements between ROIs around implants and around teeth. The satisfactory healing of bone following implant placement may be monitored by calculating FD, lacunarity, and FeD using digital panoramic images. Although preliminary, these values may alert the practitioner to any implants with loss of stability.

  11. Cost and time-effective method for multi-scale measures of rugosity, fractal dimension, and vector dispersion from coral reef 3D models.

    G C Young

    Full Text Available We present a method to construct and analyse 3D models of underwater scenes using a single cost-effective camera on a standard laptop with (a free or low-cost software, (b no computer programming ability, and (c minimal man hours for both filming and analysis. This study focuses on four key structural complexity metrics: point-to-point distances, linear rugosity (R, fractal dimension (D, and vector dispersion (1/k. We present the first assessment of accuracy and precision of structure-from-motion (SfM 3D models from an uncalibrated GoPro™ camera at a small scale (4 m2 and show that they can provide meaningful, ecologically relevant results. Models had root mean square errors of 1.48 cm in X-Y and 1.35 in Z, and accuracies of 86.8% (R, 99.6% (D at scales 30-60 cm, 93.6% (D at scales 1-5 cm, and 86.9 (1/k. Values of R were compared to in-situ chain-and-tape measurements, while values of D and 1/k were compared with ground truths from 3D printed objects modelled underwater. All metrics varied less than 3% between independently rendered models. We thereby improve and rigorously validate a tool for ecologists to non-invasively quantify coral reef structural complexity with a variety of multi-scale metrics.

  12. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  13. Mechanical test and fractal analysis on anisotropic fracture of cortical bone

    Yin, Dagang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chen, Bin, E-mail: bchen@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ye, Wei [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Gou, Jihua [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Fan, Jinghong [Division of Mechanical Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of the cortical bone of fresh bovine femora along three different directions are tested through four-point bending experiments. • SEM observation shows that the roughness of the fracture surfaces of the three different directions of the bone are remarkably different. • The fractal dimensions of the different fracture surfaces of the bone are calculated by box-counting method in MATLAB. • The fracture energies of the different fracture directions are calculated based on their fractal models. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of the cortical bone of fresh bovine femora along three different directions are tested through four-point bending experiments. It is indicated that the fracture energy along the transversal direction of the bone is distinctly larger than those of the longitudinal and radial directions. The fracture surfaces of the three different directions are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is shown that the roughness of the fracture surface of the transversal direction is obviously larger than those of the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. It is also revealed that the osteons in the bone are perpendicular to the fracture surface of the transversal direction and parallel to the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. Based on these experimental results, the fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces of different directions are calculated by box-counting method in MATLAB. The calculated results show that the fractal dimension of the fracture surface of the transversal direction is remarkably larger than those of the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. The fracture energies of different directions are also calculated based on their fractal models. It is denoted that the fracture energy of the transversal direction is remarkably larger than those of the longitudinal and radial directions. The calculated results are in

  14. Mechanical test and fractal analysis on anisotropic fracture of cortical bone

    Yin, Dagang; Chen, Bin; Ye, Wei; Gou, Jihua; Fan, Jinghong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The mechanical properties of the cortical bone of fresh bovine femora along three different directions are tested through four-point bending experiments. • SEM observation shows that the roughness of the fracture surfaces of the three different directions of the bone are remarkably different. • The fractal dimensions of the different fracture surfaces of the bone are calculated by box-counting method in MATLAB. • The fracture energies of the different fracture directions are calculated based on their fractal models. - Abstract: The mechanical properties of the cortical bone of fresh bovine femora along three different directions are tested through four-point bending experiments. It is indicated that the fracture energy along the transversal direction of the bone is distinctly larger than those of the longitudinal and radial directions. The fracture surfaces of the three different directions are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is shown that the roughness of the fracture surface of the transversal direction is obviously larger than those of the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. It is also revealed that the osteons in the bone are perpendicular to the fracture surface of the transversal direction and parallel to the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. Based on these experimental results, the fractal dimensions of the fracture surfaces of different directions are calculated by box-counting method in MATLAB. The calculated results show that the fractal dimension of the fracture surface of the transversal direction is remarkably larger than those of the fracture surfaces of the longitudinal and radial directions. The fracture energies of different directions are also calculated based on their fractal models. It is denoted that the fracture energy of the transversal direction is remarkably larger than those of the longitudinal and radial directions. The calculated results are in

  15. Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals

    Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.

  16. Thermodynamics for Fractal Statistics

    da Cruz, Wellington

    1998-01-01

    We consider for an anyon gas its termodynamics properties taking into account the fractal statistics obtained by us recently. This approach describes the anyonic excitations in terms of equivalence classes labeled by fractal parameter or Hausdorff dimension $h$. An exact equation of state is obtained in the high-temperature and low-temperature limits, for gases with a constant density of states.

  17. Positron annihilation near fractal surfaces

    Lung, C.W.; Deng, K.M.; Xiong, L.Y.

    1991-07-01

    A model for positron annihilation in the sub-surface region near a fractal surface is proposed. It is found that the power law relationship between the mean positron implantation depth and incident positron energy can be used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractal surface in materials. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  18. Fractal analysis of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendrites

    Bursill, L.A.; Julin, Peng; Xudong, Fan.

    1990-01-01

    The fractal scaling characteristics of the surface profile of electrolytically-deposited palladium hydride dendritic structures have been obtained using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are in remarkable agreement with the modified diffusion-limited aggregation model. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 13 figs

  19. A fractal image analysis methodology for heat damage inspection in carbon fiber reinforced composites

    Haridas, Aswin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Prabhathan, P.; Chan, Kelvin; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2017-06-01

    The use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials in the aerospace industry have far improved the load carrying properties and the design flexibility of aircraft structures. A high strength to weight ratio, low thermal conductivity, and a low thermal expansion coefficient gives it an edge for applications demanding stringent loading conditions. Specifically, this paper focuses on the behavior of CFRP composites under stringent thermal loads. The properties of composites are largely affected by external thermal loads, especially when the loads are beyond the glass temperature, Tg, of the composite. Beyond this, the composites are subject to prominent changes in mechanical and thermal properties which may further lead to material decomposition. Furthermore, thermal damage formation being chaotic, a strict dimension cannot be associated with the formed damage. In this context, this paper focuses on comparing multiple speckle image analysis algorithms to effectively characterize the formed thermal damages on the CFRP specimen. This would provide us with a fast method for quantifying the extent of heat damage in carbon composites, thus reducing the required time for inspection. The image analysis methods used for the comparison include fractal dimensional analysis of the formed speckle pattern and analysis of number and size of various connecting elements in the binary image.

  20. Measuring the fractal dimension of the seismic source through the high-frequency fall-off of source spectra

    Wu, Z.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Kim, S.G.

    1995-09-01

    Using the Wigner-distribution estimation, the high-frequency fall-off of source spectra was estimated. The technique was applied to the analysis of the source spectra of the July 22, 1994, Vladivostok M6.4 deep-focus earthquake and that of the July 22, 1994, Northern Japan Sea M5.7 deep-focus earthquake. It is shown that the high-frequency fall-off of the source spectra of these two earthquakes may be characterized by two parts. Between the first corner frequency f 1 and the second corner frequency f 2 , the high-frequency fall-off of the source spectra can be represented by f 5.0 : above f 2 , the high-frequency fall-off can be represented by f 1.4 . In the perspective of the fractal geometry of earthquake source, it seems that the deep-focus earthquakes under consideration may be characterized as being composed of some 'sub events'. On the other hand, each sub event has its complex structure. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. The analysis of the influence of fractal structure of stimuli on fractal dynamics in fixational eye movements and EEG signal

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin

    2016-05-01

    One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders.

  2. Heterogeneity of Glucose Metabolism in Esophageal Cancer Measured by Fractal Analysis of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Image: Correlation between Metabolic Heterogeneity and Survival.

    Tochigi, Toru; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kono, Tsuguaki; Ohira, Gaku; Tohma, Takayuki; Gunji, Hisashi; Hayano, Koichi; Narushima, Kazuo; Fujishiro, Takeshi; Hanaoka, Toshiharu; Akutsu, Yasunori; Okazumi, Shinichi; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2017-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is a well-recognized characteristic feature of cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the heterogeneity of the intratumoral glucose metabolism using fractal analysis, and evaluate its prognostic value in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies of 79 patients who received curative surgery were evaluated. FDG-PET images were analyzed using fractal analysis software, where differential box-counting method was employed to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) of the tumor lesion. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and FD were compared with overall survival (OS). The median SUVmax and FD of ESCCs in this cohort were 13.8 and 1.95, respectively. In univariate analysis performed using Cox's proportional hazard model, T stage and FD showed significant associations with OS (p = 0.04, p heterogeneity measured by fractal analysis can be a novel imaging biomarker for survival in patients with ESCC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  4. Fractal characteristics of an asphaltene deposited heterogeneous surface

    Amin, J. Sayyad; Ayatollahi, Sh.; Alamdari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Several methods have been employed in recent years to investigate homogeneous surface topography based on image analysis, such as AFM (atomic force microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Fractal analysis of the images provides fractal dimension of the surface which is used as one of the most common surface indices. Surface topography has generally been considered to be mono-fractal. On the other hand, precipitation of organic materials on a rough surface and its irregular growth result in morphology alteration and converts a homogeneous surface to a heterogeneous one. In this case a mono-fractal description of the surface does not completely describe the nature of the altered surface. This work aims to investigate the topography alteration of a glass surface as a result of asphaltene precipitation and its growth at various pressures using a bi-fractal approach. The experimental results of the deposited surfaces were clearly indicating two regions of micro- and macro-asperities namely, surface types I and II, respectively. The fractal plots were indicative of bi-fractal behavior and for each surface type one fractal dimension was calculated. The topography information of the surfaces was obtained by two image analyses, AFM and SEM imaging techniques. Results of the bi-fractal analysis demonstrated that topography alteration in surface type II (macro-asperities) is more evident than that in surface type I (micro-asperities). Compared to surface type II, a better correlation was observed between the fractal dimensions inferred from the AFM images (D A ) and those of the SEM images (D S ) in surface type I.

  5. Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow.

    Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

    2012-05-01

    This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow d(s) is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided.

  6. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using a concentration-area fractal model

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modelling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modelling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi and Igarashi (1970, 1971) classification results in the Meybod city. The resulting categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  7. Site effect classification based on microtremor data analysis using concentration-area fractal model

    Adib, A.; Afzal, P.; Heydarzadeh, K.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to classify the site effect using concentration-area (C-A) fractal model in Meybod city, Central Iran, based on microtremor data analysis. Log-log plots of the frequency, amplification and vulnerability index (k-g) indicate a multifractal nature for the parameters in the area. The results obtained from the C-A fractal modeling reveal that proper soil types are located around the central city. The results derived via the fractal modeling were utilized to improve the Nogoshi's classification results in the Meybod city. The resulted categories are: (1) hard soil and weak rock with frequency of 6.2 to 8 Hz, (2) stiff soil with frequency of about 4.9 to 6.2 Hz, (3) moderately soft soil with the frequency of 2.4 to 4.9 Hz, and (4) soft soil with the frequency lower than 2.4 Hz.

  8. Using fractal analysis in modeling the dynamics of forest areas and economic impact assessment

    Pintilii, Radu Daniel; Andronache, Ion; Diaconu, Daniel Constantin

    2017-01-01

    This study uses fractal analysis to quantify the spatial changes of forest resources caused by an increase of deforested areas. The method introduced contributes to the evaluation of forest resources being under significant pressure from anthropogenic activities. The pressure on the forest...... resources has been analyzed for Maramures, County, one of the most deforested counties in Romania. In order to evaluate this, the deforested areas were calculated for the period of 2001-2014, by using the Global Forest Change 2000-2014 database. The Fractal Fragmentation Index (FFI) and Fixed Grid 2D...

  9. Localization length and fractal dimension of band centre states for 1-d off-diagonal disordered systems

    Roman, E.; Wiecko, C.

    1985-08-01

    We study and characterize the eigenstates near the centre of the band of a 1-d tight binding model with off-diagonal disorder Wsub(T). We find a new exponent for the localization length lambda on an energy-dependent range of disorder Wsub(T). We correlate this feature with a change of structure of the wave-function displayed by the behaviour of its fractal dimensionality. (author)

  10. Fractal structures and fractal functions as disease indicators

    Escos, J.M; Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental instability is an early indicator of stress, and has been used to monitor the impacts of human disturbance on natural ecosystems. Here we investigate the use of different measures of developmental instability on two species, green peppers (Capsicum annuum), a plant, and Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica), an animal. For green peppers we compared the variance in allometric relationship between control plants, and a treatment group infected with the tomato spotted wilt virus. The results show that infected plants have a greater variance about the allometric regression line than the control plants. We also observed a reduction in complexity of branch structure in green pepper with a viral infection. Box-counting fractal dimension of branch architecture declined under stress infection. We also tested the reduction in complexity of behavioral patterns under stress situations in Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Fractal dimension of head-lift frequency distribution measures predator detection efficiency. This dimension decreased under stressful conditions, such as advanced pregnancy and parasitic infection. Feeding distribution activities reflect food searching efficiency. Power spectral analysis proves to be the most powerful tool for character- izing fractal behavior, revealing a reduction in complexity of time distribution activity under parasitic infection.

  11. Quantitative multi-scale analysis of mineral distributions and fractal pore structures for a heterogeneous Junger Basin shale

    Wang, Y.D.; Ren, Y.Q.; Hu, T.; Deng, B.; Xiao, T.Q.; Liu, K.Y.; Yang, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) characterization of shales has recently attracted wide attentions in relation to the growing importance of shale oil and gas. Obtaining a complete 3D compositional distribution of shale has proven to be challenging due to its multi-scale characteristics. A combined multi-energy X-ray micro-CT technique and data-constrained modelling (DCM) approach has been used to quantitatively investigate the multi-scale mineral and porosity distributions of a heterogeneous shale from the Junger Basin, northwestern China by sub-sampling. The 3D sub-resolution structures of minerals and pores in the samples are quantitatively obtained as the partial volume fraction distributions, with colours representing compositions. The shale sub-samples from two areas have different physical structures for minerals and pores, with the dominant minerals being feldspar and dolomite, respectively. Significant heterogeneities have been observed in the analysis. The sub-voxel sized pores form large interconnected clusters with fractal structures. The fractal dimensions of the largest clusters for both sub-samples were quantitatively calculated and found to be 2.34 and 2.86, respectively. The results are relevant in quantitative modelling of gas transport in shale reservoirs

  12. Spatial Heterogeneity of the Forest Canopy Scales with the Heterogeneity of an Understory Shrub Based on Fractal Analysis

    Catherine K. Denny

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity of vegetation is an important landscape characteristic, but is difficult to assess due to scale-dependence. Here we examine how spatial patterns in the forest canopy affect those of understory plants, using the shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis (L. Nutt. as a focal species. Evergreen and deciduous forest canopy and buffaloberry shrub presence were measured with line-intercept sampling along ten 2-km transects in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Relationships between overstory canopy and understory buffaloberry presence were assessed for scales ranging from 2 m to 502 m. Fractal dimensions of both canopy and buffaloberry were estimated and then related using box-counting methods to evaluate spatial heterogeneity based on patch distribution and abundance. Effects of canopy presence on buffaloberry were scale-dependent, with shrub presence negatively related to evergreen canopy cover and positively related to deciduous cover. The effect of evergreen canopy was significant at a local scale between 2 m and 42 m, while that of deciduous canopy was significant at a meso-scale between 150 m and 358 m. Fractal analysis indicated that buffaloberry heterogeneity positively scaled with evergreen canopy heterogeneity, but was unrelated to that of deciduous canopy. This study demonstrates that evergreen canopy cover is a determinant of buffaloberry heterogeneity, highlighting the importance of spatial scale and canopy composition in understanding canopy-understory relationships.

  13. Impregnación de platino y dimensión fractal en dos tipos de sólidos microporosos Platinum impregnation and fractal dimension on two types of micro-porous solids

    José G. Carriazo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra la modificación de una zeolita-Y y una arcilla pilarizada (tipo saponita mediante impregnación con diferentes cargas de Pt (catalizadores a base de Pt. Los sólidos se caracterizaron en cuanto a su composición química y su textura. La caracterización textural revela cambios importantes en los sólidos, mostrando que se genera microporosidad en la serie de catalizadores zeolíticos y se bloquean las estructuras microporosas en la serie de catalizadores obtenidos a partir de la arcilla pilarizada. La determinación de la dimensión fractal (mediante el método de Avnir-Jaroniec indica que la modificación con Pt afecta significativamente las características topográficas de la superficie de la arcilla pilarizada como consecuencia de la posible formación de agregados de Pt.This research shows the modification of a zeolite Y and a pillared clay (saponite by impregnation with different platinum quantities (synthesis of Pt catalysts. The solids were characterized about the chemical composition and texture. The textural characterization reveals important changes in the solids, showing that in the zeolitic catalysts microporosity is formed, whereas in the pillared clay the microporous structures are partially blocked. Fractal dimension (by Avnir-Jaroniec method indicates that the topographic features of the pillared clay surface are significantly affected due to the modification with platinum, probably as a consequence of platinum clusters formation.

  14. Wear Analysis of a Ti-5Al-3V-2.5Fe Alloy Using a Factorial Design Approach and Fractal Geometry

    A. W. El-Morsy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the full factorial experimental design technique to confirm the significance of the factors affecting the wear behavior of a recycled Ti-5Al-3V-2.5Fe alloy with a minimum number of experiments. The fractal theory has been used to describe the worn surface state and to investigate the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the surface morphology. The experiments of the sliding wear have been performed under stresses in the range of 1-5 MPa and within sliding velocities range of 0.2–2.0 m/s. Morphology of the worn surfaces investigations has been undertaken using a scanning electron microscope. From the analysis of variance and the nonlinear regression model, the results show that the applied stress has a higher contribution to the wear rate than the sliding velocity.

  15. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  16. Delineation of geochemical anomalies based on stream sediment data utilizing fractal modeling and staged factor analysis

    Afzal, Peyman; Mirzaei, Misagh; Yousefi, Mahyar; Adib, Ahmad; Khalajmasoumi, Masoumeh; Zarifi, Afshar Zia; Foster, Patrick; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan

    2016-07-01

    Recognition of significant geochemical signatures and separation of geochemical anomalies from background are critical issues in interpretation of stream sediment data to define exploration targets. In this paper, we used staged factor analysis in conjunction with the concentration-number (C-N) fractal model to generate exploration targets for prospecting Cr and Fe mineralization in Balvard area, SE Iran. The results show coexistence of derived multi-element geochemical signatures of the deposit-type sought and ultramafic-mafic rocks in the NE and northern parts of the study area indicating significant chromite and iron ore prospects. In this regard, application of staged factor analysis and fractal modeling resulted in recognition of significant multi-element signatures that have a high spatial association with host lithological units of the deposit-type sought, and therefore, the generated targets are reliable for further prospecting of the deposit in the study area.

  17. A fractal analysis of skin pigmented lesions using the novel tool of the variogram technique

    Mastrolonardo, Mario [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy)]. E-mail: mariomastrolonardo@libero.it; Conte, Elio [Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, Unit of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria ' Ospedali Riuniti' di Foggia (Italy); Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology, TIRES-Center for Innovative Technology for Signal Detection and Processing, Bari University, 70100 Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The incidence of the cutaneous malignant melanoma is increasing rapidly in the world [Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, et al. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide, Version 1.0 IARC Cancer Base no. 5. Lyon: IARC Press, 2001]. The therapeutic address requires a method having high sensitivity and capability to diagnose such disease at an early stage. We introduce a new diagnostic method based on non-linear methodologies. In detail we suggest that fractal as well as noise and chaos dynamics are the most important components responsible for genetic instability of melanocytes. As consequence we introduce the new technique of the variogram and of fractal analysis extended to the whole regions of interest of skin in order to obtain parameters able to identify the malignant lesion. In a preliminary analysis, satisfactory results are reached.

  18. Fractal Branching in Vascular Trees and Networks by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular patterning offers an informative multi-scale, fractal readout of regulatory signaling by complex molecular pathways. Understanding such molecular crosstalk is important for physiological, pathological and therapeutic research in Space Biology and Astronaut countermeasures. When mapped out and quantified by NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, remodeling vascular patterns become useful biomarkers that advance out understanding of the response of biology and human health to challenges such as microgravity and radiation in space environments.

  19. Encounters with chaos and fractals

    Gulick, Denny

    2012-01-01

    Periodic Points Iterates of Functions Fixed Points Periodic Points Families of Functions The Quadratic Family Bifurcations Period-3 Points The Schwarzian Derivative One-Dimensional Chaos Chaos Transitivity and Strong Chaos Conjugacy Cantor Sets Two-Dimensional Chaos Review of Matrices Dynamics of Linear FunctionsNonlinear Maps The Hénon Map The Horseshoe Map Systems of Differential Equations Review of Systems of Differential Equations Almost Linearity The Pendulum The Lorenz System Introduction to Fractals Self-Similarity The Sierpiński Gasket and Other "Monsters"Space-Filling Curves Similarity and Capacity DimensionsLyapunov Dimension Calculating Fractal Dimensions of Objects Creating Fractals Sets Metric Spaces The Hausdorff Metric Contractions and Affine Functions Iterated Function SystemsAlgorithms for Drawing Fractals Complex Fractals: Julia Sets and the Mandelbrot Set Complex Numbers and Functions Julia Sets The Mandelbrot Set Computer Programs Answers to Selected Exercises References Index.

  20. Alpha-spectrometry and fractal analysis of surface micro-images for characterisation of porous materials used in manufacture of targets for laser plasma experiments

    Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat' ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)

  1. Heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow: a fractal approach

    Kuikka, J.T.; Hartikainen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: We demonstrate the heterogeneity of regional cerebral blood flow using a fractal approach and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Method: Tc-99m-labelled ethylcysteine dimer was injected intravenously in 10 healthy controls and in 10 patients with dementia of frontal lobe type. The head was imaged with a gamma camera and transaxial, sagittal and coronal slices were reconstructed. Two hundred fifty-six symmetrical regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn onto each hemisphere of functioning brain matter. Fractal analysis was used to examine the spatial heterogeneity of blood flow as a function of the number of ROIs. Results: Relative dispersion (=coefficient of variation of the regional flows) was fractal-like in healthy subjects and could be characterized by a fractal dimension of 1.17±0.05 (mean±SD) for the left hemisphere and 1.15±0.04 for the right hemisphere, respectively. The fractal dimension of 1.0 reflects completely homogeneous blood flow and 1.5 indicates a random blood flow distribution. Patients with dementia of frontal lobe type had a significantly lower fractal dimension of 1.04±0.03 than in healthy controls. (orig.) [de

  2. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects

    Staicu, A.D.; Mazzi, B.; Vassilicos, J.C.; Water, van de W.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are

  3. Multi-fractal analysis and lacunarity spectrum of the dark matter haloes in the SDSS-DR7

    Chacón-Cardona, C.A.; Casas-Miranda, R.A.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We analysed the dark matter in Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. • From the initial sample with 412,468 galaxies, 339,505 dark matter haloes were used. • We found the multifractal and the lacunarity spectrum as radial distance function. • The dark matter set did not achieve at the physical dimension of the space. - Abstract: The dark matter halo distribution of the nearby universe is used to study the fractal behaviour in the proximate universe. The data, which is based on four volume-limited galaxy samples was obtained by Muñoz-Cuartas and Mueller (2012) from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). In order to know the fractal behaviour of the observed universe, from the initial sample which contains 412,468 galaxies and 339,505 dark matter haloes were used as input for the fractal calculations. Using this data we use the sliding-window technique for the dark matter distribution and compute the multi-fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum and use it to study its dependence on radial distance in every sample. The transition to homogeneity is not observed in the dark matter halo distribution obtained from the SDSS-DR7 volume-limited galaxy samples; in its place the dark matter halo distribution exhibits a persistent multi-fractal behaviour where the measured dimension does not arrive at the value of the physical dimension of the space, for all structure parameter values of the analysed set, at least up to radial distances of the ordered from 165 Mpc/h from the available centres of each sample. Our results and their implications are discussed in the context of the formation of large-scale structures in the universe.

  4. Void analysis of target residues at SPS energy -evidence of correlation with fractal behaviour

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Das, Rupa . E-mail : dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the target residues in 32 S -AgBr and 16 0 -AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV and 60AGeV respectively in terms of fractal moment by Takagi method and void probability scaling. The study reveals an interesting feature of the production process. In 16 O- AgBr interactions multifractal behaviour is present in both hemispheres and void probability does not show a scaling behaviour, but at high energy the situation changes. In 32 S -AgBr interactions for both hemisphere monofractal behaviour is indicated by that data and void probability also shows good scaling behaviour. This suggests that a possible correlation of void probability with fractal behaviour of target residues. (author)

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Detection in Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Using Multiscale Fractal Analysis

    Lahmiri, Salim; Boukadoum, Mounir

    2013-01-01

    We present a new automated system for the detection of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The MRI is analyzed by means of multiscale analysis (MSA) to obtain its fractals at six different scales. The extracted fractals are used as features to differentiate healthy brain MRI from those of AD by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The result of classifying 93 brain MRIs consisting of 51 images of healthy brains and 42 of brains affected by AD, using leave-one-out cross-validation method, yielded 99.18% ± 0.01 classification accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 98.20% ± 0.02 specificity. These results and a processing time of 5.64 seconds indicate that the proposed approach may be an efficient diagnostic aid for radiologists in the screening for AD

  6. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    Chen Yanguang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The idea of intermittency is introduced into central place model. → The revised central place model suggests incomplete space filling. → New central place fractals are presented for urban analysis. → The average nearest distance is proposed to estimate the fractal dimension. → The concept of distance-based space is replaced by that of dimension-based space. - Abstract: The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d = 2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension D < d = 2 indicative of spatial intermittency. Thus the conventional central place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the improved central place fractals, the theory will be able to explain the real patterns of urban places very well. As empirical analyses, the US cities and towns are employed to verify the fractal-based models of central places.

  7. Infrastructural Fractals

    Bruun Jensen, Casper

    2007-01-01

    . Instead, I outline a fractal approach to the study of space, society, and infrastructure. A fractal orientation requires a number of related conceptual reorientations. It has implications for thinking about scale and perspective, and (sociotechnical) relations, and for considering the role of the social...... and a fractal social theory....

  8. Selecting the thermo-cyclic treatment’s optimum parameters based analysis of fractal surfaces indicators

    Вікторія Юріївна Іващенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of complex modes of heat treatments, in which control the properties of processed steel occurs by varying the large number of parameters, is quite time-consuming process. The influence of thermal processes on the formation of the metal structure manifested at the level of micro- and meso-sizes, which are realized qualitatively different mechanisms of destruction. Method of multi-factual description of the fracture’s surfaces, which was got after tests of mechanical properties, was used for the choice of the optimum thermo-cyclic mode with the variable temperatures Tmax and Tmin in cycles in this work. It vas founded the number of TCT-mode’s cycles and order changing Tmax affect the processes of dislocation motion and the formation of micro-voids in the metal. This work shows the relationship between these processes and fractal indices. Fractal indices of micro levels correlate to the dislocation density of the structure, and the meso-level indices - to the percentage reduction of area at fracture. It was proved that the analysis of the topography of the fracture’s surfaces using fractal indices to determine the optimal combination of processing parameters required to obtain the best mechanical properties. The new TCT-modes with variable temperature settings can be seen as reinforcing thermal technology that promotes self-organization phase-structural state of steels because it is able to generate an effective barrier to the movement of dislocations and cracks promotion

  9. Effects of fractal pore on coal devolatilization

    Chen, Yongli; He, Rong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cao, Liyong [Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu (China). Centre New Energy Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Coal devolatilization is numerically investigated by drop tube furnace and a coal pyrolysis model (Fragmentation and Diffusion Model). The fractal characteristics of coal and char pores are investigated. Gas diffusion and secondary reactions in fractal pores are considered in the numerical simulations of coal devolatilization, and the results show that the fractal dimension is increased firstly and then decreased later with increased coal conversions during devolatilization. The mechanisms of effects of fractal pores on coal devolatilization are analyzed.

  10. Fractal morphological analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layers deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes

    Vengadesh, P.; Muniandy, S.V.; Majid, W.H. Abd.

    2009-01-01

    Uniform Bacteriorhodopsin layers for the purpose of fabricating Bacteriorhodopsin-based biosensors were prepared by allowing drying of the layers under a constant electric field. To properly observe and understand the 'electric field effect' on the protein Bacteriorhodopsin, the electric and non-electric field influenced Bacteriorhodopsin layers prepared using a manual syringe-deposition method applied onto Indium Tin Oxide electrodes were structurally investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The results yield obvious morphological differences between the electric and non-electric field assisted Bacteriorhodopsin layers and brings to attention the occurrence of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect in the latter case. We applied stochastic fractal method based on the generalized Cauchy process to describe the morphological features surrounding the void. Fractal dimension is used to characterize the local regularity of the Bacteriorhodopsin clusters and the correlation exponent is used to describe the long-range correlation between the clusters. It is found that the Bacteriorhodopsin protein tends to exhibit with strong spatial correlation in the presence of external electric field compared to in absence of the electric field. Long-range correlation in the morphological feature may be associated to the enhancement of aggregation process of Bacteriorhodopsin protein in the presence of electric field, thereby inhibiting the formation of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect. As such, the observations discussed in this work suggest some amount of control of surface uniformity when forming layers.

  11. Fractal analysis of crack paths in Al2O3-TiC-4%Co composites

    LI Jing; YIN Yan-sheng; LIU Ying-cai; MA Lai-peng

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3-TiC-4%Co(volume fraction) composites(ATC) with high toughness (7.8±0.8 MPa·m1/2) and strength (782±60 MPa) were fabricated. In comparison with Al2O3-TiC composites(AT), the fracture toughness was significantly improved by 60%. The crack paths, generated by Vickers indentation on the polished surfaces of both composites, were analyzed from a fractal point of view to distinguish the possible toughening mechanisms involved. Quantitative evaluation of indentation cracks indicates that the crack deflection plays a more effective role. Cracks of the ATC composites show higher deflection angles and more deflections along the path. ATC composites present higher fractal dimension (D=1.07) than AT composites (D=1.02), which is directly related to the higher fracture toughness. A significant relationship between crack path and toughness is evident: the more irregular the geometry of the crack, the higher the fracture toughness.

  12. Beyond Fractals and 1/f Noise: Multifractal Analysis of Complex Physiological Time Series

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Amaral, Luis A. N.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stanley, H. Eugene; Goldberger, Ary L.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Arai, Kuniharu

    2001-03-01

    We investigate time series with 1/f-like spectra generated by two physiologic control systems --- the human heartbeat and human gait. We show that physiological fluctuations exhibit unexpected ``hidden'' structures often described by scaling laws. In particular, our studies indicate that when analyzed on different time scales the heartbeat fluctuations exhibit cascades of branching patterns with self-similar (fractal) properties, characterized by long-range power-law anticorrelations. We find that these scaling features change during sleep and wake phases, and with pathological perturbations. Further, by means of a new wavelet-based technique, we find evidence of multifractality in the healthy human heartbeat even under resting conditions, and show that the multifractal character and nonlinear properties of the healthy heart are encoded in the Fourier phases. We uncover a loss of multifractality for a life-threatening condition, congestive heart failure. In contrast to the heartbeat, we find that the interstride interval time series of healthy human gait, a voluntary process under neural regulation, is described by a single fractal dimension (such as classical 1/f noise) indicating monofractal behavior. Thus our approach can help distinguish physiological and physical signals with comparable frequency spectra and two-point correlations, and guide modeling of their control mechanisms.

  13. Two and Three-Phases Fractal Models Application in Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Estimation

    ELNAZ Rezaei abajelu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil Hydraulic conductivity is considered as one of the most important hydraulic properties in water and solutionmovement in porous media. In recent years, variousmodels as pedo-transfer functions, fractal models and scaling technique are used to estimate the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks. Fractal models with two subset of two (solid and pore and three phases (solid, pore and soil fractal (PSF are used to estimate the fractal dimension of soil particles. The PSF represents a generalization of the solid and pore mass fractal models. The PSF characterizes both the solid and pore phases of the porous material. It also exhibits self-similarity to some degree, in the sense that where local structure seems to be similar to the whole structure.PSF models can estimate interface fractal dimension using soil pore size distribution data (PSD and soil moisture retention curve (SWRC. The main objective of this study was to evaluate different fractal models to estimate the Ksparameter. Materials and Methods: The Schaapetal data was used in this study. The complex consists of sixty soil samples. Soil texture, soil bulk density, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil particle size distribution curve were measured by hydrometer method, undistributed soil sample, constant head method and wet sieve method, respectively for all soil samples.Soil water retention curve were determined by using pressure plates apparatus.The Ks parameter could be estimated by Ralws model as a function of fractal dimension by seven fractal models. Fractal models included Fuentes at al. (1996, Hunt and Gee (2002, Bird et al. (2000, Huang and Zhang (2005, Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990, Kutlu et al. (2008, Sepaskhah and Tafteh (2013.Therefore The Ks parameter can be estimated as a function of the DS (fractal dimension by seven fractal models (Table 2.Sensitivity analysis of Rawls model was assessed by making changes±10%, ±20% and±30%(in input parameters

  14. Heritability of retinal vascular fractals: a twin study

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    . The retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficents. Falconer´s formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The retinal...... for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, p=0.0002) in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins (0.108, p=0.46), corresponding to a heritability h2 for the fractal dimension of 0.79. In quantitative genetic models, 54% of the variation was explained...

  15. A transfer matrix method for the analysis of fractal quantum potentials

    Monsoriu, Juan A; Villatoro, Francisco R; Marin, Maria J; UrchueguIa, Javier F; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    The scattering properties of quantum particles on a sequence of potentials converging towards a fractal one are obtained by means of the transfer matrix method. The reflection coefficients for both the fractal potential and finite periodic potential are calculated and compared. It is shown that the reflection coefficient for the fractal potential has a self-similar structure associated with the fractal distribution of the potential whose degree of self-similarity has been quantified by means of the correlation function

  16. A transfer matrix method for the analysis of fractal quantum potentials

    Monsoriu, Juan A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Villatoro, Francisco R [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Malaga, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Marin, Maria J [Departamento de Termodinamica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); UrchueguIa, Javier F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The scattering properties of quantum particles on a sequence of potentials converging towards a fractal one are obtained by means of the transfer matrix method. The reflection coefficients for both the fractal potential and finite periodic potential are calculated and compared. It is shown that the reflection coefficient for the fractal potential has a self-similar structure associated with the fractal distribution of the potential whose degree of self-similarity has been quantified by means of the correlation function.

  17. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  18. PENGENALAN PENY AKIT NODA PADA CITRA DAUN TEBU BERDASARKAN CIRI TEKSTUR FRACTAL DIMENSION CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX DAN L*a*b* COLOR MOMENTS

    Evy Kamilah Ratnasari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit yang menyerang tebu dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri, jamur maupun virus. Penyakit noda merupakan penyakit pada tanaman tebu yang disebabkan oleh jamur dengan menampakkan lesi atau bercak pada permukaan daun. Penyakit noda tersebut dapat menghambat proses fotosintesis yang akan berakibat menurunkan produksi gula karena mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tebu. Upaya pengendalian dini dapat dilakukan dengan mengenali jenis penyakit melalui lesinya yang bermanfaat dalam menentukan tindakan penanganan yang tepat. Lesi yang disebabkan oleh penyakit noda masing-masing dapat dikenali secara visual karena memiliki ciri warna dan tekstur yang unik. Tetapi pengamatan secara visual memiliki beberapa kekurangan seperti subjektifitas dan kurang akurat. Penelitian ini mengusulkan pengenalan penyakit noda tanaman tebu yang terdiri dari noda cincin, noda karat, dan noda kuning berdasarkan fitur tekstur yang merupakan kombinasi dari konsep Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM dan dimensi fraktal yang dinamakan Fractal Dimension Co-Occurrence Matrix (FDCM. Sedangkan fitur warna didapatkan dari perhitungan statistik col or moments pada citra L*a*b*. Kombinasi fitur tersebut menghasilkan 12 fitur warna dan 6 fitur tekstur yang kemudian digunakan sebagai masukan klasifikasi k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN. Pengenalan penyakit noda pada tanaman tebu menggunakan metode tersebut dapat menghasilkan akurasi tertinggi 90%.

  19. Age-dependence of power spectral density and fractal dimension of bone mineralized matrix in atomic force microscope topography images: potential correlates of bone tissue age and bone fragility in female femoral neck trabeculae.

    Milovanovic, Petar; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2012-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in bone nano-structure, the ultimate goal being to reveal the basis of age-related bone fragility. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) data and fractal dimensions of the mineralized bone matrix were extracted from atomic force microscope topography images of the femoral neck trabeculae. The aim was to evaluate age-dependent differences in the mineralized matrix of human bone and to consider whether these advanced nano-descriptors might be linked to decreased bone remodeling observed by some authors and age-related decline in bone mechanical competence. The investigated bone specimens belonged to a group of young adult women (n = 5, age: 20-40 years) and a group of elderly women (n = 5, age: 70-95 years) without bone diseases. PSD graphs showed the roughness density distribution in relation to spatial frequency. In all cases, there was a fairly linear decrease in magnitude of the power spectra with increasing spatial frequencies. The PSD slope was steeper in elderly individuals (-2.374 vs. -2.066), suggesting the dominance of larger surface morphological features. Fractal dimension of the mineralized bone matrix showed a significant negative trend with advanced age, declining from 2.467 in young individuals to 2.313 in the elderly (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Higher fractal dimension in young women reflects domination of smaller mineral grains, which is compatible with the more freshly remodeled structure. In contrast, the surface patterns in elderly individuals were indicative of older tissue age. Lower roughness and reduced structural complexity (decreased fractal dimension) of the interfibrillar bone matrix in the elderly suggest a decline in bone toughness, which explains why aged bone is more brittle and prone to fractures. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  20. Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients

    Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Zi-Xian; Guo, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.

  1. Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients

    Zhang, Li-Jiang, E-mail: zljjiang@gmail.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Management Institute, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, Henan (China); Liu, Zi-Xian, E-mail: liuzixian@tju.edu.cn [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jin-Li, E-mail: phd5816@163.com [Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2014-01-31

    The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.

  2. Possibilities of fractal analysis of the competitive dynamics: Approaches and procedures

    Zagornaya, T. O.; Medvedeva, M. A.; Panova, V. L.; Isaichik, K. F.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    The possibilities of the fractal approach are used for the study of non-linear nature of the competitive dynamics of the market of trading intermediaries. Based on a statistical study of the functioning of retail indicators in the region, the approach to the analysis of the characteristics of the competitive behavior of market participants is developed. The authors postulate the principles of studying the dynamics of competition as a result of changes in the characteristics of the vector and the competitive behavior of market agents.

  3. Fractal dynamics of heartbeat time series of young persons with metabolic syndrome

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Alonso-Martínez, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Martínez-Hernández, G.

    2012-10-01

    Many physiological systems have been in recent years quantitatively characterized using fractal analysis. We applied it to study heart variability of young subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS); we examined the RR time series (time between two R waves in ECG) with the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, the Higuchi's fractal dimension method and the multifractal analysis to detect the possible presence of heart problems. The results show that although the young persons have MS, the majority do not present alterations in the heart dynamics. However, there were cases where the fractal parameter values differed significantly from the healthy people values.

  4. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  5. Analysis of MRI by fractals for prediction of sensory attributes: A case study in loin

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the use of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI of meat products, specifically loin, in order to determine sensory parameters of loin. For that, the capability of different fractal algorithms was evaluated (Classical Fractal Algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA...... was analysed. Results on this study firstly demonstrate the capability of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI from meat product. Different combinations of the analysed techniques can be applied for predicting most sensory attributes of loins adequately (R > 0.5). However, the combination of SE, OPFTA and MLR...... offered the most appropriate results. Thus, it could be proposed as an alternative to the traditional food technology methods....

  6. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective.

    West, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

  7. A new method based on fractal variance function for analysis and quantification of sympathetic and vagal activity in variability of R-R time series in ECG signals

    Conte, Elio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); School of Advanced International Studies on Nuclear, Theoretical and Nonlinear Methodologies-Bari (Italy)], E-mail: fisio2@fisiol.uniba.it; Federici, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653W Congress, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    It is known that R-R time series calculated from a recorded ECG, are strongly correlated to sympathetic and vagal regulation of the sinus pacemaker activity. In human physiology it is a crucial question to estimate such components with accuracy. Fourier analysis dominates still to day the data analysis efforts of such data ignoring that FFT is valid under some crucial restrictions that results largely violated in R-R time series data as linearity and stationarity. In order to go over such approach, we introduce a new method, called CZF. It is based on variogram analysis. It is aimed from a profound link with Recurrence Quantification Analysis that is a basic tool for investigation of non linear and non stationary time series. Therefore, a relevant feature of the method is that it finally may be applied also in cases of non linear and non stationary time series analysis. In addition, the method enables also to analyze the fractal variance function, the Generalized Fractal Dimension and, finally, the relative probability density function of the data. The CZF gives very satisfactory results. In the present paper it has been applied to direct experimental cases of normal subjects, patients with hypertension before and after therapy and in children under some different conditions of experimentation.

  8. A new method based on fractal variance function for analysis and quantification of sympathetic and vagal activity in variability of R-R time series in ECG signals

    Conte, Elio; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that R-R time series calculated from a recorded ECG, are strongly correlated to sympathetic and vagal regulation of the sinus pacemaker activity. In human physiology it is a crucial question to estimate such components with accuracy. Fourier analysis dominates still to day the data analysis efforts of such data ignoring that FFT is valid under some crucial restrictions that results largely violated in R-R time series data as linearity and stationarity. In order to go over such approach, we introduce a new method, called CZF. It is based on variogram analysis. It is aimed from a profound link with Recurrence Quantification Analysis that is a basic tool for investigation of non linear and non stationary time series. Therefore, a relevant feature of the method is that it finally may be applied also in cases of non linear and non stationary time series analysis. In addition, the method enables also to analyze the fractal variance function, the Generalized Fractal Dimension and, finally, the relative probability density function of the data. The CZF gives very satisfactory results. In the present paper it has been applied to direct experimental cases of normal subjects, patients with hypertension before and after therapy and in children under some different conditions of experimentation.

  9. Information dimension analysis of bacterial essential and nonessential genes based on chaos game representation

    Zhou, Qian; Yu, Yong-ming

    2014-01-01

    Essential genes are indispensable for the survival of an organism. Investigating features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to the prediction and identification of the essential genes. Selecting features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to predict essential genes with computational techniques. We use fractal theory to make comparative analysis of essential and nonessential genes in bacteria. The information dimensions of essential genes and nonessential genes available in the DEG database for 27 bacteria are calculated based on their gene chaos game representations (CGRs). It is found that weak positive linear correlation exists between information dimension and gene length. Moreover, for genes of similar length, the average information dimension of essential genes is larger than that of nonessential genes. This indicates that essential genes show less regularity and higher complexity than nonessential genes. Our results show that for bacterium with a similar number of essential genes and nonessential genes, the CGR information dimension is helpful for the classification of essential genes and nonessential genes. Therefore, the gene CGR information dimension is very probably a useful gene feature for a genetic algorithm predicting essential genes. (paper)

  10. Spatial-temporal data model and fractal analysis of transportation network in GIS environment

    Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua; Li, Yangdong

    2008-10-01

    How to organize transportation data characterized by multi-time, multi-scale, multi-resolution and multi-source is one of the fundamental problems of GIS-T development. A spatial-temporal data model for GIS-T is proposed based on Spatial-temporal- Object Model. Transportation network data is systemically managed using dynamic segmentation technologies. And then a spatial-temporal database is built to integrally store geographical data of multi-time for transportation. Based on the spatial-temporal database, functions of spatial analysis of GIS-T are substantively extended. Fractal module is developed to improve the analyzing in intensity, density, structure and connectivity of transportation network based on the validation and evaluation of topologic relation. Integrated fractal with GIS-T strengthens the functions of spatial analysis and enriches the approaches of data mining and knowledge discovery of transportation network. Finally, the feasibility of the model and methods are tested thorough Guangdong Geographical Information Platform for Highway Project.

  11. Application of fractal theory to top-coal caving

    Xie, H.; Zhou, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The experiences of underground coal mining in China show that coal in a thick hard coal seam with a hard roof, the so-called 'double hard coal seam', is difficult to be excavated by top-coal caving technique. In order to solve the problem, a top-coal weakening technique is proposed in this paper. In the present study, fractal geometry provides a new description of the fracture mechanism for blasting. By means of theoretical analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimension of blasting fragments and the dynamite specific energy, a mechanical model for describing the size distribution of top-coal and the dissipation of blasting energy is proposed. The theoretical results are in agreement with laboratory and in situ test results. Moreover, it is shown that the fractal dimension of coal fragments can be used as an index for optimizing the blasting parameters for a top-coal weakening technique

  12. Morphometric relations of fractal-skeletal based channel network model

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A fractal-skeletal based channel network (F-SCN model is proposed. Four regular sided initiator-basins are transformed as second order fractal basins by following a specific generating mechanism with non-random rule. The morphological skeletons, hereafter referred to as channel networks, are extracted from these fractal basins. The morphometric and fractal relationships of these F-SCNs are shown. The fractal dimensions of these fractal basins, channel networks, and main channel lengths (computed through box counting method are compared with those of estimated length–area measures. Certain morphometric order ratios to show fractal relations are also highlighted.

  13. Fractal analysis for assessing the level of modulation of IMRT fields

    Nauta, Marcel; Villarreal-Barajas, J. Eduardo; Tambasco, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential of three fractal dimension (FD) analysis methods (i.e., the variation, power spectrum, and variogram methods) as metrics for quantifying the degree of modulation in planned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment fields, and compare the most suitable FD method to the number of monitor units (MUs), the average leaf gap, and the 2D modulation index (2D MI) for assessing modulation. Methods: The authors implemented, validated, and compared the variation, power spectrum, and variogram methods for computing the FD. Validation of the methods was done using mathematical fractional Brownian surfaces of known FD that ranged in size from 128 x 128 to 512 x 512. The authors used a test set consisting of seven head and neck carcinoma plans (50 prescribed treatment fields) to choose an FD cut-point that ensures no false positives (100% specificity) in distinguishing between moderate and high degrees of field modulation. The degree of field modulation was controlled by adjusting the fluence smoothing parameters in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The moderate modulation fields were representative of the degree of modulation used clinically at the authors' institution. The authors performed IMRT quality assurance (QA) on the 50 test fields using the MapCHECK device. The FD cut-point was applied to a validation set consisting of four head and neck plans (28 fields). The area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the ability of FD, number of MUs, average leaf gap, and the 2D MI for distinguishing between the moderate and high modulation fields. Results: The authors found the variogram FD method to be the most suitable for assessing the modulation complexity of IMRT fields for head and neck carcinomas. Pass rates as measured by the gamma criterion for the MapCHECK IMRT field measurements were higher for the moderately modulated

  14. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    Paggi, Marco [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: marco.paggi@polito.it; Carpinteri, Alberto [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  15. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    Paggi, Marco; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  16. The use dynamic avalanching and fractal analysis to characterise uranium oxide powders

    Hobbs, J.W.; Rhodes, D.

    2000-01-01

    Direct thermal denitration is an attractive method of co-converting mixed-metal nitrate solutions of plutonium and uranium into oxide because of its apparent simplicity. Such benefits are often marred by the relatively poor powder quality and handling characteristics, which can be overcome by modifications to the process chemistry. To ensure that powder synthesis routes under assessment require the minimal further processing it is necessary to be able to characterise the powder fully in term of the key fundamental properties. This paper will demonstrate the use of a dynamic avalanching technique, fractal analysis and morphology to assess processing behaviour. The use of dynamic avalanching to uniquely characterise the chaotic flow properties of urania powders has proved successful and results have shown that this technique is capable of detecting small differences in processing behaviour due changes in morphologies and particle size distribution. This technique has promise for being able to provide nearly instantaneous feedback to the powder generation process being monitored (e.g. calcination, milling, mixing). The use of fractals to describe powders is an interesting characterisation tool when combined with morphological shape factors and the flow index. (authors)

  17. Molecular thermal transistor: Dimension analysis and mechanism

    Behnia, S.; Panahinia, R.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, large challenge has been spent to realize high efficient thermal transistors. Outstanding properties of DNA make it as an excellent nano material in future technologies. In this paper, we introduced a high efficient DNA based thermal transistor. The thermal transistor operates when the system shows an increase in the thermal flux despite of decreasing temperature gradient. This is what called as negative differential thermal resistance (NDTR). Based on multifractal analysis, we could distinguish regions with NDTR state from non-NDTR state. Moreover, Based on dimension spectrum of the system, it is detected that NDTR state is accompanied by ballistic transport regime. The generalized correlation sum (analogous to specific heat) shows that an irregular decrease in the specific heat induces an increase in the mean free path (mfp) of phonons. This leads to the occurrence of NDTR.

  18. Fractal analysis of plaque border, a novel method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque contour irregularity, is associated with pro-atherogenic plasma lipid profile in subjects with non-obstructive carotid stenoses.

    Moroni, Francesco; Magnoni, Marco; Vergani, Vittoria; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2018-01-01

    Plaque border irregularity is a known imaging characteristic of vulnerable plaques, but its evaluation heavily relies on subjective evaluation and operator expertise. Aim of the present work is to propose a novel fractal-analysis based method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque border irregularity and assess its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Forty-two asymptomatic subjects with carotid stenosis underwent ultrasound evaluation and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were measured for each subject. Fractal analysis was performed in all the carotid segments affected by atherosclerosis, i.e. 147 segments. The resulting fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of irregularity of plaque profile on long axis view of the plaque. FD in the severest stenosis (main plaque FD,mFD) was 1.136±0.039. Average FD per patient (global FD,gFD) was 1.145±0.039. FD was independent of other plaque characteristics. mFD significantly correlated with plasma HDL (r = -0.367,p = 0.02) and triglycerides-to-HDL ratio (r = 0.480,p = 0.002). Fractal analysis is a novel, readily available, reproducible and inexpensive technique for the quantitative measurement of plaque irregularity. The correlation between low HDL levels and plaque FD suggests a role for HDL in the acquisition of morphologic features of plaque instability. Further studies are needed to validate the prognostic value of fractal analysis in carotid plaques evaluation.

  19. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  20. Fractals everywhere

    Barnsley, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    ""Difficult concepts are introduced in a clear fashion with excellent diagrams and graphs."" - Alan E. Wessel, Santa Clara University""The style of writing is technically excellent, informative, and entertaining."" - Robert McCartyThis new edition of a highly successful text constitutes one of the most influential books on fractal geometry. An exploration of the tools, methods, and theory of deterministic geometry, the treatment focuses on how fractal geometry can be used to model real objects in the physical world. Two sixteen-page full-color inserts contain fractal images, and a bonus CD of

  1. A fractal-based image encryption system

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Abdel Haleem, Sherif H.; Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-01-01

    single-fractal image and statistical analysis is performed. A general encryption system utilising multiple fractal images is, then, introduced to improve the performance and increase the encryption key up to hundreds of bits. This improvement is achieved

  2. Fractal fluctuations and quantum-like chaos in the brain by analysis of variability of brain waves: A new method based on a fractal variance function and random matrix theory: A link with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time and V. Weiss and H. Weiss golden ratio in brain

    Conte, Elio; Khrennikov, Andrei; Federici, Antonio; Zbilut, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new method for analysis of fundamental brain waves as recorded by the EEG. To this purpose we introduce a Fractal Variance Function that is based on the calculation of the variogram. The method is completed by using Random Matrix Theory. Some examples are given. We also discuss the link of such formulation with H. Weiss and V. Weiss golden ratio found in the brain, and with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time theory.

  3. Inverted fractal analysis of TiO{sub x} thin layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition

    Égerházi, L., E-mail: egerhazi.laszlo@gmail.com [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, Korányi fasor 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Smausz, T. [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science, Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Dóm tér 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Bari, F. [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, Korányi fasor 9., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Inverted fractal analysis (IFA), a method developed for fractal analysis of scanning electron microscopy images of cauliflower-like thin films is presented through the example of layers grown by inverse pulsed laser deposition (IPLD). IFA uses the integrated fractal analysis module (FracLac) of the image processing software ImageJ, and an objective thresholding routine that preserves the characteristic features of the images, independently of their brightness and contrast. IFA revealed f{sub D} = 1.83 ± 0.01 for TiO{sub x} layers grown at 5–50 Pa background pressures. For a series of images, this result was verified by evaluating the scaling of the number of still resolved features on the film, counted manually. The value of f{sub D} not only confirms the fractal structure of TiO{sub x} IPLD thin films, but also suggests that the aggregation of plasma species in the gas atmosphere may have only limited contribution to the deposition.

  4. Effect of noise on fractal structure

    Serletis, Demitre [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, 1504-555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont., M5G 1X8 (Canada)], E-mail: demitre.serletis@utoronto.ca

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, I investigate the effect of dynamical noise on the estimation of the Hurst exponent and the fractal dimension of time series. Recently, Serletis et al. [Serletis, Apostolos, Asghar Shahmoradi, Demitre Serletis. Effect of noise on estimation of Lyapunov exponents from a time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming] have shown that dynamical noise can make the detection of chaotic dynamics very difficult, and Serletis et al. [Serletis, Apostolos, Asghar Shahmoradi, Demitre Serletis. Effect of noise on the bifurcation behavior of dynamical systems. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, forthcoming] have shown that dynamical noise can also shift bifurcation points and produce noise-induced transitions, making the determination of bifurcation boundaries difficult. Here I apply the detrending moving average (DMA) method, recently developed by Alessio et al. [Alessio E, Carbone A, Castelli G, Frappietro V. Second-order moving average and scaling of stochastic time series. The Eur Phys J B 2002;27:197-200] and Carbone et al. [Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Time-dependent Hurst exponent in financial time series. Physica A 2004;344:267-71; Carbone A, Castelli G, Stanley HE. Analysis of clusters formed by the moving average of a long-range correlated time series. Phys Rev E 2004;69:026105], to estimate the Hurst exponent of a Brownian walk with a Hurst exponent of 0.5, coupled with low and high intensity noise, and show that dynamical noise has no effect on fractal structure.

  5. Fractality and the law of the wall

    Xu, Haosen H. A.; Yang, X. I. A.

    2018-05-01

    Fluid motions in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence are fractal, with their space-filling capacity slightly below regular three-dimensional objects, which is a consequence of the energy cascade. Besides the energy cascade, the other often encountered cascading process is the momentum cascade in wall-bounded flows. Despite the long-existing analogy between the two processes, many of the thoroughly investigated aspects of the energy cascade have so far received little attention in studies of the momentum counterpart, e.g., the possibility of the momentum-transferring scales in the logarithmic region being fractal has not been considered. In this work, this possibility is pursued, and we discuss one of its implications. Following the same dimensional arguments that lead to the D =2.33 fractal dimension of wrinkled surfaces in isotropic turbulence, we show that the large-scale momentum-carrying eddies may also be fractal and non-space-filling, which then leads to the power-law scaling of the mean velocity profile. The logarithmic law of the wall, on the other hand, corresponds to space-filling eddies, as suggested by Townsend [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980)]. Because the space-filling capacity is an integral geometric quantity, the analysis presented in this work provides us with a low-order quantity, with which, one would be able to distinguish between the logarithmic law and the power law.

  6. Fractal and variability analysis of simulations in ozone level due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur

    Bhardwaj, Rashmi; Pruthi, Dimple

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air. These pollutants are detrimental to human the planet as a whole. Apart from causing respiratory infections and pulmonary disorders, rising levels of Nitrogen Dioxide is worsening ozone pollution. Formation of Ground-level ozone involves nitrogen oxides and volatile gases in the sunlight. Volatile gases are emitted from vehicles primarily. Ozone is harmful gas and its exposure can trigger serious health effects as it damages lung tissues. In order to decrease the level of ozone, level of oxides leading to ozone formation has to be dealt with. This paper deals with the simulations in ozone due to oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. The data from Central Pollution Control Board shows positive correlation for ozone with oxides of sulphur and nitrogen for RK Puram, Delhi in India where high concentration of ozone has been found. The correlation between ozone and sulphur, nitrogen oxides is moderate during summer while weak during winters. Ozone with nitrogen and sulphur dioxide follow persistent behavior as Hurst exponent is between 0.5 and 1. The fractal dimension for Sulphur dioxide is 1.4957 indicating the Brownian motion. The behavior of ozone is unpredictable as index of predictability is close to zero.

  7. Comparative study on fractal analysis of interferometry images with application to tear film surface quality assessment.

    Szyperski, Piotr D

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of the fractal dimension (FD) estimators to assess lateral shearing interferometric (LSI) measurements of tear film surface quality. Retrospective recordings of tear film measured with LSI were used: 69 from healthy subjects and 41 from patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome. Five surface quality descriptors were considered, four based on FD and a previously reported descriptor operating in a spatial frequency domain (M 2 ), presenting temporal kinetics of post-blink tear film. A set of 12 regression parameters has been extracted and analyzed for classification purposes. The classifiers are assessed in terms of receiver operating characteristics and areas under their curves (AUC). Also, the computational loads are estimated. The maximum AUC of 82.4% was achieved for M 2 , closely followed by the binary box-counting (BBC) FD estimator with AUC=78.6%. For all descriptors, statistically significant differences between the subject groups were found (pfilm kinetics. They provide a viable alternative to previously used spectral counter parameters, and at the same time allow higher computational efficiency.

  8. Results of fractal analysis of the Kiel extensive air shower data

    Kempa, J.; Samorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    For years there has been a problem in cosmic ray studies of how to distinguish individual extensive air showers (EAS) originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei or primary photons. In this paper results of experimental data obtained from the fractal analysis of particle density distributions in individual EAS detected in the range of shower sizes N e between 1.4x10 5 -5x10 6 by the old Kiel experiment are presented. The Lipschitz-Hoelder exponent distributions of EAS detected by the Kiel experiment are discussed. The examples of EAS most probably originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei and high-energy gamma-rays are presented. The lateral distributions of charged particle densities at small distances, angular and size spectra and the mass composition of primary cosmic ray particles around the 'knee' of the energy spectrum are discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation data illustrating the problem of interest are also shown. (author)

  9. Investigation of Regional Fractures and Cu Mineralization Relationships in the Khezrabad and Shahr-e-Babak Area: Using Fry and Fractal analysis

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2015-10-01

    such linear trends occur at a characteristic spacing. There is 37 and 42 copper point's index in the Khezr-Abad and Shar-B-Babak areas. The Fry patterns of copper index for two areas were determined with application of Dot Proc software. Fractal analysis is another technique for determination of regional distribution of faults. In this research the fractal dimension of joints and faults was determined in different locations using box-counting fractal method and drawing the logarithmic graphs. Results - The major faults show NW/SE trends in the Khezr-Abad area. They have a similar trend with Dehshir-Baft fault. Other sets of faults show NE/SW trend. These faults are younger than the Dehshir-Baft and release sinistral sense of shear. - Intrusion of two intrusive bodies leads to the accumulation of strike-slip faults in the vicinity of intrusive rocks. In this region faults and joints mainly show NW/SE and NE/SW trends. - The results of Fry analysis show that the mineralization in the Khezr-Abad occurred in the Cretaceous (and younger rocks with NE/SW and NW/SE orientations. In the other words, these areas of mineralization are mainly related to the secondary faults or (P faults in the pull basins and cross cutting points of these faults which have similar strike with the Dehshir-Baft fault. NE/SW mineralization is probably related to the tensional stress direction or faults having the general trends of central Iran structures. - The calculations of fractal dimension show that the southeastern parts of the Khezr Abad have higher amounts of fractal dimension (Db= 1.7002. Also there is a relatively higher copper index in this part, indicating a logical relation between fault structures and mineralization. -The generated maps indicate that the mineralization in the Shahr-e-Babak area occurred at the intersection of faults and volcanic system and the Fry analysis shows a NE/SW and NW/SE trend of ore concentration. - Northwestern parts of the Share-e-Babak show higher fractal

  10. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy characterization based on fractal features: Evaluation on a publicly available dataset.

    Orlando, José Ignacio; van Keer, Karel; Barbosa Breda, João; Manterola, Hugo Luis; Blaschko, Matthew B; Clausse, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most widespread causes of preventable blindness in the world. The most dangerous stage of this condition is proliferative DR (PDR), in which the risk of vision loss is high and treatments are less effective. Fractal features of the retinal vasculature have been previously explored as potential biomarkers of DR, yet the current literature is inconclusive with respect to their correlation with PDR. In this study, we experimentally assess their discrimination ability to recognize PDR cases. A statistical analysis of the viability of using three reference fractal characterization schemes - namely box, information, and correlation dimensions - to identify patients with PDR is presented. These descriptors are also evaluated as input features for training ℓ1 and ℓ2 regularized logistic regression classifiers, to estimate their performance. Our results on MESSIDOR, a public dataset of 1200 fundus photographs, indicate that patients with PDR are more likely to exhibit a higher fractal dimension than healthy subjects or patients with mild levels of DR (P≤1.3×10-2). Moreover, a supervised classifier trained with both fractal measurements and red lesion-based features reports an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 for PDR screening and 0.96 for detecting patients with optic disc neovascularizations. The fractal dimension of the vasculature increases with the level of DR. Furthermore, PDR screening using multiscale fractal measurements is more feasible than using their derived fractal dimensions. Code and further resources are provided at https://github.com/ignaciorlando/fundus-fractal-analysis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  12. Power Load Prediction Based on Fractal Theory

    Jian-Kai, Liang; Cattani, Carlo; Wan-Qing, Song

    2015-01-01

    The basic theories of load forecasting on the power system are summarized. Fractal theory, which is a new algorithm applied to load forecasting, is introduced. Based on the fractal dimension and fractal interpolation function theories, the correlation algorithms are applied to the model of short-term load forecasting. According to the process of load forecasting, the steps of every process are designed, including load data preprocessing, similar day selecting, short-term load forecasting, and...

  13. Image Segmentation via Fractal Dimension

    1987-12-01

    Contipany, 1986. 7. Harrington, Steven. Computer Graphics A Programming Aproach. New York: McGrawU-Hill Book Company, 1987. 8. Norev, Moshe. Picture...ITEX TORHS conversion program . My fazily has been a constant source of relaxation and enoouragement, and I wish to thank them for their understanding...Conclusion 29.... ....................... 9........... . -11 III. Experimental Method 3..-.1..................... .. ....... -1 Overviev

  14. SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING

    Constanta RADULESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and operations of the dimensions andtolerances tree scheme will make for a machined piece is both indoor and outdoor.

  15. Measuring surface topography by scanning electron microscopy. II. Analysis of three estimators of surface roughness in second dimension and third dimension.

    Bonetto, Rita Dominga; Ladaga, Juan Luis; Ponz, Ezequiel

    2006-04-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used in surface studies and continuous efforts are carried out in the search of estimators of different surface characteristics. By using the variogram, we developed two of these estimators that were used to characterize the surface roughness from the SEM image texture. One of the estimators is related to the crossover between fractal region at low scale and the periodic region at high scale, whereas the other estimator characterizes the periodic region. In this work, a full study of these estimators and the fractal dimension in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D) was carried out for emery papers. We show that the obtained fractal dimension with only one image is good enough to characterize the roughness surface because its behavior is similar to those obtained with 3D height data. We show also that the estimator that indicates the crossover is related to the minimum cell size in 2D and to the average particle size in 3D. The other estimator has different values for the three studied emery papers in 2D but it does not have a clear meaning, and these values are similar for those studied samples in 3D. Nevertheless, it indicates the formation tendency of compound cells. The fractal dimension values from the variogram and from an area versus step log-log graph were studied with 3D data. Both methods yield different values corresponding to different information from the samples.

  16. An integral time series on simulated labeling using fractal structure

    Djainal, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    This research deals with the detection of time series of vertical two-phase flow, in attempt to developed an objective indicator of time series flow patterns. One of new method is fractal analysis which can complement conventional methods in the description of highly irregular fluctuations. in the present work, fractal analysis applied to analyze simulated boiling coolant signal. this simulated signals built by sum random elements in small subchannels of the coolant channel. Two modes are defined and both modes are characterized by their void fractions. in the case of unimodal-PDF signals, the difference between these modes is relative small. on other hand, bimodal-PDF signals have relative large range. in this research, fractal dimension can indicate the characters of that signals simulation

  17. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  18. SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING

    Constanta RADULESCU; Liviu Marius CÎRŢÎNĂ; Constantin MILITARU

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and ...

  19. Fractal-based exponential distribution of urban density and self-affine fractal forms of cities

    Chen Yanguang; Feng Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The model of urban population density differs from the common exponential function. ► Fractal landscape influences the exponential distribution of urban density. ► The exponential distribution of urban population suggests a self-affine fractal. ► Urban space can be divided into three layers with scaling and non-scaling regions. ► The dimension of urban form with characteristic scale can be treated as 2. - Abstract: Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark’s model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark’s model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark’s model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to verify the theoretical inference. Based on the empirical analysis, a three-ring model of cities is presented and a city is conceptually divided into three layers from core to periphery. The scaling region and non-scaling region appear alternately in the city. This model may be helpful for future urban studies and city planning.

  20. Fractal properties and simulation of micro-seismicity for seismic hazard analysis: a comparison of North Anatolian and San Andreas Fault Zones

    Naside Ozer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed statistical properties of earthquakes in western Anatolia as well as the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in terms of spatio-temporal variations of fractal dimensions, p- and b-values. During statistically homogeneous periods characterized by closer fractal dimension values, we propose that occurrence of relatively larger shocks (M >= 5.0 is unlikely. Decreases in seismic activity in such intervals result in spatial b-value distributions that are primarily stable. Fractal dimensions decrease with time in proportion to increasing seismicity. Conversely, no spatiotemporal patterns were observed for p-value changes. In order to evaluate failure probabilities and simulate earthquake occurrence in the western NAFZ, we applied a modified version of the renormalization group method. Assuming an increase in small earthquakes is indicative of larger shocks, we apply the mentioned model to micro-seismic (M<= 3.0 activity, and test our results using San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ data. We propose that fractal dimension is a direct indicator of material heterogeneity and strength. Results from a model suggest simulated and observed earthquake occurrences are coherent, and may be used for seismic hazard estimation on creeping strike-slip fault zones.

  1. Random walk through fractal environments

    Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze random walk through fractal environments, embedded in three-dimensional, permeable space. Particles travel freely and are scattered off into random directions when they hit the fractal. The statistical distribution of the flight increments (i.e., of the displacements between two consecutive hittings) is analytically derived from a common, practical definition of fractal dimension, and it turns out to approximate quite well a power-law in the case where the dimension D F of the fractal is less than 2, there is though, always a finite rate of unaffected escape. Random walks through fractal sets with D F ≤2 can thus be considered as defective Levy walks. The distribution of jump increments for D F >2 is decaying exponentially. The diffusive behavior of the random walk is analyzed in the frame of continuous time random walk, which we generalize to include the case of defective distributions of walk increments. It is shown that the particles undergo anomalous, enhanced diffusion for D F F >2 is normal for large times, enhanced though for small and intermediate times. In particular, it follows that fractals generated by a particular class of self-organized criticality models give rise to enhanced diffusion. The analytical results are illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations

  2. MEASURING THE FRACTAL STRUCTURE OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    VOGELAAR, MGR; WAKKER, BP

    To study the structure of interstellar matter we have applied the concept of fractal curves to the brightness contours of maps of interstellar clouds and from these estimated the fractal dimension for some of them. We used the so-called perimeter-area relation as the basis for these estimates. We

  3. MEASURING THE FRACTAL STRUCTURE OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    VOGELAAR, MGR; WAKKER, BP; SCHWARZ, UJ

    1991-01-01

    To study the structure of interstellar clouds we used the so-called perimeter-area relation to estimate fractal dimensions. We studied the reliability of the method by applying it to artificial fractals and discuss some of the problems and pitfalls. Results for two different cloud types

  4. Chaos and fractals an elementary introduction

    Feldman, David P

    2012-01-01

    For students with a background in elementary algebra, this text provides a vivid introduction to the key phenomena and ideas of chaos and fractals, including the butterfly effect, strange attractors, fractal dimensions, Julia sets and the Mandelbrot set, power laws, and cellular automata.

  5. MEASURING THE FRACTAL STRUCTURE OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    VOGELAAR, MGR; WAKKER, BP

    1994-01-01

    To study the structure of interstellar matter we have applied the concept of fractal curves to the brightness contours of maps of interstellar clouds and from these estimated the fractal dimension for some of them. We used the so-called perimeter-area relation as the basis for these estimates. We

  6. Fractal analysis of the dark matter and gas distributions in the Mare-Nostrum universe

    Gaite, José

    2010-01-01

    We develop a method of multifractal analysis of N-body cosmological simulations that improves on the customary counts-in-cells method by taking special care of the effects of discreteness and large scale homogeneity. The analysis of the Mare-Nostrum simulation with our method provides strong evidence of self-similar multifractal distributions of dark matter and gas, with a halo mass function that is of Press-Schechter type but has a power-law exponent -2, as corresponds to a multifractal. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the dark matter and gas distributions are indistinguishable as multifractals. To determine if there is any gas biasing, we calculate the cross-correlation coefficient, with negative but inconclusive results. Hence, we develop an effective Bayesian analysis connected with information theory, which clearly demonstrates that the gas is biased in a long range of scales, up to the scale of homogeneity. However, entropic measures related to the Bayesian analysis show that this gas bias is small (in a precise sense) and is such that the fractal singularities of both distributions coincide and are identical. We conclude that this common multifractal cosmic web structure is determined by the dynamics and is independent of the initial conditions

  7. Fractal universe and quantum gravity.

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2010-06-25

    We propose a field theory which lives in fractal spacetime and is argued to be Lorentz invariant, power-counting renormalizable, ultraviolet finite, and causal. The system flows from an ultraviolet fixed point, where spacetime has Hausdorff dimension 2, to an infrared limit coinciding with a standard four-dimensional field theory. Classically, the fractal world where fields live exchanges energy momentum with the bulk with integer topological dimension. However, the total energy momentum is conserved. We consider the dynamics and the propagator of a scalar field. Implications for quantum gravity, cosmology, and the cosmological constant are discussed.

  8. Taylor dispersion on a fractal

    Mazo, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Taylor dispersion is the greatly enhanced diffusion in the direction of a fluid flow caused by ordinary diffusion in directions orthogonal to the flow. It is essential that the system be bounded in space in the directions orthogonal to the flow. We investigate the situation where the medium through which the flow occurs has fractal properties so that diffusion in the orthogonal directions is anomalous and non-Fickian. The effective diffusion in the flow direction remains normal; its width grows proportionally with the time. However, the proportionality constant depends on the fractal dimension of the medium as well as its walk dimension. (author)

  9. Higuchi dimension of digital images.

    Helmut Ahammer

    Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.

  10. Effects of specific surface area and porosity on cube counting fractal dimension, lacunarity, configurational entropy, and permeability of model porous networks: Random packing simulations and NMR micro-imaging study

    Lee, Bum Han; Lee, Sung Keun

    2013-07-01

    Despite the importance of understanding and quantifying the microstructure of porous networks in diverse geologic settings, the effects of the specific surface area and porosity on the key structural parameters of the networks have not been fully understood. We performed cube-counting fractal dimension (Dcc) and lacunarity analyses of 3D porous networks of model sands and configurational entropy analysis of 2D cross sections of model sands using random packing simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) micro-imaging. We established relationships among porosity, specific surface area, structural parameters (Dcc and lacunarity), and the corresponding macroscopic properties (configurational entropy and permeability). The Dcc of the 3D porous networks increases with increasing specific surface area at a constant porosity and with increasing porosity at a constant specific surface area. Predictive relationships correlating Dcc, specific surface area, and porosity were also obtained. The lacunarity at the minimum box size decreases with increasing porosity, and that at the intermediate box size (∼0.469 mm in the current model sands) was reproduced well with specific surface area. The maximum configurational entropy increases with increasing porosity, and the entropy length of the pores decreases with increasing specific surface area and was used to calculate the average connectivity among the pores. The correlation among porosity, specific surface area, and permeability is consistent with the prediction from the Kozeny-Carman equation. From the relationship between the permeability and the Dcc of pores, the permeability can be expressed as a function of the Dcc of pores and porosity. The current methods and these newly identified correlations among structural parameters and properties provide improved insights into the nature of porous media and have useful geophysical and hydrological implications for elasticity and shear viscosity of complex composites of rock

  11. Fractals for Geoengineering

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

  12. Time Correlations of Lightning Flash Sequences in Thunderstorms Revealed by Fractal Analysis

    Gou, Xueqiang; Chen, Mingli; Zhang, Guangshu

    2018-01-01

    By using the data of lightning detection and ranging system at the Kennedy Space Center, the temporal fractal and correlation of interevent time series of lightning flash sequences in thunderstorms have been investigated with Allan factor (AF), Fano factor (FF), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods. AF, FF, and DFA methods are powerful tools to detect the time-scaling structures and correlations in point processes. Totally 40 thunderstorms with distinguishing features of a single-cell storm and apparent increase and decrease in the total flash rate were selected for the analysis. It is found that the time-scaling exponents for AF (αAF) and FF (αFF) analyses are 1.62 and 0.95 in average, respectively, indicating a strong time correlation of the lightning flash sequences. DFA analysis shows that there is a crossover phenomenon—a crossover timescale (τc) ranging from 54 to 195 s with an average of 114 s. The occurrence of a lightning flash in a thunderstorm behaves randomly at timescales τc but shows strong time correlation at scales >τc. Physically, these may imply that the establishment of an extensive strong electric field necessary for the occurrence of a lightning flash needs a timescale >τc, which behaves strongly time correlated. But the initiation of a lightning flash within a well-established extensive strong electric field may involve the heterogeneities of the electric field at a timescale τc, which behave randomly.

  13. Detection of neovascularization based on fractal and texture analysis with interaction effects in diabetic retinopathy.

    Lee, Jack; Zee, Benny Chung Ying; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a result of severe vascular complication and is visible as neovascularization of the retina. Automatic detection of such new vessels would be useful for the severity grading of diabetic retinopathy, and it is an important part of screening process to identify those who may require immediate treatment for their diabetic retinopathy. We proposed a novel new vessels detection method including statistical texture analysis (STA), high order spectrum analysis (HOS), fractal analysis (FA), and most importantly we have shown that by incorporating their associated interactions the accuracy of new vessels detection can be greatly improved. To assess its performance, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC) are obtained. They are 96.3%, 99.1% and 98.5% (99.3%), respectively. It is found that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of new vessels detection significantly over previous methods. The algorithm can be automated and is valuable to detect relatively severe cases of diabetic retinopathy among diabetes patients.

  14. Detection of neovascularization based on fractal and texture analysis with interaction effects in diabetic retinopathy.

    Jack Lee

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a result of severe vascular complication and is visible as neovascularization of the retina. Automatic detection of such new vessels would be useful for the severity grading of diabetic retinopathy, and it is an important part of screening process to identify those who may require immediate treatment for their diabetic retinopathy. We proposed a novel new vessels detection method including statistical texture analysis (STA, high order spectrum analysis (HOS, fractal analysis (FA, and most importantly we have shown that by incorporating their associated interactions the accuracy of new vessels detection can be greatly improved. To assess its performance, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (AUC are obtained. They are 96.3%, 99.1% and 98.5% (99.3%, respectively. It is found that the proposed method can improve the accuracy of new vessels detection significantly over previous methods. The algorithm can be automated and is valuable to detect relatively severe cases of diabetic retinopathy among diabetes patients.

  15. Fractal characteristic in the wearing of cutting tool

    Mei, Anhua; Wang, Jinghui

    1995-11-01

    This paper studies the cutting tool wear with fractal geometry. The wearing image of the flank has been collected by machine vision which consists of CCD camera and personal computer. After being processed by means of preserving smoothing, binary making and edge extracting, the clear boundary enclosing the worn area has been obtained. The fractal dimension of the worn surface is calculated by the methods called `Slit Island' and `Profile'. The experiments and calciating give the conclusion that the worn surface is enclosed by a irregular boundary curve with some fractal dimension and characteristics of self-similarity. Furthermore, the relation between the cutting velocity and the fractal dimension of the worn region has been submitted. This paper presents a series of methods for processing and analyzing the fractal information in the blank wear, which can be applied to research the projective relation between the fractal structure and the wear state, and establish the fractal model of the cutting tool wear.

  16. 2-D Fractal Carpet Antenna Design and Performance

    Barton, C. C.; Tebbens, S. F.; Ewing, J. J.; Peterman, D. J.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal carpet antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its perimeter by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation within its perimeter-bounded surface area. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (infinite iterations) have an infinite perimeter bounding a finite surface area. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling and lacunarity which quantifies the size and spatial distribution of open space bounded by a fractal shape. A key aspect of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that are very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna operates at higher and higher frequencies. Manifestly different from traditional antenna designs, a fractal antenna can operate at multiple frequencies simultaneously. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of Sierpinski carpet fractal antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, number of iterations, and lacunarities have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance

  17. Fractal formation of a Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film on SrTiO3

    Chow, L.; Chen, J.; Desai, V.; Sundaram, K.; Arora, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fractal formation has been observed after thermal annealing of the rf-sputtered Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film on SrTiO 3 substrate. Through energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, it was found that the composition of the fractal was YBa 2 Cu 3 O x and the surrounding film composition wasY 2 Ba 2 Cu 3 O x . The fractal dimensions D ranging from 1.26 to 1.65 were obtained using the standard sandbox method with different thresholds

  18. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  19. Towards Video Quality Metrics Based on Colour Fractal Geometry

    Richard Noël

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a complex process that integrates multiple aspects of an image: spatial frequencies, topology and colour. Unfortunately, so far, all these elements were independently took into consideration for the development of image and video quality metrics, therefore we propose an approach that blends together all of them. Our approach allows for the analysis of the complexity of colour images in the RGB colour space, based on the probabilistic algorithm for calculating the fractal dimension and lacunarity. Given that all the existing fractal approaches are defined only for gray-scale images, we extend them to the colour domain. We show how these two colour fractal features capture the multiple aspects that characterize the degradation of the video signal, based on the hypothesis that the quality degradation perceived by the user is directly proportional to the modification of the fractal complexity. We claim that the two colour fractal measures can objectively assess the quality of the video signal and they can be used as metrics for the user-perceived video quality degradation and we validated them through experimental results obtained for an MPEG-4 video streaming application; finally, the results are compared against the ones given by unanimously-accepted metrics and subjective tests.

  20. Fractal Analysis on the Correlation of Coastal Line Geometry and Tsunami Impact in Maumere, Flores, Indonesia

    SARI BAHAGIARTI KUSUMAYUDHA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the Indonesian territories are high potential of geologic disaster, such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and landslides, because the country belongs to tectonically active areas of the world. There are three big lithosperic plates interacting one with one another and influencing the tectonic setting of Indonesia. The plates are Indo-Australia plate, Eurasia plate and Pacific plate. Indo-Australia plate moves relatively northward by about 9 cm/year, Eurasia plate creeps south eastward with approximately 7 cm/year speed, and Pacific plate moves to the west with around 11 cm/year velocity. In the meeting line of the plates, about 300 km to the south of Indonesian islands, there is the subduction zone that become places, where earthquake focuses are generated. Earthquakes from submarine source with more than 6.5 magnitude have the potential to generate tsunami. Areas situated along the south coast of Indonesia islands are vulnerable to tsunami, because directly facing the boundary lines between Eurasia plate and Indo-Australia plate. This study verified that there is positive correlation between coastal line geometry and the tsunami impact, based on fractal analysis. The case study is Maumere, Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Result of the study is expected to be used for predicting the tsunami impact intensiveness at other areas.

  1. Effect of vestibular neuritis on postural control using wavelets and fractal analysis.

    Lorin, P; Manceau, C; Foubert, F

    2010-01-01

    What is the status of postural control a few months after an attack of vestibular neuritis (VN)? Using dynamic posturography and stabilometric signal treatment with wavelets and fractal analysis, we tried to answer this question by isolating the pathological postural parameters of VN. The study involved a group of 15 patients (GP) who suffered from VN and were compared to a group of control subjects (GC). Both groups underwent videonystagmography (VNG), dynamic posturography (PDY), and assessment using symptomatic scales (ES). GP and GC were comparable in terms of age mean, sex-ratio, average height and weight. The differences between GP and GC were the following videonystagmography criteria: Spontaneous nystagmus (NS) (P= 0.005), head shaking test (HST) (p= 0.001), vibratory test (TVO) (p= 0.009). There were also differences in the symptomatic scales scores for the vertigo symptom scale (VSS) (p= 0.011), the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) (p= 0.001), and the short form 36 (SF36) (p= 0.01). All the 84 new parameters of both GP and GC differ. This difference was significant (p conditions were found to be non-discriminating. Vestibular neuritis affects new stabilometric parameters. These parameters are more adapted to the present setup compared to previous parameters which are used to analyse non-periodic oscillations of posture. They are important in follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.

  2. Fractal time series analysis of postural stability in elderly and control subjects

    Doussot Michel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of balance using stabilogram analysis is of particular interest in the study of falls. Although simple statistical parameters derived from the stabilogram have been shown to predict risk of falls, such measures offer little insight into the underlying control mechanisms responsible for degradation in balance. In contrast, fractal and non-linear time-series analysis of stabilograms, such as estimations of the Hurst exponent (H, may provide information related to the underlying motor control strategies governing postural stability. In order to be adapted for a home-based follow-up of balance, such methods need to be robust, regardless of the experimental protocol, while producing time-series that are as short as possible. The present study compares two methods of calculating H: Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA and Stabilogram Diffusion Analysis (SDA for elderly and control subjects, as well as evaluating the effect of recording duration. Methods Centre of pressure signals were obtained from 90 young adult subjects and 10 elderly subjects. Data were sampled at 100 Hz for 30 s, including stepping onto and off the force plate. Estimations of H were made using sliding windows of 10, 5, and 2.5 s durations, with windows slid forward in 1-s increments. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for the effect of time, age and estimation method on the Hurst exponent, while the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used as a measure of reliability. Results Both SDA and DFA methods were able to identify differences in postural stability between control and elderly subjects for time series as short as 5 s, with ICC values as high as 0.75 for DFA. Conclusion Both methods would be well-suited to non-invasive longitudinal assessment of balance. In addition, reliable estimations of H were obtained from time series as short as 5 s.

  3. The identification of model effective dimensions using global sensitivity analysis

    Kucherenko, Sergei; Feil, Balazs; Shah, Nilay; Mauntz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the effective dimensions can be estimated at reasonable computational costs using variance based global sensitivity analysis. Namely, the effective dimension in the truncation sense can be found by using the Sobol' sensitivity indices for subsets of variables. The effective dimension in the superposition sense can be estimated by using the first order effects and the total Sobol' sensitivity indices. The classification of some important classes of integrable functions based on their effective dimension is proposed. It is shown that it can be used for the prediction of the QMC efficiency. Results of numerical tests verify the prediction of the developed techniques.

  4. The identification of model effective dimensions using global sensitivity analysis

    Kucherenko, Sergei, E-mail: s.kucherenko@ic.ac.u [CPSE, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feil, Balazs [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, Veszprem (Hungary); Shah, Nilay [CPSE, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mauntz, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anlagensteuerungstechnik, Fachbereich Chemietechnik, Universitaet Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    It is shown that the effective dimensions can be estimated at reasonable computational costs using variance based global sensitivity analysis. Namely, the effective dimension in the truncation sense can be found by using the Sobol' sensitivity indices for subsets of variables. The effective dimension in the superposition sense can be estimated by using the first order effects and the total Sobol' sensitivity indices. The classification of some important classes of integrable functions based on their effective dimension is proposed. It is shown that it can be used for the prediction of the QMC efficiency. Results of numerical tests verify the prediction of the developed techniques.

  5. The influence of the fractal particle size distribution on the mobility of dry granular materials

    Vallejo Luis E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis on the influence of the particle size distribution (psd on the mobility of dry granular materials. The psd obeys a power law of the form: N(L>d=kd-Df, where N is the number of particles with diameter L greater than a given diameter d, k is a proportionality constant, and Df is the fractal dimension of the psd. No laboratory or numerical study has been conducted to date analysing how a fractal psd influences the mobility of granular flows as in the case of rock avalanches. In this study, the flow characteristics of poly-dispersed granular materials that have a fractal psd were investigated in the laboratory. Granular mixtures having different fractal psd values were placed in a hollow cylinder. The cylinder was lifted and the distance of flow of the mixture was measured with respect to the original position of the cylinder. It was determined that the distance of flow of the mixtures was directly related to their fractal psd values. That is, the larger the distance of flow of the mixture, the larger is the fractal psd of the granular mixture tested. Thus, the fractal psd in dry granular mixtures seems to have a large influence on the easiness by which dry granular mixtures move in the field.

  6. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  7. The Application of Fractal and Multifractal Theory in Hydraulic-Flow-Unit Characterization and Permeability Estimation

    Chen, X.; Yao, G.; Cai, J.

    2017-12-01

    Pore structure characteristics are important factors in influencing the fluid transport behavior of porous media, such as pore-throat ratio, pore connectivity and size distribution, moreover, wettability. To accurately characterize the diversity of pore structure among HFUs, five samples selected from different HFUs (porosities are approximately equal, however permeability varies widely) were chosen to conduct micro-computerized tomography test to acquire direct 3D images of pore geometries and to perform mercury injection experiments to obtain the pore volume-radii distribution. To characterize complex and high nonlinear pore structure of all samples, three classic fractal geometry models were applied. Results showed that each HFU has similar box-counting fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimension in the number-area model, but there are significant differences in multifractal spectrums. In the radius-volume model, there are three obvious linear segments, corresponding to three fractal dimension values, and the middle one is proved as the actual fractal dimension according to the maximum radius. In the number-radius model, the spherical-pore size distribution extracted by maximum ball algorithm exist a decrease in the number of small pores compared with the fractal power rate rather than the traditional linear law. Among the three models, only multifractal analysis can classify the HFUs accurately. Additionally, due to the tightness and low-permeability in reservoir rocks, connate water film existing in the inner surface of pore channels commonly forms bound water. The conventional model which is known as Yu-Cheng's model has been proved to be typically not applicable. Considering the effect of irreducible water saturation, an improved fractal permeability model was also deduced theoretically. The comparison results showed that the improved model can be applied to calculate permeability directly and accurately in such unconventional rocks.

  8. Experimental modal analysis of fractal-inspired multi-frequency structures for piezoelectric energy converters

    Castagnetti, D

    2012-01-01

    An important issue in the field of energy harvesting through piezoelectric materials is the design of simple and efficient structures which are multi-frequency in the ambient vibration range. This paper deals with the experimental assessment of four fractal-inspired multi-frequency structures for piezoelectric energy harvesting. These structures, thin plates of square shape, were proposed in a previous work by the author and their modal response numerically analysed. The present work has two aims. First, to assess the modal response of these structures through an experimental investigation. Second, to evaluate, through computational simulation, the performance of a piezoelectric converter relying on one of these fractal-inspired structures. The four fractal-inspired structures are examined in the range between 0 and 100 Hz, with regard to both eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. In the same frequency range, the modal response and power output of the piezoelectric converter are investigated. (paper)

  9. Cross-Correlations between Energy and Emissions Markets: New Evidence from Fractal and Multifractal Analysis

    Gang-Jin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We supply a new perspective to describe and understand the behavior of cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. Namely, we investigate cross-correlations between oil and gas (Oil-Gas, oil and CO2 (Oil-CO2, and gas and CO2 (Gas-CO2 based on fractal and multifractal analysis. We focus our study on returns of the oil, gas, and CO2 during the period of April 22, 2005–April 30, 2013. In the empirical analysis, by using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA method, we find that cross-correlations for Oil-Gas, Oil-CO2, and Gas-CO2 obey a power-law and are weakly persistent. Then, we adopt the method of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient to quantify cross-correlations between energy and emissions markets. The results show that their cross-correlations are diverse at different time scales. Next, based on the multifractal DCCA method, we find that cross-correlated markets have the nonlinear and multifractal nature and that the multifractality strength for three cross-correlated markets is arranged in the order of Gas-CO2 > Oil-Gas > Oil-CO2. Finally, by employing the rolling windows method, which can be used to investigate time-varying cross-correlation scaling exponents, we analyze short-term and long-term market dynamics and find that the recent global financial crisis has a notable influence on short-term and long-term market dynamics.

  10. Fractal dimension and geostatistical parameters for soil microrelief as a function of cumulative precipitation Parâmetros fractais e geoestatística do microrrelevo do solo em função de chuva acumulada

    Eva Vidal Vázquez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness isinfluenced by type and intensity of soil tillage among other factors, and it changes considerably with rain. In microrelief studies the advantages of using indices such as the fractal dimension, D, and the crossover length, l, is that they allow the partition of the roughness characteristics into properties that depend purely on the scale and on a scale free component, respectively. On the other hand, some geostatistical parameters may provide different ways to understand soil surface variability not addressed with fractal parameters. Changes in fractal dimension and semivariogram parameters for surface roughness evolution were evaluated as a function of cumulative rainfall on Oxisol samples over six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plow, chisel plow, disc harrow+disc level, disc plow+disc level and chisel plow+disc level. Measurements were taken in each tillage treatment after rainfall events yielding a total of 48 experimental surfaces measured with a pin microrelief meter. The plot had 135 cm by 135 cm and the sample spacing was 25 mm. Trends due to plot slope component with its concavities and convexities and to agricultural practices were removed from field data sets. A semivariogram model was fitted to each of the surfaces and the model parameters were analyzed and related to the fractal dimension, D, and crossover length, l. A relationship was found between the fractal dimension, D, and semivariogram model parameters. The cross over length, l,did not show as strong relationships with the semivariogram model parameters, even though there was a power relation between D and l.A rugosidade da superfície pode ser influenciada pelo tipo e pela intensidade do preparo do solo entre outros fatores. A vantagem de se usar índices fractais em estudos de microrrelevo é que eles permitem a partição das características da rugosidade em propriedades ou que dependem exclusivamente da escala ou que independem

  11. Fractal Nanotechnology

    Amato P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-similar patterns are frequently observed in Nature. Their reproduction is possible on a length scale 102–105 nm with lithographic methods, but seems impossible on the nanometer length scale. It is shown that this goal may be achieved via a multiplicative variant of the multi-spacer patterning technology, in this way permitting the controlled preparation of fractal surfaces.

  12. 2-D Fractal Wire Antenna Design and Performance

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Peterman, D. J.; Ewing, J. J.; Abbott, C. S.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal wire antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its length by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (of infinite iterations) have an infinite length. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling. A fundamental property of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that can be very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna tends to have additional frequencies that minimize far field return loss. This differs from traditional antenna designs in that a single fractal antenna can operate well at multiple frequencies. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of fractal wire antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, and number of iterations have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance.

  13. Super Water-Repellent Fractal Surfaces of a Photochromic Diarylethene Induced by UV Light

    Izumi, Norikazu; Minami, Takayuki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Takata, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yokojima, Satoshi; Tsujii, Kaoru; Uchida, Kingo

    2008-09-01

    Photochromic diarylethene forms super water-repellent surfaces upon irradiation with UV light. Microfibril-like crystals grow on the solid diarylethene surface after UV irradiation, and the contact angle of water on the surface becomes larger with increasing surface roughness with time. The fractal analysis was made by the box-counting method for the rough surfaces. There are three regions in the roughness size having the fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 (size of roughness smaller than 5 µm), of ca. 2.2 (size of roughness between 5-40 µm), and of ca. 2.0 (size of roughness larger than 40 µm). The fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 was due to the fibril-like structures generated gradually by UV irradiation on diarylethene surfaces accompanied with an increase in the contact angle. The surface structure with larger fractal dimension mainly contributes to realizing the super water-repellency of the diarylethene surfaces. This mechanism of spontaneous formation of fractal surfaces is similar to that for triglyceride and alkylketene dimer waxes.

  14. Efficiency analysis of diffusion on T-fractals in the sense of random walks.

    Peng, Junhao; Xu, Guoai

    2014-04-07

    Efficiently controlling the diffusion process is crucial in the study of diffusion problem in complex systems. In the sense of random walks with a single trap, mean trapping time (MTT) and mean diffusing time (MDT) are good measures of trapping efficiency and diffusion efficiency, respectively. They both vary with the location of the node. In this paper, we analyze the effects of node's location on trapping efficiency and diffusion efficiency of T-fractals measured by MTT and MDT. First, we provide methods to calculate the MTT for any target node and the MDT for any source node of T-fractals. The methods can also be used to calculate the mean first-passage time between any pair of nodes. Then, using the MTT and the MDT as the measure of trapping efficiency and diffusion efficiency, respectively, we compare the trapping efficiency and diffusion efficiency among all nodes of T-fractal and find the best (or worst) trapping sites and the best (or worst) diffusing sites. Our results show that the hub node of T-fractal is the best trapping site, but it is also the worst diffusing site; and that the three boundary nodes are the worst trapping sites, but they are also the best diffusing sites. Comparing the maximum of MTT and MDT with their minimums, we find that the maximum of MTT is almost 6 times of the minimum of MTT and the maximum of MDT is almost equal to the minimum for MDT. Thus, the location of target node has large effect on the trapping efficiency, but the location of source node almost has no effect on diffusion efficiency. We also simulate random walks on T-fractals, whose results are consistent with the derived results.

  15. Lectures on fractal geometry and dynamical systems

    Pesin, Yakov

    2009-01-01

    Both fractal geometry and dynamical systems have a long history of development and have provided fertile ground for many great mathematicians and much deep and important mathematics. These two areas interact with each other and with the theory of chaos in a fundamental way: many dynamical systems (even some very simple ones) produce fractal sets, which are in turn a source of irregular "chaotic" motions in the system. This book is an introduction to these two fields, with an emphasis on the relationship between them. The first half of the book introduces some of the key ideas in fractal geometry and dimension theory--Cantor sets, Hausdorff dimension, box dimension--using dynamical notions whenever possible, particularly one-dimensional Markov maps and symbolic dynamics. Various techniques for computing Hausdorff dimension are shown, leading to a discussion of Bernoulli and Markov measures and of the relationship between dimension, entropy, and Lyapunov exponents. In the second half of the book some examples o...

  16. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  17. Fractal structure of hadrons in processes with polarized protons at SPD NICA (proposal for experiment)

    Tokarev, M.V.; Aparin, A.A.; Zborovsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of z-scaling previously developed for analysis of inclusive reactions in proton-proton collisions is applied for description of processes with polarized protons at the planned Spin Physics Detector NICA in Dubna. A hypothesis of self-similarity and fractality of the proton spin structure is discussed. The possibilities to extract information on spin-dependent fractal dimensions of hadrons and fragmentation process from asymmetries and coefficients of polarization transfer are justified. The double longitudinal spin asymmetry A LL of π 0 -meson production and the coefficient of the polarization transfer D LL of Λ hyperon production in proton-proton collisions measured at RHIC are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. The spin-dependent fractal dimensions of proton and fragmentation process with polarized Λ hyperon are estimated. A study of the spin-dependent constituent energy loss as a function of transverse momentum of the inclusive hadron and collision energy is suggested.

  18. Fractal Feature of Particle-Size Distribution in the Rhizospheres and Bulk Soils during Natural Recovery on the Loess Plateau, China

    Song, Zilin; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Guobin; Qu, Dong; Xue, Sha

    2015-01-01

    The application of fractal geometry to describe soil structure is an increasingly useful tool for better understanding the performance of soil systems. Only a few studies, however, have focused on the structure of rhizospheric zones, where energy flow and nutrient recycling most frequently occur. We used fractal dimensions to investigate the characteristics of particle-size distribution (PSD) in the rhizospheres and bulk soils of six croplands abandoned for 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 years on the Loess Plateau of China and evaluated the changes over successional time. The PSDs of the rhizospheres and the fractal dimensions between rhizosphere soil and bulk soils during the natural succession differed significantly due to the influence of plant roots. The rhizospheres had higher sand (0.05–1.00 mm) contents, lower silt (soils during the early and intermediate successional stages (1–15 years). The fractal dimensions of the rhizosphere soil and bulk soil ranged from 2.102 to 2.441 and from 2.214 to 2.459, respectively, during the 30-year restoration. Rhizospheric clay and silt contents and fractal dimension tended to be higher and sand content tended to be lower as abandonment age increased, but the bulk soils had the opposite trend. Linear regression analysis indicated that the fractal dimensions of both the rhizospheres and bulk soils were significantly linearly correlated with clay, sand, organic-carbon, and total-nitrogen contents, with R 2 ranging from 0.526 to 0.752 (Psoil and bulk soil. The fractal dimension was a sensitive and useful index for quantifying changes in the properties of the different soil zones. This study will greatly aid the application of the fractal method for describing soil structure and nutrient status and the understanding of the performance of rhizospheric zones during ecological restoration. PMID:26368339

  19. Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.

  20. Fractal Theory for Permeability Prediction, Venezuelan and USA Wells

    Aldana, Milagrosa; Altamiranda, Dignorah; Cabrera, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Inferring petrophysical parameters such as permeability, porosity, water saturation, capillary pressure, etc, from the analysis of well logs or other available core data has always been of critical importance in the oil industry. Permeability in particular, which is considered to be a complex parameter, has been inferred using both empirical and theoretical techniques. The main goal of this work is to predict permeability values on different wells using Fractal Theory, based on a method proposed by Pape et al. (1999). This approach uses the relationship between permeability and the geometric form of the pore space of the rock. This method is based on the modified equation of Kozeny-Carman and a fractal pattern, which allows determining permeability as a function of the cementation exponent, porosity and the fractal dimension. Data from wells located in Venezuela and the United States of America are analyzed. Employing data of porosity and permeability obtained from core samples, and applying the Fractal Theory method, we calculated the prediction equations for each well. At the beginning, this was achieved by training with 50% of the data available for each well. Afterwards, these equations were tested inferring over 100% of the data to analyze possible trends in their distribution. This procedure gave excellent results in all the wells in spite of their geographic distance, generating permeability models with the potential to accurately predict permeability logs in the remaining parts of the well for which there are no core samples, using even porority logs. Additionally, empirical models were used to determine permeability and the results were compared with those obtained by applying the fractal method. The results indicated that, although there are empirical equations that give a proper adjustment, the prediction results obtained using fractal theory give a better fit to the core reference data.

  1. Using the fractal perspective in the analysis of the urban peripheral fabric. Case study: Pantelimon, Ilfov county

    Lilian Cîrnu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the matter of analysing the urban peripheral fabric from a fractal perspective. The urban peripheral morphology, through its generally discontinuous character, raises great questions signs upon the fairness of using the classical instruments of analysis, especially in what concerns the usage of density gradients. The purpose of this scientific undergoing is that of bringing into spotlight the usage of the Fractalyse program, as a better-adapted tool to the fieldwork, since the accent is set on the elements distribution in space and on the distances between them. We, thus, reach to a multiscalar approach of the urban fabric, from the town scale to the neighborhood scale and that of the building itself, for a more pertinent analysis over the alternation between constructed spaces and empty parcels. In order to represent this undergoing, three types of fractal analysis will be studied (dilation, radial and space correlation analysis to achieve a comparative approach of the urban fabric evolution in Pantelimon, which is situated nearby the Capital city and has been, over the last two decades, deeply marked by the urban sprawl phenomenon.

  2. Conference on Fractals and Related Fields III

    Seuret, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume provides readers with an overview of the most recent developments in the mathematical fields related to fractals, including both original research contributions, as well as surveys from many of the leading experts on modern fractal theory and applications. It is an outgrowth of the Conference of Fractals and Related Fields III, that was held on September 19-25, 2015 in île de Porquerolles, France. Chapters cover fields related to fractals such as harmonic analysis, multifractal analysis, geometric measure theory, ergodic theory and dynamical systems, probability theory, number theory, wavelets, potential theory, partial differential equations, fractal tilings, combinatorics, and signal and image processing. The book is aimed at pure and applied mathematicians in these areas, as well as other researchers interested in discovering the fractal domain.

  3. Fractal vector optical fields.

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field.

  4. Random walks of oriented particles on fractals

    Haber, René; Prehl, Janett; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Herrmann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Random walks of point particles on fractals exhibit subdiffusive behavior, where the anomalous diffusion exponent is smaller than one, and the corresponding random walk dimension is larger than two. This is due to the limited space available in fractal structures. Here, we endow the particles with an orientation and analyze their dynamics on fractal structures. In particular, we focus on the dynamical consequences of the interactions between the local surrounding fractal structure and the particle orientation, which are modeled using an appropriate move class. These interactions can lead to particles becoming temporarily or permanently stuck in parts of the structure. A surprising finding is that the random walk dimension is not affected by the orientation while the diffusion constant shows a variety of interesting and surprising features. (paper)

  5. Classification of radar echoes using fractal geometry

    Azzaz, Nafissa; Haddad, Boualem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of two concepts of fractal geometry to classify two types of meteorological radar echoes. • A new approach, called a multi-scale fractal dimension is used for classification between fixed echoes and rain echoes. • An Automatic identification system of meteorological radar echoes was proposed using fractal geometry. - Abstract: This paper deals with the discrimination between the precipitation echoes and the ground echoes in meteorological radar images using fractal geometry. This study aims to improve the measurement of precipitations by weather radars. For this, we considered three radar sites: Bordeaux (France), Dakar (Senegal) and Me lbourne (USA). We showed that the fractal dimension based on contourlet and the fractal lacunarity are pertinent to discriminate between ground and precipitation echoes. We also demonstrated that the ground echoes have a multifractal structure but the precipitations are more homogeneous than ground echoes whatever the prevailing climate. Thereby, we developed an automatic classification system of radar using a graphic interface. This interface, based on the fractal geometry makes possible the identification of radar echoes type in real time. This system can be inserted in weather radar for the improvement of precipitation estimations.

  6. Fractal nature of humic materials

    Rice, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Fractals are geometric representatives of strongly disordered systems whose structure is described by nonintegral dimensions. A fundamental tenet of fractal geometry is that disorder persists at any characterization scale-length used to describe the system. The nonintegral nature of these fractal dimensions is the result of the realization that a disordered system must possess more structural detail than an ordered system with classical dimensions of 1, 2, or 3 in order to accommodate this ''disorder within disorder.'' Thus from a fractal perspective, disorder is seen as an inherent characteristic of the system rather than as a perturbative phenomena forced upon it. Humic materials are organic substances that are formed by the profound alteration of organic matter in a natural environment. They can be operationally divided into 3 fractions; humic acid (soluble in base), fulvic acid (soluble in acid or base), and humin (insoluble in acid or base). Each of these fraction has been shown to be an extremely heterogeneous mixture. These mixtures have proven so intractable that they may represent the ultimate in molecular disorder. In fact, based on the characteristics that humic materials must possess in order to perform their functions in natural systems, it has been proposed that the fundamental chemical characteristic of a humic material is not a discrete chemical structure but a pronounced lack of order on a molecular level. If the fundamental chemical characteristic of a humic material is a strongly disordered nature, as has been proposed, then humic materials should be amenable to characterization by fractal geometry. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis

  7. Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Investigators. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    Mäkikallio, T H; Høiber, S; Køber, L

    1999-01-01

    A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR...... variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling...

  8. Dimensão fractal na quantificação do grau de rejeição celular miocárdica pós-transplante cardíaco Fractal dimension in quantifying the degree of myocardial cellular rejection after cardiac transplantation

    Roberto Douglas Moreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O termo "fractal" é derivado do latim fractus, que significa "irregular" ou "quebrado", considerando a estrutura observada como tendo uma dimensão não-inteira. Há muitos estudos que empregaram a Dimensão Fractal (DF como uma ferramenta de diagnóstico. Um dos métodos mais comuns para o seu estudo é a "Box-plot counting" (Método de contagem de caixas. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi tentar estabelecer a contribuição da DF na quantificação da rejeição celular miocárdica após o transplante cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Imagens microscópicas digitalizadas foram capturadas na resolução 800x600 (aumento de 100x. A DF foi calculada com auxílio do "software ImageJ", com adaptações. A classificação dos graus de rejeição foi de acordo com a "Sociedade Internacional de Transplante Cardíaco e Pulmonar" (ISHLT 2004. O relatório final do grau de rejeição foi confirmado e redefinido após exaustiva revisão das lâminas por um patologista experiente externo. No total, 658 lâminas foram avaliadas, com a seguinte distribuição entre os graus de rejeição (R: 335 (0R, 214 (1R, 70 (2R, 39 (3R. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente com os testes Kruskal-Wallis e curvas ROC sendo considerados significantes valores de P INTRODUCTION: The term "Fractal" is derived from the Latin fractus meaning "irregular" or "broken" considering the observed structure with a non-integer dimension. There are many studies which employed the Fractal Dimension (FD as a diagnostic tool. One of the most common methods for its study is the "Box Counting Method". OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to try to establish the contribution of FD in the quantification of myocardial cellular rejection after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: Microscopic digital images were captured at 800x600 resolution (magnification 100x. FD was calculated with the aid of "ImageJ software" with adaptations. The classification of the degrees of rejection was in

  9. Fuzzy fractals, chaos, and noise

    Zardecki, A.

    1997-05-01

    To distinguish between chaotic and noisy processes, the authors analyze one- and two-dimensional chaotic mappings, supplemented by the additive noise terms. The predictive power of a fuzzy rule-based system allows one to distinguish ergodic and chaotic time series: in an ergodic series the likelihood of finding large numbers is small compared to the likelihood of finding them in a chaotic series. In the case of two dimensions, they consider the fractal fuzzy sets whose {alpha}-cuts are fractals, arising in the context of a quadratic mapping in the extended complex plane. In an example provided by the Julia set, the concept of Hausdorff dimension enables one to decide in favor of chaotic or noisy evolution.

  10. Analysis of the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index and self-affine fractals using wavelet transforms

    H. L. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic activity of the Dst index is analyzed using wavelet transforms and it is shown that the Dst index possesses properties associated with self-affine fractals. For example, the power spectral density obeys a power-law dependence on frequency, and therefore the Dst index can be viewed as a self-affine fractal dynamic process. In fact, the behaviour of the Dst index, with a Hurst exponent H≈0.5 (power-law exponent β≈2 at high frequency, is similar to that of Brownian motion. Therefore, the dynamical invariants of the Dst index may be described by a potential Brownian motion model. Characterization of the geomagnetic activity has been studied by analysing the geomagnetic field using a wavelet covariance technique. The wavelet covariance exponent provides a direct effective measure of the strength of persistence of the Dst index. One of the advantages of wavelet analysis is that many inherent problems encountered in Fourier transform methods, such as windowing and detrending, are not necessary.

  11. Fractal morphology in lignite coal: a small angle x-ray scattering investigation

    Chitra, R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering technique has been used to study the pore morphology in lignite coal from Neyveli lignite mine (Tamilnadu, India). The sample were collected from three different locations of the same mine. SAXS profiles from all the three samples show almost identical functionality, irrespective of the locations from where the samples were collected. SAXS experiment using two different wavelengths also exhibit same functionality indicating the absence of multiple scattering. The analysis indicates the surface fractal nature of the pore morphology. The surface fractal dimension is calculated to be 2.58. (author)

  12. Depth of magnetic basement in Iran based on fractal spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data

    Teknik, Vahid; Ghods, Abdolreza

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the shape of sedimentary basins, a critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration, we calculated the depth of magnetic basement by applying a fractal spectral method to the aeromagnetic map of Iran. The depth of magnetic basement is a close proxy for the shape of sedimentary basins provided that igneous basement is strongly magnetized relative to the overlying sediments and there is no interbedding magnetic layer in the sediments. The shape of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is sensitive to the depth of magnetic basement, the thickness of the magnetic layer, the fractal parameter of magnetization and the size of the window used for the calculation of the power spectrum. Using a suite of synthetic tests, we have shown that the estimation of the depth of magnetic basement of up to 20 km is not very sensitive to the often unknown fractal parameter and thus the spectral method is a reliable tool to calculate the depth of magnetic basement. The depth of magnetic basement is in the range of 7-16 km in the Zagros, east Alborz, Tabas, Jazmurian and Makran regions, showing a close correlation with depths estimated from the maximum thickness of stratigraphic columns. We have also found new sedimentary basins in Bostan Abad, Bijar and south of Orumiyeh Lake. The significant depth of the magnetic basement in the Makran, Jazmurain depression, southeast Caspian Sea, Tabas, Great Kavir, south of Orumiyeh Lake, Bostan Abad and Bijar sedimentary basins makes them future prospects for hydrocarbon explorations. The depth of magnetic basement is strongly reduced over the Neyriz and Kermanshah Ophiolites, but it does not show any meaningful correlation with other outcrops of ophiolitic rocks in Iran.

  13. Optical diffraction from fractals with a structural transition

    Perez Rodriguez, F.; Canessa, E.

    1994-04-01

    A macroscopic characterization of fractals showing up a structural transition from dense to multibranched growth is made using optical diffraction theory. Such fractals are generated via the numerical solution of the 2D Poisson and biharmonic equations and are compared to more 'regular' irreversible clusters such as diffusion limited and Laplacian aggregates. The optical diffraction method enables to identify a decrease of the fractal dimension above the structural point. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  14. Fractal study of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy for dental applications: effect of beryllium

    Eftekhari, Ali

    2003-12-30

    Different Ni-based alloys with various compositions were prepared by varying the amounts of beryllium. Effect of the amount of beryllium added to the alloy on its corrosion in an electrolyte solution of artificial saliva was investigated. Fractal dimension was used as a quantitative factor for surface analysis of the alloys before and after storage in the artificial salvia. The fractal dimensions of the electrode surfaces were determined by means of the most reliable method in this context viz. time dependency of the diffusion-limited current for a system involving 'diffusion towards electrode surface'. The results showed that increase of the beryllium amount in the alloy composition significantly increases the alloy corrosion. It is accompanied by increase of the fractal dimension and roughness of the electrode surface, whereas a smooth and shiny surface is required for dentures. From the methodology point of view, the approach utilized for fractal analysis of the alloy surfaces (Au-masking of metallic surfaces) is a novel and efficient method for study of denture surfaces. Generally, this approach is of interest for corrosion studies of different metals and alloys, particularly where changes in surface structure have a significant importance.

  15. Renormalization Analysis of a Composite Ultrasonic Transducer with a Fractal Architecture

    Algehyne, Ebrahem A.; Mulholland, Anthony J.

    To ensure the safe operation of many safety critical structures such as nuclear plants, aircraft and oil pipelines, non-destructive imaging is employed using piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. These sensors typically operate at a single frequency due to the restrictions imposed on their resonant behavior by the use of a single length scale in the design. To allow these transducers to transmit and receive more complex signals it would seem logical to use a range of length scales in the design so that a wide range of resonating frequencies will result. In this paper, we derive a mathematical model to predict the dynamics of an ultrasound transducer that achieves this range of length scales by adopting a fractal architecture. In fact, the device is modeled as a graph where the nodes represent segments of the piezoelectric and polymer materials. The electrical and mechanical fields that are contained within this graph are then expressed in terms of a finite element basis. The structure of the resulting discretized equations yields to a renormalization methodology which is used to derive expressions for the non-dimensionalized electrical impedance and the transmission and reception sensitivities. A comparison with a standard design shows some benefits of these fractal designs.

  16. Fractal analysis of en face tomographic images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography

    Gao, Wanrong; Zhu, Yue [Department of Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-15

    The quantitative modeling of the imaging signal of pathological areas and healthy areas is necessary to improve the specificity of diagnosis with tomographic en face images obtained with full field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT). In this work, we propose to use the depth-resolved change in the fractal parameter as a quantitative specific biomarker of the stages of disease. The idea is based on the fact that tissue is a random medium and only statistical parameters that characterize tissue structure are appropriate. We successfully relate the imaging signal in FFOCT to the tissue structure in terms of the scattering function and the coherent transfer function of the system. The formula is then used to analyze the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the cancerous tissue to the normal tissue. We found that when the tissue changes from the normal to cancerous the ratio of the spectrum of the index inhomogeneities takes the form of an inverse power law and the changes in the fractal parameter can be determined by estimating slopes of the spectra of the ratio plotted on a log-log scale. The fresh normal and cancer liver tissues were imaged to demonstrate the potential diagnostic value of the method at early stages when there are no significant changes in tissue microstructures. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Analysis on fractal-like behaviour expected for migration of radionuclides in geologic sorbing media

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Harada, Makoto; Tsubata, Kyoichi; Sato, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    In earlier work, we showed that within nonhomogeneous sorbing media the desorption process becomes fractal-like. In migration of radionuclides in geologic media, the adsorption is an essential factor retardating the migration. Moreover, geologic media is inherently nonhomogeneous. It is therefore probable that the migration is significantly influenced by the fractal-like feature. Based on this idea, we have analyzed migration behaviours by employing a new model and compared the results with those obtained using conventional models. The nuclides migrate in the media with the flow of ground water being continually trapped on adsorption sites and released (desorbed) to the flow. The concept of the overall residence-time distribution function for nuclides on the adsorption sites is introduced in the new model. This function obeys the power form, ∼t -1-α (α > 0), for sufficiently large t (t denotes time). The migration behaviours predicted by our theory are qualitatively different from those by conventional theories, and the details of the differences are greatly dependent on the exponent α. In particular, the migration behaviour in cases of 0 < α < 1 is characterized by far larger retardation effects. (author)

  18. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  19. On Nonextensive Statistics, Chaos and Fractal Strings

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the growing evidence of universality and chaos in QFT and string theory, we study the Tsallis non-extensive statistics ( with a non-additive $ q$-entropy ) of an ensemble of fractal strings and branes of different dimensionalities. Non-equilibrium systems with complex dynamics in stationary states may exhibit large fluctuations of intensive quantities which are described in terms of generalized statistics. Tsallis statistics is a particular representative of such class. The non-extensive entropy and probability distribution of a canonical ensemble of fractal strings and branes is studied in terms of their dimensional spectrum which leads to a natural upper cutoff in energy and establishes a direct correlation among dimensions, energy and temperature. The absolute zero temperature ( Kelvin ) corresponds to zero dimensions (energy ) and an infinite temperature corresponds to infinite dimensions. In the concluding remarks some applications of fractal statistics, quasi-particles, knot theory, quantum...

  20. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  1. Investigation into How 8th Grade Students Define Fractals

    Karakus, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of 8th grade students' concept definitions and concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractals. There is limited research on students' understanding and definitions of fractals. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the elementary students' definitions of fractals based on concept image and concept…

  2. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

    Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

  3. Quantitative Fractal Evaluation of Herbicide Effects on the Water-Absorbing Capacity of Superabsorbent Polymers

    Renkuan Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs is important for agricultural drought resistance. However, herbicides may leach into the soil and affect water absorption by damaging the SAP three-dimensional membrane structures. We used 100-mesh sieves, electron microscopy, and fractal theory to study swelling and water absorption in SAPs in the presence of three common herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and tribenuron-methyl at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L. In the sieve experiments it was found that 2.0 mg/L atrazine reduces the capacity by 9.64–23.3% at different swelling points; no significant diminution was observed for the other herbicides or for lower atrazine concentrations. We found that the hydrogel membrane pore distributions have fractal characteristics in both deionized water and atrazine solution. The 2.0 mg/L atrazine destroyed the water-retaining polymer membrane pores and reduced the water-absorbing mass by modifying its three-dimensional membrane structure. A linear correlation was observed between the fractal analysis and the water-absorbing mass. Multifractal analysis characterized the membrane pore distribution by using the range of singularity indexes Δα (relative distinguishing range of 16.54–23.44%, which is superior to single-fractal analysis that uses the fractal dimension D (relative distinguishing range of 2.5–4.0%.

  4. Separation in Data Mining Based on Fractal Nature of Data

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 44-60 ISSN 2225-658X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : nearest neighbor * fractal set * multifractal * IINC method * correlation dimension Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://sdiwc.net/digital-library/separation-in-data-mining-based-on-fractal-nature-of-data.html

  5. Neutron scattering from fractals

    Kjems, Jørgen; Freltoft, T.; Richter, D.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering formalism for fractal structures is presented. Volume fractals are exemplified by silica particle clusters formed either from colloidal suspensions or by flame hydrolysis. The determination of the fractional dimensionality through scattering experiments is reviewed, and recent small...

  6. Fractal Property in the Light Curve of BL Lac Object S5 0716+714

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, we compile the historical R-band data of S5 0716+714 from literature and obtain its fractal dimension by using a fractal method and then simulate the data with the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot (W–M) function. It is considered that the light curve has a fractal property.

  7. Model of fractal aggregates induced by shear

    Wan Zhanhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an undoubted fact that particle aggregates from marine, aerosol, and engineering systems have fractal structures. In this study, fractal geometry is used to describe the morphology of irregular aggregates. The mean-field theory is employed to solve coagulation kinetic equation of aggregates. The Taylor-expansion method of moments in conjunction with the self-similar fractal characteristics is used to represent the particulate field. The effect of the target fractal dimensions on zeroth-order moment, second-order moment, and geometric standard deviation of the aggregates is explored. Results show that the developed moment method is an efficient and powerful approach to solving such evolution equations.

  8. pplication of Fractal Technique for Analysis of Geophysical - Geochemical Databases in Tekieh Pb-Zn Ore Deposit (SE of Arak

    Seyed Reza Mehrnia

    2017-02-01

    should emphasize on self-organized distribution of Pb-Zn anomalies to introduce a new set of nonlinear distributions in order to find the confidence regression coefficients between the variables. As the final results, fractal analysis of available databases represented new target areas with better mineralization aggregations than linear analysis of the anomalous regions according to micrographs. It means that surficial mineralization processes could be extended in depth and enriched next to altered host units because of a nonlinear but self-organized distribution of geochemical- geophysical anomalies in Tekieh ore deposit region. References Annells, R.N., Arthurton, R.S., Bazley, R.A.B., Davies, R.G., Hamedi, M.A.R. and Rahimzadeh, F.R., 1985. Geological Map of Shazand- Khomein. Scale: 1:100000, Cartographic Department of Geological Survey of Iran. Calagari, A.A., 2010. Principles of geophysical explorations. University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 485 pp. Jafari, H., 2007. Using geoelectrical techniques for Zn-Pb explorations in Haft-Emarat district, Tekieh region (South East of Arak. Kimya Kavan Tosee Novin Company, Tehran, 206 pp. Mandelbrot, B., 2005. Fractal Geometry of Nature. W.H Freeman & Company, New York, 468 pp. Mehrnia, S.R.,2013. Application of fractal geometry for recognizing the pattern of textural zoning in epithermal deposits: (case study: Shikhdarabad Au-Cu indices East- Azerbaijan province. Journal of Economic Geology, 5(1: 23-36. (in Persian Momenzadeh, M. and Ziseman, H., 1981. Lead – Zinc re mineralization potentials in Malayer – Esfahan district. Journal of Ore Deposit, 3(1: 88-101. Salehi, L., 2004. Geochemistry of REE content in Tekieh Pb-Zn ore deposit. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 181 pp. Torkashvand, S., Mehrnia, S.R. and Moghaddasi, S.J., 2009. Co-Processing of the geophysical parameters for Tekieh Zn-Pb ore deposits (south east of Arak. 4th PNU Geological National Conference, Payam Noor University of Mashhad, Mashhad

  9. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and...

  10. Using Fractal And Morphological Criteria For Automatic Classification Of Lung Diseases

    Vehel, Jacques Levy

    1989-11-01

    Medical Images are difficult to analyze by means of classical image processing tools because they are very complex and irregular. Such shapes are obtained for instance in Nuclear Medecine with the spatial distribution of activity for organs such as lungs, liver, and heart. We have tried to apply two different theories to these signals: - Fractal Geometry deals with the analysis of complex irregular shapes which cannot well be described by the classical Euclidean geometry. - Integral Geometry treats sets globally and allows to introduce robust measures. We have computed three parameters on three kinds of Lung's SPECT images: normal, pulmonary embolism and chronic desease: - The commonly used fractal dimension (FD), that gives a measurement of the irregularity of the 3D shape. - The generalized lacunarity dimension (GLD), defined as the variance of the ratio of the local activity by the mean activity, which is only sensitive to the distribution and the size of gaps in the surface. - The Favard length that gives an approximation of the surface of a 3-D shape. The results show that each slice of the lung, considered as a 3D surface, is fractal and that the fractal dimension is the same for each slice and for the three kind of lungs; as for the lacunarity and Favard length, they are clearly different for normal lungs, pulmonary embolisms and chronic diseases. These results indicate that automatic classification of Lung's SPECT can be achieved, and that a quantitative measurement of the evolution of the disease could be made.

  11. [Quantitative analysis method based on fractal theory for medical imaging of normal brain development in infants].

    Li, Heheng; Luo, Liangping; Huang, Li

    2011-02-01

    The present paper is aimed to study the fractal spectrum of the cerebral computerized tomography in 158 normal infants of different age groups, based on the calculation of chaotic theory. The distribution range of neonatal period was 1.88-1.90 (mean = 1.8913 +/- 0.0064); It reached a stable condition at the level of 1.89-1.90 during 1-12 months old (mean = 1.8927 +/- 0.0045); The normal range of 1-2 years old infants was 1.86-1.90 (mean = 1.8863 +/- 4 0.0085); It kept the invariance of the quantitative value among 1.88-1.91(mean = 1.8958 +/- 0.0083) during 2-3 years of age. ANOVA indicated there's no significant difference between boys and girls (F = 0.243, P > 0.05), but the difference of age groups was significant (F = 8.947, P development.

  12. THE TOPOLOGICAL AND DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NEURONIC ENSEMBLES IN THE BRAIN AS PERCOLATING FRACTAL SETS

    Sergey L’vovich Molchatsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine of neuronic ensembles in the brain. The research was based that neuronic ensembles of a brain are considered as the percolating clusters. In the basic part of the study the main concern was determination of the following parameters: fractal dimension on a passing threshold df; for geodetic lines on a fractal dθ and for trajectories of particles in a turbulence field dw. In the same part of a research the index of a compendency (θ of neuronic ensembles of animals and the human brain is defined. As well as it was supposed has a negative value θ 1. Numerical calculations with use of results of computer analysis frontal section images of a hypothalamus of a brain of animals and human are shown, that the considered objects can be ranked to the special class of fractal objects. Such class of objects is called asymptotically arcwise connected.

  13. Fractal patterns of fracture in sandwich composite materials under biaxial tension

    Fang, Jing; Yao, Xuefeng; Qi, Jia

    1996-04-01

    The paper presents a successful experiment to generate a fractal pattern of branching cracks in a brittle material sandwiched in ductile plates. A glass sheet bonded between two polycarbonate plates was heated at different levels of temperatures and the stress field due to the difference of thermal coefficients of the materials was solved by combining the results from isochromatic fringes and thermal stress analysis. At a critical degree of temperature, a crack was initiated at a point and soon produced crack branches to release the stored energy. A tree—like fractal patterns of the branch cracks was then developed with the growth of the branches that subsequently produced more branches on their ways of propagation. The fractal dimension of the fracture pattern was evaluated and the mechanism of the fragmentation was analyzed with the help of the residual stress field of isochromatic and isoclinic patterns.

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Weyl law for fat fractals

    Spina, María E.; García-Mata, Ignacio; Saraceno, Marcos

    2010-10-01

    It has been conjectured that for a class of piecewise linear maps the closure of the set of images of the discontinuity has the structure of a fat fractal, that is, a fractal with positive measure. An example of such maps is the sawtooth map in the elliptic regime. In this work we analyze this problem quantum mechanically in the semiclassical regime. We find that the fraction of states localized on the unstable set satisfies a modified fractal Weyl law, where the exponent is given by the exterior dimension of the fat fractal.

  15. Fractal characteristic study of shearer cutter cutting resistance curves

    Liu, C. [Heilongjiang Scientific and Technical Institute, Haerbin (China). Dept of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    The cutting resistance curve is the most useful tool for reflecting the overall cutting performance of a cutting machine. The cutting resistance curve is influenced by many factors such as the pick structure and arrangement, the cutter operation parameters, coal quality and geologic conditions. This paper discusses the use of fractal geometry to study the properties of the cutting resistance curve, and the use of fractal dimensions to evaluate cutting performance. On the basis of fractal theory, the general form and calculation method of fractal characteristics are given. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Towards a physics on fractals: Differential vector calculus in three-dimensional continuum with fractal metric

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Shapiro, Michael

    2016-02-01

    One way to deal with physical problems on nowhere differentiable fractals is the mapping of these problems into the corresponding problems for continuum with a proper fractal metric. On this way different definitions of the fractal metric were suggested to account for the essential fractal features. In this work we develop the metric differential vector calculus in a three-dimensional continuum with a non-Euclidean metric. The metric differential forms and Laplacian are introduced, fundamental identities for metric differential operators are established and integral theorems are proved by employing the metric version of the quaternionic analysis for the Moisil-Teodoresco operator, which has been introduced and partially developed in this paper. The relations between the metric and conventional operators are revealed. It should be emphasized that the metric vector calculus developed in this work provides a comprehensive mathematical formalism for the continuum with any suitable definition of fractal metric. This offers a novel tool to study physics on fractals.

  17. Fractal geometry of two-dimensional fracture networks at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada: proceedings

    Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture traces exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements in the same Miocene ash-flow tuff at Yucca Mountain, southwestern Nevada, have been mapped at a scale of 1:50. The maps are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.20 m were mapped. The distribution of fracture-trace lengths is log-normal. The fractures do not exhibit well-defined sets based on orientation. Since fractal characterization of such complex fracture-trace networks may prove useful for modeling fracture flow and mechanical responses of fractured rock, an analysis of each of the three maps was done to test whether such networks are fractal. These networks proved to be fractal and the fractal dimensions (D) are tightly clustered (1.12, 1.14, 1.16) for three laterally separated pavements, even though visually the fracture networks appear quite different. The fractal analysis also indicates that the network patterns are scale independent over two orders of magnitude for trace lengths ranging from 0.20 to 25 m. 7 refs., 7 figs

  18. Convergence of trajectories in fractal interpolation of stochastic processes

    MaIysz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The notion of fractal interpolation functions (FIFs) can be applied to stochastic processes. Such construction is especially useful for the class of α-self-similar processes with stationary increments and for the class of α-fractional Brownian motions. For these classes, convergence of the Minkowski dimension of the graphs in fractal interpolation of the Hausdorff dimension of the graph of original process was studied in [Herburt I, MaIysz R. On convergence of box dimensions of fractal interpolation stochastic processes. Demonstratio Math 2000;4:873-88.], [MaIysz R. A generalization of fractal interpolation stochastic processes to higher dimension. Fractals 2001;9:415-28.], and [Herburt I. Box dimension of interpolations of self-similar processes with stationary increments. Probab Math Statist 2001;21:171-8.]. We prove that trajectories of fractal interpolation stochastic processes converge to the trajectory of the original process. We also show that convergence of the trajectories in fractal interpolation of stochastic processes is equivalent to the convergence of trajectories in linear interpolation

  19. Estimating the Permeability of Carbonate Rocks from the Fractal Properties of Moldic Pores using the Kozeny-Carman Equation

    Adewale Amosu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir modeling of carbonate rocks requires a proper understanding of the pore space distribution and its relationship to permeability. Using a pigeonhole fractal model we characterize the fractal geometry of moldic pore spaces and extract the fractal dimension. We apply the Kozeny-Carman equation and equations relating the tortuosity and the porosity to the fractal dimension to derive an empirical relationship between permeability and porosity.

  20. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and of course, the manner in which they interpret that information may be different. Also, Fractal Market Hypothesis refers to the way that liquidity and investment horizons influence the behaviour of financial investors.